Vitamin E and Vitamin C Reverse Emphysema

As most cases of emphysema, and other similar conditions are caused by smoking, the first step for emphysema treatment, if you are a smoker, is to quit smoking. But recent research has shown that supplements can also help. Antioxidants are proven to support lung health, therefore, supplemental antioxidants are coming on the stage of emphysema treatment(http://www.mitamins.com/disease/Emphysema.html).

The most important antioxidants for respiratory health are vitamin C and vitamin E. This information is based on the following results: those people supplementing with Vitamins C and E developed emphysema at a much lower rate than those who are not, all other things being equal. Even for those suffering severe emphysema, taking supplemental vitamin C and vitamin E can make breathing easier and prevent emphysema(http://www.mitamins.com/disease/Emphysema.html) from worsening.

Vitamin E is an antioxidant that protects cell membranes and other fat-soluble parts of the body, such as low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, from damage. It is also important for proper lung function. The most commonly-recommended amount of supplemental vitamin E for adults is 400 to 800 IU per day. However, some leading researchers suggest taking only 100 to 200 IU per day, since trials that have explored the long-term effects of different supplemental levels suggest no further benefit beyond that amount. You can take either a multivitamin or a separate supplement as long as it contains proper amounts of vitamin E.

Vitamin C is a water-soluble antioxidant that has a number of biological functions. The recommended dietary allowance for vitamin C in nonsmoking adults is 75 mg per day for women and 90 mg per day for men. For smokers, the amounts are 110 mg per day for women and 125 mg per day for men. Some vitamin C experts propose that adequate intake be considered 200 mg per day because of evidence that the cells of the human body cannot absorb any more vitamin C when larger daily amounts are used.

To obtain extra vitamin C and vitamin E, one way is to take supplements; another way is to put yourself on a diet rich in vitamin C and vitamin E. In terms of vitamin E, you can find it in wheat germ oil, nuts and seeds, whole grains, egg yolks, and leafy green vegetables. Originally, some vegetable oils contained considerable amounts of vitamin E, but after processing, much of the vitamin E would be removed. This kind of processed oil w is what you find in the supermarket. In addition, vitamin C can be found in broccoli, red peppers, currants, Brussels sprouts, parsley, potatoes, citrus fruit, and strawberries. The high amounts found in supplements, often 100 to 800 IU per day, are not obtainable from eating food. Therefore, it may be time to try supplements for natural treatment of emphysema(http://www.mitamins.com/disease/Emphysema.html).

Medical Call Center…More than Just Answering Questions

There are times that unlikely things happen to a person’s life that can pose as a minor threat to his health or none at all like cough, minor cuts and burns, difficulty of falling asleep, fever, migraine, abdominal pain, and bump in the head caused by fall, twisted ankle and other injuries and/or discomforts.  All of these require attention but does not call for an immediate one.  So, you don’t necessarily have to go to the emergency room just to have a nurse or doctor tend a minor cut or a fever, you can do that yourself.  However, there are other ailments that require immediate medical attention and visit to the emergency such as asthma attack, BP spikes, and chest pain.  But what if these people live in remote areas where access to hospital and healthcare is not available?  This is the part where the Medical Call Center comes into play.

A medical call center is a place where your queries regarding disease processes, appropriate treatment for such disease, what first aid intervention to apply, and other medical stuff that you want to ask about that are not urgent are answered.  A medical call center, also known as healthcare center, is very ideal in urgent cases where emergency rooms are hard to reach especially in remote areas.  Why spend much money on doctor’s fees when help is just a phone call away?  Why bother the long mile drive to seek consult when proficient nurses and physicians are easily reached through simple punches on your phone’s numbers?

Medical call centers are usually affiliated with your insurance company and functions in many ways.  One of which is the telephone triage. The telephone triage is a means of prioritizing ailments starting with health issues that are life-threatening down to minor headache and answering health-related questions.  Another service that medical call centers offer is the provision of information of more than a thousand over the counter drugs or non-prescription drugs and drug studies.

A typical medical call center is manned by skilled and competent Registered Nurses who are knowledgeable in their specialized field – OB nurses, pediatric nurses, medical-surgical nurses and geriatric nurses.  Also called triage nurses, medical call center nurses are trained to cater to all members of the society and give advice according to one’s level of understanding.  For example, you are put in a situation experiencing an abdominal pain, yet you don’t know what kind of pain it is and how to relive that pain.  You could ask a triage nurse at the call center and present your case. Based on your presenting signs and symptoms, the nurse can narrow down the problem and identify whether it is a stabbing, gnawing or knife-like pain and offer you appropriate independent and dependent nursing interventions.

CareNet is one of the leading medical call center in the U.S. that’s been caring for the community for 2 decades already and still continues to do so by providing medical advices and interventions that further promote good health.  Their system is fully automated to ensure that more quality time is spent on client care.  CareNet’s Registered Nurses have over 15 years of experience in their specialty areas and are the best in the field of Nursing.  CareNet also provides another specialized service known as Physician Referral in certain cases that are beyond the scope of nursing practice.  The health advisers at CareNet don’t just stop at giving advices and interventions; they also do follow-up calls to ensure the efficiency of rendered care and safety of the patient, because caring is at the heart of what they do.

Facts about Gynecologists

Of the many branches of medicine, gynecology is one of the most known. Gynecologists are known as the main people who help out women when they have problems with their reproductive health. More than that, though, gynecologists are doctors who care about women’s overall health.

The main job of a gynecologist is to know exactly if a woman has a disease by having her go through different examinations. These include breast examination which involves checking for any possible cysts that can cause breast cancer. Another is in the reproductive tract which is important for pregnant women to ensure no infection or problem will inhibit them from giving birth. They have women run routine diagnostic tests to ensure that their bodies are healthy.

There are different specialties for a gynecologist; all of which are directly for women. Some gynecologists concentrate on pregnant women because they are more sensitive and unstable during this time. Some doctors specialize in determining if a woman’s reproductive system is under threat by the growth of cancer cells. Other specialties concentrate on female hormone problems and infertility.

For a person who wants to become a gynecologist, the educational requirements are standard for doctors. A bachelor’s degree is required for them to be able to enroll in a medical school. After finishing medical school, pasing of the licensing board will determine if the person can practice his craft. A person who takes this stage seriously can easily become the best gynecologist in Houston.

After the standard process a doctor goes through in his education, he has to have a four-year residency program that is specifically made for gynecology and obstetrics. After completing this, another set of licensing exams is given by the governing body. After that, they can already practice their craft; but for those who want to be the best obgyn in Houston, they can take another year of the fellowship to further their specialization.

As with any other medical profession, the job of being a gynecologist is extremely difficult. This has been the main reason why it is also a very well-paid profession. Some studies show that the average gynecologist gets an annual pay of around $280,000. Imagine how much more the best obgyn in houston tx gets.

The Importance Of Research- Why We Do Research

We must first understand what research is.  It is another word for gathering of information.  The more information we have the closer we get of making our own decision.  Research is the result of advancing knowledge created in the past.  There are people from all walks of life that contribute to gathered information.  These are ordinary people and extraordinary people.  They include, teachers, students, scientists, professors, scholars, business owners, librarians, book keepers, writers, politicians and many more unknown out there.  These are everyday citizens we interact with.  They all help with the flow information that people use for self help.

Research is designed to solve a particular existing problems so there is a much larger audience eager to support research that is likely to be profitable or solve problems of immediate concern.  We also must understand how research impact our decision making.  Most people make decisions without gathered informations to back them up.  Only few do.  The problem is most people aren’t patient enough to put in the effort.  Research requires time, effort, and sometimes money to have the evidence you need to make a sound decision that’s why many avoid it.  The research you do and evidence you gathered will have impact on your future.  Be adviced, considered the risks or consequences of making an important decision with inadequate evidence.

In conclusion research is very vital to our everyday decision making.  It arms you from wrong informations and save time and money.  It is important to your success as you take on life’s challenges and career decisions making.  But be careful though, becasue too much research without action on what you’ re learning is not good either.  The question is how much information is enough?  How much information can you afford?  Information obesity can be research problem just my advice.  Research plus action will most likely guarantee a successful research.  Now go out there and make good decisions.  I wish you success.  To learn more about taking charge of your future go to my resource box at http://www.unlimited-mlmwealth-online.com Email: prince@unlimited-mlmwealth-online.com cell: 612-363-7576

Itchy Skin Bumps – Skin Rashes: Main Causes, Symptoms & Treatments

Do you have itchy skin bumps or skin rash? As you know, itchy skin bups are annoying, distracting and irritating. However, if you have enough knowledage about this kind of desease, it will be not so hard for treatment. In this article, I will help you identify the most common cause of skin bumps like Eczema, allergies, Pimples, Acne and more.

Skin Bumps Caused by Eczema

If you are experiencing very dry, red and itchy skin that secretes clear fluid when scratched open, you may have a condition known as eczema.  The eczema appears as little red bumps all over the skin and can eventually become larger.

Before eczema appears you will likely experience intense itching in the affected areas.  After eczema appears if you scratch the area a clear fluid may be secreted.  Do not to scratch your eczema as it will spread if any of the eczema bumps are broken open.

About Eczema: Eczema is a skin condition that affects people of all ages, both men and women. The rash occurs on the top layers of skin and can be a very itchy unsightly rash. Eczema is known as an ‘atopic’ rash as it only occurs directly on top of the skin and not under it.

Curing Eczema: While there is no permanent cure for eczema you can treat eczema with a change in diet, moisturizing treatments with baths and lotions, and reduction of stress over time.

It is very important not to scratch your eczema as it is very itchy and it will spread if any of the blister-like bumps are popped open.

Skin Bumps Caused by Allergies

If you are experiencing skin bumps that are itchy and swollen and seemingly unexplainable skin bumps then it might be caused by an allergy.  Skin bumps caused by allergies tend to arrive suddenly and in the form of hives, rashes, or pimple-like bumps.  If the location of the skin irritation is visible with your clothes on it is likely the allergy is coming from contact with an external allergen.  If the skin reaction is not visible with your clothes on then it is more likely that the allergy has come from food, soaps or lotions, or clothing

About Skin Allergies: Skin allergies come from many sources and therefore the symptoms and causes are wide and varied.  Skin allergies with skin bumps can be caused by a reaction to latex, contact dermatitis like poison ivy or poison oak, or as simple as a food allergy.

Curing Skin Allergies: Skin allergies are generally not life threatening and can often be reduced or cured by identifying and avoiding the allergy, showering to cleanse the area and drinking plenty of water.  This will help to cleanse the outside and the inside while avoiding reaggitation of the skin allergy.

Skin Bumps Caused by Pimples or Acne

Acne Vulgaris is the most common form of acne. This type of acne encompasses:

Blackheads: These occur when a pore is only partially blocked, allowing some of the bacteria to slowly drain to the surface. The black color comes from the skin’s own pigment reacting with the oxygen in the air.

Whiteheads: These result when a pore is completely blocked, trapping bacteria and causing a white appearance on the surface. Whiteheads tend not to last as long as blackheads.

Papules: These inflamed, red, tender bumps have no head. Papules appear as inflamed, red, tender bumps that should not be popped as that will increase the chances of scarring.

Pustules: A pustule is an inflamed red circular skin bump with a white or yellow center and is known as the standard zit. Be weary of how you pop the zit as it has the potential to cause scabbing or scarring.

Nodules: Nodular acne appear as much larger than the garden variety zit and can be quite painful. Nodules are large, hard bumps under the skin’s surface. Scarring is common and it can take months to go through its cycle. Avoid squeezing these as it could stretch the recovery time and cause scarring.

Cysts: Essentially this is a nodule-like skin bump that filled with pus. They can be painful and scar and have long recovery time – longer if you try to pop them.

About Acne: Acne is most often found in adolescents going through puberty, however adult acne and pimples are frequent amongst both men and women.  Acne is a skin reaction that can cause irritating skin bumps but is not life threatening and is considered a nuisance and potentially embarrassing in some social situations.

Curing Acne: Dermatologists often have ways of lessening swelling and preventing scarring, such as administering a cortisone shot or by using a plethora of creams, cleansers and lotions. Overall the best cure for acne is regularly cleansing and finding the right facial soaps to keep your skin balancing by identifying whether you have oily, regular or dry skin.

There are three mains caused of itchy skin bumps. Besides of these reasons, you may take the time to learn how to identify and diagnose the different types of itch skin irritations that may occur on your body and even learn medical treatments for skin bumps once you have properly diagnosed what type of skin bump you have and what is causing you skin irritation.

Top 10 Best OTC (Over-the-Counter) Allergy Medicines

Most people who are looking for allergy treatments are suffering from hay fever, which doctors call allergic rhinitis. Your nose itches and runs; you sneeze. Your nose may get congested. For some people, the itchiness is the worst. The congestion bothers others more than anything else. Your eyes may run and itch along with your nose. Or you might just have eye allergies.

 There are also skin allergies. Let’s say you are allergic to poison oak or poison ivy and you touch the plant. You will have an allergic reaction to it. Your skin will get red and itchy, or even worse.

Sometimes you need to see the doctor if you don’t know what is wrong with you or how serious it is.  If you know you have hay fever, you are in luck. Almost every kind of medicine used to treat hay fever is now available over the counter. Unfortunately, the over-the-counter medicines for eye allergies are not as effective, but there are some you can try. If your eyes really bother you, you can always try taking an antihistamine orally even if that is all the symptoms you have. The medicines available for skin allergy do help, but they are not as strong as prescription medications

 A lot of people with allergies also have asthma. There are absolutely no effective medications over-the-counter for asthma. Asthma can be serious. If you suspect you have asthma you need to see a doctor. Asthma causes trouble breathing – not from a clogged nose, but from the lungs. You may have a cough. You may make a sound when you breathe which is called wheezing. If you have any symptoms involving your breathing you must get medical treatment from a doctor.

You need to know that there is nothing special or different about inside as opposed to outside allergies. Some of the pharmaceutical companies run ads saying their medicine is better for indoor allergies than the other medication, or that it is better for outdoor allergies, or both. Your body does not know the difference. The allergic reaction is the same whether or not you are reacting to a cat inside or pollen outside.

You also need to know that the chemical that causes most of your symptoms is called histamine. When you react to something that you are allergic to, your cells release histamine, and then the itching and sneezing starts. Antihistamines stop histamine from bonding to certain cells. That prevents the cells from releasing a whole cascade of allergy-inducing chemicals.

So here are the top ten OTC medicines for allergy relief.

10. Crolom eye drops

These eye drops does not treat symptoms directly or immediately. The drops are used to prevent the allergies from happening. The medication stops cells in your eyes from releasing the chemicals that make them itch and run. So you have to use them on a daily basis, starting from before the time of year you usually get eye allergies. If you are already having symptoms, it will take a couple of weeks of use for you to know if this is going to help you. It is worth trying, because it is really completely safe. There are always long lists of possible side effects from anything, but this is as safe a medicine as you can find. It’s worth giving it a two to four week try.

9. NasalCrom

This used to be a prescription nose spray. It is made from the same medication as the Crolom eye drops and it works the same way. You need to spray it in your nose before allergy season starts, if possible. Again, you need to give it two to four weeks to really see if it is going to help you. There are generic formulations of Nasalcrom (cromolyn sodium nasal spray).

8. Ocean Sinus Irrigation

This is a modified salt water solution. It comes in a simple spray bottle (Ocean Nasal Spray) or a large canister that can actually spray a lot more in your nose and clean out your nose and sinuses. This is great if you have a lot of mucous and you feel it in the back of your throat, or you feel like you have to clear your throat a lot. It is also good if you have had a sinus infection – which people with allergies may have more often. It is also good if you have been out and around in a city with a lot of particulate dirt in the air. When that happens, you can sometimes see the dark particles in your mucous. That makes allergies worse. So flush everything out with salt water. The big spray canister does not have a generic, but you can buy it at Costco.

7. Pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride

This used to be what Sudafed was made of. They still have it as Sudafed or other brands, but in many states you have to ask at the pharmacy counter and you have to show your driver’s license, and sign a list with your name and address. That is because pseudoephedrine can be used, and has been used, to make methamphetamine. So you can only buy a limited amount. This is the best decongestant without any question. What this will do is open up a plugged nose, as well as open up plugged Eustachian tubes. Those are the tubes between your nose and your ears that plug up when you go up in a plane or up a mountain. If your allergies are bothering you and an antihistamine is not enough to unplug everything, pseudoephedrine will take care of it. It comes in many generics, which will also be behind the pharmacy counter in many states. If you buy Sudafed off the shelf, you will now probably be getting Sudafed PE, phenylephrine hydrochloride, which cannot be used to make crystal meth but also does not work very well. Most of the combination pills use the phenylephrine so they don’t have to be behind the counter. If you are buying prescription Claritin and you need a decongestant too, Claritin D has pseudoephedrine. Go for the pseudoephedrine. You can ask the pharmacist for real Sudafed if you don’t remember the name.

6. Visine-A

These eye drops have two ingredients. One is naphazoline, which constricts the blood vessels on the surface of the eye. That helps get rid of the redness. The other is pheniramine maleate, an antihistamine which stops the histamine from causing tallergic symptoms. These drops are somewhat effective and fairly safe. They come in many brands which all have the same ingredients, including Naphcon-A and Opcon-A.5. Cortaid

1% hydrocortisone is the active ingredient in most anti-itch creams. It does work. Prescription strengths usually work better, but this is better than nothing. Look for this with the least additives. Be careful not to buy cream with diphenyhydramine in it. It turns out that while diphenhydramine works great by mouth, if you put it on your skin you can develop an allergic reaction to it. So look for the hydrocortisone. It will help if you get something you are allergic to on your skin and you get an itchy rash. That could be poison oak or ivy, or it could be a chemical in makeup, shampoo, or toothpaste. If you know that you have skin allergies and you don’t have a prescription, this cream plus one of the antihistamines will help you.

4. Chlor-Trimeton (chlorpheneramine)Chlorpheneramine is the generic for Chlor-Trimeton. It is very similar in most ways to diphenhydramine (number 3). It may work better for some individuals. So if you are looking for a fast-acting medicine that might make you a little sleepy and diphenhydramine doesn’t work, try chlorpheneramine. This also comes in all sorts of combinations, with a decongestant, with a pain reliever, in longer acting capsules. Be sure you know what you are taking.

3. Benadryl (diphenhydramine)This is the generic name for Bendadryl, the most well-known antihistamine. It has been around a very long time, and it is an excellent antihistamine. However, it makes people very sleepy. It does go to work fast, but it only lasts 4 to 6 hours. It is excellent for a sudden allergy attack that was not expected, if you don’t have to drive. If you have allergies, you can carry this with you. Then, if you are allergic to cats, and you wind up visiting a friend with a cat and your allergies attack, you can take Benadryl and you will start to feel better in 30 minutes. It also works great for itchy skin rashes, like if you have been bitten by lots of mosquitoes on vacation, and you want to get a good night’s sleep. Diphenhydramine comes as a generic and in all sorts of forms.

2. Zyrtec (cetirizine)

This is the generic name for Zyrtec. It is a second-generation antihistamine like loratidine (see number 1). The television commercials make a big deal about this going to work 2 hours faster than Claritin.   It maybe goes to work a little faster. But most people need to take their antihistamines on a daily basis during certain times of the year, or maybe all year, depending on the allergy.  By day two, there is no difference in timing.  About 10% of people still get a little sleepy with cetirizine. That’s why it’s at number two. It is better for hives, but if you are having hives, you need to see your doctor. You can get generic  cetirizine at Costco, 365 pills (one a day) for about $16.

1. Claritin (loratidine)

This is the generic name for Claritin.  Loratidine is called a “second generation” antihistamine because it was developed many years after the “first generation” antihistamines. The main improvement in the second generation is that these medicines do not cause the extreme sleepiness you can get with the original ones. The other improvement is that they last 24 hours. Loratidine helps most people with allergies, with almost no side effects. Claritin is expensive. Generic loratidine is not. You can buy it at Costco – a bottle of 300 is about $12, and you won’t get a better deal than that on anything. If you want Claritin-D you can buy it, or you can buy generic loratidine and generic pseudoephedrine.

There are a lot of gimmicks and frills added to some of the brand name pills. For example, they come in a strip that dissolves in your mouth in case you need to take some and you don’t have any water. Or they are in a liquid gelcap, which may get into your system a little more quickly. None of that is really important. You are best off buying whatever generic works the best for you.

With allergies and antihistamines, sometimes you have to experiment. One person may get more relief with loratidine; another with cetirizine.  One person will feel much better after taking diphenhydramine; another does better with chlorpheneramine. Try a couple and you will probably find something that works.

A couple of words of caution are needed. There are a lot of combination pills for allergy. Please read the label of whatever you buy. If it says that it also treats sinus headaches or flu symptoms or anything else, it may have acetaminophen in it. That is generic for Tylenol. It is added to many medicines. It’s pretty safe except when you take too much. There can easily be 1000 mg. in a combination pill.  It’s not safe to take more than 4000 mg a day. Two Tylenol are 1000 mg. So if you are taking a combination allergy/cold pill and you don’t know that there is generic Tylenol in it and you take some of that a couple of times for a headache, you can overdose without realizing. That can cause liver failure, and it has happened to real people (only above 4000 mg. a day, and usually for quite a few days).

These recommendations are for generally healthy people who know that they are suffering from allergies. If you don’t know for sure, you need to see a doctor. If you have a lot of medical problems and take a lot of medicines, you should not add one of these without checking with your doctor or a pharmacist. Older people can have unexpected side effects from these medicines, such as difficulty urinating. That can happen to men with large prostate glands. Some doctors do not want their patients with high blood pressure to take a decongestant. If you are unsure, ask your doctor.

Once you know what you need to take, you can usually find it easily. The very strongest types of allergy medicines are only given by prescription. But many of the best are now over the counter.

Understanding Skene's Duct Cysts In Women

Understanding an illness is the first step towards conquering it. A woman needs to know the symptoms, effects, and treatment of an illness she’s afflicted with. Cysts in the reproductive system of women are one of the rare illnesses of which they should be aware.

Gynecologic cysts are cysts that grow in any part of the woman’s reproductive system like the uterus, cervix, and vagina. Cysts are closed sacs containing a gelatin-like material that grow separately from the surrounding tissues.

Skene’s duct cysts are cysts located in the Skene’s glands also called periurethral glands. This type of cyst develops because of obstructions in the ducts to the Skene’s glands due to infection.

The Woman’s Skene’s Glands

Skene’s glands are also called lesser vestibular glands and periurethral glands. They are located around the opening of the urethra on the upper portion of the vaginal area. These glands are composed of soft tissues connected to the clitoris. They are involved in sexual stimulation. During sexual arousal, blood fills these glands.

The Symptoms of Skene’s Duct Cyst

Small cysts may be asymptomatic, but large Skene’s duct cysts have symptoms. Urine may be retained resulting in urinary tract infection. When the urinary tract is infected, a woman with this condition may find herself having a frequent and pressing need to urinate. She may also feel severe pain when urinating. Also, she may find it hard to start urination. During urination, urine may drip onto the vaginal area. All these happen because the cyst blocks the flow of urine towards the urethra. Skene’s duct cysts may result in abscesses that are soft, causing pain and inflammation. With this condition, a woman may have fever. A woman who has a Skene’s duct cyst may also experience pain during sexual intercourse, which is technically called dyspareunia.  

The Diagnosis of Skene’s Duct Cyst  

Skene’s duct cysts may be detected during pelvic examination. In pelvic examination, the doctor may feel the cyst especially if the cyst is large enough. When a woman complains of the symptoms such as pain during urination or during sexual intercourse, this may lead to the diagnosis of Skene’s duct cysts. The images of Skene’s duct cysts maybe seen by using the method of ultrasonography. Cytoscopy or the insertion of a viewing tube may also be used for diagnosis.  

The Skene’s Duct Cysts Treatment

If the size of the cyst is small and it has no symptoms, treatment may not be necessary. However, if cysts are big and cause symptoms like pain in urination, it may be necessary to perform surgery or doctors may make a tiny cut on the cyst in order to remove the semisolid contents of the sac. Sometimes Skene’s duct cysts are big enough to cause discomfort. In this case a surgery in an operating room setting is needed to remove the cysts. These cysts sometimes swell and cause the formation of abscess. In this case, the doctor may recommend the use of antibiotics for several days. When the swelling disappears, the cyst is surgically removed.

Is C. diff Contagious: What Everyone Should Know

“C. diff” is an increasingly antibiotic resistant strain of bacteria that is causing concern in both hospitals and around communities. It’s gaining attention as even more problematic than the very dangerous strain of MRSA bacteria.  C. diff causes infections in the colon or large intestine called C. diff colitis.  The colon or the large intestine is responsible for the reabsorption of water and salts from solid wastes before they are eliminated from the body. This part of the gut is aided by a normal flora of bacteria. This normal flora ferments the unabsorbed material and also guards the colon from opportunistic bacteria like C. diff.

What is C. diff and what are the symptoms?
C. diff, short for Clostridium difficle, is a type of bacteria that causes swelling of the colon, also know as C. diff colitis. A person experiencing C. diff colitis may suffer from diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever because of the intestinal inflammation. In severe cases, C. diff can cause watery diarrhea 10 to 15 times a day, severe, abdominal cramping and pain, fever, blood or pus in the stool, nausea, dehydration, loss of appetite, and weight loss. If not treated, this may lead to colon perforation, septicaemia or blood poisoning, peritonitis or the infection of the lining of the abdomen and, in worst cases, death.

Where does C. diff come from?
So where do you contract these bacteria? The intestine contains good bacteria which help in the fermentation of the solid waste and production of vitamins. Good bacteria help maintain a strong immune system. However, when you take in antibiotics, it kills bacteria even the good bacteria in your gut. This disrupts the normal ecology of the colon and thus can give way to the growth or overgrowth of C. diff.

But where does C. diff comes from? Do we harbour these bacteria inside? Or do we get it from our environment? Is C. diff contagious or are they naturally occurring in our system? Some health care professionals think that C. diff is one of the natural bacteria in our colon that have just overgrown because of the antibiotic therapy. But this may not be the case. According to some studies, only 5 % of the population is colonized by C. diff. However, the subjects of the studies may have been infected temporarily at that time. So it’s still unclear if C. diff is part of a natural bacteria flora for our digestive system.

Is C. diff contagious?
If we don’t naturally have C. diff in our gut, how do we get this infection? C. diff has two forms, the infectious active C. diff that cannot survive in an environment for a long period of time and a non-active, non-infectious form that can survive in the environment for a long period of time. This non-infectious form of the bacteria is called “spore”. These spores remain non-infectious but if and when they reach the gut they can then grow into the infectious form of bacteria.  Spores can be found almost anywhere: on bedpans, furniture, toilet seats, linens, telephones, stethoscopes, keyboards, fingernails, rings (jewelry), floors, infants’ rooms, and diaper pails. The spores get on objects like these from contact with feces of those who are infected (just think not washing your hands after using the bathroom). So, yes, it is contagious. Research also shows that the airborne dissemination of C. difficile occurs commonly but sporadically.

Is C. diff contagious from airborne exposure?
If spores are airborne, can we contract this infection by inhaling it?  Is C. diff contagious by air? There are two things that need to happen to be infected by C. diff. First, you have to ingest the C. diff spores. Second, the ecological balance of the normal bacteria living in your colon needs to be disturbed in order for C. diff to start an infection. There is no evidence that C. diff can be contracted by inhaling. But very importantly, because these bacteria can travel through the air, it can be abundantly found in floors and surfaces inside the room of an infected person. When these surfaces are touched and these spores are ingested, C. diff colitis can occur.

Thus, proper hand washing with and room sanitation in hospitals or the room of the infected person is a must to prevent the spread of these bacteria. Always wash your hands before touching your mouth and after using the bathroom (especially if you are infected). The best protective measures are often bolstering your own natural defenses against superbug infections like C. diff.  Avoiding antibiotics when at all possible and maintaining proper digestive system health can also help prevent these serious and sometimes deadly infections.

How Antibiotics Weaken The Immune System

Antibiotics are defined as any chemotherapeutic substance designed to kill or hinder the growth of microscopic organisms. Doctors are taught to prescribe antibiotics when they suspect that a particular condition is being caused by a bacterial pathogen. Unfortunately, many doctors also prescribe antibiotics for conditions that caused by known viral pathogens, such the cold or bronchitis.

This is unfortunate not simply because of the expense involved or the possibly unpleasant side effects, but because it may wind up harming the immune system. The human immune system is actually a collection of defensive mechanisms against disease, and includes certain tissues, organs, cells, and enzymes. These elements work together to create a disease fighting system more powerful than anything medicine has yet to devise. Even the biggest breakthrough in fighting viruses in medical history, the vaccine, is simply a way to help the natural immune system do its job better.

Antibiotics are actually designed to help the immune system do its job, and it may even do that in the short term, but in the long term antibiotics actually suppress the immune system.

Firstly, medical antibiotics do not make the immune system stronger, they simply act a replacement for one of its functions: killing harmful bacteria. The immune system functions just like an organ or a muscle. When it is not put to use, it atrophies. So when an introduced agent does one its jobs, the immune system performs that job poorly once the agent leaves the body. This is why someone who takes antibiotics to cure a bacteria based disease may catch the same disease, only with more severe symptoms, at a later time.

Antibiotics also do not make the distinction between harmful bacteria and helpful bacteria and cells. They “throw the baby out with the bathwater” so to speak. Certain strains of bacteria in the digestive tract are essential to digest food and produce healthy vitamins. When these bacteria are killed off, it may lead to vitamin loss, diarrhea, parasitic infection, and the development of allergies.

Antibiotics, and in particular the over prescription of antibiotics, can create stronger strains of bacteria that even a healthy immune system is not prepared to fight. Throughout the history of biology, the evolution of bacteria, viruses, and hosts have more or less been in harmony. Every time a bacterium or virus became slowly stronger, immune systems have reacted by becoming stronger as well.

The introduction of antibiotics through a bit of a monkey wrench into this. As bacteria were killed much more rapidly, they evolved more quickly than the human immune system. This leads to “superbugs,” such as the staph bacterium MRSA, which is powerful it can turn deadly within just days.

As the little disputed harms of over prescribing ineffective antibiotics become more apparent, and information becomes more widespread, more and more doctors are becoming less willing to dole out antibiotic prescriptions as thoughtlessly as they used to. This is fortunate, as patients might find benefit in simply taking supplements to boost their immune system to fight bacteria and viruses, such as true colloidal silver.

My Heel Is Killing Me… It Hurts So Much… What Is It?

Heel pain is one of the most common painful conditions seen in an arthritis clinic. This article discusses the various types of problems that cause heel pain and what can be done to make the situation better.

It’s estimated that more than 1 million persons in the United States suffer from heel pain at any given time.

When a patient complains of heel pain, it must be clarified by history whether the pain is in the bottom of the heel or the back of the heel because the diagnosis and treatment are very different.

Pain in the bottom of the heel is often due to plantar fasciitis (PF). The plantar fascia is a tough band of tissue that begins at the medial (inside) part of the bottom of the heel and extends forward to attach at the ball of the foot. The fascia is responsible for maintaining the normal arch. When an excessive load is placed on the fascia, pain can develop at the origin (the heel) as well as the mid-portion (arch) of the fascia.

PF can develop in anyone but is more common in certain groups such as athletes, people older than 30 years of age, and obese individuals.

PF must be distinguished from other causes of bottom of the heel pain such as nerve entrapment, atrophy of the normal heel fat pad, stress fracture of the calcaneus (heel bone), rupture of the plantar fascia, bone cyst, bone tumor, and bone infection.

The history typically describes a gradual onset of symptoms with no prior trauma. The most telling symptom is severe pain in the bottom of the heel when taking the first morning step. Patients may report difficulty walking to the bath room. The pain tends to lessen with more walking. This “first step” pain is also present during the day if the patient has been sitting for awhile, then getting up to walk.

On exam, pain is noted with pressure applied to the medial bottom of the heel. Tenderness is worsened by pointing the toes and ankle toward the head. This is because the plantar fascia is being stretched. Pain in the arch may also be present.

One in older patients should be ruled out and that is heel pad atrophy. Normally the heel has a thick feeling to it. In older patients the heel pad may lose this thickness and flatten out. The pain is located more centrally.

Another “fooler” is entrapment of the lateral plantar nerve. Pain is felt in the medial heel but may be present at rest as well. There may be weakness spreading the toes.

Fracture of the calcaneus (heelbone) causes pain at rest that is worsened with walking. Tenderness is present along the sides of the heel. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can confirm the presence if fracture.

But what about “bone spurs”? The presence of a bone spur by itself means nothing. They are very common and by themselves are not a cause of pain. Some patients with inflammatory forms of arthritis such as psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, or Reiter’s disease have a specific type of spur that should prompt further evaluation looking for systemic forms of arthritis.

Diagnostic studies such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging can be used to confirm the presence of plantar fasciitis. Electromyography (EMG) may be needed to rule out lateral plantar nerve entrapment.

So how is this condition treated?

The first thing is to institute a stretching regimen. Most people with PF also have a shortened Achilles tendon and the ability to dorsiflex (point the toes up) is limited. The plantar fascia is continuous with the Achilles fascia. Stretching the plantar fascia and the Achilles decreases the tension in the plantar fascia and helps relieve inflammation.

A temporary reduction in activity is important in athletes, particularly runners. Cross training with swimming and cycling can help maintain cardiovascular fitness while sparing the plantar fascia from pounding. Runners should avoid hills and make sure that any foot abnormality be corrected with custom orthotics.

Ice massage with ice cubes applied to the plantar fascia can also be helpful.

Shoes with soft heels and inner soles can relieve discomfort. Rigid heel cups and arch supports are generally not recommended. The patient may gradually resume normal activities over an eight week period of time. Rushing rehabilitation is not advised.

If there is no improvement, a night splint which holds the ankle in 10 degrees of dorsiflexion prevents the shortening of the plantar fascia.

If the night splint fails or the pain does not lessen, injection of glucocorticoid (cortisone) using ultrasound guidance is recommended. Injections should be limited to a maximum of two given over four weeks.

Patients who do not get better need to be reevaluated for systemic disease or other conditions causing heel pain.

Surgery is the last resort. Transverse release of the plantar fascia is the procedure of choice. This can be done using arthroscopic guidance.

Pain in the back of the heel is an entirely different condition.

The major structure here is the Achilles tendon which extends down from the gastrocnemius muscle to attach at the rear of the calcaneus.

Inflammation of the Achilles tendon can occur, usually in athletes or in people in engage in overxuberant physical activity involving running or jumping. Patient who are overweight are also at risk. The pain is usually described as a soreness. There is localized swelling and tenderness. Ultrasound can be used to differentiate an inflamed Achilles tendon from one that is partially or fully torn. The treatment involves anti-inflammatory medicines, physical therapy, and stretching exercises. Glucocorticoid injection is not recommended because of the danger of weakening the Achilles tendon leading to rupture. Using a foam rubber lift to elevate the heel in a shoe can help with symptoms.

Achilles rupture is handled surgically and requires a long recuperation.

Haglund’s syndrome, which is a condition where a spur develops at the back of the calcaneus and is often associated with localized Achilles tendonitis can also cause pain in the back of the heel. Ill-fitting shoes are the most common cause. Typically a bump develops at the back of the heel. Because of its association with ill-fitting shoes, this is sometimes referred to as a “pump bump.” Physical therapy, anti-inflammatory medicines, and stretching can often be of benefit. Glucocorticoid injection should be sparingly employed because of the danger of Achilles rupture. Wearing proper fitting shoes are an obvious adjunctive treatment.

Bursitis involving the retrocalcaneal bursa (the small sack that lies between the Achilles tendon and the calcaneus is a cause of pain behind the heel. Treatment involves the use of physical therapy modalities such as ultrasound. Sometimes glucocorticoid injection may be needed. It is important to limit the injection to one because of the danger of possible weakening of the Achilles tendon leading to rupture. Ultrasound needle guidance is advised to ensure proper localization of the injection.

The diagnosis is made by history and physical examination. Both MRI and ultrasound can be used for confirmation.

What Are The Schizophrenia Symptoms?

While the cause of schizophrenia is not clear the fact that it is linked to the brain is. It is a physical disorder and not a psychiatric disorder. It has an affect on the personality and the mind of the person that is affected by it. Treatment is aimed at the management of symptoms and not actually curing the disorder.

What are the schizophrenia symptoms? There are a number of different types of schizophrenia and each has its own set of symptoms. There is the kind of disease that comes with paranoia and delusions. There is a change in the mental skills of a person with schizophrenia as well. Those that suffer from this disease may hear voices as well and be unable to organize and plan events.

Different people will feel different affects with schizophrenia and there are various categories to the symptoms as well. The categories of this disease symptoms fall into negative, positive, and cognitive ones.

The positive schizophrenia symptoms are those that should not be present. The illness itself causes them and they are in no way positive. They are often associated with losing touch with reality.

The positive symptoms include hallucinations and delusions. Anything that you feel, see that is not there, hearing or smell that is not there is a hallucination. Hearing voices is one of the this disease symptoms that occurs the most often. The voices can be criticizing and threatening at times; this can be scary to those experiencing it.

Delusions are another common schizophrenia symptom. They will cause a person to believe things they would know are not true otherwise. Suddenly they will come to think that the entire world is against them and that others are reading their minds in their efforts to gain information from them. Thinking that others are monitoring your activity and pose a threat to you; you might even start to believe that you have the ability to control others’ thoughts.

The schizophrenia symptoms of delusions and hallucination can socially and become fearful of social situations. The positive symptoms are the easiest to see. The thought process being disorganized is another of this disease symptoms. They will not be able to organize their thoughts and they will be hard to understand when they talk to you. Making up words that only you understand and feeling like your thoughts were removed from your head are symptoms of schizophrenia as well.

Hallucinations and delusions can cause someone to be fearful. They may imagine elaborate conspiracies against them that involve people they don’t know and those they once trusted as well.

Clumsiness, unplanned movement, inappropriate mannerisms and repeating movements are all schizophrenia symptoms that fall under movement disorders. The least common of these symptoms is catatonia.

These symptoms come together to complete the picture of this disease symptoms since no single one can be used to show that someone is suffering from schizophrenia.

Then there are schizophrenia symptoms that fall under negative ones. These develop when the person suffering from this disease no longer has the ability to have a normal emotional reaction. They are negative because they have been taken away for some reason.

There is an inability to have the feelings that are considered normal and the emotions are flat. They do not find pleasure in the things that they used to. Tasks are hard to begin and just as hard to complete for those experiencing these symptoms. One of the schizophrenia symptoms has to do with not having as much interaction as they once had with others.

Then there are the cognitive symptoms. These disease symptoms will appear as trouble with the attention span, memory will not be as good and they will have a hard time with plans and organizational skills. The cognitive symptoms are harder to see as a part of schizophrenia although they will be upsetting.

Knowing the schizophrenia symptoms will help to identify the illness and make sure that you can put them all together.

ROLE OF REMEDIAL TEACHING

Role of Remedial Teaching

In order to improve mathematics, effective remedial teaching is a must. Let us discuss.

Remedial teaching is not re-teaching. Any remedy however costly or sophisticated is useless unless it cures the disease.

A remedial teacher should have a mentality of a sympathetic doctor who has love and care for his/her patients (students).

A. Identification:

a) Through academic achievement:

i) Class interaction: An under-achiever will give wrong answers frequently to the questions asked. He will appear to be confused. He may probably not respond to the questions asked in the class at all.

ii) Home assignment: An under-achiever will not do the homework. If pressurised to complete the work, he may resort to copying, which may be easily detected.

i)                    Unit tests and term tests: He will show poor performance consistently in tests. He will either not attempt the question(s) at all or, will do cuttings and overwriting. He may even try to copy the solution to the problems from his peers.

b) Through behavioural aspect:

i) Attitude towards academic activities: He will be disinterested in such activities. He will try to refrain himself from such activities. He will try to avoid discussion about academics with his peers or teachers.

ii) Class escapism: He will try to bunk classes for one reason or another. He will give excuses for not attending classes.

ii)                   Fiddle with notebooks instead of studying: He will be found to fiddle with notebooks and books instead of studying.

Once the under-achiever has been identified, the next step is the diagnosis of deficiencies.

B. Diagnosis of deficiencies:

a) Learning of concepts: His concept(s) related to a particular topic or formula is not clear. For example, the difference between 2×2 and (2x)2 may not be clear to him.

b) Computational Skill: He may not be good at computations and thereby may gives erroneous results frequently while performing basic arithmetical operations and simplification.

c) Procedure of solving problem: He is not clear about the procedure of solving problems and so he/she often gets wrong answers.

d) Application of knowledge: He may not be able to apply the learned knowledge in different situations. For example, in word problems, he may fail to translate sentences into equations or identify the variables.

Once, the deficiency has been diagnosed, let us explore the possible causes for the same.

C. Causes:

a) Memory: Individual capacity of memorising facts and figures.

b) Understanding: Lack of comprehension-he does not follow what he reads.

c) Presentation: Finds difficulty in expressing views-vocabulary is not sufficient.

d) Knowledge Gap: Incomplete coverage units in the previous class-long absence.

e) Parental background: Socio-economic status; education

f) Parental attitude: Indifference of parents towards studies; over-expectation.

g) School Based: Lack of suitable equipment and environment in school-overcrowded class.

h) Medium of instruction: Language problem.

i) Physical factors: Poor eyesight; poor audibility; illness and other problems.

j) Individual factors: Good in oral tests but does not prepare notes and does not do home work regularly; not sincere in studies; very anxious but is unable to concentrate on studies; lacks self confidence; inferiority feeling; fear of failure; wants company of students who avoid classes; emotional instability.

k) Teacher based: Lack of confidence in teacher; lack of time at teacher’s disposal; faulty method of teaching; does not encourage student participation in class; inadequate home assignments and problems for practice; improper way of correction of homework and of guidance to students at appropriate time and stage.; knowledge of the subject is not thorough; unable to clarify difficult concept; lacks in expression; unable to provide secure and affectionate climate in classroom and lack of understanding and acceptance for each individual child.

The causes having known let us now discuss about the possible cures and remedies.

D. Cures and Remedies:

a) Category wise remedial-not more than 5 to 10 students in each class.

b) Personal and individual attention by teacher.

c) No humiliation.

d) Special carefully devised UAA (under achiever’s assignment) – Simpler-Simple-Complex.

e) Read-Re-read-Write-Re-Write-Reproduce-Drill.

f) Group studies; group learning.

g) Micro-notes.

h) Teaching selected portion of syllabus only.

I now propose an action plan to be undertaken by a remedial teacher.

THE ACTION PLAN:

Out of two approaches of evaluation in vogue today, i.e. the process approach focusing on the performance of the teacher and the product approach focusing on the performance of the students with regard to specific objectives-here to get high score in the examinations in terms of marks and subject average, the latter is preferred for sure for obvious reasons. This process is based on the principle that what ever the teacher might have done in the class room is irrelevant unless the objective (of obtaining a high score in the examinations in terms of marks and subject average) is achieved. This then is the primary criteria of evaluation of both the teacher and the taught at all levels.

Herein lies the importance of diagnostic and remedial teaching, which is therefore, the primary responsibility of the teacher. This type of teaching involves:

i)                    Diagnosis of the specific difficulty of the student by conducting a suitable diagnostic test.

ii)                   Providing suitable remedial measures

iii)                 Providing ways and means for preventing them from reoccurring in future.

If a teacher is able to do justice to his primary responsibility then it may safely be presumed that the teaching profession has a bright future in store for sure.

For the benefit of teachers in general, I am now suggesting an action plan on these lines:

a)      Be an innovative and imaginative teacher with an open mind.

b)      Apply suitable diagnostic test to identify the weakness of each child.

  1. For this split the topic into several subtopics. For example, a topic in class X Mathematics “Linear simultaneous equations in two variables” –solution of equations can be split as:

i)                    Adding the two equations directly to find the value of the variables.

ii)                   Changing the sign and adding the equations to find the value of one variable.

iii)                 Making coefficients equal and using i) or ii) above to find the value of the variables.

iv)                 Substituting the value of one variable in the equation to find the value of the other variable.

  1. II. . Set at least 20 questions on each subtopic (They should preferably be      knowledge based)
    1. Take a test of each child. One subtopic to be tested at a time.
    2. As far as possible uniformity is to be maintained while evaluating the test.
    3. A student scoring less than 35% marks in this test is surely having difficulty in the subtopic.

c)      Explore the causes of weakness which may be:

i)                    Lack of understanding/misconceptions.

ii)                   Faulty teaching method.

iii)                 Fear of the subject

iv)                 Bad work study habits.

v)                  Physical and emotional factors like poor health, some mental shock etc.

vi)                 Teacher’s attitude.

d)      The cause(s) having been identified, suitable remedial measure (depending upon the cause) should be suggested which may be:

i)                    Re-teaching of the subtopic—should be resorted to only if the student has completely failed to understand the subtopic due to one reason or the other.

ii)                   Computer Aided Teaching—should be resorted to if the student has a vague idea about the subtopic and therefore finds it difficult to answer questions relating to it.

iii)                 Drilling of Problems—Should normally be prescribed to the weak child during examination times. For this the teacher should be able to design an effective study material containing objective questions, knowledge based problems; the practice/drilling of which will cure the weakness.

iv)                 Other Measures:

The work of the teacher does not end here. He/She must ensure that the student continuously practices upon them to ensure that the weakness does not reoccur in future.

To conclude, it may be said that this is indeed a gigantic task with immediate rewards a remote possibility; therefore requires zeal, enthusiasm and a sense of commitment on the part of the teacher to undertake this project.

Last but not the least; the institution has to play a pivotal role to achieve the ultimate objective. The difference between supervised study (study under the supervision of a teacher) and remedial teaching be clearly understood. The supervised study time table be framed in such a way that a teacher should be assigned at least two periods a week in Maths, Science, English and Social Studies (the subjects where maximum weakness is found). The teacher on his part should not just while away his/her time but should perform these activities as suggested above in letter and spirit and then and only then the ultimate objective can be achieved. He/She must remember that if a student fails then: the teacher has failed; the examination system has failed; the evaluation system has failed and by and large the education system as a whole has failed.

All seems well as regards the theoretical aspect of it is concerned. But when we come to its practical aspect we get confused as to what actually we are expected to do during remediation to achieve the desired quantitative result (Quality comes thereafter!). Therefore, until and unless we are clear about it, we cannot expect improvement in the results whatever strategies/action plans we may make/adopt to do so.

I have therefore decided to deal with it in the following pages taking Mathematics as the subject.

Based on my experience, I have noticed that the teachers of mathematics are unable to detect the basic weaknesses of children right from class VI onwards leave aside removing them and continue to teach year after year the topics to them based on the syllabi in-order to complete the same (for obvious reasons).

I have noticed that most of the students suffer from some basic weaknesses which are:

  1. Weakness in basic operations. Its removal will enable the students to negotiate with BODMAS rule thereby making simplifications easy. Algebra should also be easy for him/her as Algebra may be defined as “Arithmetic of unknown quantities”. Given that the student masters basic operations, the Arithmetic/Algebra/Statistics Portion of Mathematics should be easy to deal with.
  2. Weakness in identifying (understanding) shapes: Its removal will lead to an interest of student in Geometry. This will initiate the student to explore the properties of the shape (closed figures) formed by them leading to understanding of Geometry.
  3. Inability to distinguish between area and perimeter: Its removal will enable the student to solve most of the problems in mensuration.

The teachers can device certain worksheets which may be given to the students repeatedly to over-come their specific weaknesses once they are properly and correctly diagnosed on the basis of factors above.

Some tips for using these worksheets:

  1. The work-sheets should be attempted by HB pencil which is easy to erase later on.
  2. Each worksheet is to be attempted in 5 minutes except the last one which should take 15 minutes for completion.
  3. These worksheets are to be given once a week to each student.
  4. The teacher may use these worksheets during the first two months of the session (April and May) to create an interest for mathematics among the students before starting formal teaching.
  5. After the start of the formal teaching, the teacher should diagnose the weakness of the students (topic wise)-by preparing horizontal mark-sheet in unit tests.
  6. Once the teacher is able to diagnose the weakness of the child in a particular topic worksheets may be provided to the child on that topic during remedial periods to bring the child up to the desired level of competency in the topic. Minimum two work-sheets should be provided to each child and the performance in them is to be judged to ensure that the child has attained the desired level of competency in the topic.
  7. Now where and how to obtain these work-sheets?

I give below some guidelines for the teachers on this issue:

GUIDELINES TO OBTAIN WORK-SHEETS:

  1. Every teacher should create an email account (popularly called E-Mail ID).
  2. The teacher should logon to either: www. mytestbook.com or

www. softschools.com.

  1. He/ She will be asked to register.
  2. On clicking on this hyperlink he/ she will be asked to fill up a form.
  3. Finally he/ she will be asked to submit the same.
  4. On clicking the submit button, the registration will be confirmed and the logon information will be supplied on his/ her E-Mail ID.
  5. Thereafter the teacher may use the username and password provided by him/ her at the time of filling up the form for logon in future.
  6. It is an absolutely free account!
  7. Once the logon is successful, you should opt for automatic work-sheet generator and lo! You are provided with the variety of topics on which work-sheets may be generated.

8.  Click on the desired topic and obtain hundreds of worksheets.

Alopecia

Alopecia areata (AA) is a condition affecting humans, in which hair is lost from areas of the body, usually from the scalp. Because it causes bald spots on the scalp, especially in the first stages, it is sometimes called spot baldness. In 1%–2% of cases, the condition can spread to the entire scalp (Alopecia totalis) or to the entire epidermis (Alopecia universalis). Conditions resembling AA, and having a similar cause, occur also in other species.

Etiology

Alopecia can be nonscarring and diffuse, nonscarring and focal, or scarring and focal. Nonscarring diffuse loss: Causes include male-pattern baldness, female-pattern baldness, telogen effluvium, anagen effluvium, primary hair shaft abnormalities, and congenital disorders.Male-pattern baldness (androgenetic alopecia) is common, familial, and androgenetic. Hair loss begins at the temples and/or vertex and can spread to diffuse thinning or nearly complete loss. Female-pattern baldness is hair thinning in the frontal, parietal, and crown regions. This too is androgenetic.

Can Alopecia Areata Be Cured?

Alopecia areata cannot be cured; however, it can be treated and the hair can grow back.In many cases, alopecia areata is treated with drugs that are used for other conditions. Treatment options for alopecia areata include: Corticosteroids: Anti-inflammatory drugs that are prescribed for autoimmune diseases. Corticosteroids can be given as an injection into the scalp or other areas, orally (as a pill), or applied topically (rubbed into the skin) as an ointment, cream, or foam. Response to therapy may be gradual. Rogaine: This topical drug is already used as a treatment for pattern baldness. It usually takes about 12 weeks of treatment with Rogaine before hair begins to grow.

How is alopecia areata diagnosed?

The characteristic finding of alopecia areata is the exclamation point hair. These unusual hairs can be found in areas of hair loss. They are visible with a hand lens as short, broken off hairs that are narrower closer to the scalp (appearing like an exclamation point). A biopsy of the scalp is sometimes necessary for a diagnosis.

Common Reactions to Alopecia Areata:

People who have alopecia areata and their family members often experience a variety of feelings and frustrations. Reactions to the disease include the following: Alone, withdrawn, and isolated, Loss and grief, Fear that others may find out you have the diseasse, Fear that others may find out that you wear a wig, Sadness and depression, Hopelessness, Anger, Embarrassment, Guilt or self-blame that you somehow brought the disease on yourself.

Treatment of Alopecia

Some patients of alopecia areata respond well to drugs that promote hair regrowth, containing minoxidil and finasteride. Injections of steroids directly into hairless patches on the scalp and sometimes the brow and beard areas are effectively in increases the hair growth in most people.A cream or ointment containing anthralin has also been found to stimulate new hair growth in those with mild cases of alopecia areata. Anthralin which is a synthetic tar-like substance altering immune function in the affected skin makes the condition better. Cortisone pills may be prescribed in cases of substantial hair loss.

Deafness and Tinnitus A Single Side

Unilateral hearing loss or unilateral deafness is a unique type of hearing impairment, where there is normal hearing in one ear and deaf in the ear of another. Single sided deafness is usually a permanent condition. There are several causes of deafness and these include single-sided sudden deafness, measles, mumps, trauma, hereditary disorders and tinnitus.

Unilateral deafness, tinnitus or deafness in one side, more should raise the suspicion of acoustic neuroma until proven otherwise. Acoustic neuromas are often referred to by doctors as vestibular schwannomas. They usually arise from the Schwann cells covering the vestibular nerve. The symptoms of acoustic neuroma include gradual hearing loss (especially on one side only), tinnitus, dizziness and, sometimes, in severe cases, facial numbness and tingling.

If tinnitus is caused by head trauma or neurological disease, then there are greater chances that the Eustachian tube may be damaged, so it must be treated immediately without any delay as the buzz caused by head trauma or neurological disorder or blocked / channel hearing impaired / tube can lead to deafness unilateral or total deafness. If tinnitus is caused by certain medications or ototoxic drugs, the best cure is to stop them taking. Although a large number of drugs list tinnitus as side effects, not all will develop tinnitus. If you think a particular drug is exacerbating the problem, then you can ask your doctor or pharmacist for alternative drugs.

Unilateral deafness is also caused by the deposition of wax in the year, due to blockage of the Eustachian tube and the correct diagnosis is not done is often confused with unilateral tinnitus. It is therefore essential that the cause of unilateral deafness should only be diagnosed and treated before reaching any conclusion.

Hearing tests with a tuning fork can be made at the doctor, but the best way to test the hearing is a soundproof chamber and a audiometrist (specialist in hearing loss), using an electronic device that produces tones and sounds in specific volumes. The conduction of sound by air in adults is measured by placing a vibrating tuning fork that is near your ear, in order to make the sound travel through the air into the ear. A hearing loss or a subnormal hearing threshold (the smallest sound that can be heard) may indicate the presence of a problem in any part of the hearing (the ear canal, middle ear, inner ear, the auditory nerve or channels of the auditory nerve in the brain).

Don’t let Tinnitus getting worse to the Deftness , Cure Tinnitus Naturally is possible!

Learning Sign Language To Communicate With The Deaf And Mute

ASL or American Sign-Language is a language that lets you talk with your hands. This is really useful if you need to converse with deaf and mute people. If you know how to sign, you’ll also get more job opportunities as not a lot of people are knowledgeable about signing. You can work as a sign-language teacher, teach at a school for deaf or mute kids, and so on. The following are some facts and tips on learning sign language:

1. Buy a sign dictionary and review it from time to time.

There are so called sign dictionaries available that work like a normal dictionary, except that it shows signs for words aside from the meanings of the words. If you wish to talk with your hands, you can rely on the aforesaid dictionary and do some self study. Of course, this means signing the words only and not full sentences. If you actually have the ability of how to sign the words, still, you’ll have a way of communicating with the deaf and mute.

2. Get a hold of basic signing text books.

There are also several textbooks you can purchase from your local bookstore that focus on the topic of learning sign language. It is a good idea to purchase a couple, read up on those books, and then, practice what you’ve learned. Whether you have an instructor who will teach you how you can talk with your hands, or you’re planning to do self-study, studying books on the subject is highly recommended. Of course, you have to be serious about wanting to learn and set aside time for the process, because if you don’t, you’ll find training to speak with the deaf and mute to be a longer process.

3. Work with ASL flashcards.

Another effective tip for people interested in learning sign language is the use of flashcards. There are actually flash cards that show the signs you have to make in order to ‘say a word’, express yourself, etc, to people with hearing and speaking disabilities. Practice with those cards and you’ll realize how easier it has become to talk with your hands.

4. Interact with people who sign.

Communicating with sign-language users or people who know how to sign is also a good technique if you really wish to be able to communicate with deaf and mute individuals. Try searching online for ASL clubs, or go to a school for the mute and the deaf and volunteer to help out there, in that way, you can practice your skills and broaden your knowledge in signing.

Learning sign language is not impossible as long as you have real interest, are dedicated, practice a lot, and interact with people who use the aforesaid language.