Overcoming a Lisp Speech Impediment Is Not Hard If You Know What You’re Doing

Do you panic when you speak out loud?You focus on just trying to get the words to come out clear but you know those s sounds just don’t sound right. Then you hear people snicker and giggle around you because they think it is kind of funny.  You try so hard to speak clearly, but you can’t do it. It’s simple, you just want your lisp speech to go away, forever.

A lisp speech disorder is a big speech impediment that people all over the world have. Having a lisp can make life really difficult, especially when talking publically. You hate meeting new people because when you meet someone new, you are nervous and when you are nervous, your lisp worsens. All you want is to overcome stammering so you can speak with ease and confidence.

The good is that there are steps that you can in the comfort of your own home to get rid of that lisp. For example, reading out load can help break down a lisp. When you read, or sing out loud, you put special attention on how those words are rolling off your tongue. The more you read and sing, the more clearer you will sound. Another way to help overcome your lisp is to avoid eye contact when talking to a person. Simply look at the bridge of their nose, and put a strong and focused effort into those words you are speaking.

Put an end to your lisp speech. You don’t have to put up with it any longer. Feel the confidence of speaking in front of people.You can stop your lisp and change the way you live your life. There is a ton of information at Fix My Lisp Speech Guide. This website is dedicated to help people overcome their lisp speech once and for all. Because you don’t need to lisp any longer.

The Power of Being Underestimated


Quincy Jones on The Oprah Winfrey Show’s
The Color Purple Reunion on November 15, 2010

“We would never learn to be brave and patient if there were only joy in the world,” Helen Keller

As I perused Oprah’s official website in search of The Color Purple’s Reunion , my eyes scanned the web pages and I began to gobble up the words and the links for this phenomenal 25th reunion. Like many of you I too read Alice Walker’s Pulitzer Prize–winning novel The Color Purple and was excited about the film’s debut and close proximity to the book! The pages came to life through the creativity and genius of both Steven Spielberg and Quincy Jones! The selection of the entire cast of stellar actors was indeed the icing on the cake. It’s been twenty plus years since the movie’s cast has assembled and was it ever a heartwarming and fun filled reunion on Oprah. Each cast member chronicled their experience and poignantly shared memorable moments and movie lines. Many things stood out for me regarding the film. There was no hidding the unspoken issues that were now on the big screen! Discussions erupted everywhere about race, incest, abuse and generational strongholds.

The creation of the project and the likelihood this project being a success or failure was also in the forefront. It’s evident that those past discussions are now mute! The successful history of this film has spoken volumes for itself!

Oprah did a great job as always capturing and chronicling for the television audience and internet browser “The Color Purple” experience. I especially appreciated her interview with Quincy Jones, executive producer and composer. Let’s take a look at what he recounts:

“How did you know that this could become a film?” Oprah asks Quincy. “Because, as Whoopi and I were saying, there was nothing like this ever on the screen.”
“Here,” he says, as he points to his heart. At first, Quincy says no one
thought he’d convince Steven to direct The Color Purple. “Everybody in town was
saying, ‘Quincy Jones is out of his mind,'” he says. “He thinks he’s going to
get the greatest director in the world on his first movie, and he’s going to do
a black movie before Schindler’s List. That’s when I found the power of being

Does that conversation make you want to leap for joy? Lord knows is does for me! There it is friends in Quincy’s words : “…. That’s when I found the power of being underestimated.” What is he referencing? Let me take the liberty to clarify.

What’s pivotal for our emotional health, our thinking and understanding about being underestimated is your locating that source! Where did it come from? Who said so? Who is the authority which indicated that we would not succeed? Reliance on this source is faulty, and can be truly deadly! Yes, detrimental to our existence! The source can take over our lives if we aren’t careful! It can block our true vision. But we’ve got to readjust our lens of faith-seeing past the overgrowth of doubt! Empowered thinking and a brighter outlook will give us our recognition of the wonderful and infinite possibilities of promise and hope. Seeing God past the source of pain! It’s a wonderful seed of determination that germinates and grows and blossoms into results; events and realities that spin into Big, Big, Big occurrences.


I love how God speaks to us through other’s lives and examples. Through their testimony, our remembrances of grace in action, we are empowered with new truths. Like this morning’s visit to Beliefnet’s: Come Back from Let-Downs and Discouragements by Therese Borchard, these are life changing tools! The writer does a great job of assuring us through 21 ways how to overcome disappointments! These techniques take the sting out of setbacks. It’s very good medicine for possibility thinkers! Visit the site and feast.

We must bounce back! It’s imperative in order that we’ll see the goodness of the Lord in the land of the living! Believe, breathe, get back in the race, fight the good fight as you get in stride, trust God, pray for enlightened thinking, block out those that are opposing your destiny and God will restore your weary heart! I declare it so! God will orchestrate blessings for the years you’ve yet to see! Just ask, Quincy and Steven, Zina, Taylor, Michael, ___________,Mary, Oprah, Helen, Ricky, Clarinda, Therese, Linda, Johnny, Drusilla. The list goes on and on! Oh yes, be sure to fill in your name also! Wave and lift those victory banners and pronounce: “I have what it takes! I will stand firm! There is power in being underestimated!” Glory to God!

2 Thessalonians 2:13-17
Stand Firm
13 But we ought always to thank God for you, brothers loved by the Lord, because from the beginning God chose you to be saved through the sanctifying work of the Spirit and through belief in the truth.
14 He called you to this through our gospel that you might share in the glory of our Lord Jesus Christ.
15 So then, brothers, stand firm and hold to the teachings we passed on to you, whether by word of mouth or by letter.
16 May our Lord Jesus Christ himself and God our Father, who loved us and by his grace gave us eternal encouragement and good hope,
17 encourage your hearts and strengthen you in every good deed and word.

British Cambridge – Speech Therapy for Hearing Impaired Children

Teaching language to nonverbal, hearing-impaired children is in fact, a very controversial matter. The controversy stems from the idea that either of two goals is being targeted. One of which states that after language is learned, the child will be able to communicate orally; while the other states that the child will be able to communicate, not verbally, but manually.

Issues With This Approach
Although you may think that the best end goal would be a speaking child, some adult deaf groups would fiercely disagree. They believe that a hearing-impaired individual does not have to be verbal if only to be able to communicate with the rest of the population. For them, assimilation is not really a dream.

Although they aim to find some common grounds for communication, these groups do not really think it is necessary to learn spoken language just to take on the cultural traits of the verbal people.

And in respect to this claim, you have to understand that in some instances, language should be thought in completely nonverbal ways. The following are some of the means to facilitate language learning in nonverbal children.

British Sign Language (BSL)
This is a visual communication technique that incorporates the national or regional signs in Britain in a specified structure and is often taken as a language in its own. This kind of communication does not have a written form.

Manual English
This refers to all the communication systems that require signs, fingerspelling or gestures, which can appear separately or in combinations. This system keeps the word order and the correct syntactic form of the English language.

Signed English
This is the two-handed fingerspelling of the English language as based on British regional and national signs.

This is where the fingers of the hand assume 26 different positions. These 26 positions symbolize the 26 letters of the English alphabet. The combinations of these positions enable the formation of words or sentences.

Cued Speech
This is a one-handed supplement to lip-reading and is often used to clarify the nebulous phonemes that have been detected through lip-reading.

Paget Gorman Systematic Sign Language
This is a system devised by Sir Richard Paget and is used to give a grammatical representation of the spoken English language. It utilizes constructed signs and hand positions that differ form those used in the Britain Sign Language.

Signs Supporting English
This is composed of signs for keywords that would assist oral communication and used at appropriate times during utterances.

Auditory-Verbal Therapy
On the other hand, an even bigger number of people believe that language should be taught to nonverbal individuals so that they might actually be able to produce their own utterances. One of the most noteworthy methods in developing spoken language in nonverbal children is through the Auditory-Verbal Therapy.

The primary goal of the Auditory-Verbal Therapy is to maximize the child’s residual hearing so that audition might be fully integrated to his/her personality and that he/she may be able to participate in the hearing society. Another goal would be to make mainstreaming a reasonable option in the future. Thus, suggesting that the child is as capable as any hearing child in a normal educational environment.

The general premise of the Auditory-Verbal Therapy is to focus on the Auditory Approach where the hearing-impaired child would be given instructions to listen and not to lip-read or sign. This way, the child would be capitalizing on his residual hearing and it would be easy for him to learn auditory skills since he would not be relying on signed speech.


Stammering is a condition in which a person hesitates in the act of speaking and being unable for a time to pronounce certain syllable or repeating the same syllable over and over.

Stammering is not due to any defect in the brain or in the speech organs, and may be described as! functional disease, or a bad habit, or a sign of diffidence, It begins in childhood and is a practice which one child learns fromanother, just as any peculiarity of speech in one person is liable to be unconsciously mimicked by another. The actual cause of stammering is lack of co¬ordination between the various parts concerned in speech. The organs or speech are the chest, correspond¬ing to the bellows of a harmonium, the larynx, corresponding to the keys and the changes in the mouth effected by the tongue, palate, lips, etc. which correspond to the stops of the organ which modulate the notes. Just as all the three parts of the organ must work in co-ordination, so should the chest, the larynx and the production of sound by the lips, the tongue and the palate.

So much for the traditional view of stammering. The defect is due to a nervous state in reality and must be psychologically treated. The first step is to see that the nervous system is in perfect shape and is in full control of bodily functions as it should be. For that, one has to get rid of the malfunctioning of the body.

The cause of stammering is not known. Brain damage, anxiety and genetic factors play a role in the development of stuttering in certain cases. Stammering may occur when a combination of factors come together and may have different causes in different people. The current research is focussed on the connection between stammering and the neurological coordination of speech. Lot of research has been made about the factors, which contribute to its development in the areas of genetics, neurophysiology, child development, and family dynamics.

Stammering can take the form of repetition of syllables or words, or of blocks in the production of speech. This condition is not usually associated with a psychiatric disorder. However, it can cause stress and embarrassment to the individual. In younger children, attention should be diverted away from the stammer, in the expectation of spontaneous improvement. In older children speech therapy may be necessary; formal exercises, such as syllable timed speech, may be taught. Stammering is a communication difficulty, not just a speech problem it can undermine a childs confidence as well as affect social, educational and employment potentials. Boys are four times more likely to stammer than girls.


Stammering is also due to, though in a lesser measure, lack of co-ordination among the three organs of speech. Establish that co-ordination. If there is any involuntary tremor in your tongue or jaw in the process of pronunciation, let it pass before you articulate your words. The best way to tone up the muscles of the jaw is to put your index finger in the throat and move your lower jaw. Move it slowly in a downward motion; relax the tension of the jaw muscles. Continue this exercise till the mouth does not open without your larynx coming into action.

Sit with a mirror and let the light be on your back. Reflect the sunlight through the mirror into your open mouth. Breathe deeply and open your mouth slowly. Reflect the mirror on your tongue. It should be sticking to the lower part of the mouth, if you have been doing your exercises properly. Loosen your tongue: it should never be stiff. If it is, stammering will result. Articulate the Hindi words Kya ho. It is a good exercise to improve the functioning of your tongue.

Home Remedies:

1. Eating a fresh Goosebery daily is helpful in curing stammering. A Spoon of dry Gooseberry powder with a spoon of pure Ghee taken in the morning is also helpful in curing Stammering.
2. Dip 12 Almonds overnight and peel them in the morning. Grind them and eat with 30 grams of pure butter. Continue this for few months to overcome stammering.
3. Grind 10 Almonds and 10 whole Black peppers with a piece of Sugar candy and take it for some days to overcome Stammering.
4. Eating dry Dates before going to bed but avoid drinking water for a least 2 hours, also helps to clear the voice and cures Stammering.

Diet tips for stammering:

Cinnamon : Chewing and sucking cinnamon provides relief from stammering.

Amla : Chewing fresh amla is helpful in curing stammering of children. The tongue becomes thinner and the speech becomes clear. Mix a tsp. of amla powder with clarified butter and lick it daily. It will help overcome stammering.

Ayurvedic Home remedies for Stammering:

Vallarai is a herb that is found in shades in villages. A few coriander seeds and palm candy are placed inside 3 or 4 vallarai leaves and chewed. Also vallarai leaves can be dried in shade and powdered. This powder taken regularly helps reduce stammering. Paste made by grinding the leaves can also be taken with milk. It is surprising to note that the shape of vallarai leaf resembles the human brain.

Cows ghee is also recommended by Ayurveda to cure stammering. According to Ayurveda texts cow’s ghee acts positively in the sphere of memory, speech, knowledge, wisdom etc. To sense things, store them in memory, express things coherently from memory etc all belong to this domain. Hence cows ghee is used in preparation of medicines that help improve memory, cure stammering, stuttering etc.

Saaraswatha choornam half a teaspoon and brahmi kirutham one and half teaspoon are mixed in honey. This mixture is then placed inside rice balls and taken internally and masticated well. For this purpose it is recommended that you have rice along with hot sambar and rasam as breakfast. After breakfast, saraswatharishtam 30 ml should be taken.

Apply warm brahmi oil on top of head and allow it to soak for about 30 to 45 minutes. Afterwards bathe using warm water. This process helps improve memory as well clear stuttering and stammering.

Reference: HealthOnclick

Why Do I Stutter? Why Do You Stutter?

Why Do I Stutter?

1% of the American population has a stuttering problem. If you are part of this 1%, you may be asking yourself ” Why Do I Stutter?”  While this does add up to over 3 million people, what makes me and you different from the other 99%? As a former stutterer myself, I’ve pondered on this question hundreds of times. One day, I got tired of asking myself this and decided to do some research to get some answers.

The truth is, you and I aren’t much different than the rest of the world accept for the fact that over the years, we subconsciously developed a negative breathing habit that is triggered by certain emotional states. You may have wondered to yourself, “Why do I stutter only at certain times?”. Well the reason behind this, is due to the fact that we actually only stutter when we reach certain emotional states. When in these specific emotional states, we switch into these problematic breathing habits that make us unable to properly release our breath as we speak. Not being able to release our breath in the normal fashion while speaking, causes us to stutter.

So what are these emotional states that makes me stutter? Well that really depends on you, quite frankly everyone is different. Many people have developed different anxieties due to their stuttering tendencies that actually trigger their stuttering. A lot of it has to do with feeling tense or nervous.  For example, many people ironically only stutter while talking on the phone.

The cure for stuttering, actually lies learning to identify what triggers your emotional states, and changing your habitual breathing patterns while talking.

For more information, you can visit my website How To Stop Stuttering

Hey I know this sounds easier said than done. However, it really does not have to be so difficult! I know you have been asking yourself “Why Do I Stutter?” and have become very frustrated trying to find an answer and way to stop it without much luck.

I was able to learn how to stop stuttering, by applying the information that I have just told you.

Adenoids-What are adenoids?-By ENT Sugeon Bangalore

What is meant by adenoids?

Everyone has heard about tonsils, but what are adenoids?

You can easily see your tonsils, but where are the adenoids?

Adenoids are lumps of spongy lymphatic tissue situated right at the back of the nose at the roof of the mouth. You may be able to see your tonsils by standing in front of the mirror and opening your mouth wide but adenoids are not so easily visible. ENT Specialists use special mirrors and endoscopes to visualize the adenoids.

 Adenoids are present from birth and can gradually increase in size to produce problems in children. It has mostly disappeared by the time your child is a teenager and for that matter adenoid problems are seen in children only.

 Why does the adenoid enlarge?

 Increase in size of the adenoid can occur on its own or due to inflammation [infection, allergy]

What are the effects of enlarged adenoids?

Since the adenoids are situated in the back of the nose and close to the orifice of the eustachian tube, adenoid hypertrophy or enlargement can have effects on the adjoining areas :-

  • Ear
  • Nose
  • Sinuses
  • Throat

Effect on Ear: The eustachian tube connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx [ back of the nose] and eustachian tube dysfunction can occur when there is adenoidal enlargement or when the adenoids are a seat of chronic infection. Eustachain tube dysfunction can lead to ear infection in children and fluid collection in the middle ear called glue ear. Fluid in the ear can produce hearing loss, ear discomfort, dizziness, tinnitus, aural fullness etc

Effect on the Nose and Sinuses: A large adenoids can block the back of the nose [called choanae] and produce nose block, nose congestion, collection of secretions, and increased nasal and sinus infections.

Effect on the Mouth and Throat: Enlarged adenoids produce mouth breathing in the child as a result of the nose block. Initially this may be only at night and parents will notice the child snoring .It is not normal for children to snore! In severe enlargement of the adenoids the child will breathe through the mouth in the day time also. Mouth breathing can affect the dentition of the child in an adverse way. When a child breathes in air through the mouth the important filtering and humidifying action of the nasally breathed air is lost and this predisposes the child to more frequent throat infections.

Effect on sleep and health: Since adenoids affect the normal breathing and this is more pronounced at night, sleep of the child may be affected with adverse effects on growth. In Sever cases sleep apnea can develop with serious effects on the lungs and even heart.

Could my child be suffering from adenoids?

If your child is suffering from:-

 Frequent upper respiratory infection

Persistent or frequent running nose

Frequent cough

Frequent or persistent nose block

Mouth breathing at night

Open mouth posture in daytime


Frequent ear infections

 Recalcitrant ear fluid

More subtle effects of adenoids which are often not noticed by parents include:-

Swollen glands in the neck

Bad breath

Dry mouth

Restlessness while sleeping

Cracked lips

What are the complications of adenoids?

Since adenoids affect the breathing of the child and can also affect the ears, untreated it can have dangerous health consequences.

Enlarged untreated adenoids can produce

  • Ear infections
  • Ear Fluid
  • Hearing loss due to ear affliction
  • Sinusitis
  • Recurrent Tonsillitis
  • Recurrent Pharyngitis[Throat infections]
  • Behavioral problems

Very Serious Complications due to adenoids

  • Sleep apnea
  • Pulmonary Hypertension
  • Right Sided Heart Failure

How is adenoids diagnosed?

Clinical Suspicion and Consultation

The layman’s knowledge about the adenoids is quite dismal in majority of the cases and even though you as a parent are concerned about your child’s health ready and reliable information about health and diseases is hard to come by! Since the signs and symptoms of adenoids are so ubiquitous often the general physician or pediatrician may fail to think about adenoids and it is indeed the astute clinician who suspects the condition and makes a timely diagnosis in your child. Regarding the adenoids the adage Out of Sight, out of mind holds true .Awareness about the condition and being well informed can help you safeguard your child’s health against this common childhood condition.

Your Pediatrician may suspect adenoids if your child is suffering from

  • Frequent colds
  • Frequent Cough
  • Post nasal drip
  • Mouth breathing
  • Ear infections
  • Fluid in the ear
  •  Snoring

Your pediatrician will refer you to an ENT Specialist who will take a detailed history and examine your child Examination and tests Your ENT doctor can diagnose adenoids by examining your child.

 Adenoids can by diagnosed by

 •Post nasal Mirror examination

•Nasal Endoscopy


If your child is cooperative a painless quick nasal endoscopy may be all that is required to clinch the diagnosis

Dr Sonia uses a real time video endoscope to visualize the adenoids situated at the back of the nose. Using endoscopy one can judge the presence of the adenoids, the amount of blockage produced by the adenoids and also assess for other contributing conditions in the nose such as turbinate hypertrophy, allergic mucosal swelling, nasal polyps, and deviated nasal septum. Using endoscopy we can even avoid taking an X-ray many a times.

Sometimes your child may require an X-ray of the Nasopharynx [area behind the nose where the adenoids are situated] to assess the presence and severity of adenoids.

An otoendoscope or otoscope is used by ENT Specialists to examine the ears: this will reveal the condition of the ear drum and the middle ear. Children with adenoid enlargement can have fluid in the middle ear and in long standing cases ear drum affliction in the form of retraction of the ear drum.

Hearing and Middle ear function Tests: These tests are simple tests ordered if there is suspicion of ear involvement in your child. In the young child even a mild hearing reduction can have severe consequences hence the need to promptly assess and treat such conditions.

How are adenoids treated?

Treatment of adenoids takes into consideration a constellation of clinical factors including

•Child’s age

•Symptom of the individual child

•Duration of symptoms

•Previous treatment history

 •Presence of ear involvement and its severity

 •Severity of the adenoid problem

•Size of the adenoids

 •Allergy tendency [Atopy]

 •Nasal endoscopy findings

 •Presence of tonsillar involvement

Medical treatment is with medications to reduce inflammation and is given for a short period. Surgical removal [called adenoidectomy] may be recommended if medical treatment fails or the adenoid condition is severe. Not every child requires surgery.Your ENT Specialist will explain to you the choices and factors involved in recommending a particular treatment modality for your child.

What is adenoidectomy?

Adenoidectomy is the surgical removal of the adenoids situated at the back of the throat. How is adenoidectomy performed?

There are several techniques to do an adenoidectomy.


 •Endoscopic Adenoidectomy – the endoscope and special endoscopic instruments are used to precisely remove the adenoids

 •Adenoidectomy with curettes- curettes are small devices used to literally spoon out the adenoids. Adenoidectomy with curettes is a simple, fast and economic surgical technique. •Adenoidectomy with LASER- LASER use produces relatively fast healing.

•Adenoidectomy with Microdebrider- A microdebrider is a powered instrument which can suck the enlarged adenoid tissue.

 •Endonasal Adenoidectomy- Is adenoidectomy performed through the nose using specialized instruments. You can discuss the various options with your ENT Surgeon who will explain to you the benefits of each technique and help you make a decision which is best for your child.

What should I know about adenoidectomy?

•Adenoidectomy is a fairly simple surgery and one of the commonest surgeries done in children.

•There is no cutting in the neck or mouth in adenoidectomy. In fact there is no “knife” involved.

•It is a stitch-less, scar-less surgery.

 •It is performed under General anaesthesia and your child will not have any pain whatsoever during the procedure.

How long should my child stay in the hospital after adenoidectomy?

Depending on the individual case hospital stay varies but in the majority of the cases your child can be taken home the same day or at the most the next day. Discuss with your ENT Surgeon what the recommendation is in your particular case.

What are the precautions after surgery?

 Your child will be able to talk, eat and play normally. In fact anyone seeing your child will not know any such procedure has been done as there are no external cuts or stitches involved in this surgery. Dr Sonia usually recommends avoiding very hot food and drinks for a few days after the procedure. He can bathe, play in a normal fashion. In case your child required an adeno-tonsillectomy or a myringotomy grommet along with it additional precautions will be required[Discuss them in detail with your ENT Surgeon].

What is the success rate for the surgery?

Adenoidectomy has excellent results and tremendous benefits for your child’s health. Timely decision making to avoid the complications of enlarged adenoids is essential to safeguard your child’s breathing , hearing and optimal development.



Coping With Sinus Trouble

DO YOU have headaches on cloudy days? Do you have trouble with nasal catarrh or a “runny nose”? Are you likely to blame these conditions on your sinuses? If so, you may be right, but, then again, you may be mistaken.

In fact, Dr. A. P. Seltzer, an authority on sinus conditions, found that, of a thousand persons who felt they had trouble with their sinuses, only 12 percent actually did. But whether you have trouble with your sinuses or not, information about them should prove of interest and may even be of help to you.

Just what are the sinuses? A sinus is simply “a recess, cavity or hollow space.” There are many sinuses in our bodies, but the most notable of these are the four pairs of sinuses situated close to or connected with the nasal cavity. These are known as the “paranasal” sinuses, and it is only these that are being considered here.

Their Location

The largest of these sinuses are two pyramid-shaped ones, located on each side of the nose, in the upper jawbone. These sinuses reach from just above the roots of the upper teeth to the eye sockets. In the average adult they involve a little more than a cubic inch of space.

Smaller in size are the frontal sinuses, which are located in the forehead above the eyes. Behind these frontal sinuses, but on a lower level, are a pair of sinuses situated in the ethmoid or ‘sievelike’ bone. Each of these sinuses actually consists of a labyrinth of cells, from as few as three to as many as eighteen. Another pair of sinuses are located behind the ethmoid sinuses and on a still lower level, in fact, near the base of the skull.

Regarding these sinuses we are told that there is no such thing as uniformity in their size, shape and number. Except, perhaps, that usually they occupy the same amount of space whether they consist of many cells or compartments or only a few.

Purpose Served

What is the purpose served by all these hollows, cavities, recesses or sinuses? While there are some who doubt that they serve any purpose, even as many long held that the thymus gland served no purpose, it does seem reasonable to those who believe in a Creator that they have a reason for existence as does every other part of the human body.

For one thing, they lighten the weight of our skulls. Further, our sinuses without a doubt improve the resonance of our voices, as they allow the bones of the skull to vibrate more readily. Our sinuses most likely help to moisten the air we breathe as well as to warm it, for good ventilation is needed in our sinuses if we would enjoy good health. And not a few hold that our sinuses help the body to get rid of waste matter, such as phlegm or mucus.

Why Sinus Trouble?

Sinusitis has no typical symptoms peculiar to it, so it is not always easy to tell whether one has sinusitis or not. Why this is so is clear when we note that generally sinusitis is secondary to some other condition, most usually the common cold or infection of the upper nasal passages. Thus headaches, fever, dizziness, loss of appetite or one’s sense of smell, and so forth, may or may not indicate sinusitis.

Why do our sinuses, or more strictly speaking, the membranes of our sinuses, give us trouble at times? Because of excessive discharges from them or because of the closing of their ducts leading to the nose or throat due to their being inflamed. Among the more immediate causes are growths or polyps that close the ducts leading from the sinuses or, more often, inflammation of the nose, which may spread to the mucous membranes of the sinuses.

A tendency to inflammation of the membranes may be inherited. Then again, unfavorable prenatal conditions may have given us a bad start, as may lack of proper food or lack of loving parental care in early childhood. Lack of control of the emotions may be an inducing cause, even as excessive worrying, tensions and frictions with those with whom we live or work can be. Sinusitis may also be triggered by extremes of humidity or temperature to which one is not accustomed.

One’s sinus trouble may be due to a generally debilitated condition caused by a serious illness or due to overindulgence in enervating pleasures. It may be caused by allergies, infections and improper eating habits, lack of exercise and not getting enough rest and sleep. All such things can cause acute sinusitis, which, if unchecked or not cured, can result in the more stubborn but less pronounced chronic sinusitis.

What Can Be Done About It?

As with other health problems, prevention comes first. Well has it been observed, “It is the ounce of prevention that is the most significant factor in health.”

Get sufficient rest and sleep as well as plenty of fresh air. Eat wholesome food, and do not overload your system. It is well to adopt some regimen of exercise, especially if yours is a sedentary occupation, so that you can enjoy a feeling of well-being. Sinus sufferers often are very suggestible, so they may need to put forth a special effort to develop wholesome mental and emotional habits.

Guard against having rooms too warm and dry—better comfortably cool than luxuriously warm. Eliminate tobacco if you are a smoker and cut down on alcoholic beverages if you are very fond of them.

Among remedies recommended are taking in sufficient liquids such as water or fruit juices—not beer and coffee! Hot compresses, hot steam or sauna baths and the use of the enema to help the body clean out waste matter are recommended by some authorities. Especially is cutting down on rich and highly refined foods urged by those who view sinus trouble as an effort on the part of the body to throw off waste matter.

One nature doctor recommends the onion poultice. (Chop onions fine, place between two pieces of gauze and bind around the neck when going to bed.) Others advocate inhaling hot water vapor.

The medical practitioner may well recommend some of the foregoing as well as prescribe decongestants and antihistamines. Decongestants reduce the swelling of the membranes, but if given as drops or sprays, they should not be administered more than ten days in a row. Especially is caution indicated in their use in patients with high blood pressure. In more severe cases a doctor may prescribe antibiotics and aspirin or something stronger to relieve the pain. In chronic cases some may advise an operation, but more so in times past than now.

The chiropractor, on the other hand, proceeds on the premise that sinusitis is a case of hypersensitivity, especially involving the sympathetic nervous system. He treats sinusitis both locally, by manipulating the vertebrae, where lie the nerves leading to the head, and systemically, by seeking to improve the general health of the patient as a whole. More and more chiropractors apply pressure to the sinuses and concern themselves with nutrition when treating sinusitis.

There are other approaches too. But after all is said and done it cannot be stressed too strongly that moderation and self-control are basic. He who gives thought to sound nutrition, adequate exercise, sufficient rest and sleep and proper mental and emotional habits is practicing preventive medicine as regards his sinuses.

Most persons appear to be more neglectful of their bodies than they are of their automobiles. Yet the laws of cause and effect work as inexorably in the case of one as in the case of the other, and of how infinitely much more value are their bodies than their autos! This principle applies not only to sinusitis but to every other ill that afflicts the human race. Not without good reason has an authority on sinusitis noted: “First in importance here as elsewhere is the general health of the person, since the normal activity of all mucous tissues depends largely upon the well-being of the body as a whole.”

Improve Your Running with Proper Breathing

There seems to be a great deal of confusion these days over the proper way to breathe while running or jogging.

According to the text Physiology of Sport and Exercise by Wilmore and Costill the need to breathe increases in direct proportion to the intensity of work. A mild workload such as brisk walking prompts expansion of the lungs and deeper breathing. As the work becomes more difficult, the rate of breathing also increases.

With the exception of conditions such as asthma, breathing should not limit your ability to run or perform exercise, even at hard efforts. The volume of air entering the lungs is not the problem; it is the bodys inability to extract and use enough oxygen to meet the increased demand that causes you to be out of breath (inspired air contains roughly 20 percent oxygen while expired air has about 16 percent).

Many beginning runners have been misled to believe that the proper way to breathe is to inhale through the nose and exhale through the mouth. While it is true that air is dryer and cooler when inhaled through the mouth, this should not pose a problem unless you are prone to exercise induced asthma.

I call this nose breathing technique self-induced asthma, since inhaling through the nose severely limits the volume of air that can be delivered to the lungs. I suspect breathing this way has a negative impact on running performance similar to asthma, particularly as speed increases.

Runners should be inhaling and exhaling through both nose AND mouth to a set pattern or rhythm. According to Jack Daniels, a well-respected coach and author of Daniels Running Formula, most elite runners breathe to a 2-2 rhythm. They breathe in while taking 2 steps and out while taking 2 steps. At an easy pace they may switch to a 3-3 rhythm.

2-2 breathing rhythm

Left foot- begin exhale
Right foot- continue exhale
Left foot- begin inhale
Right foot- continue inhale

One problem with this approach is the habit of always inhaling or exhaling on the same footfall, which some experts and coaches believe could lead to side stitches. If you are one of those unfortunate runners prone to side aches, try periodically switching which footfall you exhale on, or even change your breathing rhythm to exhale on alternating right and left footfalls. That gets a little tricky since you will have to adapt an uneven 3-2 or 4-3 breathing pattern (breathing out for more counts than breathing in).

3-2 breathing rhythm

Left foot- begin inhale
Right foot- continue inhale
Left foot- begin exhale
Right foot- continue exhale
Left foot – continue exhale
Right foot- begin inhale

According to DePaul University Track Coach Bill Leach, uneven breathing cycles are effective because pressure in the lung is lower than the atmosphere, causing air to rush in quickly. Take a little extra time to exhale, since leaving residual carbon dioxide in the lungs can impede the delivery of oxygen on the next inhale.

It will help if you practice your breathing pattern while walking before you start running. Carry the technique over to easy jogging and finally during hard race pace running.

Before long your new breathing pattern will become second nature during races and hard training sessions.

Muscle Atrophy in the Older Dog

The muscles of most aged mammals lose much of their strength and actually decrease in size with each advancing year. This is a normal part of the aging process and is to be expected. However, there are two as yet poorly understood muscle disorders which at first may look like normal aging weakness.

In one the dog develops weakness in the leg muscles during periods of exercise or other physical stress, may fall down briefly, seem to recover, get up for a short time only to fall down again. This is often seen in polymyositis, a disease which causes inflammation of any or all muscles in the body.

Polymyositis occurs mostly in late middle age and early old age, the most common of its several possible causes appearing to be a defect in the dog’s immune mechanism. Treatment with corticosteroids is quite successful despite the often alarming appearance of the dog. Occasionally the muscles of the esophagus are affected, making swallowing difficult, but even these respond.

Muscular dystrophy, the second disorder, occurs mainly in older dogs, bears some similarity to muscular dystrophy in people, and has a cause as yet unknown. Affected dogs develop a stiff gait as the muscles become progressively weaker and smaller in size. There is nothing we know of which will stop the deterioration or cure the disease. Treatment is palliative, trying to keep the patient as comfortable as possible, and is based on your dog’s individual symptoms.

older dog


Cataracts are a cloudiness in the eye’s lens. The lens lies behind the iris, the colored portion of the eye, and the pupil, the dark center of the iris. The eye’s lens works similarly to a camera lens. Light focuses on the retina at the back of the eye and the lens adjusts the eye’s focus. When the eye is healthy and these parts work as they should, we can see distant and close objects clearly.

The lens, made primarily of protein and water, is designed to remain clear and allow light to pass through it. As the eyes age, portions of the protein begin to clump together. This clumping creates areas of opacity on the lens. This is a cataract. Over time, the cataract may grow larger and more of the lens becomes clouded, reducing what you can see.

There are three types of cataracts:

  1. Cortical cataract: This type forms in the cortex of the lens and is common among diabetics.
  2. Subcapsular cataract: This type begins at the back of the lens and is more common among people who have diabetes, severe farsightedness or retinitis pigmentosa, or who take high doses of steroids.
  3. Nuclear cataract: This type forms in the center of the lens, called the nucleus, and is common as the eye ages.

Cataract Signs and Symptoms

The typical cataract begins small and generally does not affect vision, other than perhaps a bit of additional blurriness. Light may also seem too bright, or colors may appear duller.

Signs and symptoms of cataracts depend on the type of cataract you have. For example, a nuclear cataract may bring about temporary improvement in near vision, but this disappears as the cataract worsens. A subcapsular cataract may bring about no symptoms at all until it has grown quite large.

Causes of Cataracts

Eye specialists do not know for sure why these changes occur in the lens as we grow older. Studies suggest ultraviolet light exposure may be one cause. Wear sunglasses and a wide-brimmed hat when out in the sun to minimize your exposure. People with diabetes are at higher risk for cataracts. Certain medications may also be a cause.

You may be able to forestall the development of cataracts with a diet low in sodium and high in antioxidants, vitamin C and vitamin E. Avoiding cigarette smoke, environmental pollution and heavy alcohol consumption may also be useful.

Cataract Treatment

When cataracts first develop, a new vision prescription and better lighting may be all you need. As your cataracts grow and impair your vision, the best treatment is cataract surgery, which removes the damaged lens and replaces it with an artificial lens called an intraocular lens (IOL). Three FDA-approved IOLs are Crystalens®, ReSTOR® and ReZoom™.

Poor vision is not an inevitable “side effect” of aging. You can potentially have clear vision for life by taking the steps necessary to care properly for your eyes, Cataract surgery is one way to do so, and is a simple, virtually painless method for regaining clear vision. In fact, more than 3 million Americans undergo cataract surgery every year.

Why not schedule a vision consultation to protect your vision? In Seattle, Washington and the surrounding communities, people choose Bellevue Lasik and Cornea, under the skillful direction of Dr. Kent Leavitt.

Glaucoma – Symptoms of Glaucoma

There are two major types of glaucoma: open-angle glaucoma and acute closed-angle glaucoma. Most glaucoma patients have open-angle glaucoma. There are usually no signs or symptoms in the early stages of open-angle glaucoma. The first sign is usually loss of vision, which is why the disease is sometimes referred to as the “sneak thief of sight.” Vision loss caused by glaucoma cannot be restored.

Primary open-angle glaucoma progresses with few or no symptoms until the condition reaches an advanced stage. As increased eye pressure continues to damage your optic nerve, you lose more and more of your peripheral vision. If glaucoma is left untreated, you can develop tunnel vision and eventually lose all sight. Open-angle glaucoma usually affects both eyes, although at first you may have vision loss in just one eye.

Chronic glaucoma is insidious. If the pressure increases slowly, it will not produce any symptoms until it has done irreversible damage. In such cases, people may notice visual problems at first only when light is dim. Patients are often sensitive to glare. Most people with glaucoma do not notice symptoms until they begin to have significant vision loss. As optic nerve fibers are damaged by glaucoma, small blind spots may begin to develop, usually in the peripheral or side vision.

Congenital glaucoma It can be difficult to recognise symptoms of congenital glaucoma. If your baby or child has cloudy, white, hazy, enlarged or protruding eyes you should make an appointment to see your doctor immediately.
Warning signs of glaucoma are different for each form. Glaucoma is usually not noticeable until significant damage has been done to the optic nerves. With open-angle glaucoma, the most common form, an increase in intraocular pressure and loss in peripheral vision are key signs. A tonometer is an instrument that measures pressure inside the eye. It can show abnormal pressure that causes damage to optic nerves.

Closed-angle glaucoma, sometimes known as acute glaucoma, differs from open-angle in that the symptoms typically occur suddenly (although not always). The symptoms may include blurred vision, formation of halos around lights at night, pain and redness in the eye, and swelling and clouding of the cornea (the typically clear and transparent coating layer of the outer eyeball). The pain experienced can be so intense that it may cause nausea and vomiting or a headache.

It consists of a 10-item scale developed from the symptom checklist that was created for the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study (OHTS). All items in the GSS address eye complaints, some of a non-visual nature and some of a visual nature, common to patients with glaucoma. The Glaucoma Symptom Scale measures symptoms of glaucoma as well as symptoms of glaucoma treatment. It provides a valid and reliable estimate of symptoms associated with glaucoma the normal score is 100 and implies absence of all glaucoma related symptoms.

Acute glaucoma tends to come on very quickly. Symptoms include pain and blurred vision. Some people also feel sick, faint and vomit. In the early stages you may see misty rainbow coloured rings around white lights. If you think you are having an attack of acute glaucoma, you should go to hospital immediately.

Open angle glaucoma usually produces slow loss of peripheral vision. There are often blind spots. Closed angle glaucoma usually produce sudden eye pain or headache. There may be nausea and vomiting. The eye is red, and there is blurred vision. Colored halos appear around bright objects.

Definition of legal blindness

Blindness is an important health care issue that exacts both economic and social costs. It is easy to understand that blindness is a vision problem of lacking visual perception due to physiological or neurological factors. Blindness is a kind of vision loss. The most common eye disease causes of blindness including: cataracts, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration. Besides, abnormalities, injuries, genetic defects and certain chemicals may also lead to blindness.

In order to determine which people may need special assistance because of their visual disabilities, various governmental jurisdictions have formulated complex definitions for legal blindness. In 1934, the American Medical Association (AMA) adopted the following definition of legal blindness: central visual acuity of 20/200 or less in the better eye with corrective memory metal eyeglasses or the widest diameter of the visual field subtends an angular distance no greater than 20 degrees in the better eye. And now, blindness is defined according to the World Health Organization (WHO) and North American criteria for the better-seeing eye. The WHO divide vision problems into five levels: moderate low vision, severe low vision, profound vision loss (central visual acuity from 20/500 to 20/1000 or visual field < 10 degrees), near total vision loss, and total vision loss in which clinically recorded is “no light perception”(NLP). The last three levels are defined as blindness. Note that low vision does not meet criteria for a definition of blindness. While North American and most of Europe still uses the previous definition by AMA since 1934.

Blind people with undamaged eyes may still use light in order to keep the 24-hour light and dark cycle.

Article Source: http://blog.firmoo.com/definition-of-legal-blindness.html

What is Farsightedness?

Farsightedness, or hyperopia is the inability to properly focus on close up objects. Objects that are distant may appear in normal focus, but those at a short distance will be blurred. You may find that you can read distant traffic signs with no problem, but you have trouble reading text in books or newspapers  until you place them far enough away to regain proper focus. You may find that as your condition worsens with age, that you’ll no longer be able to hold reading material far enough away to bring it back into focus.

Farsightedness is usually brought about by a natural change in the shape of your eye that causes your eye to become more compressed, rather than retaining the normal round shape. This causes the light entering the eye to focus behind of the retina, resulting in an out-of-focus image. In many cases, double vision can also result from farsightedness.

Symptoms of Farsightedness

The main symptom is blurred vision when focusing on near objects. If you find yourself squinting when looking at close up items, you may be farsighted. If you use reading glasses but have no need of glasses to see distant objects, you may be farsighted.  A routine eye examine can determine if you’re farsighted.

Diagnosing Farsightedness

A routine eye exam will determine if you’re farsighted. Farsightedness usually begins as we age and its effects can vary from mild to moderate to high. You usually notice the condition worsens each year. Mild cases may not require any corrective action.

People in their 40s and 50s are most likely to notice an increasing level of farsightedness. Many times they’ll try to compensate by holding reading material further away in order to maintain proper focus. The problem with this approach is that eventually your arms may not be long enough to achieve the distance required for proper focusing.

Treatment of Farsightedness

Glasses or contact lenses can treat farsightedness by enabling you to focus on nearby objects. But this method will usually require removal of the lenses in order to see distant objects. As an alternative to removing your ‘reading’ glasses, you can choose to wear bifocal glasses. With bifocals, the lower portion of the lens allows you to focus on close objects and the top portion of the lens is optimized for distance focusing.

In the not too distant past, most doctors felt that LASIK surgery was not an appropriate treatment for farsightedness. The problem was that if the surgery corrected focusing for close up objects, distance focusing was sacrificed. But new methods have been developed that make this way of thinking obsolete.

LASIK surgery helps to correct farsightedness by using a laser to reshape the cornea so that close up focusing ability is restored. But here’s the trick – it’s only performed on one eye! A preliminary eye exam determines which eye is best equipped for distance viewing and that eye is kept as-is. The other eye receives the LASIK treatment to improve close distance focusing. Now you have one eye for distance viewing and one for close up viewing. Your brain merges the images from both eyes, and the result is that you can see near and far.


Myopia is commonly known as nearsightedness. It means you have difficulty seeing things that are far away. With myopia you can see clearly up close unless you have another condition that affects your close vision, such as presbiopia or astigmatism. Most myopia begins in childhood, but some factors can cause myopia to develop later in life. In adults, myopia can be corrected with laser eye surgery including LASIK.

Myopia and Your Cornea

Your cornea bends light as it enters your eye. A properly shaped cornea focuses that light on the retina. If you are nearsighted your cornea is either too curved or your eye is too long, causing the light to focus in front of the retina. When the light reaches your retina it has started to spread out again and the image is blurry.

Eyeglasses for nearsightedness have concave lenses. This spreads out the light before it reaches the cornea, so it travels farther back in the eye before it is focused.

Laser vision correction reshapes the cornea so it can focus the light properly on the retina.

What Causes Myopia?

Nearsightedness is the most common of all vision problems and affects about 30% of Americans. In the last few decades it has become more common throughout the world. The causes of myopia are uncertain, and the subject has become quite controversial.

Heredity seems to play a large role. Children of myopic parents are more likely to be nearsighted.

Lifestyle may contribute to myopia, as well. Long periods of close work, such as reading, looking at the computer screen, and possibly even watching television, may affect how a child’s eyeball develops as they grow.

It is also believed that a diet high in simple carbohydrates increases your chance of developing myopia, due to too much insulin circulating in the bloodstream (hyperinsulinemia). Hyperinsulinemia is also common in people with type II diabetes and insulin resistance. Late developing myopia is sometimes an early warning sign of diabetes risk and can eventually develop into cataracts.

Complications of Myopia

For most people myopia is an inconvenience, but relatively harmless and easily corrected with glasses or contact lenses. If corrective lenses are too much of a hassle, laser eye surgery is an option as well.

However, myopia can lead to more serious eye conditions, vision loss, and even blindness. People with myopia have an increased likelihood of developing glaucoma and retinal detachment.

Correcting Myopia

Typically, your eye doctor will prescribe glasses and/or contact lenses to correct your vision. Eye exercises can help improve your vision, especially when eye strain from close tasks such as long hours of computer use is a factor.

Laser vision correction can allow you to see clearly 24/7, without the hassle of wearing glasses or contacts.

Why Myopia is Such a Big Problem

Myopia occurs in different degrees from minimal to extreme. The more myopic you are the blurrier your vision is at a distance and objects will have to be closer to you so you can see them clearly. Myopia up to 3.0 dioptres (D) is termed mild degree, 3.0 to 6.0D is moderate degree and high degree is 6.0D and over. A dioptre is a measurement of the focusing power of a lens. Myopia progression dropped from .25 diopters per year to .05 diopters per year on the average. Unfortunately, treatment with drops may be worse than the disease.

Myopia is best treated with eyeglasses and contact lenses which compensate for the elongated shape of the eye allowing the light to focus properly on the retina. As children (and their eyes) grow through the teen years, the condition typically worsens and then levels off in adulthood. Myopia or nearsightedness, a condition that results in the inability to see distant objects clearly, affects one in four Americans and is the most common eye disorder in the world with an enormous public health and economic impact.

Depending on epidemiologic definition, 3-19% of acquired blindness has been ascribed to myopia. Myopia was the most common cause of blindness in age group 50-59. In age group 60-69, it was second only to diabetic retinopathy, but was considerably more important than that disease in terms of years of blindness.

Myopia tends to run in families, so it is probably inherited. Myopia tends to start in the early teens (earlier for high myopes), and increases as the eye grows in length during puberty. Myopia can be easily diagnosed during a routine eye exam. Usually, a visual acuity test combined with a refraction assessment can not only identify nearsightedness, but can also determine the degree of myopia. Myopia is the medical term for nearsightedness. People with myopia see objects more clearly when they are close to the eye, while distant objects appear blurred or fuzzy.

Myopia usually occurs between the ages of 8 to 12 years. Since the eyes continue to grow during childhood, nearsightedness almost always occurs before the age of 20. Myopia is mainly caused by the eyeball being longer than normal from side to side. In this condition, distant objects appear blurred but near objects are clear.

Myopia is often observed in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). ROP is seen in 68 percent of infants with low birth weights and over 80 percent of infants born with ROP will be myopic.

Myopia is a common refractive error, which exists from a young age. A unilateral myopia, with or without amblyopia, might remain undiscovered for a long time. Myopia is a vision defect commonly known as nearsightedness . Those with myopia can see clearly up to a certain distance, then objects begin to appear fuzzy or out of focus. Myopia that first appears in middle age can indicate cataracts. If nearsightedness comes on suddenly and seems to change daily, it could be the result of uncontrolled diabetes.

Myopia is the most common eye problem. It affects as much as 40 percent of the population in the United States and Europe but between 70 and 90 percent of some Asian populations such as Singapore, Japan and Hong Kong. Myopia develops during childhood. The child’s eyeball grows too long, which interferes with the light-focusing mechanism.

So overall, you need to understand that myopia is a very common condition that affects nearly 30 percent of the U.S. It normally starts to appear between the ages of eight and 12 years old, and almost always before the age of 20.