Healthy Diet

One of the important things you can do for your overall health is to eat a healthy diet. Your diet affects your weight and increases your risks of health diseases. Deciding a healthy diet is easier to say than to do because it is tempting to eat less healthy foods. Different people decide different healthy diet because you might eat this kind of diet while others just cannot stand the food you eat and find its alternative. That’s what health experts are here for, to let us know which food are healthier than others.

What are the principles of healthy eating?

Know What Healthy Food Is and How You Should Eat

When pursuing a healthy eating plan, you should remember the following:
1. Try and Eat a Variety of Different Colored Food – You should remember that different foods have different nutritional values. Food can be rich in antioxidants or Vitamin C. So, when you go to do your regular weekly shop, try and see what different colored foods you can pick up.

Down the fruit and vegetable aisle you should see greens, yellows, oranges and reds. You should have as much of a color variety in your trolley as you can. For example, when picking out fruit pick up strawberries, oranges, pineapple, apples, blueberries and bananas and you will notice what a large color selection you actually have. The same goes for vegetables. Basically, more color means that it is better and healthier for you.

2. Eat Foods from All Food Groups – The problem with many diets these days is the fact that they tell you to cut certain foods from certain food groups, out of the diet altogether. This means that you lose important nutrition and don’t eat as healthy as you could be. So, the answer to a healthy diet is to eat a variety of different foods.

Generally, fruit and vegetables should make up the main portion of your diet but you still need carbohydrates such as potatoes, meat or fish and a little bit of fatty foods like flaxseed oil which many experts recommend as part of a good fat diet. Overall, a diverse mixture of all food groups is needed for a healthy diet!

3. When You Need to Eat Snack, Do It on Healthy Foods – It doesn’t mean that just because you want to lose weight, you’ll have to skip your snack. In fact, snacking can actually be quite good for you just as long as you are eating the right foods.

Generally, when we want to eat snack, we reach for a biscuit or a packet of crisps. However, if you want to eat a healthy snack, then you will have to swap those for nuts, seeds or fruit and vegetables. That way you will get energy, you will also be full until your next meal time and it will be completely healthy.

Since you know what foods you like and what you don’t, you really have to decide for your own healthy eating plan. However, the said tips above can help you to choose the best healthy eating plan for you.

If you are switching to a healthy eating plan, then a Proactol™ can help you. Proactol™ is new clinically proven weight loss product that can help you cut down your fat intake by 28% of your dietary fat intake when taken after food. You don’t have to deprive yourself of foods you love to eat healthy. Just eat the food you like in moderation and take Proactol™ to deal with your diet effortlessly.

Practicing a sensible weight loss is not just taking a diet pill – you should live for a long-lasting healthy lifestyle.

77 tips for natural weight loss

In the twenty years from 1979-1991 the hospital costs for children and youth have risen from 35 million in 1979-1981 to 127 million from 1997-1991 (Preventing childhood Obesity: Health in the Balance, 2005, Institute of Medicine).

The number of obese people is ever increasing. Here are some tips that may help people lose weight.

Weight Loss Tip #1 Eat in a small plate, this will allow you control the amount of food you eat.

Weight Loss Tip #2 Eat less, more often. Not only will it increase you metabolism through the day, but it will also help you control your diet. I suggest the following pattern:
11 a.m. SNACK
1 p.m. LUNCH
4 p.m. SNACK
6 p.m. DINNER
9 p.m. SNACK
Weight Loss Tip #3 Before you for for seconds always wait for at least 10 minutes you might not actually need them.
Weight Loss Tip #4 Use vegetable oil instead of butter for cook and baking.
Weight Loss Tip #5 Set realistic goals. It’s okay if you plan to lose 2 pounds a week, but the main thing is you will accomplish it. If you accomplish your goals from the beginning you will be motivated to continue till the end.
Weight Loss Tip #6 Eat early and never miss a breakfast. Eating the majority of your daily caloric allotment early gives your body time to work those calories off, so it’s best so it’s best to have a healthy breakfast.
Weight Loss Tip #7 Take time to chew your food. Digestion begins with the mouth, when you chew your food it’s mixed with your saliva which contain digestion enzymes . You can keep your body healthy if you achieve thorough digestion, so chew your food properly and savor the food.
Weight Loss Tip #8 Avoid stress. Stress causes weight gain due to chemical reactions, listen to so calm music and take deep breathes before eating.
Weight Loss Tip #9 Try salad as a main lunch.

Weight Loss Tip #10 Change your lifestyle. Adapt a new healthy lifestyle. Occassional fad diets will lead you only to gain more weight rather than lose weight.
Weight Loss Tip #11 Tell your friends and family that you want to lose weight. It’s good to know that people around you are rooting for you and gives you a boost.
Weight Loss Tip #12 Focus elsewhere while exercise. When you workout make sure you have your iPOD or are listening to music. Divert your focus elsewhere. If you focus on your own body while working out, it will make the work out really boring.
Weight Loss Tip #13 If you want to really lose weight do it properly and join a good weight loss program. Here you can find the top weight loss programs.
Weight Loss Tip #14 Keep record of how much weight you lose, take pictures or keep a diary, to motivate yourself lose weight further.
Weight Loss Tip #15 Eat slowly. It tales time for the brain to send signals of fullness, so it may take some time before you know you’re full. It helps you control your diet and lose weight.
Weight Loss Tip #16 Concentrate on more burning calories than you consume, rather than low carb and low fat diets, to lose weight.
Weight Loss Tip #17 Cut out all the negativity. People will try to discourage you when you’re trying to lose weight, not necessarily because they don’t want you to succeed, but you need to succeed in the goals you set until you are satisfied.
Weight Loss Tip #18 It’s okay to compare yourself to others and use that positively, however, don’t do everything exactly the same way. Everyone is different and do the workouts that suit your body and keep your own goal in mind.

Weight Loss Tip #19 Women are naturally supposed to lose weight slower the men… ladies don’t feel that I’m prejudiced, but the matter of the fact is that biologically as women are the birthing sex therefore they have more fat on their bodies and lose wieght slower then men. Therefore, ladies separate your weight loss goals from that of men.
Weight Loss Tip #20 Avoid weight loss pills. Period. Why? Because it is dangerous both physically and psychologically. So if want to lose weight do it naturally.
Weight Loss Tip #21 Don’t go for weight loss surgeries either, because these too can have fatal side effects on the body.
Weight Loss Tip #22 Vitamins are good. Even though vitamin pills are good for you, never ever, use them without consulting a professional.
Weight Loss Tip #23 Have dessert! Don’t cut off dessert, your body needs fat. Being healthy means that your body gets all the nutrients it needs, so have dessert, but control at the same time.
Weight Loss Tip #24 Walk a lot. Try walking distances, if you want to go somewhere, try leaving the car home and walk, it makes a difference and helps in the process of weight loss.
Weight Loss Tip #25 There is no way to force weight to come off your stomach (or any other worrisome spots). The good news is cardio exercise is great for peeling off the pounds all over, whether your trouble spot is your tummy or your thighs!

Weight Loss Tip #26 Go for a walk after a meal. It helps in complete digestion.
Weight Loss Tip #27 Think before you eat. Am I really hungry?
Weight Loss Tip #28 Sugar is not good for your body. The more refined it is, the more damage it will do your body.
Weight Loss Tip #29 Don’t have white bread, research proves that people who eat white bread are more likely to have bigger bellies. Instead try having whole grain white bread, it will help you in your weight loss plans.
Weight Loss Tip #30 Pasta ain’t going to do you any favors if you want to lose weight either. Refined pasta prevents your body from weight loss. Instead of pasta you could try barilla, which is a good substitute which are high in fiber and protein.
Weight Loss Tip #31 Try having a burger with just lettuce, tomato and onion.
Weight Loss Tip #32 Drink LOTS of water. Some people think, not drinking water will help them lose weight. They could be further from the truth. If you don’t drink water, whatever little water you do drink the body will store that and you will gain weight.
Drink more of water and you’ll lose excess weight and your system will cleaner.
Weight Loss Tip #33 If you go out one night with friends and break your healthy diet. Don’t grieve the next morning and start eating junk again. Get right back on track the next day. One night ain’t going to make all the difference.
Weight Loss Tip #34 Keep a balanced diet. I suggest the following diet during the day:
Almonds (and other nuts)
Beans (and other legumes)
Spinach (and other green vegetables)
Instant oatmeal
Turkey (and other lean meats)
Peanut butter
Olive oil
Whole grains (breads and cereals)
Extra-protein powder (whey)
Raspberries (and other berries)

Weight Loss Tip #35 Sleep your weight away! Sleeping will help you burn fat, I suggest at least 8 hours a day. It will help you in you weight loss process.
Weight Loss Tip #36 Workout in patterns. I don’t think many people can workout for 2 hours straight everyday. I would suggest that you would workout in sets every four or five days max a week.
Weight Loss Tip #35 Don’t overdo yourself working out. Start off doing as much as you can, then slowly increase the work out.
If you can do only 10 reps of an exercise, do only 10 and then slowly increase. You can’t lose weight overnight.
Weight Loss Tip #36 Having more of fiber at breakfast will make you feel fuller through the day.
Weight Loss Tip #37 When your feeling down talk to a close friend rather than turning to food. It will cause weight gain.
Weight Loss Tip #38 When you reach a even a small goal reward yourself and stay motivated.

Weight Loss Tip #39 If you know walking around in the kitchen is going to make you want to eat, then try avoiding staying in the kitchen or any other place where may feel like eating unnecessarily.
Weight Loss Tip #40 Having an organized refrigerator or kitchen will help you make better decisions as to what eat.
Weight Loss Tip #41 Try making better decisions to breaking bad older habits.
Weight Loss Tip #42 Just because you’re getting something to eat for free doesn’t mean you have to eat it. It ain’t going to cost your wallet, but it’s going to cost your waist, so be careful .
Weight Loss Tip #43 Don’t wear oversized clothes cause they make you look heavier.
Weight Loss Tip #44 Try high fiber appetizers, it helps you prevent overeating and helps control diet.
Weight Loss Tip #45 Another reason not to skip breakfast is, because after eight hours of sleep, our bodies have consumed no food and in order to increase your metabolism and burn them calories, you need to have breakfast.

Weight Loss Tip #46 Talk to yourself positively, say ” I can lose weight!”. Motivate yourself. It will help 100%.
Weight Loss Tip #47 Instead of putting mayo in your sandwich try putting mustard, ketchup, horseradish, salsa or pickle relish in your sandwiches.
Weight Loss Tip #48 While baking and pouring milk use the powdered kind instead. It will help you put off calories and lose weight.
Weight Loss Tip #49 Make each meal a well balanced meal.
Weight Loss Tip #50 Make on day of the week vegetable day, not only will you decrease your fat intake and increase fiber intake, but you might also realize that you actually like vegetables.
Weight Loss Tip #51 Try to be more active in your everyday life. Try to walk unto people’s desks at work rather than e-mailing them.

Weight Loss Tip #52 Don’t avoid nuts as a snack, because they have fat, they also have protein and other nutrients. I suggest a pack of nuts, instead a pack of chips any day.
Weight Loss Tip #53 Sugar-free doesn’t mean calorie-free.
Weight Loss Tip #54 Instead of having a soda at the restaurant have normal water, it will save you around 1000 calories per meal.
Weight Loss Tip #55 Skipping meals will help you take off a few pounds at first, but after a while your body will start banking calories and after a while your body won’t lose any weight at all.
Weight Loss Tip #56 Always pack a snack with you to work, you don’t when you might feel hungry at the office. Rather than eating junk from outside, keep a healthy snack with you.
Weight Loss Tip #57 Whenever you don’t feel like working out, think about how good it feels after the work out, the feel of accomplishment and the energy flowing through your body.
Weight Loss Tip #58 Putting on your exercise clothes when you don’t feel like it helps motivate you and puts you in the mood for a workout.
Weight Loss Tip #59 If you’re feeling down before a working out, have a soda or coffee, caffeine will speed up your metabolism for a while.
Weight Loss Tip #60 If you walk a lot talk things up a notch, try walking faster, jogging or even adding ankle weights.
Weight Loss Tip #61 There comes a time when diet and exercise stops helping lose weight, in that case increase physical activity. Not only will that add muscle, but also help in fat burning.
Weight Loss Tip #62 Let there be at least a three hour gap between your sleep and workout.
Weight Loss Tip #63 Make sure the exercises your doing are not only popular, but you enjoy doing them as well. Here is a weight loss program with good cardio exercises, people seem to really enjoy doing them.
Weight Loss Tip #64 You can take some sort of strength training, provided the doctor gives the OK. Being stronger will help you lose weight sooner.

Weight Loss Tip #65 Sit-ups, push-ups and pull-ups are part of strength training. I usually like to do modified versions, like doing push-ups on my finger tips.
Weight Loss Tip #66 Aerobic exercise is recommended to be done five days a week, however strength training needs to be done only two or three times a week.
Weight Loss Tip #67 Take a day of rest between strength exercise because your muscles need rest.

Weight Loss Tip #68 Keep your goal realistic, but don’t keep the timeframe of the goal so far off that you may lose focus. For example you may plan to lose weight by the end of two years, after one year you may get tired and stop trying.
Weight Loss Tip #69 Make small changes to your daily routine and become more active. Small changes overtime will make a big difference in the future.
Weight Loss Tip #70 Checking your BMI (Body Mass Index) can help determine how close you are to reaching your goals.
Weight Loss Tip #71 Don’t make a drastic cut in your calorie intake. People make the mistake of doing so, however, it will only cause your weight to stall.
Weight Loss Tip #72 Research has shown that snacking on peanut butter is an effective way to control hunger without leading to weight gain.
Weight Loss Tip #73 You should ask yourself these questions as you begin: Why do you want to lose weight? Are you truly committed?
Weight Loss Tip #74 If you want to lose weight your BAWH must change:
What you eat
How you eat
Weight Loss Tip #75 No matter which way you look at it, 3,500 calories is one pound lost. Whether you take in 500 fewer or burn 500 more calories a day, by the end of the week you’ll be one pound lighter!
Weight Loss Tip #76 Your weight will fluctuate from day to day. Resist the urge to weigh yourself on a daily basis, as doing so will discourage you. Weigh in the same time and day once a week.
Weight Loss Tip #77 Building muscle through strength training brings many benefits, including: increased endurance; flexibility; reduced risk for injury; increased energy; and boosted metabolism.

The Importance of First Aid

If your friend has an accident then the first person there will be the first aider or the person who will help her until others get there. First aid is about using your commonsense in ways that will keep your friend safe without doing harm to her.

Until emergency help arrives, try to control bleeding. If possible, first put on rubber or latex gloves before touching any blood. If these are not available, a clean plastic bag can be used to cover your hands. It is important not to come in contact with blood because of the health risks. If finger or hand pressure is inadequate to control bleeding, place a thick pad of clean cloth or bandage directly over the wound, and hold in place with a belt, bandage, neckties or cloth strips. Take care not to stop the circulation to the rest of the limb. For injuries where a tie cannot be used, such as to the groin, back, chest, head and neck, place a thick pad of clean cloth or bandage directly over the wound and control the bleeding with finger or hand pressure. If bones are not broken, raise the bleeding part higher than the rest of the body. If the injury is extensive, the victim may go into shock and should be treated for it.

Control severe bleeding by applying firm pressure to the wound using a clean, dry dressing and raise it above the level of the heart. Lay the person down, reassure them, keep them warm and loosen tight clothing.

Safety is an awareness of your surroundings and a healthy fear of unstable situations. By its very nature, an emergency is an unstable situation. If everything were truly under control, nothing bad would’ve happened in the first place. If, for example, you see a person struck by a car in a crosswalk, do not rush headlong into the street to see if they’re injured. You will no doubt find yourself lying next to them after being struck by the next car barreling down the road.

For getting them to do something that may have been on their ‘To do’ list for years! Most people know that it would be a good idea to take a first aid course, but sometimes life gets in the way and it is hard to find the time. However, people usually feel happy and relieved once they have learned some lifesaving skills and it improves their confidence and self esteem. If you host a course, you are going to feel great for having had such a positive influence on your family, friends and co-workers!

You can purchase supplies for your travel first aid kit at drug stores, or buy a prearranged kit online. Many travel first aid kits cost under $10. Don’t be afraid to personalize purchased travel first aid kits with any additional supplies like you or you family might need. For example, include a plastic bag with a mild solution of soap and water, along with paper towels for a quick and inexpensive way to wash sticky hands.

It is important to have a first aid kit is because they enable someone who is injured, to be quickly treated with basic first aid, before they can be properly treated at the local hospital. Therefore in an emergency situation, it is recommended someone knows where the nearest first aid kit is located and how to use the contents within it.

Hospital And Nursing Errors

Hospitals across the nation have a legal and moral responsibility to ensure their employees are properly trained to meet patient’s needs. Unfortunately, understaffing and limited funding leads to a hospital staff that is overworked and under-trained. The results can be devastating.

Statistics reveal that more than 1,700 patients have died and nearly 9,500 have been injured because of hospital and nursing errors. Nurses have more patient interaction than doctors, so they are responsible for their nursing duties in addition to communicating a patient’s condition with the doctor. A majority of nursing errors are caused by careless or medical negligence resulting from:

  • Fatigue
  • Inexperience
  • Insufficient training

Dangerous Cost-Saving Hospital Tactics

Because they battle constant funding cuts, many hospitals now rely on machines to monitor patients’ vital signs. If a nurse does not hear an alarm from a monitoring machine, he or she cannot perform the appropriate care and potentially lifesaving action.

Nursing aides have also been hired to assist nurses. However at an average salary of $9 per hour, most aides are students or do not even possess a high school diploma. When these aids are needed to fulfill a higher-paid nurse’s duties, many do not have the expertise. Other cost-saving hospital techniques allow housekeeping staff to perform duties like dispensing medicine, which can lead to a number of mistakes.

Examples of Nursing Errors

Some common types of nursing and hospital errors include:

  • Miscommunication between a nurse and doctor
  • Miscommunication between a nurse and other department
  • Failure to monitor a patient’s condition
  • Anesthesia errors
  • Failure to respond to a crisis or treat a patient in a timely manner
  • Improper use of a medical device
  • Failure to identify and/or treat infections
  • Performing procedures they are not trained to do
  • Pharmaceutical injuries, such as administering the wrong dose or incorrect medication

The Nursing Shortage

Across the United States, there is a significant nursing shortage. A study by the University of Pennsylvania revealed that nurses who worked more than 12.5 hours a single shift were three times more likely to make a patient error than nurses who worked up to 8.5 hours.

The study revealed that 393 nurses worked more than 5,000 shifts. The most common mistakes made were:

  • Errors involving medications (58 percent)
  • Procedural errors (18 percent)
  • Chart-related mistakes (12 percent)
  • Transcription errors (7 percent)

Nationwide, the number of nursing errors among hospitals has constantly risen over the last five years. With hospitals still significantly under-funded, that number is only expected to increase.

A Nurse’s Responsibility

Like doctors, nurses have a responsibility to do no harm. When nurses are negligent in that duty, patients consequently suffer. Sometimes those injuries are minor, sometimes they are fatal. Nursing negligence is completely avoidable, yet all too common in today’s hospitals and clinics. Every year thousands of patients suffer because of a nurse’s failure to follow acceptable practices, orders and standards of care.

Throat, Larynx And Trachea Problems


General inflammations of the throat, associated with redness, swelling, and excessive discharge of mucus, may have many different causes. Most common, of course, is exposure to cold, or an extension of inflammation from the tonsils, the adenoids, or the nose. Excessive use of tobacco, excessive exposure to dust, smoke, and irritating fumes, and sudden changes in temperature, excessive dryness and other atmospheric irritations may all cause irritation of the throat. People who are sensitive to certain food substances sometimes react with blisters on the tissue of the throat, which become secondarily infected and produce irritation and inflammation.

There may be severe pain associated with swelling and inflammation of the throat, including pain in the ears because of blocking of the tube which lead from the nose to the ears; there may also be a sense of fullness or obstruction, with much hawking and spitting.

The first thing to know about any inflammation of the throat is it cause. If the condition happens to be due to diphtheria, prompt action is necessary, including the giving of diphtheria antitoxin. If, however it is due to some other type of germ, other methods of treatment are employed. The pain of an inflamed throat is best relieved by use of an ice bag filled with cracked ice. Most doctors are now convinced that gargles seldom go deep enough in the throat in sufficient quantity or strength to permit them to have much effect in killing germs or in curing disease. To have a definite effect from any antiseptic in the throat, it is necessary to apply it directly to the infected or inflamed part. This is best done by spreading with a cotton swab or by using an atomizer properly. In order to get the antiseptic into the back of the throat it may be necessary to hold the tongue or to use a tongue depressor.

The primary purpose of a mouthwash or throat wash is to clean an soothe. A good cleansing mouthwash is merely salt solution, made by adding a fourth of a teaspoon of salt to a half glass of warm water. If there is much mucus, the addition of a quarter of a teaspoon of bicarbonate of soda or ordinary baking soda may be beneficial.

Acute Tonsillitis

The infection of throat and tonsils often first manifests itself with chill, pain in the head and body, loss of appetite, and fever. The temperature may go up to 103F or 104F. The streptococci are usually the infecting agent, and, since they are practically always present in the nose and throat of people, the explanation seems to be that they grow and multiply every time the resistance is lowered. In epidemics, streptococci from infected food or milk or from the hands of food-handlers are spread about, and attack those who cannot resist. If children have repeated sore throats with infected tonsils, the tonsils may be removed during an intervening period when inflammation is absent.


The larynx, commonly called the voice box, consists of cartilage held together by muscles and ligaments so as to make a tubular structure holding the vocal cords. At its upper end is a structure called the epiglottis, which serves to keep food from going down the larynx and windpipe and causes it to pass instead from the pharynx into the esophagus and stomach.

The chief purpose of the larynx is to aid speech. However, it also is capable of helping with expectoration. When a moving column of air strikes the vocal bands, the column is set in vibration. Speech includes, however, not only the vibration of this column of air but the molding of the column with the help of the tongue, the teeth, the palate, and the lips. If any of these structures does not function properly, the voice can be greatly changed. The adult male possesses a deep voice because of the action of the long vocal cord during its relaxed state. A low-pitched voice is produced by a slow-moving cord, and a high-pitched voice is produced by a vocal cord that vibrates with an increased frequency.

The doctor looks at the larynx by means of several different techniques. For the usual examination he wears a head-mirror which casts light into the mouth. The person who is going to be examined puts out his tongue, which is held out with a piece of sterile gauze. While the tongue is held gently, the patient breathes through the mouth with short gasps of breath. Then the doctor puts a mirror, which has been slightly warmed to prevent condensation of air on its surface, into the back of the throat and requests the patient to ‘say “Ah.” This raises the palate, and  the mirror may be passed a little farther into the throat. By regulating the angle of the mirror the doctor can see the vocal cords. As the patient makes various sounds, the doctor can determine whether or not the vocal cords vibrate properly. He can also see whether or not they have been modified by inflammation or swelling or growth of nodes. For some people who are sensitive the use of a local anesthetic may be necessary to permit passing the mirror into the back of the throat. Technique have also been developed which permit the doctor to look directly al the vocal cords, with instruments designed for the purpose.


Inflammation of the vocal cords may follow overuse of the voice, irritation by chemical substances, or infection. Men, who are more frequently subjected to exposure to irritant substances in their occupations and who indulge more than women in deleterious habits, suffer more from laryngitis than do women. Contributing causes to inflammation of the larynx include the swallowing of hot or spicy foods, the abuse of alcohol and tobacco and similar irritants. Occasionally the larynx becomes inflamed because there is an infection in the throat or the lungs. In fact, any condition that blocks breathing through the nose helps to cause laryngitis, because large amounts of air then pass directly to the larynx without having been modified, as is usual, in passing through the nasal tract.

In serious cases of laryngitis it is customary to go to bed and keep quiet. Nothing helps the vocal cords under such circumstances as much as continuous rest, speaking only in a whisper. The application of an ice bag or ice collar or moist compresses to the throat is soothing. A measure which comes down from ancient history is the inhaling of steam to which various aromatic oils can be added. Nowadays many special devices have been developed that use electrical heat in order to produce such steam for inhaling. These devices are usually much safer than the old-fashioned dish or kettle of hot water. Many instances have been known of severe burns from accidents with open kettles of exceedingly hot water used in this way. For serious laryngitis, particularly that complicated by inflammation or infection, the physician may prescribe many drugs that are helpful in securing rest and in soothing the area concerned.


The scientific name for the windpipe is the trachea. It is often involved in infections of the throat and the bronchial tubes. Any virus or germ that can produce inflammation of the respiratory tract can also cause the lining of the trachea to become infected. It is possible for the experts to see the lining of the trachea by the use of the bronchoscope.

When the lining of the trachea becomes inflamed the most typical symptom is the cough. These coughs are non-productive, hacking, and metallic. They tend to be worse after the person goes to bed and during
the night. An acute inflammation of the trachea is accompanied by rawness, tightness, and discomfort, sometimes even pain, in the lower part of the neck and behind the upper part of the breastbone, or sternum. As the inflammation goes on, there is mucus, and finally a good deal of sputum and mucus may be expectorated. If the infection is purulent, as with the staphylococcus or streptococcus, the material coughed up will be a mixture of mucus and pus.

These conditions can be helped by the usual treatment that is given to other inflammations of the respiratory tract. That means going to bed for a few days, applying warmth, and producing rest by the use of appropriate remedies which the doctor prescribes. Often inhalations of warm vapor treated with medicated oils help to bring relief.

In some instances the acute inflammation of the trachea becomes chronic. In such cases the cough is irritating and frequent. When these symptoms are present it becomes necessary for the doctor to make certain that the patient does not have tuberculosis or any other condition affecting the lungs. In such cases it is customary to prohibit smoking. The use of antiinfectious remedies such as the sulfonamides and penicillin are important, in eliminating infection.

Biomass Pyrolysis


Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of biomass occurring in the absence of oxygen. It is the fundamental chemical reaction that is the precursor of both the combustion and gasification processes and occurs naturally in the first two seconds. The products of biomass pyrolysis include biochar, bio-oil and gases including methane, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide.  Depending on the thermal environment and the final temperature, pyrolysis will yield mainly biochar at low temperatures, less than 450 0C, when the heating rate is quite slow, and mainly gases at high temperatures, greater than 800 0C, with rapid heating rates. At an intermediate temperature and under relatively high heating rates, the main product is bio-oil.

Pyrolysis can be performed at relatively small scale and at remote locations which enhance energy density of the biomass resource and reduce transport and handling costs.  Heat transfer is a critical area in pyrolysis as the pyrolysis process is endothermic and sufficient heat transfer surface has to be provided to meet process heat needs. Pyrolysis offers a flexible and attractive way of converting solid biomass into an easily stored and transported liquid, which can be successfully used for the production of heat, power and chemicals.

Feedstock for Pyrolysis

A wide range of biomass feedstocks can be used in pyrolysis processes. The pyrolysis process is very dependent on the moisture content of the feedstock, which should be around 10%. At higher moisture contents, high levels of water are produced and at lower levels there is a risk that the process only produces dust instead of oil. High-moisture waste streams, such as sludge and meat processing wastes, require drying before subjecting to pyrolysis.

The efficiency and nature of the pyrolysis process is dependent on the particle size of feedstocks. Most of the pyrolysis technologies can only process small particles to a maximum of 2 mm keeping in view the need for rapid heat transfer through the particle. The demand for small particle size means that the feedstock has to be size-reduced before being used for pyrolysis.

Types of Pyrolysis

Pyrolysisprocesses can be categorized as slow pyrolysis or fast pyrolysis. Fast pyrolysis is currently the most widely used pyrolysis system. Slow pyrolysis takes several hours to complete and results in biochar as the main product. On the other hand, fast pyrolysis yields 60% bio-oil and takes seconds for complete pyrolysis. In addition, it gives 20% biochar and 20% syngas.  Fast pyrolysis processes include open-core fixed bed pyrolysis, ablative fast pyrolysis, cyclonic fast pyrolysis, and rotating core fast pyrolysis systems. The essential features of a fast pyrolysis process are:

  • Very high heating and heat transfer rates, which require a finely ground feed.
  • Carefully controlled reaction temperature of around 500oC in the vapour phase
  • Residence time of pyrolysis vapours in the reactor less than 1 sec
  • Quenching (rapid cooling) of the pyrolysis vapours to give the bio-oil product.

Uses of Bio-Oil

Bio-oil is a dark brown liquid and has a similar composition to biomass. It has a much higher density than woody materials which reduces storage and transport costs. Bio-oil is not suitable for direct use in standard internal combustion engines. Alternatively, the oil can be upgraded to either a special engine fuel or through gasification processes to a syngas and then bio-diesel. Bio-oil is particularly attractive for co-firing because it can be more readily handled and burned than solid fuel and is cheaper to transport and store.  Co-firing of bio-oil has been demonstrated in 350 MW gas fired power station in Holland, when 1% of the boiler output was successfully replaced. It is in such applications that bio-oil can offer major advantages over solid biomass and gasification due to the ease of handling, storage and combustion in an existing power station when special start-up procedures are not necessary. In addition, bio-oil is also a vital source for a wide range of organic compounds and speciality chemicals.

Importance of Biochar

The growing concerns about climate change have brought biochar into limelight. Combustion and decomposition of woody biomass and agricultural residues results in the emission of a large amount of carbon dioxide. Biochar can store this CO2 in the soil leading to reduction in GHGs emission and enhancement of soil fertility. In addition to its potential for carbon sequestration, biochar has several other advantages.

  • Biochar can increase the available nutrients for plant growth, water retention and reduce the amount of fertilizer by preventing the leaching of nutrients out of the soil.
  • Biochar reduces methane and nitrous oxide emissions from soil, thus further reducing GHGs emissions.
  • Biochar can be utilized in many applications as a replacement for other biomass energy systems.
  • Biochar can be used as a soil amendment to increase plant growth yield.


Biomass pyrolysis has been attracting much attention due to its high efficiency and good environmental performance characteristics. It also provides an opportunity for the processing of agricultural residues, wood wastes and municipal solid waste into clean energy. In addition, biochar sequestration could make a big difference in the fossil fuel emissions worldwide and act as a major player in the global carbon market with its robust, clean and simple production technology.

How To Apply For A Certificate Of Rehabilitation & Pardon To Expunge Your Record In California

Certificate of Rehabilitation

When a term in state prison has been served, there are two ways to obtain relief:

  1. Certificate of Rehabilitation and Pardon, and
  2. Direct Application for Pardon.

Certificates of Rehabilitation are first sought from the trial court. If a certificate issues, the trial court recommends that the governor grant a pardon. The governor has discretion to grant or deny a pardon.

In order to obtain a Certificate of Rehabilitation, the applicant must have been a California resident for at least three years before filing the petition. There is a period of rehabilitation that is required before filing, but the amount of time varies, depending on the underlying criminal conviction.

Dismissal of the underlying charges pursuant to Penal Code Section 1203.4 is not required before seeking a Certificate of Rehabilitation, so long as the person served a prison sentence. If probation was imposed instead of a prison sentence, dismissal must first be obtained, and the defendant must be free from felony probation.

A Certificate of Rehabilitation is a court order that declares a person who has been convicted of a felony is rehabilitated. If a petition for a Certificate of Rehabilitation is granted, it is forwarded to the Governor by the granting court and constitutes an application for a pardon.

The laws pertaining to the Certificate of Rehabilitation are in California Penal Code sections 4852.01 to 4852.21.

Sex Offenses

Someone who has been convicted in California of a felony or of a misdemeanor sex offense may apply to the superior court in his or her county of residence for a Certificate of Rehabilitation, if accusatory pleading of which has been dismissed pursuant to Penal Code section 1203.4, as specified in California Penal Code section 290 (California Penal Code section 4852.06).

Individuals convicted of Penal Code sections: 286(c), 288, 288a(c), 288.5, and 289(j), however, are prohibited from obtaining a Certificate of Rehabilitation.

A Certificate of Rehabilitation relieves some offenders from the sexual offender registration requirement of Penal Code section 290. California Penal Code section 290.5 sets forth a list of persons not eligible for relief from registration. To determine your 290 registration status, contact the Law Offices of Douglas Slain.


A full pardon restores all of the rights and privileges of which the person was deprived, with some exceptions. For instance, a pardon does not automatically restore any license, permit, or certificate that had been taken as the result of the conviction.

A Governor’s pardon is granted only to individuals who have demonstrated a high standard of constructive behavior following conviction for a felony, or in some cases, for certain specified misdemeanor sex offenses.

Pardon applications are not considered unless an applicant has been discharged from probation or parole for at least ten years and has not engaged in further criminal activity.

The receipt of a Certificate of Rehabilitation will be considered in evaluating a pardon application, but it is not the sole determinant, and the ten-year rule may be waived in truly exceptional circumstances.

Once the threshold criteria has been met, the application will be reviewed to determine whether the applicant has met the standards set forth in California Penal Code section 4852.05, which states: “During the period of rehabilitation, the person shall live an honest and upright life, shall conduct himself or herself with sobriety and industry, shall exhibit a good moral character, and shall conform to and obey the laws of the land.”.

Certificate of Rehabilitation & Pardon

Who may apply?

Persons who are eligible include those who:

  • Were convicted of a felony and served the sentence in a California state prison; and
  • Were discharged on completion of the term or released on parole prior to May 13, 1943; and
  • Have not been incarcerated in a state penal institution since release; and
  • Present satisfactory evidence of three years residence in California immediately prior to the filing of the petition.


  • Were convicted of a felony, or a misdemeanor sex offense specified in Penal Code section 290, the accusatory pleading of which was dismissed pursuant to Penal Code section 1203.4; and
  • Have been discharged or released from custody on probation; and
  • Have not been incarcerated in any penal institution, jail or agency since the dismissal of the accusatory pleading; and
  • Are not on probation for the commission of any other felony; and
  • Present satisfactory evidence of five years residence in California immediately prior to the filing of the petition.


  • Were convicted of a felony on or after May 13, 1943; and
  • Were sentenced to state prison or other institution or agency; and
  • Were discharged from custody or released on parole; and
  • Present satisfactory evidence of five years residence in California immediately prior to the filing of the petition.

Persons who are INELIGIBLE to apply for a Certificate of Rehabilitation include:

  • Those who do not meet the above requirements; or
  • Those who were convicted only of misdemeanors (except those convicted of a misdemeanor sex offense specified in Penal Code section 290, which was dismissed pursuant to Penal Code section 1203.4); or
  • Those who were convicted of Penal Code sections 286(c), 288, 288a(c), 288.5, or 289(j); or
  • Those who are serving a mandatory life parole; or
  • Those committed to prison under a death sentence; or
  • Those persons in the military service.

When to apply?

Persons may file the petition once the period of rehabilitation has passed. The period of rehabilitation begins to run upon the discharge of the petitioner from incarceration due to the completion of the term, or upon release on probation or parole.

The period of rehabilitation constitutes five years residence in California, PLUS:

  • Four years in the case of persons convicted of violation of California Penal Code sections 187, 209, 219, 4500, or 12310, or Military and Veterans Code section 1672(a), or of committing any other offense which carries a life sentence; or
  • Five years in the case of any person convicted of any offense or attempted offense for which sex offender registration is required pursuant to P.C. 290, except for convictions for violations of subdivision (b), (c), or (d) of Section 311.2, or of Section 311.3, 311.10, or 314. For those convictions, two years shall be added to the five years imposed by this section.
  • Two years in the case of any persons convicted of any offense not listed above and which does not carry a life sentence; or
  • The number of additional years ordered by the trial court hearing the application for the Certificate of Rehabilitation in the case of a person serving consecutive sentences.

Rescission of Certificate of Rehabilitation

A district attorney in either the county of conviction or the county of residence may petition the superior court to rescind a certificate, if it was granted for any offense specified in California Penal Code section 290.

Procedures for Applying

The petition must be filed in the superior court of the petitioner’s current county of residence. (California Penal Code section 4852.06.) The petitioner is required to provide notice of filing to the DA in their county of residence, as well as each county in which the petitioner was convicted of a felony, and to the Governor’s office.

All felony convictions, or misdemeanor sex offenses specified in Penal Code section 290, as dismissed under Penal Code sec. 1203.4, should be included. This notice must be sent to the district attorneys at least 30 days before the hearing.

Each person who is eligible to initiate the Certificate of Rehabilitation proceedings is entitled to receive assistance in processing the petition from all rehabilitative agencies, including adult probation officers of the county and state parole agents.  In the case of persons under 30, help can be obtained from the Youth Authority. During the court proceedings, the petitioner may be represented by private counsel of his choosing.

Once a petition is filed, the court may require an investigation by the district attorney of the county of residence of any and all matters pertaining to the petitioner.

At the hearing, the court may require testimony and the production of records and reports pertaining to the petitioner, including information about the conviction offense, and conduct both while incarcerated and since release.

If, after the hearing, the court finds that the petitioner has demonstrated rehabilitation, a certified copy of the Certificate of Rehabilitation is then transmitted to the Governor and becomes an application for a pardon.

The Governor’s office may request a further investigation. Following a review, the Governor may then grant the pardon. If the petitioner has been convicted of more than one felony in separate proceedings, approval must be sought from the state Supreme Court.

Direct Pardon Application

A direct pardon is typically sought by those who are not eligible for a Certificate of Rehabilitation, such as misdemeanants, or by nonresidents.

Any person who has been convicted in California of a felony, or a misdemeanor sex offense specified in Penal Code sec. 290 (the accusatory pleading of which has been dismissed pursuant to Penal Code sec. 1203.4) may apply to the Governor for a pardon.

Applications for pardons may be made in two ways: either an application for a Certificate of Rehabilitation, or through a direct traditional pardon application. The procedure utilized will depend on the circumstances, and it is important to consult with a lawyer to determine which is appropriate.

The Governor has complete discretion in deciding whether to grant a pardon. A pardon is not granted to every person who applies.

Pardon investigations are conducted for the Governor by the California Board of Prison Terms, Investigations Division.

The traditional pardon procedure is used primarily by California ex-felons who reside out-of-state and are therefore unable to satisfy the residency requirement. The traditional pardon procedure is also available to those individuals who have convictions for Penal Code sections 286(c), 288, 288a(c), 288.5, and 289(j). The traditional pardon procedure is covered by California Penal Code sections 4800-4813.

Applicants for a traditional pardon must write directly to the Governor’s Office. A pardon applicant should retain an experienced lawyer to ensure that all of the procedural requirements are met.

The letter should include the following:

  • Why a pardon is needed;
  • Date and circumstances of all offenses of which the applicant was convicted;
  • Dates the applicant served in prison and on probation or parole;
  • Name of the applicant, including any aliases; date of conviction; county and case number of conviction, prison numbers; names of parole agent; current address and telephone number; and
  • A general statement of employment and activities since release from custody.

Upon receipt of the letter, the Governor’s staff will review the information and may send the Application for Executive Clemency and Notice of Intention to Apply for Executive Clemency forms to the applicant.

The applicant should complete the Application for Executive Clemency form and have it notarized. In addition, the Notice of Intention to Apply for Executive Clemency should be served on the District Attorney of each county in which the applicant was convicted of a felony, at least ten days prior to the application.

The Acknowledgment of Receipt portion of the notice form must be completed and signed by the District Attorney. Both the application and the completed notice must then be submitted to the Governor’s Office, along with a full statement of any compensation paid to any person for assisting in the procurement of a pardon.

The Governor will normally refer the application for investigation. After investigation, the applicant is notified of when the Board will be considering his or her case, and he or she is given the opportunity to forward any additional information.

Pardon applicants do not attend the pardon consideration meeting. Following the meeting, the application, investigation report, and the Board’s recommendation are sent to the Governor.

The Governor then reviews all of the information and decides whether to grant a pardon. There is no requirement that the Governor issue a pardon to an applicant, and the length of time needed for the completion of the pardon process cannot be predicted.

Effect of Granting of Certificate or Pardon

When a Certificate of Rehabilitation or pardon is granted, it is is also filed with the Secretary of State and becomes a matter of public record.

Restoration of Rights

The most frequent reason to ask for your rights to be restored is for personal satisfaction, for licensing or bonding purposes, and to restore firearms privileges. Another reason is to enhance employment opportunities.

A pardon does not seal or expunge the record of the conviction. (California Penal Code section 4852.17.) Prior convictions may be considered after the granting of a pardon, if the person is subsequently convicted of a new offense.

An ex-felon becomes eligible to vote after being terminated from probation or discharged from parole. (California Constitution, article 11, section 4.) A pardon is not necessary to be eligible to vote.

A person who receives a pardon may serve on a trial jury.(California Code of Civil Procedure section 203(a)(5) and California Penal Code section 4852.17.)

An ex-felon who receives a full and unconditional pardon can be considered for an appointment to a peace officer position as a county probation officer or state parole agent, but cannot hold other peace officer positions. (California Government Code section 1029.)

If you have not obtained a pardon restoring your firearms rights, and you have access to a firearm of any type, you are in violation of the law. For example, having a firearm registered to a spouse, but readily available to you in your place of residence, is a violation.

A California pardon does not apply to convictions suffered in another jurisdiction. A person convicted in another state or in a federal court must apply for a pardon to the other state or the federal government.

How To Take Dietary Supplements

To take or not to take dietary supplements is entirely dependent on what kind of foods you eat. There are times when our body, even if we eat a lot, still could not get the exact amount of minerals it needs therefore vitamin or mineral deficiency ensues. However, as the case may be, should our body receives too much it simply metabolizes them all, use some minerals, store some others and excrete wasted minerals out from the body provided that you are healthy to begin with.

But more often than not, only few people take in enough minerals everyday. For instance, low hemoglobin means low in iron. For the body to be able to produce enough hemoglobin, it needs iron because along with metabolic processes, it requires utilization of iron. This is the most common mineral deficiency especially here in the Philippines. I, for example, have been suffering iron deficiency for long that is why I have been taking in supplements and here we should discuss how to take supplements.

First thing to keep in mind is to take in doses that you can tolerate. For instance, in my case, I can’t tolerate taking in more than one tablet daily because iron supplements have strong smell that I usually get stomach churns and if I could not contain it, I would go vomiting because of the odor. Other than this reason, the body normally absorbs tolerable dosages as well. This means that the body can absorb better and faster if you take in small doses every time. Since you are taking it as a supplement then it follows that the faster you can absorb it, the better it is to correct deficient amounts in your bloodstream.

Next, always make sure to take your dietary supplements with meal. Dietary supplements are called as such because they just support your diet meaning it is not a form of replacement to your daily meals. Sometimes, vitamins and minerals are best absorbed in the presence of high acid in our stomach. Eating produces large amount of stomach acid because it is the one that will aid in the digestion of food that we eat. Knowing this, it would certainly mean that if your stomach has a lot of acid after eating, it follows that when you take in your dietary supplement, your body can metabolize the mineral easily.

The other thing that you need to remember is that there is never too little when taking dietary supplements. Sometimes, taking supplements would really help maintain a stable healthy lifestyle provided that we follow some health rules too. A healthy lifestyle does not only depend on taking supplements. To keep everything balanced, you need to maintain having healthy exercises or activities, stop vices and eat healthy food. To maintain the balance, you have to put in effort. Like any other things in this life, being healthy is a matter of a person’s will. Taking dietary supplements, no matter how little dose we take in, is already presenting a benefit.

The Price for IVF in Nassau, Bahamas

In vitro fertilization is considered as the most effective ways of artificially conceiving a child.  This is why many couples in advanced or economically well-off countries have resorted to this method if they realize that having a child in the natural way seems impossible.  The problem however is that IVF is an expensive procedure.  Since there is always a possibility of failure, couples are sometimes discouraged to undergo this, bearing in mind that if it fails, it is money down the drain or thrown out of the window.  In the United States, for example, the IVF rate could be as high as $3,500.  Even for those who belong to the middle class, such rate is still costly.

There is an option that couples can take that may not only be cheap and effective; it is enjoyable too. They could go out of the country for a vacation, which is actually called as medical tourism.  This means that they could go somewhere not just to relax to have a romantic getaway; they could also undergo an IVF procedure there too.  One great choice would be Nassau, a city in the Caribbean country, the Bahamas.  Although a small archipelagic country that relies much on tourism only, the Bahamas has a number of modern fertility clinics that could facilitate IVF procedures.

What makes Nassau IVF procedures really attractive is the rate.  The rates are usually 40 percent to 80 percent less than that of the clinics in any state of the U.S.  Couples would therefore only need $1,400 to $2,800 for the procedure. The low cost does not reflect the kind of quality that the service has.  Most of the doctors and health professionals that perform the IVF are trained in North America or in Europe.  Language barrier obviously does not exist between the patient and the attending medical practitioner.  Most of all the accuracy of the process guarantees successful pregnancy.

While couples wait for the procedure to be performed or for it to be completed, they get to be in a very relaxing environment, far from the hustle and bustle of city life.  This means that they are less stressed out.  For the mother, this could help a lot because it makes her physically ready to undergo IVF.  Physical preparedness and emotional stability during the entire time that the IVF is being carried out is necessary.  The atmosphere in a tropical Caribbean island may just provide the mother with that.

Since Bahamas is far and is located hundreds of miles away from the U.S., preparing for the trip financially is definitely a must.  There could be many other things to prepare too, such as travel papers, plane tickets, and hotel reservations.  These should not be much of a trouble though if the couples would just get a travel agency that facilitates medical tourism.  It would be advantageous if they already communicate with a fertility clinic in Nassau even before they take plane to the city.  This would guarantee that they already have a schedule fixed for them.

Parkinson’s Disease – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Many researchers have been working hard of finding a cure for Parkinson’s, but despite the best efforts of scientists from around the world, the search still continues. The good news is, however, that there are treatments available that can do a great deal to relieve the pain experienced by many Parkinson’s patients. Not all patients will need drugs or medication for their condition, and generally these are only recommended if the condition is having a detrimental effect on the patient’s lifestyle. Treatment is based on the amount of disruption caused by the patient´s symptoms, how advanced that patient’s condition is, and how severe the condition has become. There’s no guarantee that medication will help reduce the symptoms, although treatment usually does help to make life more comfortable for the patient.

Causes Parkinson’s disease

What causes PD is not known, there may be genetic causality, but the main pathological process involves degeneration of the SUBSTANTIA NIGRA, which is situated in the basal ganglia and is an area rich in dopamine cells. Dopamine is one of the major neurotransmitters, or naturally occurring chemicals, found in the brain. In PD there is a major depletion of dopamine, especially apparent in the fiber projection from the substantia nigra to the corpus striatum. Dopamine is believed to be the main, but not the only, neurotransmitter involved in PD.

There are some known toxins that can cause parkinsonism, most notoriously a chemical called MPTP, found as an impurity in some illegal drugs. Parkinsonian symptoms appear within hours of ingestion, and are permanent. MPTP may exert its effects through generation of toxic molecular fragments called free radicals, and reducing free radicals has been a target of several experimental treatments for PD using antioxidants.

Early loss of mental capacities is uncommon. However, persons with severe Parkinson’s may have overall mental deterioration (including dementia and hallucinations). Dementia can also be a side effect of some of the medications used to treat the disorder.

Parkinson’s in children appears to occur when nerves are not as sensitive to dopamine, rather than damage to the area of brain that produces dopamine. Parkinson’s in children is rare.

Parkinson’s Disease Symptoms

What are the signs and symptoms of Parkinson’s disease

Tremors — rhythmic movements or shaking, especially in the hands and particularly when they are at rest

Rigid limbs and trunk — muscle tenseness, stiffness, aching, or weakness

Slowness of movement — difficulty beginning a task, such as washing or dressin

Bradykinesia is the phenomenon of a person experiencing slow movements. In addition to slow movements, a person with bradykinesia will probably also have incomplete movement, difficulty initiating movements and sudden stopping of ongoing movement. People who have bradykinesia may walk with short, shuffling steps (this is called festination). Bradykinesia and rigidity can occur in the facial muscles, reducing a person’s range of facial expressions and resulting in a “mask-like” appearanc

Parkinson’s Disease Treatment

Drugs that replace dopamine are the most effective treatment. These drugs are combinations of levodopa, which breaks down in the body to form dopamine, and a chemical that ensures there is the right amount of dopamine in the brain. They are effective at treating symptoms and can provide long-term improvement, although there are some side-effects. These include nausea, dizziness and constipation. Also, they can cause long-term problems such as unwanted movements of the face and limbs (dyskinesia) and they may become less effective over time, with symptoms fluctuating suddenly – often called the on-off syndrome.

Modifying your activities and your home, such as simplifying your daily activities and changing the location of furniture so that you can hold on to something as you move around the house.

Keratosis Pilaris – Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

Keratosis pilaris is a very common benign skin condition appearing as small, whitish bumps on the upper arms and thighs, especially of children and young adults. Individual lesions of keratosis pilaris arise when a hair follicle becomes plugged with keratin, a protein found in skin, hair, and nails. Keratosis pilaris is most obvious during the teenage years. It may also be present in babies and persist into adult life. However, it is uncommon in elderly people. Keratosis pilaris is particularly prevalent in those who are overweight, or have celtic backgrounds, atopic dermatitis or ichthyosis. Keratosis pilaris tends to be more severe during the winter months or other times of low humidity when skin dries out. Although unsightly at times, it is completely harmless.

Many people are bothered by the goose flesh appearance of keratosis pilaris, but it doesn’t have long-term health implications and occurs in otherwise healthy people. Keratosis pilaris usually resolves without treatment. But if you’re concerned about the appearance of your skin, your doctor can help you determine the best course of treatment, which includes self-care measures and medicated creams.


The symptoms of keratosis pilaris are based on the development of small white papules the size of a grain of sand on the upper arms, thighs, and occasionally the buttocks and face. The papules occur around a hair follicle and are firm and white. They feel a little like coarse sandpaper, but they are not painful and there usually is no itching associated with them. They are easily removed and the material inside the papule usually contains a small, coiled hair.

Keratosis pilaris is seen most commonly during childhood and presents as small, rough, raised lesions (papules). These papules are described as “spiny and keratotic” and are typically skin colored. The papules are usually found on the outer surface of the upper arms and thighs, although it may occur elsewhere on the body. The roughness is accentuated by dry skin and the condition is often worse in the winter. It tends to be inherited and may be associated with atopic dermatitis.

Keratosis pilaris can also appear on the face, where it closely resembles acne. The small size of the bumps and its association with dry, chapped skin distinguish keratosis pilaris from pustular acne. Unlike elsewhere on the body, keratosis pilaris on the face may leave small scars. Though quite common with young children, keratosis pilaris can occur at any age. It may improve, especially during the summer months, only to later worsen. Gradually, keratosis pilaris resolves on its own.


Keratosis pilaris is benign, self-limiting, and often disappears with age. It is more common in patients who tend to have very dry skin, or who have atopic dermatitis (eczema). It seems to run in families. In mild cases, small bumps, similar in appearance to “goose bumps,” are found on the backs of the upper arms. The texture is that of very coarse sandpaper.

Most people with keratosis pilaris don’t know they have it. While KP resembles goosebumps, it is characterized by the appearance of small, rough bumps on the skin. Primarily, it appears on the back and outer sides of the upper arms, but can also occur on thighs and buttocks or any body part except palms or soles.


Treatment of keratosis pilaris is not necessary, and unfortunately often has disappointing results. With persistence, most people can get very satisfactory improvement. Initial treatment should be intensive moisturizing. Try a cream such as Acid mantle, Vaseline or Complex 15 after bathing, and re-apply the cream again several times daily.

Danfoss Bd35 or Bd50 Compressor Fault Diagnosis Test

A really good and much under rated feature of the Danfoss BD35 and BD50 compressors are their inbuilt diagnostics function. Before doing anything else with a 12v or 24v fridge that is not working is make sure you test the controller on the Danfoss BD35 or BD50 compressor.  The following testing procedure must be carried out.

1.     Turn off the breaker (or remove the fuse) supplying DC power to the system.

2.     Use a small circuit to link out the thermostat terminals (C & T).

3.     Next, connect a small LED to the small + and the D terminals.

4.     Turn on the breaker (or install the fuse) to the system watching the LED as you do so.

5.     If the compressor fails to start the LED will flash a number of times every four seconds.

Note: The fault code will only be shown when the compressor fails to start or stops.

Interpreting power supply results
Led flashes once     LOW VOLTAGE, This means the voltage is falling below the minimum required at start up (10.5v for 12v systems)

Led flashes twice    This means there is an error with the fan which is drawing more than 1 Amp and causing too much resistance to the compressor on start.  Remove the fan terminals and if the fridge starts replace the fan and problem solved.

Led flashes three times    Compressor has a start error, which normally means indicates that the control unit is faulty.

Led flashes four times    Compressor overload.  System has a blockage, possibly moisture that has entered the refrigeration system or the compressor has siezed

Led flashes five times   Electric overload.  Again this would suggest that something serious is wrong with the system and you should contact your local refridgeration engineer.

(For more details on the fault reporting see manuals section)

Online Pharmacy: No Prescription Needed

Transactions started in about the year 2000, online pharmacies are the same as community pharmacies with the only difference that you buy your required drugs on the internet. Nowadays consumers are more at ease with a click on the medicine websites rather than going to a local drugstore. The reason is that no prior prescription is needed for this transaction. This is leading to a greater attraction of consumers towards internet drugstore. Moreover, there is a wide selection of the most popular medicines for allergies, antibiotics, anxiety, blood pressure, pain relief, skin care, birth control, and so many other drugs at your disposal.

This legal business offer facility like convenience, privacy and safeguards to consumers. In fact, it is the best way for people to get any medication wanted without feeling awkward, ashamed or reluctant. All transactions made on the internet are completely confidential which allow consumers to feel more comfortable to buy.
People go online mainly for health reasons. For them internet drugstores are more advantageous than local drugstore since they can visit many online pharmacies and compare prices before making a final purchase.

In other respects, with no prescription and greater variety of medicines online, consumers are more convenient and reassured to make their transactions. Besides, consumers get access to information and reference on products needed or to other sources more easily compared to a local pharmacy. This enables them to examine and thus make better choices for what they are in need of.

Websites based outside the United States are known to offer medications without prescription or doctor review. Consumers with no prescriptions seeking health products online will definitely get what they require at a much cheaper price. In addition to which they are disposed of an accurate and rapid delivery. Other facilities allocated to consumers is that they are required to pay through major credit cards such as VISA, Master Card and American Express. You can rest assured that every transaction made online is licensed and confidential.

Off-hour ordering is another element to be considered as to why people are getting more attracted to online pharmacy. Since it is a twenty-four hour enterprise, consumers feel more reassurance whenever they feel in need of a medication. Besides, people can ask questions they feel embarrassed of in a local pharmacy online through the internet drugstore.

Consumers are turning more towards online pharmacies for the most evident reason that no prescription is needed for medicines shopping. You have been directed to all the advantages you get in online pharmacy but the reason why people prefer internet drugstores is mainly because you do not need any doctors prescription to buy a medication you require. It is a common, rapid and easier way for you to acquire your needs whenever you want.

Drugs, Alcohol and Self-Destructive Relationships

It is quite common for two addicts or alcoholics to find themselves struggling with relationship addiction because co-dependency accompanied by a drug or alcohol addiction is extremely consuming to those involved.

Drug addiction is epitomised by loneliness and isolation. An addict’s drug and alcohol use makes interaction with un-addicted individuals difficult. Shame and guilt and the need to use makes an addict withdraw from society whilst at the same time being pushed away by their loved ones due to their breaking promises, stealing and general antisocial behaviour.

The relationships
Many recovering addicts and alcoholics speak of their ‘rock bottom’ experience consisting of festering in their place of living for weeks on end with only their best friend to comfort them: their best friend being their drugs and/or alcohol. Finding a similarly afflicted person to share this life of constant drug use and isolation seems to bring a rush of comfort and safety to the desolation that their lives have become. It is common for such a couple to rarely be seen, except when emerging to meet their dealer.

Addicts who meet at the height of their addiction and form a relationship rife with co-dependency is not the only way relationship addiction progresses. Two addicts who are not yet in the worst stages of their addiction may become involved with each other, and experience their addiction worsening as their relationship shows increasing signs of relationship addiction and co-dependency. As their drug use spirals out of control and they find their addiction progressing through using harder drugs, they often begin to withdraw from friends and family and only want to spend time with their partner.

Why do addicts become involved in these relationships?
Scientists have stated for years that similar energies attract each other. The same seems to happen in humans – those in a similar state of mental health or sickness attract each other. This is why it is very common for two drug addicts to be involved in a relationship. Addicts are extremely sick people – their mental state is very ill, attracting unhealthy partners.

It is unlikely for a very healthy individual with a firm grasp of emotions, responsibilities and coping skills to be attracted to a heroin addict for example, who has no grasp of emotional and mental maturity. However, two unhealthy individuals in a relationship spells disaster as the relationship becomes based on drug use, co-dependency and unhealthy needs being met.

To a drug addict, their drugs and using are the most important things in their life. Family and friends are avoided as they are sure to disapprove of the drug use and hinder the addict from using. Responsibilities that interfere with their addiction are ignored, no matter what the consequence. Everything of importance falls away in favour of drug use. Addiction is extremely lonely as addicts push everyone close to them away to allow themselves to use drugs easily and without hindrance.

Addicts often use drugs together and their inebriated state lowers inhibitions, making sexual encounters far more likely to occur. Also, when an addict is under the influence of drugs, euphoric emotions are felt, often leading users into feeling emotions for those close to them.

What can be done
Addiction is a disease which is progressive, incurable and all encompassing. Alcohol, drugs, co-dependency, relationship addiction and other obsessive and compulsive behaviours need to be stopped before recovery can begin. An addict is an emotionally wrecked individual by the time that they begin attempts to cease their addictive behaviours. Often an addict will only cease one addiction and continue with others, which always leads them to relapse, especially if they simply stop without counselling or help from a support system. The key to managing an addiction is abstinence plus change.

Rehabilitation at an addiction counselling centre is highly recommended for addicts in a co-dependent and drug or alcohol fuelled relationship – especially as the couple will need to be separated. Relationships based upon unhealthy needs rarely become healthy and most will not survive if one or both individuals involved has a true desire to recover from their addiction. Once all addictive behaviours are ceased, co-dependency and addictions counselling on a group and individual level will help the addicts in question to deal with their feelings which they avoid through addictive behaviours.

A Twelve Step Programme is a daily programme of recovery, allowing addicts to manage their disease on a day to day basis and cope with a good support system.

Relationships based on drug or alcohol abuse or any other addictive behaviour are extremely unhealthy and are quite a force to be reckoned with. Seeking help from counselling and a Twelve Step Programme to cease the obsessive and compulsive nature of the disease is a successful method of managing the illness on a daily basis. Co-dependency and relationship addiction are dangerous illnesses which can be arrested allowing the sufferer to regain a normal life after counselling and treatment.

Medicine in the Victorian Age

The beginning of the Victorian age was characterized by steady population growth with a new look on medicine and a fresh approach to science.

During the Victorian age, physicians used the new science of optics in the form of microscopes to confirm the existence of bacteria, the main cause of many deadly illnesses.

Numerous educated people began to believe the presence of bacteria and germs and started taking preventive measures. Various paradigms, ideas, concepts, theories and philosophies were systematically tested for the first time by the large number of inquisitive and qualified physicians educated in the new schools of this time period.

The Victorian medicine enhanced the not only the level of comfort and quality of life during this period, but also blazed a new path for the upcoming generations.

During this era, the surgeons and doctors frequently received high rank and prestige in any society.

Elizabeth Blackwell, the first college educated female physician in Western history graduated in this time, and Florence Nightingale revolutionized the field of nursing.

Even with all this new medical knowledge being discovered at high speed, most of the people in the Victorian age still relied on home remedies, herbal treatments and homemade prescriptions.

Health suggestions were given either by a household manual or by word of mouth. Matrons, heads of households and frequently servants had adequate medical knowledge and remedies for minor ailments.

Even in affluent neighborhoods where the residents could afford doctors at will at least one member of any household would be well versed in herbal medicine.

People would frequently lance boils, sooth coughs and make poultices for wounds at home.

This home-grown confidence and knowledge served both as an alternative to and ongoing support for professional aid.

Common treatments given to people during the Victorian age included bleeding, purging, plastering, sweating, amputation and blistering.

These techniques are not often found in use today, but at the time helped many people alleviate symptoms of a variety of painful disorders.

Plastering was a treatment that used a paste made from a range of ingredients including mud or plaster and then applying such substances in the affected area of the patient to relieve internal pain or cold.

Bleeding was done in an attempt to relieve high blood pressure, sweating was thought to expel poisons from the body, and amputation was possible for the first time as a viable alternative to gangrene.

Poultices were also used for bites, boils and wounds. Poultice ingredients could be as commonplaces as milk and bread to exotic herbs and cow manure.

Purging involved providing a patient with heavy dose of emetics or laxatives to expel “poisons” from an individual’s body.

Surgery in the Victorian age became more sophisticated and safer through the usage of antiseptic medicines and the beginnings of aseptic technique.

However, during this time while these developments were welcomed, many remained dependent on household manuals for everyday medical treatment.

These historical home remedies occasionally even offer symptom relief from various chronic ailments even today.