Foods That Prevent Breast Cancer

In the recent past, there has a great rise in the number of women diagnosed with breast cancer world wide. According to the world health organization, the number of breast cancer cases reported so far surpasses those of related diseases such as cervical cancer. However, cancer of the breast can be controlled if detected at its early stage. This makes regular medical checkups very important. At the same time, it is very important that we take food that prepares and boosts our immunity to fight this malignant cancer cells at their early stage. Foods and other dietary supplements have very important substances that can help our bodies to fight different types of diseases. The following are some of the foods mostly recommended that can prevent breast cancer.

Flaxseed- You can decide to take flax as ground, the seed or flaxseed oil. It has omega-3, fibre and lignans which protect your body against cancer cells which are responsible for causing cancer of the breasts. Most people prefer adding it to yogurt or smoothie because it creates that nutty flavor. Flaxseed can also be integrated into the baked foods such as muffins and cookies.

Brazil nuts- Brazil nuts help to improve the general body immunity, fights inflammation and prevents the growth of tumour. They are rich in fibre, selenium and phytochemicals. They are taken just like any other nuts with asparagus or fruits. It has anti-cancer components and chlorophyll

Garlic-Garlic, Allium, onions, chives and scallions are major sources of cancer fighting compounds. They are known to slow the growth of tumour preventing the risk of cancer in the breast and many other types of cancer. You can find onions and garlic in different types of food such as Thai, Indian, Spanish, Italian and Chinese foods. You are required to at least take a piece of garlic daily and this will help prevent cancer.

Pomegranate-pomegranate contains polyphenol. This is an acid which has anti-oxidant properties that prevents the growth of cancer. This is the most recommended food for preventing cancer in the breast.

Dark-green leafy vegetables-This type of vegetables contains various types of nutrients such as fibre, vitamin B, chlorophyll and phytochemicals. These compounds will assist the body to fight these cancerous cells that cause cancer. Kale, Swiss card, collard and spinach are the best examples of dark-green vegetables

Salomon-It provides the body with nutrients that actually regulate the growth of breast cancer. It contains omega-3 and vitamin D and B12. After a clinical research, some types of vitamin B12 have been proven to treat cancer. You can decide to bake it, steam it or grill it. Most people like taking it a long with dark-green vegetable, garlic or peppers.

Green tea-There has been lower cases linked to regular consumption of green tea. Green tea has phytochemicals which prevents growth of tumours.

Peppers-In general, all types of peppers have nutrients which helps the body to fight cancer. Jalapeno and chilli peppers contain capsaicin that fights the rate at which cancer cells grow. They also contain chlorophyll that suppresses carcinogens that causes cancer. Presence of phytochemicals also makes it effective. Red peppers contain antioxidant and capsaicin making it a bit superior among other types of peppers. You can put them in food or eat them directly.

Turmeric-it contains curcumin compound that prevents different types of cancer cells, gastrointestinal, lungs and breast cancer.

Tomatoes-it has an antioxidant compound called lycopene. This compound helps to prevent stomach, prostate, lung and breast cancer. Tomatoes are most effective when cooked

Grapes- They contains an antioxidant compound called resveratrol. This compound damages the cancer the cancer cells at their early stage before they even establish.

Berries-they contain cancer fighting compounds which can prevent breast cancer.

Walnuts-They contain abundant omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants and natural phytosterols. This is another very popular food known to be effective in preventing cancer.

These are the major types of used in preventing breast cancer. Although there so many factors contributing to this condition which are out our control, we must try as much as we can to prevent this disease. There are a number of simple dietary changes that can reduce the risk of breast cancer. If you stick to a proper diet, you actually reduce the chances of being the victim.

A Guide to Electric Wheelchairs

Owning electric wheelchairs can be a big deal for those who are wheelchair bound. Choosing an electric wheelchair is a task all within itself. Many people do not comprehend this, but there are quite a few of these specialized chairs on the market today. If someone is going to invest in one, then a little bit of research will be necessary. By doing a bit of research, not only can someone save money, but they can be sure that they are getting the right chair for their specific needs.

Finding the perfect model from the selection of electric wheelchairs can be difficult. First, someone must comprehend the differences between the three types of models; rear wheel, mid wheel and front wheel drive. Rear wheel drive is the most popular, however, front wheel drive models are quickly gaining popularity since they have the capability to perform tight turns. Mid wheel drive models are a little harder to use because they can be difficult to maneuver on certain terrains, especially ones with rough surfaces. Yet, they do have a tight turn radius. After someone has chosen the chair to best suit their needs, they will then have the discretion to outfit their electric wheelchair with accessories to further introduce a bit of personality and flare!

Accessory features for specialized chairs are diverse. A person will have to decide if an electric tilt will be needed. This feature will not only tilt the seat, but will also set the foot rest to a forty five degree angle to provide ease of getting in and out of the chair. Another feature of powerchairs that is advantageous is the recliner option. This option allows for the seat and foot rests to recline back. Both the tilt and recliner options help in relieving pressure sores for people in wheelchairs.

Electric wheelchairs can make life much easier for someone with special needs. If someone does not have the sufficient upper body strength, then they may find that a manual chair is too difficult to maneuver. Choosing an electric wheelchair can be hard because of all the diverse types. The key is knowledge. If someone is educated about the different models available on today's market, then choosing a wheelchair to fit their needs should be a breeze.

The Easiest Way to Prevent Traveler’s Diseases

Most of us love to travel a lot without knowing what the consequences might be. We are not very aware of certain diseases that we can pick up from different countries that we travel to. So what are traveler’s diseases anyway? These are diseases that we contract when traveling away from home, most especially when we travel from a highly developed country to a less developed one. These diseases can be acquired by eating or drinking contaminated food or water, from animal droppings, from soil, close encounter with infected animals, and if bitten by vectors like mosquitoes, flies, and ticks. Some can even be derived from walking and swimming on the beach barefooted. Simple things that we ignore can actually be the cause of a dreadful disease.

Let me give you some of the most popular diseases that we can contract while on a travel, and I will be giving pointers on how to prevent from getting these diseases.

o African Sleeping Sickness

As the name implies, this disease can be contracted from the Eastern and Central Africa. It is also called the African trypanosomiasis. It is caused by a parasite and is transmitted by a tsetse fly causing a systemic disease. This is most abundant in Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Malawi, Ethiopia, Zaire, Zimbabwe, and Botswana. The disease would occur within the period of four weeks, with initial symptoms of fever, rash, skin lesions, swollen lymph nodes, and edema. And this can actually progress to meningoencephalitis, which is a very serious disease. Once meningoencephalitis has occurred, personality changes, progressive confusion, irritability, weight loss, slurred speech, seizures, insomnia, and difficulty in walking and talking will then follow.

There are no drugs or vaccine that can prevent this disease. But here are some tips to prevent insect bites.

1. Wear long-sleeved shirt and pants for protection, and it should be thick because tsetse fly can bite through clothing materials.

2. Tsetse flies are attracted to bright and dark colors, so it is better to wear something khaki or neutral-colored clothes.

3. Bed nets are best recommended while napping.

4. Avoid riding open vehicles like jeeps or pickup trucks. Tsetse flies are fond of dust created by moving vehicles.

5. Tsetse fly usually rest in the bushes during hot days, but they bite once disturbed. So avoid walking through the bushes.

o Mad Cow Disease

This is a bovine spongiform encephalopathy that affects the cattle but with the new variant, the disease was passed to humans. Both diseases cause fatal brain injuries and diseases. Most of the cases are found in Great Britain, the disease resulted from feeding cattle with scrapie-containing sheep meat and bone. This disease can be passed to humans by eating an infected beef, causing the humans to have mental retardation and dementia. Travelers can reduce the risk of exposure by avoiding beef, or selecting beef products, instead of eating ground beef and sausages, it is better to eat solid pieces of beef.

o Cholera

It is an infectious, acute disease from consuming contaminated water and food. The bacteria Vibrio cholera is to blame for this disease. It is mostly found in South Asia, Africa, and Latin America like Mexico, Guatemala, Ecuador, Peru, and Columbia. The unsanitary disposal of excrement is the cause of an impure water supply attracting Vibrio cholera.

How can we prevent Cholera? As the center of disease control says “Boil it, cook it, peel it, or forget it”. Here are some preventive measures that we should remember.

1. Use and drink only boiled or chemically disinfected water. Use disinfected water for brushing teeth, washing your face and hands, washing fruits and vegetables, utensils, bottles, glasses.

2. Refrain from eating food and drinking beverages with unknown sources like unpasteurized milk or milk products, raw meats, shellfish, and any fish from tropical reefs.

Like what I always say, it’s better to be safe than sorry!

Misdiagnosis of Epilepsy

Despite the seemingly endless number of high-tech diagnostic tests available to modern medical professionals, diagnosing a patient’s condition is still far from a fool-proof process. While doctors usually get it right, sometimes patients are told they suffer from one disease or condition when their symptoms actually have an altogether different cause. In the best case scenario, this is a temporary inconvenience for the patient, causing them to receive the unnecessary treatment, but not leading to any long term suffering. In other cases, though, a misdiagnosis can be much more serious. If a physician’s negligence is responsible for a serious misdiagnosis, the patient may consider legal action as a legitimate way to receive compensation for monetary loss and suffering.

When an individual is diagnosed with epilepsy, it can seriously affect their life in many ways. The drugs prescribed to treat epilepsy and suppress seizures can have unpleasant side effects and be very expensive, especially if the person does not have good medical insurance. Furthermore, there still exist unfair social stigmas surrounding epileptics and their condition, especially when the individual is a child. If a person is incorrectly diagnosed as having epilepsy, they will suffer all of these unpleasant consequences for no reason. In addition, the true cause of their symptoms will remain untreated.

Many people who are misdiagnosed with epilepsy actually suffer from a condition known called syncope. Syncope is a quickly passing loss of consciousness that is caused by the blood flow to the brain being disrupted (which may itself be caused by a variety of different medical conditions). This disruption can cause the victim to suffer from muscle jerking and fainting or blacking out that may be mistaken for epileptic seizures during diagnosis. While syncope can be successfully treated in most instances, if it is misdiagnosed as epilepsy, there may be serious consequences for the patient.

Some studies have shown that as many as 30% of patients that are told they have epilepsy may actually suffer from some other condition. The true cause of their symptoms can lie in many other conditions, such as cardiac arrhythmia, basilar artery migraine, narcolepsy, stroke, or syncope, as discussed above. If a doctor is too hasty in their diagnosis, these conditions can be ignored and develop into serious and painful issues for patients.

For more information about negligent misdiagnosis and other forms of medical malpractice, visit the website of Philadelphia medical malpractice attorneys Lowenthal & Abrams, P.C.

Outboard Motors – 2-Stroke or 4-Stroke?

Outboard Motors:

The engine is one of the most necessary parts of your boat. Without it, you are not going to go very far. Outboard motors are the most common type of propulsion used on boats today. This motor is mounted to the stern end of the boat, with an attached propeller in the water. There are many choices and considerations that you need to make when it comes to purchasing an outboard motor for your boat. The type or power of the engine you get depends on the size of your boat, the speed you want, and what the boat will be used for.

Types of Outboard Motors:

The two types of outboard motors available are 2-Stroke and 4-Stroke engines. There are positives and negatives to each of these engine types. Because of the light weight, 2-Stroke engines are chosen when good top end speed and acceleration is needed. 4-Stroke engines run smoother and more economical, and are usually chosen for use on lakes and rivers.

2-Stroke Outboard Motors:

2-Stroke engines are lighter and faster, allowing for more top end speed and acceleration. They are also more affordable and have a higher resale value. Because 2-Stroke engines have been around for almost 80 years; necessary parts are more readily available, making repair easier. The design on these engines is less complex than that of a 4 stroke engine, which allows for fewer problems to arise.

There are also some cons to buying a 2-Stroke engine. These engines are not as environmentally friendly, and produce more pollution and smoke. In the non oil injection models; is necessary to mix gas with oil. These engines are noisier, have a rougher idle, and are sometimes difficult to start. There are also some problems with spark plugs fouling.

Boaters who would be most likely to choose a 2-Stroke outboard engine if they are interested in speed, performance, and acceleration. This may be the engine of choice if you own a smaller boat that may not be able to hold the weight of a 4-Stroke engine. A 2-Stroke engine is also suitable if you are more familiar with engine repairs, or even want a motor that is easy to repair and can be brought anywhere to be fixed. If you are not required to operate in a body of water that is for four stroke engines only, you may want to purchase a 2-Stroke. If you would like the most power for weight of the engine, or interested in more speed, acceleration, and performance; a 2-Stroke engine is for you.

4-Stroke Outboard Motors:

4-Stroke engines run quieter and idle smoother, allowing for a more pleasurable ride. They are safer for the economy with less pollution and smoke, and are better on fuel. They are accepted on all bodies of water. These engines are also very reliable.

The negative aspects of a 4 stroke engine are that they are more complex, which allows for more problems to arise. When repair is needed; it is more expensive, hard to find trained mechanics, and limited parts on the market. 4-Stroke engines are also less powerful 2-Stroke engines. Because they weigh more than 2-Stroke engines, they may be too heavy for some smaller boats.

You are most likely to use a 4 stroke engine if you are interested in trolling along on a quiet, smooth ride. These engines are better for use on bigger boats. If the water in your area requires a “4-Stroke only” boat, it is probably a good idea to go with this engine. If you would rather give up engine speed and acceleration for a cleaner engine, you may want to purchase a 4-Stroke. Also, if you are interested in less pollution and smoke, and don’t want to have to mix oil; a 4-Stroke engine is for you.


2-Stroke: Evinrude, Yamaha, Nissan and Mercury.

4-Stroke: Johnson, Honda, Mercury, Nissan, Suzuki, Tohatsu and Yamaha.

Both 2 and 4-Stroke engines have advantages and disadvantages. You need to decide how you are going to use your motor, and what you want it to do for you. Because 4-Stroke engines are newer, they are continually improving to make purchase and repair easier on the boater.

A Psychological Profile of Tony Soprano

Tony Soprano is one of the most intriguing and enigmatic characters in the history of television. Understanding him psychologically is a difficult proposition, although many of the shows other character’s have proffered some ideas. In one early episode, Dr. Melfi’s husband Richard refers to Tony as Alexithymic, the short definition being “the inability to talk about feelings due to a lack of emotional awareness.” This definition is definitely somewhat accurate, as Tony often reacts with rage during periods of confusion and frustration.

One classic example of this comes when Tony enters his office and sees that someone has purchased a “Big Mouth Billy Bass” and placed it on his desk. Seeing the singing fish reminds Tony of his dream about Big Pussy, and this memory floods Tony with multiple emotions that he is unable to process or understand. Tony reacts to this emotional flooding by beating Georgie, (A favorite pastime) who he learns placed the fish in his office, as this choice allows him to temporarily exorcise his uncomfortable feelings through this physically violent reaction.

At one point Dr. Melfi suggests Tony has an Anti-Social Personality Disorder. People with this disorder often show a persistent pattern of conduct disorder in their teen years which involves breaking the law, poor academic performance, disrespect for authority as well as several other more severe criteria including torturing animals and starting fires. Throughout the series we learn several things about Tony’s younger years. In Season 1, we learn from Uncle Junior and Livia that Tony and his friends stole a car, and also that Tony used to sell stolen lobsters in an effort to earn some extras cash. In another episode we see him skipping school, breaking into his father’s car, and generally being very willing to bend the rules.

Skip to Tony’s teen years and we learn that Tony has become good enough at sports to become a “varsity athlete” despite Junior’s claim that he wasn’t. He graduates from High School and attends Seton Hall for a semester and a half, before he “got into some trouble” (revealed to Meadow during the episode “College”) and goes to prison for a short while. While Tony is insisting to Dr. Melfi that he never engaged in Homosexual activities, we learn his time in prison was relatively short, and we can therefore assume his crime was relatively minor. Around this same time Tony robbed Feech Lamana’s card game, which was a major turning point in his life where he became officially respected as a gangster.

From this brief look at Tony’s adolescence we learn he probably did meet many of the characteristics for conduct disorder but possibly not enough to make a firm diagnoses. Which moves us to the diagnoses of Anti-Social personality disorder, which according to the DSM-IV, involves “a pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others occurring since age 15 years, as indicated by three (or more) of the following:

(1) failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behaviors as indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest

(2) deceitfulness, as indicated by repeated lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure

(3) impulsivity or failure to plan ahead

(4) irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults

(5) reckless disregard for safety of self or others

(6) consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations

(7) lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another

B. The individual is at least age 18 years.

C. There is evidence of Conduct Disorder with onset before age 15 years.

D. The occurrence of antisocial behavior is not exclusively during the course of Schizophrenia or a Manic Episode.

So, does Tony meet at least three of these criteria? The answer seems to be that yes of course he does. Although he does not seem to meet the criteria for number 6, there have been multiple examples of his actions meeting the criteria for the other 6 components. But does this diagnosis truly encapsulate Tony Soprano? It doesn’t appear to. The fact is that Tony is capable of unselfish and extremely generous acts, although often these actions have ulterior motives. Therefore to truly get a sense of the patterns of Tony Soprano’s life, it is extremely useful to use an Adlerian model to examine the patterns of his basic convictions. The Adlerian model looks at key components of a person’s life, and also at their early recollections in an attempt to examine several key determinants that Adler believed made up a person’s unique lifestyle.

Gender Role Preparation perceived through Gender Guiding Lines and Role Models

Through observing their parents and the gender patterns they adopt in their relations, a person learns to conceptualize a personal definition of what a man is and what a woman is. From watching his father, “Johnny Boy” Soprano, a respected and feared Mafioso, Tony formed several impression of what it is to be a man. First and foremost Tony learned that the man is the breadwinner in the family, and that he needs to do whatever it takes, regardless of the law, to provide for his family.

Tony also learned a great deal about conflict resolution from watching his father deal with people from around the neighborhood. One particularly important observation was watching his father handle a man named Satriale who had been avoiding him because he owed him a debt. When Tony watches his father chop off the man’s finger as a result of this dispute, Tony formed an early impression that a man goes to any lengths, despite the law, when that man owes him a debt. This impression was again confirmed when he watched his father brutally pummel a neighbor named Rocco, who also owed Johnny a debt.

Tony also learned a great deal from watching his father’s work habits throughout the years, and this affected his own adult attitude towards work. The beatings Tony witnessed in the previous situations were both over an attempt to collect a debt, and Tony saw that a great deal of Johnny’s income was simply taken by force or the threat of violence. Therefore he learned that men don’t need to work if they can take things from others, and this was a lesson that appeared to resonate.

In one notable event that occurred in Tony’s teen years, he covers for his father to his mother when she correctly assumes he’s been with another woman. In this situation, Tony, who has most likely learned through watching his father lie many times before, that it’s OK for a man to lie when confronted by an uncomfortable situation.

Through Tony’s interactions with his mother he learned that a woman, although she works in the home, holds a great deal of power and control in interpersonal relationships. One early impression came from watching his father and mother interact after his father brings home a large order of meat, and Tony observes that this was the only time his mother was ever really happy. Tony also makes the connection that when his father brought gifts it was “probably the only time he got laid” which also created the impression for Tony that a woman only provides sexual gratification to men when they are given gifts, and this was an idea that also seemed to translate to his adult life.

Interpersonal Style perceived through Experience of Family Atmosphere

The family atmosphere in the Soprano family was one of storm and strife. As Tony’s sister Janice correctly explains to her husband Bobby, “In my family it was dog eat dog.” This was an accurate description of the Soprano household, and much of this difficulty stemmed from the interactions between Livia and Johnny which were based on repetitive patterns of incessant nagging on Livia’s part and extreme deceit on Johnny’s. Livia’s tyranny over the house may have even eventually contributed to Johnny’s physical decline, as in Tony’s estimation she wore this very strong man into a “little nub.”

Livia Soprano’s love was conditional love. Livia was extremely critical of her children and she did not demonstrate encouragement and support of their endeavors which appeared to stimulate a lifelong pattern of self-doubt in both Tony as well as his sister Janice. Discouraged children often grow up to be angry and unfulfilled adults, as they begin to feel that everything they do will not live up to someone’s standards. In these situations a kind of “learned helplessness” (Seligman 1965) can take place, where kids simply give up rather than continuing to compete in a seemingly hopeless situation. This appeared to be the case with Janice Soprano, who spends a lifetime avoiding any kind of useful activity rather than have to be judged a failure as she has so many times before.

Tony on the other hand compensated for this lack of love like his father did by lashing out at others, finding temporary gratification though many sexual conquests, and finding solace in acquiring material possessions.

Livia also talked openly of killing her children when Tony was a young man, which he must have seen as a great devaluation of his importance and worth in his mother’s life. In one notable instance Livia tells Tony she could “smother him with a pillow” which terrifies Tony and makes him question how far his mother might really go in enforcing punishment in the Soprano household. Johnny Soprano on the other hand freely used corporal punishment in the house, and in Tony’s words, “the belt was his favorite child development tool.” Johnny clearly demonstrated though many of his actions in the house that violence was an appropriate response to frustration, and this was also a value that Tony seemed to inherit.

Johnny Soprano was also consistently deceitful in his dealings with his family, and his constant deceit was often the trigger that sent Livia flying into a rage. One early example of Johnny’s deceit came following his arrest at a kid’s carnival, where he tells his children the cops made a terrible mistake and arrested the wrong guys, which would be difficult for even a child to believe.

Another important event that confirms Johnny’s constant deceit occurred when Tony was a teenager and Livia was in the hospital having suffered a miscarriage where she was in dire physical danger. Johnny, who was staying overnight with his mistress, concocts an elaborate lie that hinged on Tony supporting the lie and confirming the story for his hospitalized mother. Tony does go along with the lie, and this event marked as major turning point where he embraces the deceitful lifestyle and begins to head down the path his father has paved for him.

Personal Code of Conduct perceived through Acceptance / Rejection of Family Values

When Tony embraced his father’s lying ways, he was essentially accepting the Soprano family values, all of which were also modeled by Tony’s Uncle Junior. Although Tony made a brief attempt at following a different path by going to college, his robbery of Feech Lamana’s card game demonstrated an early lesson learned from his father that if someone wants something that it is easier to simply take it from others than to actually work for it. This idea was strongly reinforced when Tony was caught for this act and he was not only not punished, but in effect promoted into the “family” following this brazen and irresponsible action.

For Tony the term “family values” obviously had more than one meaning, but upon close examination the values modeled in the Sopranos household were the same that were necessary to survive and even thrive in the mafia “family” Tony was also a part of. For instance Livia used the threat of killing someone weaker than her to retain order in the house and get people to comply with her wishes. The exact same thing is used by the mafia family, as the threat of pending violence is one of the key ways the family perpetuates its wealth.

The family value of deceit in the house was also a necessary value to succeed in the larger Mafia family. The code of “Omerta” implies silence and avoidance of even discussing the organization, and this is an interesting connection to make considering the fact that Livia was so against Tony going to therapy as she felt he was there to “talk about his mother.” Livia, who preferred the family secrets stay buried, was so consumed by feelings of anger from thinking that Tony would reveal her secrets to a therapist, that she in essence convinced Junior to have him killed. Returning to the moment of the idea Tony is Alexithymic, one can speculate that this condition might stem from his mother’s absolute inability to promote the sharing of feelings in the Soprano household.

Perspective on the World perceived through Experience of Psychological Birth Order

As the second born child of three, Tony’s assumed the position of the classic middle child. The second born child often takes their cues from the oldest child, who has been in the world longer and provides a roadmap for the second child to follow. Second born children are often the rebels in the family, as the first borns tend to be responsible and can often even be like a second parent. The second child therefore often finds belonging through acting distinctively different than the first, as the first is naturally better at things because of their advanced age and physical development. This was partially true in Tony’s case, as Janis appeared to enjoy flaunting her position as the eldest, and at least in her early childhood convinced her father she was a well-behaved and accomplished child. Tony on the other hand showed immediate rebellious behavior, and found belonging through being as Junior described a “little hellion” who learned to fit in and get attention through misbehavior.

Adler made a strong point of emphasizing that birth order also had a psychological component to it, where the literal birth order may differ from the physical birth order. This can happen when the first born son usurps the first born female child and becomes the de facto leader of the children, as he comes from a culture that values males over women. This dynamic appeared to manifest itself in the Soprano household. In Tony’s case Janis, who enjoyed the power of being the first born but not the responsibility, in effect passed the torch of responsibility as the first born to Tony, who became responsible for the family as he entered into adulthood.

Range of Social Interest perceived through Other Particularities

Adler believed that the extent and degree that a person takes an interest in his or her fellow human beings was an excellent predictor of their mental health. Tony never developed this interest in others, and instead came to value others based on their personal usefulness to him. There are many examples of this in Tony’s life, one example being his relationship with Paulie, who fell out of Tony’s favor following a financial downturn in Season 4. Even in his dealings with Artie Bucco Tony often sizes up how Artie can be useful to him, and despite their imbalance of power Tony finds little ways to exploit this friendship for his personal gain.

Tony’s odd obsession with animals also demonstrates his inability to share emotions with other human beings, and again this behavior might have some its roots in the lack of love and support he received from his mother. Tony often projects feelings onto animals that he is unable to feel for human beings, and this trait shows how confusing and upset Tony gets when confronted by negative emotions.


In conclusion Tony Sopano’s life is one lived with little insight or mindfulness. This lack of insight has lead to an external locus of control where he views the bad things that happen to him as bad luck His statements “I can’t catch a break” and “I’m like king Midas in reverse” are example of this behavior, and these claims don’t jibe with the many, many fortuitous events in Tony’s life.

Tony also likes to present the idea that he is a “sad clown” but again the evidence in his life does not seem to support this. When Tony is angry or hurt he nearly always responds with physical violence, and occasionally with em0tional violence such as when he calls Melfi a “cunt” following her rebuke of his advances. The sad clown motif indicates the sense of pity Tony often feels for himself, and his general pessimistic attitude towards life.

Adler felt that by gaining insight into your behavior you could begin to understand the patterns and faulty thinking and logic that these patterns then created. Melfi, after many years has uncovered some of these patterns, but doesn’t seem to offer much assistance as to how to process this information. The result has been that Tony continues to repeat many of the patterns directly inherited from watching his parents, and despite his often empty promises to change his life, this is really not possible without going back to the beginning.

Adler referred to this idea as “soft” determinism, meaning a person’s patterns of behavior were firmly and deeply entrenched, and very, very difficult to change without a tremendous amount of insight. Although nearly dying was a kind of apotheosis for Tony, it is likely he will return to much of his former behavior as he falls back into these familiar patterns.

How to Protect Your Mental Health Or Cure A Mental Disorder

Thanks to the extraordinary discoveries of the psychiatrist Carl Jung about the meaning of dreams, and thanks to the continuation of his research, today we know how to prevent and cure all mental disorders. When we follow the guidance of the wise unconscious mind that produces our dreams we find perfect solutions to all problems.

My statements are based on real facts. The accurate translation of the meaning of dreams works like medicine. Numerous patients who suffered from various mental disorders were cured through dream therapy.

After continuing Carl Jung’s research into the unknown region of the human psyche through dream interpretation I could clarify all the obscure points in his work.

Today we know that:

* We have inherited a huge wild conscience (anti-conscience) that is totally absurd and occupies the biggest part of our brain.

* Even our human conscience is absurd because it is one-sided and under-developed.

* The unconscious mind that produces our dreams possesses undoubtable wisdom because it has a divine origin.

* All dreams are produced by the wise unconscious mind.

* All dreams contain precious messages that protect our mental stability.

* We must eliminate our anti-conscience the fastest possible because it generates mental illnesses within our human conscience.

* Our anti-conscience is absurd, violent, evil, immoral, and cruel.

* Our human conscience must be developed by acquiring consciousness.

* In order to eliminate our anti-conscience and develop our under-developed conscience we must follow the unconscious guidance in dreams.

* The unconscious mind gives us information and guidance in our own dreams in a secret form, so that our anti-conscience won’t understand the secret unconscious messages. These messages protect our human conscience from the anti-conscience’s attacks by giving us real solutions.

* We must learn how to translate the meaning of our dreams according to Carl Jung’s method of dream interpretation because he is the only scientist who managed to decipher the meaning of the symbolic dream language. Only by following his method can we understand the unconscious messages in dreams.

* Once we translate our dreams according to Jung’s method (which I clarified and simplified) and we understand the unconscious messages, we must also follow the guidance of the unconscious mind instead of doing what our ignorant, one-sided, under-developed, and absurd human conscience desires.

If we obey the saintly unconscious guidance in our own dreams we stop being wild animals and we completely develop our intelligence. We get rid of our absurd tendencies. We completely eliminate our anti-conscience through consciousness.

This means that we are finally able to use our total brain power, and not only a spot. We have a tiny human conscience and a huge anti-conscience. When we eliminate our anti-conscience through consciousness, we start positively using its intelligence. This is how we find balance, peace, love, wisdom, and happiness.

Therefore, if you want to protect your mental health, or if you want to be cured because you already suffer from a mental disorder, you must follow dream therapy. Dream therapy is the only safe solution for you because it provides you with the only treatment that can guarantee your mental stability.

A human doctor who leads with mental disorders cannot guarantee anything to anyone.

Only the wise unconscious mind can transform our satanic anti-conscience into human conscience because this is an impossible mission. The absurdity we have inherited into our anti-conscience is invincible.

This is why most people in our world are mentally ill. This is why our crazy world works based on violence, hypocrisy, selfishness, and greed. This is why we are not able to put an end to terrorism, wars, and poverty on Earth.

Only goodness can help us find balance.

However, we are as far from goodness as the sun from the moon. We must eliminate our absurdity in order to find peace. Only the divine unconscious mind can help us understand the real meaning of goodness, so that we may acquire sound mental health.

These conclusions are not based on my personal opinion, but on real facts.

Therefore, if you want to protect your mental health, and if you want to find peace and happiness in life, you must immediately transform your anti-conscience into a positive component of your human conscience by following dream therapy.

The generous unconscious mind sends you many dreams when you sleep, showing you very clearly what you must do in order to get rid of your anti-conscience and develop your human side. Everything only depends on your seriousness. You can eliminate what is bad, find sound mental health, and become a perfect human being.

An Introduction to Indian Sweet Kaju Katli

This article will introduce you to one of the most loved Indian sweets; it’s called kaju katli. Kaju katli has cashew nut as its primary ingredient. Here, we will be discussing how this special item is made and the kind of health benefits it offers. For people interested in buying this item, we will also provide information about the best ways of buying it.

We will begin by introducing you to the primary ingredients used for making kaju katli. As mentioned above, the main ingredient required for making these sweets is cashew nuts. With it, confectioners use a range of other ingredients like clarified butter or ghee, sugar, condensed milk, milk and flavoring agents of different types. While some katlis contain saffron or rose-water as their flavoring agents, stores also sell simpler ones flavored with cardamom. These days, confectioners have also started selling kaju katlis boasting exotic flavors like strawberry, chocolate, mango etc.

It’s true that these sweets are extremely tasty and their taste can easily be the only reason of consuming them; however, they also offer certain health benefits. This is because cashew nuts, the main ingredient used for preparing them, are good for our health in many ways.

Cashews are rich sources of magnesium and calcium; these are minerals known for promoting bone health. So, having a piece of kaju katli every day other than pampering your taste buds will also make your bones stronger.

The next most prominent health benefit of cashews is their ability of making nerves healthy. These nuts help in increasing the level of magnesium in our bones and thereby successfully stop calcium from entering our blood vessels. This in turn prevents health issues such as migraine, high blood pressure etc.

Daily intake of cashews has been found to decrease one’s chances of developing gallstone by as much as 25%. These nuts are also known for their ability of promoting proper digestion. They also possess the ability to induce nucleic acid synthesis. Men and women looking to increase the strength of their hair and experience hair growth can also have a kaju katli every day.

Today, the best way of buying kaju katli is by placing an order online. The majority of the top Indian confectioners have started making their creations available through online stores. What’s more, a large share of these stores also ship sweets to foreign lands. This means, you can get these sweets delivered right at your doorsteps irrespective of your location.

Why is My Hair Falling Out? – A List of Possible Reasons

I often write articles about moving past and fixing hair loss and shedding. Probably one of the most common questions that I'm asked is "why is my hair falling out?" In truth, there are many possible reasons, depending upon your personal situation, your age, your health, and your genetics. In the following article, I'll go over many possible causes of hair loss to help you determine which may be applicable to you.

Telogen Effluvium (TE) Due To A Change In Your Life, Your Body, Or Your Habits: The scientific or medical word for hair shedding is telogen effluvium, which basically means that you are shedding over 100 hairs per day for an extended period of time . But, please do not count your hairs. If you have TE, you generally know it because you see hair every where – on your clothing, on your pillow case, in the shower drain, etc.

This type of hair loss is generally caused by a change somewhere in your life, like giving birth or starting and stopping medications like birth control pills, antidepressants, heart medications, etc. Sometimes, herbs that change your hormones (saw palmetto, soy, menopause supplements, etc.) can kick off a TE as well.

Sometimes declining hormones that come with aging can cause hair loss. This includes thyroid, adrenal, and sex hormones. Some believe believe that stress or a poor diet can cause shedding, but many people in the medical establishment do not buy this. However, as someone who has been through many sheds, I can tell you my shedding did seem to worsen during times of high stress. I believe that excess cortisol released during these periods can contribute to shedding, but this is just my opinion.

This type of run of the mill shedding generally lasts a few months or until the trigger that caused it is removed. Shedding that lasts for longer than this is called CTE (chronic telogen effluvium). This usually plagues women who are hormonally sensitive or people who can not remove or keep reintroducing the same trigger.

Hair Loss That Is Caused By Inflammation And / Or Scalp Or Dermatological Issues: Sometimes, a scalp that is damaged can manifest itself in hair loss. To have healthy hair that is deeply embedded in your scalp and properly nourished, you must have a scalp that is conducive to this. There are many dermatological issues that can cause shedding including ringworm, severe dandruff, yeast infections, candida, or irritation that causes inflammation.

It's also quite common that hair follicles get clogged, inflamed or compromised and this in turn can choke off the nourishment to your hair and can cause it to fall. Worse, when the hair starts to grow back, it will come in thinner and miniaturized due to this process.

AGA And DHT Induced Hair Loss: Androgenic Alopecia is the scientific name for patterned, genetic hair loss also known as male or female patterned thinning or baldness. Many people mistakenly believe that you need a bald or thinning relative to have AGA or androgen related loss, but this is not always the case. Sometimes, you'll see changes to your skin and body when this type of shedding starts (oilier skin, acne, stronger body odor, oily hair, chin hairs on women, etc.)

Sometimes, the only indication of this is that your hair begins to thin or shed. The main culprit in this cycle is a substance called DHT which as explained earlier chokes out your hair follicles. There are many ways to slow or stop this process, even in women. Sometimes, this presents themselves as patterned loss (temples, the top, and the crown) but other times, you'll get more diffuse, all over loss.

AA or Alopecia Areata: I will mention this one because it can present itself with shedding at first. But, this type of loss will usually present as loss in circular patches. Or, the shedding is so severe that all of the hair is lost. This type of hair loss is extremely rare and the regrowth sometimes comes in white.

Hair Loss (Alopecia) – Causes And Treatments

Hair thinning or hair loss is common among women averaging hundred hair strands of loss in a day. That said, medical conditions or alopecia is more common among men. Causes for hair loss depend on many factors including physical environment, emotional stressors and even health conditions. Some conditions may resolve on their own however, some conditions may cause irreversible hair loss.


One of the major causes of hair thinning is due to the person’s genetic factors. People who have relatives that experience hair loss are likely to experience the condition as opposed to those who have fewer or no such relatives in their family branch. Aside from genetic factors, the natural aging process also results to slowing down of the body’s production resulting to the said condition. People who are into their late 30’s or early 40’s are likely to start experience the problem.

Hair has its own life cycle just like any part of our body. When physical stressors such as accidents, pregnancy or surgery is experienced by the body, the life cycle is interrupted causing disruption and noticeable hair loss of the patient. In this case, the loss is only temporary and as soon as the body recovers, the growth cycle is resumed.

Too much or too little of supplements can also cause one to lose hair. According to the AAD, too much of Vitamin A in the body can cause hair loss temporarily. Protein, which is essential to the development of cells and tissues is important as well, too little of which, can also affect hair production.

Hair loss can also be a sign of an underlying health problem. For patients that experience unusual amount of hair loss, they should consider consulting their family physician or a dermatologist to determine if it is normal or signs of health conditions such as anemia.


Hair condition usually returns to its normal pattern once the body undergoes healing and recovers from the physical stressors and lifestyle modifications are accomplished. Some however may need to take medications to ensure hair regrowth. Minoxidil and Finasteride are two common medications available to treat hair loss.

Minoxidil is available as a topical treatment and commonly used to treat male-pattern baldness. The solution is FDA approved and directly applied to the affected area and should be left for at least four hours to ensure effectivity. The solution may not be as effective for people who are older or those that are already affected by baldness for a longer period.

Disclaimer: Any information provided here does not constitute as a medical advice and is intended for general information only. One should always consult their own doctor or seek qualified health practitioners for advice before making any actions or decisions regarding their health options.

Foreign Exchange: Rewarding Students With Foreign Films

Many U.S. students think foreign films are inaccessible, strange and boring. Turned off by the art house aesthetic they assume these films have, most students won’t actively seek out foreign films on their own. Here’s where teachers come in. Reward films are an opportunity to show students movies they don’t normally see. Whether the award is for great behavior, stellar academic achievement, or the class is just having a celebration, reward films can be used to educate as well as entertain.

Teachers can comment on the movie and provide a brief background that will enhance both educational value and enjoyment. Be straightforward, and tell the class they’ll be seeing a foreign film, and if they groan, tell them that they’ll be surprised by how interesting, entertaining or funny it is. After all, they’re still in school and teachers are paid to educate students.

Below are a few films that will intrigue students, and might just change their minds about foreign films.

1. Strictly Ballroom (Australia) (Ages 12 and up; Rated PG) This hilarious comedy will inspire young people to develop their talents to the fullest, show the complex relationships that can develop in a family, and demonstrate the self-interest that can pervert institutions from their apparent purposes. The plot revolves around Scott, 17 years of age, whose family helps run a ballroom dance studio in an Australian working class neighborhood. Scott’s mother was once a national ballroom dance champion and now teaches. Scott has also won awards for his dancing and everyone hopes that he will win the national championship this year, but on the way to the finals several unexpected events occur.

Questions to be discussed after the film include: Is competitive ballroom dancing a sport or an art form? What happened to this family as a result of the secret that no one talked about? What does this tell us about secrets in families? If Scott had abandoned his new steps and conformed to the pressure from the Federation, what would have eventually happened to his interest in dance?

2. Dear Frankie (UK) (Ages 13 and up; Rated PG-13) Frankie is a boy in the United Kingdom, rendered deaf in infancy after being hit by his father, a serial wife and child beater. Frankie lives with his mother, a woman who writes and sends him letters as if from the father he has never known. In the letters, she claims that Frankie’s father has been traveling the world on a ship’s crew. However, when the ship that Frankie’s father is supposed to be on pays a call at the port in which Frankie and his mother lives, there is a crisis. Frankie’s mother decides to keep the fantasy going by finding a man to play the part of the father. This is a touching film about a myriad of topics, including how one deals with deafness, the power of love, and the value of honesty.

The questions to be discussed after the film should focus on honesty: Was the mother wrong to weave this father-fantasy for her son? Was she wrong in hiring someone to play the role of the father? What might have happened had the man she hired not turned out to be an exceptional person? Were the risks involved in this mother’s efforts to protect her son from the truth worth the gamble?

3. Shower (China) (Ages 13 and up; Rated PG-13) Filmed in 1999, Shower is a Chinese film about family, loss, and change. It is beautifully filmed and the acting is superb. The story revolves around a bathhouse run by an old man who cares not only for his customers but also for his mentally disabled son. However, times are changing and the government orders that the bathhouse be shut down. An older, educated son shows up thinking the old man is dying and thus begins a story about forbearance and family responsibility.

After the film, students can engage in serious discussion about how much one family member can be asked to sacrifice in order to assist another. You can ask students to list the ways the old man helps community members solve their problems thus suggesting that a bathhouse is much more than a place to get clean. Tell the students to notice the difference between the high-tech shower at the opening of the film and the low-tech system of showers and pools used in the bathhouse. This film is largely about change: ask the students to talk or write about how the disabled brother adjusts to the events in his life and what we can learn from his ability to accept change.

Protecting Your Ears With Protective Earmuffs

If you think that earmuffs are only for the cold, think again. If you work in an environment where there are constant loud noises, you are damaging your eardrums without even realizing it. You owe it to yourself to wear protective ear wear such as earmuffs that will not only protect your hearing but will still allow you to hear what is going on around you.

There are many work related industries where loud noises are the norm. What few people realize is that over a period of time, damage from these noises causes irreparable damage to the eardrums to the point of causing hearing loss as time goes on. Those who work in construction or industrial environments where there is a lot of noise owe it to themselves to protect their hearing by wearing special products that are designed to mute the loud noises while still allowing the worker to hear what others are saying and maintain their attention to their jobs.

Hunters use ear protection all of the time to protect their ears from the sound of shotguns and rifles. The same type of protection should be used whenever you are around loud noises. High quality earmuffs that are used in industrial work are made in such a way that they block out certain noise levels that can damage hearing, while allowing other noise levels to come through. In other words, if someone is jack hammering on the job, you can protect your eardrums from this deafening sound while still hearing the instructions of the foreman and those around you. The protective ear wear can be set at a level so that they filter out the damaging noise while still allow you to be aware of what is going on in your environment.

Protective earmuffs are comfortable to wear and are much more effective than wearing ear plugs that will prevent noise, but will also prevent you from hearing what others are saying to you. Chances are that if you work in an environment where there are loud noises occurring all of the time, you also need to be alert as to what is going on around you. You have to be able to hear normal, audible tones while at the same time blocking out damaging noise.

Once you damage your hearing, it is often gone for good. Fortunately, you can do something about this to prevent hearing loss by protecting your ears with earmuffs that range from many different styles and can be used for a variety of purposes. You can go online to find the best deals when it comes to protective ear wear for use at home, work or even in the field and save yourself from hearing loss in the future.

Why Do I Laugh At Sicko Stuff?

Why do I do it? Why do I laugh at things I should not? For instance, when someone from Howard Stern's "whack pack", his personal collection of mentally challenged misfits with various speech impediments, talks about anything? How about when Andrew "Dice" Clay profanely rants about females in ways that set women (and men for that matter) back a thousand years? What about one of the most politically incorrect shows on cable TV today, Curb Your Enthusiasm. I laugh my butt off every time Larry David pathetically wrestles with race or sexuality or death or handicaps. And I can not leave out Chris Rock cursing his way through a monologue about the plight of fathers whose daughters are strippers.

I might just as well laugh at a train wrecks. And I do – not at real train wrecks – but at comedy train wrecks.

I used to think "you either get it or you do not". But I'm not so sure anymore. When I crack up and cough up a lung because a ten year old girl thinks Larry David, whom she encounters in a ladies restroom, has a giant erection, am I being blindly insensitive to child molestation? When I chuckle at a really mean-spirited racial slur Imus's sidekick bigot, Bernard, blurts out, am I promoting hate and fear? I'd like to think I'm laughing at his ignorance but I'm not positive.

I'm not completely without scruples. I laugh just as hard at some of the all time great "clean" comics: Bill Cosby, Brian Regan, Jerry Seinfeld, Flip Wilson, Steve Martin. I think Napoleon Dynamite might just be the funniest movie I have ever seen and it was clean. I even laugh at myself a lot. I'm almost always self entertained by my own stupidity; like the time I was cutting down some brush with a dull hand-held sickle, disturbed a bee hive and chopped a yellow jacket in half that was stinging my left forearm with the sickle, of course leaving a three inch cut in my arm for the effort. Or the time I locked my newborn son and keys in the car in sub-freezing weather the first day I was allowed to watch him on my own. Even my short stories about growing up in the Sixties generate laughs at my personal reputation's expense, what little I have that is.

It's not like a want to laugh at the cost of others' pain. Well, that's not completely true. I do laugh at people who slip on ice or walk into glass doors. But only after I'm sure they are okay. I guess nothing tickles me more than a hair piece folded back or a booger flapping free in the nostril of the unaware. It's almost a knee jerk reaction. I do not know, I just can not help it. I'll say this, I'm not proud of it sometimes, if that helps at all.

I guess it's like music. You know how some people say, "oh, I like all kinds of music: rap, country, pop, punk, Manalow, System of a Down, Mozart"? Well that's how I feel about humor. I like all kinds: stand up, sit coms, ad lib, filthy, clean, sight gags, accidents.

However, there are some types I do not like, making me a tad more complicated than a total ignoramus. I do not like ethnic stuff, like "dumb Pollock" or "drunk Irishman" jokes. They seem to me to maintain cultural myths that cloak an underlying bigotry, a position that those who love such jokes disdainfully tag as politically correct. And how about those jokes about people with no arms and legs – wassup with that? I'm not a fan of elephant jokes either – I just do not get them. Hmm … I guess there is such a thing as "getting it or not".

Unfortunately, I have that dark side though; like that classic bit by Kinison about what goes on in the mind of a dead man being raped by the mortician's sick assistant. Now that was funny but in an ashamed-of-myself way. I know it's wrong. I even scream, 'oh that's so wrong' as I bellow in doubled-over hysteria.

So why then do I laugh? Well, probably because I think it's funny … dah. And why do I find this stuff funny? Maybe in the case of Clay or Rock, it's the shock. Maybe in the case of Martin or Regan, it's the delivery. Maybe in the case of Seinfeld or David, it's the predictability that there is humor in the most odd scenarios. Maybe in the case of Winters or Williams, it is the unpredicatability of the ad lib.

Maybe I simply have a defective brain stem. Whatever the reason, I'd rather be this way then never laugh at all, you know, like dentists and Dick Cheney.

[I know, you probably do not like cheap dentist and obligatory Cheney jokes.]

CD Clock Radio Phone – Why Every Bedroom Needs One

Have you ever slept in and been late for work? Do you depend on your alarm to wake you up in the morning? Has the power ever been off and you slept in?

You know how frustrating and stressful it can be to get up late when you needed to be at work on time for an important meeting. Teenagers also need to learn to set their own alarm clock and get up on time.

I just love this alarm clock that also comes with a CD, radio and phone. It also has batteries just in case the power goes off which can happen especially if you have a storm in the summer or winter.

Below I have listed some of the features and benefits of this CD clock radio phone:

o CID502 Description CD Clock Radio Phone- Corded telephone / CD player / clock / alarm / radio- Caller ID- 64 # Name and number memory- Caller ID call back- Battery backup – requires 1 9V battery for clock and 4 AAA batteries for caller ID (no batteries included) – Backlit LCD display- Lighted telephone keypad- Redial- Receiver volume control- Ringer hi / low / off control- Tone / pulse switch able- Multi-function stereo CD player- AM / FM digital stereo tuner- Dual alarm (2 wake up times) – Adjustable display panel (rotates up or down for better viewing at a certain angle) – Oversized snooze control- Sleep control (set radio or CD to play for a certain amount of time) – Auto radio mute ( radio mutes automatically when the phone is picked up) – Metallic silver- Approx. dimensions of base: 10 "x 8"

o 70-name / number caller ID memory (activation required)
o Clock radio with AM / FM tuner and oversized snooze control
o Auto radio mute when using telephone
o Stereo sound CD player
o Receiver volume control
o Lighted keypad
o Handset display and dial, handset volume control

A caller ID memory lets you see who is calling. This is especially handy when someone calls during the night and you do not prefer to answer it or it may be some emergency so you want to see who is calling.

I especially love the snooze control which is good if you want a few more winks but yet do not want to sleep too long. You can set the radio to come on with your favourite radio station or set the CD player to come on if you prefer to wake up to some soothing music.

The volume control also lets you set it at whatever volume you want. Some people like it set on a lower volume so it does not wake other people up. Some people prefer to set the volume up louder so that it really wakes them up and they have to get out of bed. You can also set the volume control on the phone for those people who do not speak up and you can not hear them.

If you want to know more about clock radios or the different benefits of alarm clocks you can visit our website and look at all the different options available today.

Getting On With Others – Developing Social Skills in Children


We all want our children to be able to make their way comfortably in the world. To do this they need to be able to relate to others and to behave acceptably in social situations.

So what does a Speech Pathologist mean by "Social Skills"?

Basically, it means using accepted communication protocols to relate to others socially.

Each society develops its own rules about what is acceptable, and what is not. It also seems that we are "hard wired" to behave in certain ways that make our communication more effective. We are born with basic skills to help us interact with others.

There is a lot more to communication than just words. Effective social skills make the most of all our other communication skills.

In our society, social skills include playing games, resolving conflicts, apologising, negotiating, working with others, developing friendships and coping with the poor behaviour of other people.

And we expect even very small children to be able to use these skills to some extent.

Why do so many children have difficulty with social skills?

There are several main reasons why some children have difficulties in learning these particular skills, and this can include children who are bright and intelligent.

Children with executive function deficits or ADHD, for example, have difficulties with developing the skills that require the frontal lobe part of the brain to be efficient. This includes some aspects of social skills. They may not even recognise social problems when they occur. Some children have difficulty in understanding the perspective of other people, and in seeing that other people can have a different perspective to their own.

Other children may not have the language skills to negotiate or resolve difficulties. They may feel that they are not being listened to. There may be an underlying difficulty with language development that results in poor social skills.

In some instances, poor social behaviour may have been modelled or reinforced, so children imitate what they have seen or been rewarded for. This is not necessarily the case, however. As a Speech Pathologist I have seen many children from families where high level social skills have been modelled, taught and expected – but a child has difficulty understanding or using them.

Why do children need well-developed social skills?

Obviously, behaviour needs to be acceptable to society. And children need to be able to get along at school and in other groups so that they can to enjoy the benefits and advantages that communities provide (like learning opportunities and leisure activities).

Acceptance by others and the ability to make and maintain friendships is crucial to a child's development. Self-acceptance and self-confidence follow. Good social skills help development of their language also, as children open up practise opportunities in conversation and play. Listening and problem-solving skills are also enhanced.

And if a child learns to use good social skills they will be better able to avoid anti-social behaviour and all its negative outcomes, and to cope better with the inappropriate or hurtful behaviour of their peers that happens from time to time. They are more likely to be able to avoid aggression, withdrawal and frustration. Children with good social skills are more likely to seek attention appropriately and less likely to use inappropriate methods of getting attention.