Bell’s Palsy – Definition, Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Bell’s Palsy is facial paralysis, normally affecting one side of the face, and can last from a number of weeks to a number of years. It is the most common cause of facial paralysis. Bell’s palsy is a diagnosis of exclusion; in many cases, no specific cause can be ascertained. The condition may result in a droopy appearance of your face. Bells palsy is not as uncommon as is generally believed. Worldwide statistics set the frequency at approximately .02% of the population (with geographical variations). This can be a blow to your self-esteem, but most often Bell’s palsy isn’t serious. In human terms this is 1 of every 5000 people, and 40,000 Americans every year. The facial nerve (seventh cranial nerve) has 2 components. The larger portion comprises efferent fibers that stimulate the muscles of facial expression. The smaller portion contains taste fibers to the anterior two thirds of the tongue, secretomotor fibers to the lacrimal and salivary glands, and some pain fibers. Viral infections such as herpes, mumps, or HIV, and bacterial infections such as Lyme disease or tuberculosis can cause inflammation and swelling of the facial nerve that causes Bell’s palsy.

Bells palsy is more prevelant than generally believed. Bells palsy should not cause any other part of the body to become paralyzed, weak or numb. Most people either wake up to find they have Bells palsy, or have symptoms such as a dry eye or tingling around their lips that progress to classic Bell’s palsy during that same day. Occasionally symptoms may take a few days to be recognizable as Bells palsy. The degree of paralysis should peak within several days of onset – never in longer than 2 weeks (3 weeks maximum for Ramsey Hunt syndrome). Other symptoms may include pain or discomfort around the jaw and behind the ear, ringing in one or both ears, headache, loss of taste, hypersensitivity to sound on the affected side, impaired speech, dizziness, and difficulty eating or drinking. Bell’s palsy occurs when the nerve that controls the facial muscles is swollen, inflamed, or compressed, resulting in facial weakness or paralysis. Although most patients (60–80%) recover completely from Bell’s palsy within several weeks, some require several months, and others may be left with deficits of varying degrees.

The most important factor in treatment is to eliminate the source of the nerve damage. Surgical procedures to decompress the facial nerve have been attempted, but have not been proven beneficial. Facial massage and exercises may help prevent permanent contractures (shrinkage or shortening of muscles) of the paralyzed muscles before recovery takes place. Moist heat applied to the affected side of the face may help reduce pain. Other therapies that may be useful for some individuals include relaxation techniques, acupuncture, electrical stimulation, biofeedback training, and vitamin therapy (including vitamin B12, B6, and zinc), which may help nerve growth. In some cases, a small dose of botulinum toxin can be injected into the Treatment may involve steroid and anti-viral therapy. Painkillers may also be required. It’s important to protect the eye from drying, which may result in infection and ulceration. For others, treatment may include medications such as acyclovir — used to fight viral infections — combined with an anti-inflammatory drug such as the steroid prednisone — used to reduce inflammation and swelling.

Treatment for Bell’s Palsy Tips

1. Surgical procedures to decompress the facial nerve have been attempted, but have not been proven beneficial.

2. Facial massage and exercises may help prevent permanent contractures (shrinkage or shortening of muscles) of the paralyzed muscles before recovery takes place.

3. Moist heat applied to the affected side of the face may help reduce pain.

4. Other therapies that may be useful for some individuals include relaxation techniques, acupuncture, electrical stimulation, biofeedback training, and vitamin therapy (including vitamin B12, B6, and zinc).

5. A small dose of botulinum toxin can be injected into the Treatment may involve steroid and anti-viral therapy.

6. Painkillers may also be required. It’s important to protect the eye from drying, which may result in infection and ulceration.

7. Treatment may include medications such as acyclovir used to fight viral infections combined with an anti-inflammatory drug such as the steroid prednisone.

Stammering solution

Hello,

I am 27 year old person, named M Z Shah. I used to suffer from this dreadful disorder, Stammering. Because of it, i have struggle a lots and also missed lots of opportunities that came to my way. I know how is to be being stammer while you talked because I personally had the same situation in my life.

I have tried many others ways like speech therapy, to overcome the stammering. They are hugely charged for a session about 69$ per hour. The people who treat me are not the one who suffered from the stammering. So, it got hard to understand for them that how we feel the problems.At last, I end up spending a lots of money without getting the results from it.

Now, I can talked fluently without stammering. I felt very satisfactory with the result. Bieng suffered from the stammering, i know how you people felt about it.Personally, I want to share the solution for the stammering and bring a good cause.

This E-book has given the proper way to overcome the stammering permanently from your life.Today I can talked fluently like others and having good time.

  • How do i overcome the stammering for lifetime?

I have tried many solution for it, but I cant get the result from it. So i came across this E-book that explain how I can take control of stammering. Here, i have describe the some of tips that would help you to overcome from it.

For more info at http://stammeringsolution.blogspot.com/

Nine Famous Americans Who Stutter

Statesman THOMAS JEFFERSON is one of the great figures of American history. But he had two serious handicaps – He was a painfully shy man and he had a high-pitched, low voice with a very bad stammer. But he still achieved great things in his life.  

Hollywoood star BRUCE WILLIS was amazed that he launched a successful acting career, because he had a bad stammer as a child. He is quoted in a magazine article as saying. He was one of the fortunate people who grew out of it. And when he was in college he worked with a speech therapist. Who gave him some exercises to work on.    

MARILYN MONROE’s little girl lost breathy style of speaking could very well have been her way of modifying her stammering. It is widely thought she had lessons from a speech coach to use exaggerated mouth movements and a breathy and affected  style of talking to stop her stammering.  

Singer CARLY SIMON has said in interviews she still can’t read in public without stuttering.  And admits she still can’t read aloud.  At times she couldn’t say H’s,and  sometimes she had trouble saying S’s and other times that it was T’s.  Carly feels  that trying to keep her stuttering secret had a large part to play in her crippling stage fright, which has hampered her stage appearances.

JULIA ROBERTS and her fellow Heroes actor brother ERIC ROBERTS  were both childhood stammerers.
American charity Stuttering Foundation of America (SFA) explained in their recent newsletter that they both suffered from the speech affliction as children.
“The  two Roberts siblings  both stuttered as children and ironically give credence to the factor of the heredity/genetic link in the stuttering equation. [They have] no doubt inspired young people with the problem,” wrote the newsletter.

JAMES EARL JONES refused to speak more than a few words at a time, even to his family. And in school he pretended to be mute, and communicated only in writing.While he was in high school a teacher challenged James to recite  a poem in front of the class.He committed the verses to memory, And James found he could speak without stuttering. He then went on to compete in high-school debates and actually won  a public-speaking contest.

 HARVEY KEITEL hates people who try to silence his young son Roman when he starts to cry, because he believes his own stutttering problems come from being hushed as a child.He told interviewers, “I will not let anyone tell my son not to cry. I don’t want anyone to interfere with his expressing what he’s feeling.He is quoted as saying “As a kid I was told to hush and, as a result, it’s taken me a lifetime to be able to speak. “I had to hide it (tears) – you hammer it down until you can’t think anymore, you can’t speak anymore, and your inner world is in retreat. “You can’t function, and you stutter, which I did as a boy. You will stutter not only vocally, but inwardly. You will hesitate, you will fumble, you will futz.”

SAMUEL. L JACKSON the Pulp Fiction star attended public speaking classes to cure himself. And later won a part in a college musical. He changed his major to drama. And the rest is history. He went on to be a huge star appearing on TV and Hollywood movies.

If you are stutterer or stammerer or a friend or relative of a stammerer, there are many websites to find out more or to get help.
One such website is http://stammerinfo.yolasite.com  This website has information,advice,self help and inspirational videos as well as links to other stuttering websites that can help.  

Adenovirus, what’s that?

Adenoviruses are viruses affecting both humans and animals and were initially isolated in human adenoids ( tonsils ) — hence the name. The infections caused by these viruses tend to cause illnesses mainly in your toddlers’ respiratory system. Children between the ages of 6 months and 2 years are most commonly susceptible to these infections.

The common cold is the most typical example of an upper respiratory tract infection. A pharyngoconjunctival fever involves sore throat, red eyes with fever. This is another commonly occurring adenoviral infection.

Other adenoviral infections may include:

  • Sore throat
  • Ear infections
  • Tonsillitis
  • Conjunctivitis

Your toddlers and the virus

Toddlers spend their time touching their mouths, noses and eyes throughout the day. They can often be observed running around with runny noses and afterwards, suffering from occasional fevers. The two causes are not unrelated—the one leads to the other. This is because viruses tend to survive on surfaces which your toddlers touch and easily enter their bodies through contamination.

Preventive measures:

  • Make sure kids cover their noses when they sneeze and cough.
  • Wash their hands before and after play and otherwise as frequently as possible.
  • Wash the surfaces they come in contact with — avoid contamination.

Treatments

It is important to remember that antibiotics are not useful in this situation. Although there is no cure for common cold, there are ways of making your toddlers comfortable and relieving them of their symptoms with the help of the following techniques.

  • Moisturizing nasal drops
  • Decongestants
  • Cough suppressants
  • Giving them plenty of fluids to drink

How to Cure Sinusitis With Natural Sinus Treatment

The sinuses are air-filled spaces within the bones of the face and skull.  They are lined by mucous membrane and connect with the nasal cavity through small channels. The sinuses may become infected whenever an infection is present in the nose and throat, such as occurs in the common cold, influenza, ect.  The normal drainage channels from the sinuses become blocked by the infection, and this may also cause the sinuses to become infected.  People who do a lot of swimming, diving, snorkeling, or scuba diving are also prone to develop sinus trouble. Any poor health habits such as eating an unhealthy diet, lack of proper exercise, uncleanliness, lack of fresh air, or an inadequate fluid intake may prolong sinus trouble.SymptomsPain over the sinuses, sometimes becoming very severe, aching eyes, discharge from the nose or down the throat, low-grade fever, headache, running eyes and nose.The symptoms may be very similar to those seen in hay fever, which, however, is usually due to an allergic condition.  In fact, the two diseases frequently occur at the time.The Natural Treatment:

The only cure is to thoroughly cleanse the body of all poisons; then there will be no sinus trouble.Remove the causes.  Stay of a fruit juices diet for 4 or 5 days.  Drink them separately: oranges, grapefruit, lemons (diluted in water), pineapples, and grapes (all unsweetened).Medicinal Herbs:
 
– Plantain:Good for healing external and internal skin and membranes and will clear the head of mucous.”Side Effects”It’s an antiseptic healing substance especially of the skin.  It is also a diuretic.- Bayberry bark:It cleanses and heals the sinuses of all putrid matter.”Side Effects”It’s very good when sick with a cold or flu.  It heals stomach and throat membranes.- Golden Seal:It’s great for stomach problems and nausea.  One of the best remedies of all the herbs.  It seems like a cure all because it kills and neutralizes poisons.

Get Rid of Stuffy Nose

Stuffy nose or running nose is common problems that are experienced by everyone and usually many times a year. You might have running nose because of cold, flu or seasonal allergies. Whenever the winter starts, most of the people fall prey from the problem of cough and cold.

Most of us have common notion that stuffy nose is due to thick mucus in the nasal passage. A stuffy nose can be caused by any of illness but it can be generally caused by two problem- bacterial sinusitis and fungal sinusitis.

It may associate with some symptoms but the most irritating one is stuffy nose. Whenever you have stuffy nose you may feel difficulty in breathing and sleeping becomes torture. It may also associate a kind of heaviness feeling in head. As it takes time to go away but you can help you to get rid of this problem by using some simple home remedies.

Here are some effective tips that can help you to relief from running nose and breathe more easily.

  • Try to avoid eating foods that are rich in sugar and carbohydrates, as they aggravate the problem of stuffy nose.

  • Take some cardamom seeds and crush them. Now, put it in the handkerchief. Tie it properly and place it near the pillow it will prove helpful in relieving stuffy nose.

  • Best thing to get rid of stuffy nose is to avoid tobacco and smoking. Cigarette smoking can damage the lining of sinuses and cause swelling in the sinus membranes. Many smokers’ suffer from chronic sinusitis.

  • Saltwater rinses and saline sprays can prove helpful in keeping the mucus thin and thus helpful to get rid of irritants. You can buy many nasal sprays from any of the drug store or you can either make it at home. To make the spray you need to dissolve the ½ teaspoon salt in 2 cup of warm water. Now, use the suction bulb to place the solution in your nose and put some of the warm salt water in cup of your hand and sniff it up. You can do it once with one of your nostril.

  • You can take hot chicken soup when you’re suffering from a cold because it gives you the energy and calming feeling to continue on.

  • Put 1 tbsp apple cider vinegar in 8 oz. water. Add two pinches of salt. Shake it well and put 2-3 drops into each nostril, it is an effective remedy to get rid of stuffy nose.

Detailed Information on Multiple System Atrophy

MSA is also known as Shy-Drager syndrome. Multiple System Atrophy (MSA) is an adult-onset disease with features of Parkinsonism, autonomic dysfunction, urinary dysfunction and cerebellar ataxia. Patients with MSA have more widespread damage to the autonomic nervous system, the part of the nervous system that controls involuntary functions. The disorder is characterized by postural hypotension. Other symptoms may include stiffness and rigidity, loss of balance and coordination, impaired speech, breathing and swallowing difficulties, blurred vision, male impotence, constipation, and urinary difficulties.

Multiple system atrophy affects about twice as many men as women. MSA has been classified clinically into three types, the first of which primarily affects balance, coordination, and speech; a form which can parallel Parkinson’s disease because of slow movement and stiff muscles; and a mixed cerebellar and parkinsonian form. MSA results from degeneration of several parts of the brain and spinal cord. The basal ganglia (collections of nerve cells at the base of the cerebrum, deep within the brain), which help control voluntary muscle movements by balancing the actions of muscle groups that move the same muscles in opposite ways.

The cerebellum, which coordinates voluntary movements and helps maintain balance. Areas that manage the autonomic nervous system, which moderates involuntary body processes, such as how blood pressure changes in response to changes in posture. Nerve cells that encourage muscle action (motor neurons) in the cerebellum, basal ganglia, and spinal cord. There is no specific treatment for nerve degeneration in MSA. The goal of treatment is to control symptoms. Anticholinergic medications may be used to decrease early or mild tremors. Levodopa may improve movement and balance.

Dopamine and anticholinergic drugs may be prescribed to treat spasms. Orthostatic hypotension may be treated with flucortisone and other drugs that elevate blood pressure. Increased dietary fiber intake or use of laxatives may relieve constipation, and drugs or a penile implant may aid with male impotence. A routine of stretching and exercise can help retain muscle strength and range of movement. An artificial feeding tube or breathing tube may be surgically inserted for management of swallowing and breathing difficulties. Speech therapy is often useful to improve swallowing and communication.

Cataracts and vision loss

One quarter of all people in the UK aged over 75 will develop cataracts and after the age of 50 your chances of having cataracts really begin to increase. A cataract causes damage to the eye lens and the only available treatment to restore vision damaged by cataracts is the removal of the cataract and the damaged eye lens. Cataract surgeons then replace the natural eye lens with an intraocular lens to restore vision.

What is a cataract and what causes cataracts?

A cataract damages the eye lens, distorting the way light enters the eye and causing vision to become cloudy.

The eye lens works like a camera: light enters the eye and is sent in a clean line backwards through the eye to the retina. From the retina, electrical images are sent to the brain and these images are what we see.

When the eye lens becomes clouded by a cataract, light defracts as it enters the eye, sending fractured images towards the retina. The images we see become distorted or ‘cloudy’.

Cataracts are caused by a build up of proteins in the eye. These proteins gradually clump together and damage the eye lens. The longer a cataract is left untreated the more proteins that cloud the lens and the more damaged vision becomes.

Cataracts area common problem for people over the age of 50 – with 1 in 4 UK patients developing a cataract in a lifetime. Cataracts develop gradually with age but can also be caused by damage to the eye or as the result of a genetic problem in the case of congenital cataracts.

Different types of cataract can damage different parts of the eye lens and more than one cataract can develop at once. Cataracts commonly occur in both eyes at the same time.

What are the symptoms of a cataract?

The most common symptoms of cataracts are blurred or cloudy vision, difficulty in seeing bright colours, seeing halos or glare around bright lights and poor night vision. Cataracts symptoms will vary according to the type of cataract. As the cataract develops, symptoms of blurred, cloudy vision will increase and vision deteriorates.

How do cataracts develop and progress?

Once a cataract starts to develop, the condition will get worse over time. The speed a cataract develops will vary between patients but the more advanced a cataract becomes the more damage is caused to eye sight.

How are cataracts diagnosed?

Cataracts must be diagnosed by a qualified opthalmologist. The symptoms of cataract may be similar to those of another eye condition and it is important patients have a consultation with an eye clinic before booking cataract operations online.

To diagnose a cataract the opthalmologist will perform a series of eye tests:  a visual acuity test, pupil dilation test and a tonometry test. These tests can diagnose a cataract in the very early stages of cataract development which is why regular eye tests are strongly recommended, especially for people aged over 65.

What is recovery like after cataract surgery and what results can I expect?

Cataract surgery is performed as an outpatient operation. The surgery is complete within one hour and patients are able to return home the same day.

Immediately after cataract surgery, vision will be blurred due to the eye drops used to dilate and numb the eye for surgery. Patients are generally prescribed eye drops to protect the eye from infection as it heals and the new replacement lens settles in the eye. It is important that patients try to avoid irritating the eye until fully healed and waering an eye patch while sleeping can prevent rubbing the eye and causing a problem.

The recovery from cataract surgery is fast – most patients feel only a slight ache in the eye for one-two days post-surgery.

The results of cataract surgery are excellent with 95% of patients reporting an immediate improvement in their sight*. Patients can expect an end to blurred vision, annoying glare and halos from bright lights and an improvement in night vision.

What are the risks and complications of cataract surgery?

As one of the most commonly performed ophthalmology procedures, cataract surgery enjoys a very low complication rate and the surgical risks are low. However, as with all surgery it’s important to understand the risks and complications surrounding cataract surgery to help you make appropriate arrangements for the recovery period.

Frequently asked questions about cataracts

Will you be able to see or feel anything during cataract surgery? How long will the new lens last? You can find the answers to the most often asked questions about cataracts and cataract surgery by visiting our cataract FAQ page.

*statistics from NHS Choices

General Side Effects Of Laser Trabeculoplasty

When a doctor usually recommends having laser trabeculoplasty this is typically due to a diagnosis of glaucoma in the optic nerve of the eye which is caused by intraocular pressure present. Depending on the stage of this pressure, doctor may recommend a few therapeutic treatments before suggesting laser trabeculoplasty. However, if this becomes one of your options, there are a few general side effects of laser trabeculoplasty that you need to be aware of when contemplating this surgical procedure.

Before we can discuss the side effects of this surgery, perhaps we should go over just what it entails. When the doctor makes a recommendation as such this will usually mean that other remedies have been ruled out. Thereby this form of laser treatment is used to lower the intraocular pressure, which occurs inside the eyeball, which causes glaucoma.

Initially, when diagnosed with glaucoma, most patients or doctors will opt to start with the daily eye drops as a form of therapy. However, laser trabeculoplasty can also be used as a form of the primary treatment for patients who may have an adverse reaction to the eye drop medication.

This option either will come up if the patient has already attempted to administer the eye drops according to the prescription or if the patient knows beforehand the potential side effect of the eye drop medication and chooses to bypass opting for the surgery instead.

Once the decision has been made to proceed with laser surgery, there are minimal after care effects to be aware of such as blurred vision that can last from an hour to the next day. The patient will have to also understand that even though they may opt for the laser surgery, the surgery is not permanent and quite possibly will eventually need to some type of medication.

If choosing to go with laser trabeculoplasty, it is considered to be a safer option versus using medications along since there are no noted systemic side effects as in just using eye drop medicine.

Sleep Disorders in Blind People

Did you know that 8 out of 10 blind people suffer from some kind of sleep disorder?

It’s true. Totally blind people (those who cannot perceive light), and many other groups of vision impaired people such as those with achromotopsia (complete color-blindness) and photophobia (extreme light sensitivity) often experience problems falling or staying asleep.

Researchers believe around half of all these blind people may suffer from some kind of serious circadian rhythm disorder.

Non-24-hour-sleep-wake-disorder is the common name for the problem many blind people have. A normal person’s body clock functions on a 25-hour sleep pattern – this is called a circadian rhythm. The transformations of light between day and night produce melatonin in our bodies, which regulate our sleep cycles and automatically reset our body clock to the normal, 24-hour cycle.

But totally blind people, and those with other vision difficulties, struggle with this cycle, because their brain doesn’t receive the message to produce melatonin to regulate the sleep cycle. So a blind person’s sleep cycle tends to fall around 25-hours.

A blind person may sleep normally one night, when their clock is in sync with the day, and then, as the month progresses, even though they go to bed at the same time, it will take them longer and longer to fall asleep. This is known as “free-running”.

This constant free-running of a 25-hour rhythm in a 24 hour day means many blind people feel drowsy and fatigued during the day. For some, this leads to symptoms of depression.

Researchers have found that a daily does of melatonin helps the body to regulate the sleep cycle and people who suffer from non-24-hour-sleep-wake-disorder can experience normal sleep.

The key to successfully taking a melatonin supplement is finding the right time of day to take it, as well as the correct dose. This is the subject of ongoing research by scientists at University of Surrey. The longer your circadian rhythm cycle is, the more difficulty you will have entraining to the 24-hour sleep cycle.

With continued research into the affects of melatonin, found in many herbal sleeping pills, will help put an end to the sleep disorders experienced by people who are blind.

For more information about sleep problems and insomnia cures you can visit the Sleep and Insomnia Guide

Dogs & Myopia (nearsightedness)

Optical measurements of dogs’ eyes have found a surprising incidence of myopia in some breeds. A study of about two hundred dogs by a veterinarian named Christopher J. Murphy and his colleagues found the average canine refractive error to be pretty close to normal (within a quarter of a diopter of perfect, an amount that would not provoke any person to get glasses). Several breeds of sporting dogs, such as Chesapeake Bay retrievers, golden retrievers, Labrador retrievers, cocker spaniels, and springer spaniels, were on average a bit farsighted. But two-thirds of Rottweiler and half of German shepherds and miniature schnauzers in this study were significantly myopic, by more than 1.5 diopters. The myopic Rottweilers were close to 3 diopters nearsighted on average. Generally, people who have more than about 0.75 diopters of nearsightedness will complain of noticeable impairment and find they need to wear glasses or contact lenses to function in everyday life.

The animals in this study population were all pets. Interestingly, when Murphy and his coworkers looked at a second population of German shepherds – animals kenneled at Guide Dogs for the Blind in San Rafael, California – they found that the guide dogs had average normal vision, with fewer than a third showing even as much as 0.5 diopters of nearsightedness. The guide dog program did not specifically test dogs’ vision in selecting animals, but they did flunk out any dogs that failed to perform well in training, which suggests that myopia results in a real impairment in getting the job done. The average farsightedness of sporting dog breeds suggests that there has likewise been selection at work in these breeds – that good distance vision has a demonstrable effect on making a good working dog.

The researchers noted a tendency for severe nearsightedness to run in families, which suggests a strongly inherited component. In breeds that are not expected to perform anything more demanding than lying on the carpet, walking on a leash, and finding their supper bowl, there has no doubt been little selection for good vision, which has allowed myopia to sneak into the gene pool.

There are distinct breed differences in peripheral vision and overall field of view as well. Human eyes look straight ahead, giving us just about a 180-degree field of view, but with a lot of overlap between left and right eyes. Animals can see in true 3-D vision only when they use both eyes together, and the overlap in the human visual field thus maximizes the region in which we can perceive depth by using this binocular vision. The eyes of dogs are turned a bit to the side, which allows them to see a bit to the rear, with a wider overall field of vision.

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High Myopia Surgery,High Myopia Treatment,High Myopia Surgery

Myopia (Nearsightedness) Surgery

Several types of surgery for nearsightedness (myopia) are available to change the shape of the cornea and refocus light directly on the retina. However, surgery cannot correct pathological myopia.

The goal of surgery is to allow people who are nearsighted to see clearly without corrective lenses or to be less dependent on corrective lenses. Most doctors consider 20/40 vision or better after surgery a satisfactory result. People with 20/40 vision or better are allowed to drive a car without corrective lenses. Overall, most people who have surgery achieve 20/40 vision or better after surgery.

Laser surgeries include:

* LASIK (laser in-situ keratomileusis), which is currently the most commonly used corrective surgery for nearsightedness in the United States. LASIK has a high success rate and low complication rate for low to moderate nearsightedness. It may also be used to correct more severe nearsightedness. In general, it requires less healing time, is less painful, and offers a faster visual recovery than photorefractive keratectomy (PRK).

* PRK (photorefractive keratectomy) and LASEK (laser epithelial keratomileusis), which are similar surgeries. They are another type of corrective surgery for nearsightedness that is used frequently. Like LASIK, PRK and LASEK have high success rates and low complication rates for low to moderate nearsightedness. They may be used instead of radial keratotomy (RK) to correct severe myopia.

RK (radial keratotomy)

Radial keratotomy (RK) is very successful and safe for people who have mild to moderate nearsightedness (less than 3 diopters). Although it is still used in some cases, it has been replaced in most cases by LASIK and PRK.

Corneal ring implants

This type of surgery to correct mild nearsightedness was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2004. It uses corneal ring implants to change the shape of the cornea.

Intraocular lens implants

Intraocular lens implants (IOLs) may be used to correct severe myopia. IOLs, also called implantable contact lenses (ICLs), have been shown to be a safe and effective means of correcting moderate to severe myopia.

Surgery Choices

Laser surgery for nearsightedness changes the shape of the cornea to refocus light directly on the retina. There are three main types of laser surgery used to treat nearsightedness.
LASIK (laser in-situ keratomileusis) makes a small flap in the cornea and removes some of the tissue exposed by the flap.

PRK (photorefractive keratectomy) and LASEK (laser epithelial keratomileusis) use a laser to reshape the cornea. The laser is applied to the cornea after the surface layer has been removed.

Radial keratotomy (RK) uses several incisions on the cornea to change the curve of the cornea over the pupil.

Other types of surgery for nearsightedness involve the surgical placement of implants to either change the shape of the cornea or replace or assist the eye’s natural lens.

Corneal ring implants are clear pieces of acrylic that can be surgically implanted to flatten the cornea and reduce nearsightedness.

Intraocular lens implants replace the eye’s natural lens with a clear plastic implant.

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Myopia

Myopia is commonly known as nearsightedness. It means you have difficulty seeing things that are far away. With myopia you can see clearly up close unless you have another condition that affects your close vision, such as presbiopia or astigmatism. Most myopia begins in childhood, but some factors can cause myopia to develop later in life. In adults, myopia can be corrected with laser eye surgery including LASIK.

Myopia and Your Cornea

Your cornea bends light as it enters your eye. A properly shaped cornea focuses that light on the retina. If you are nearsighted your cornea is either too curved or your eye is too long, causing the light to focus in front of the retina. When the light reaches your retina it has started to spread out again and the image is blurry.

Eyeglasses for nearsightedness have concave lenses. This spreads out the light before it reaches the cornea, so it travels farther back in the eye before it is focused.

Laser vision correction reshapes the cornea so it can focus the light properly on the retina.

What Causes Myopia?

Nearsightedness is the most common of all vision problems and affects about 30% of Americans. In the last few decades it has become more common throughout the world. The causes of myopia are uncertain, and the subject has become quite controversial.

Heredity seems to play a large role. Children of myopic parents are more likely to be nearsighted.

Lifestyle may contribute to myopia, as well. Long periods of close work, such as reading, looking at the computer screen, and possibly even watching television, may affect how a child’s eyeball develops as they grow.

It is also believed that a diet high in simple carbohydrates increases your chance of developing myopia, due to too much insulin circulating in the bloodstream (hyperinsulinemia). Hyperinsulinemia is also common in people with type II diabetes and insulin resistance. Late developing myopia is sometimes an early warning sign of diabetes risk and can eventually develop into cataracts.

Complications of Myopia

For most people myopia is an inconvenience, but relatively harmless and easily corrected with glasses or contact lenses. If corrective lenses are too much of a hassle, laser eye surgery is an option as well.

However, myopia can lead to more serious eye conditions, vision loss, and even blindness. People with myopia have an increased likelihood of developing glaucoma and retinal detachment.

Correcting Myopia

Typically, your eye doctor will prescribe glasses and/or contact lenses to correct your vision. Eye exercises can help improve your vision, especially when eye strain from close tasks such as long hours of computer use is a factor.

Laser vision correction can allow you to see clearly 24/7, without the hassle of wearing glasses or contacts.

Cosmetology Education and Training

With the exceptions of makeup artists and shampooers, every barber, cosmetologist, and other personal appearance worker is required to be licensed. To qualify for a license, most job seekers are required to graduate from a State-licensed barber or cosmetology school.

Education and training

Most States require that barbers and cosmetologists complete a program in a State-licensed barber or cosmetology school. Both high schools and in public or private postsecondary vocational schools are offering the variety of programs in hairstyling, skin care, and other personal appearance services. But some States require a high school diploma or GED for some personal appearance workers.

The training for manicurists and pedicurists and skin care specialists requires significantly less time than the full-time programs in barbering and cosmetology which usually last 9 months and may lead to an associate degree. Make up artists are not required to finish a program that specialize in this subject but they can attend if they want. Shampooers generally do not need formal training. Most professionals take advanced courses in hairstyling to keep up with the latest trends. They also may take courses in sales and marketing.

The new workers may be given relatively simple tasks during their first weeks on the job. After they have proved their skills, they are permitted to perform more complicated procedures, such as coloring hair. As they continue to work in the area, more training usually is needed to help workers study the techniques particular to each salon and to build on the basics learned in cosmetology school. Personal appearance workers attend training at salons, cosmetology schools, or industry trade shows throughout their careers.

Advancement

Barbers and cosmetologists advance with the gained experience and a steady clientele. Some barbers and cosmetologists teach in barber or cosmetology schools or provide training through vocational schools. Others manage salons, lease booth space in salons, or open their own salons after several years of experience. Still others attend trainings to become image or fashion consultants, sales representatives, or examiners for State licensing boards.

Self Management and Cognitive Behavior Therapy

Alusine M. Kanu, D.A.

            This article llustrates and evaluates self-management therapies and cognitive therapy as treatment methods.  The approach in presentation will include a comparison and contrast of treatment methods.  Without question, even though both methods are useful, Cognitive Behavior Therapy is the most studied intervention for treatment.

            There are many varieties of self-control strategies.  Other terms for self-control strategies are behavioral self-control strategies, behavioral self-control training, cognitive self-regulation and self-management techniques.  In recent years, the term “self-management” has replaced “self-control” because self-control implies changing behavior through sheer will power.  Self-management, on the other hand, involves becoming aware of the natural processes that affect a particular behavior and consciously altering those processes, resulting in the desired change.

            The goal of self-management therapy is to reduce behavioral deficiencies or behavioral excesses.  Behavioral deficiencies occur when an individual does not engage in a positive desirable behavior frequently enough.  The result is a missed future benefit.  Behavioral excesses occur when an individual engages in negative, undesirable behavior too often. This results in negative future consequence.

            Self-management strategies help individuals to become aware of their own patterns of behavior and to alter those patterns (usually by creating artificial rewards or punishments) so that the behavior will be more or less likely to occur.  A self-control program, environmental strategies, behavioral strategies, and cognitive strategies are all ways to enable managing the self.

  • Self-control programs include:
  1. Make a commitment—Plan
  2. Identify the problem and alternative solutions
  3. Make revisions as necessary
  4. Think before acting
  • Environmental Strategies include:
  1. Changing the group of people with whom one socializes
  2. Avoiding situations or settings where an undesirable behavior is more likely to occur
  3. Changing the time of day for participating in a desirable behavior to a time when one will be more productive or successful
  • Cognitive strategies in self-management involve changing one’s thoughts or beliefs about a particular behavior.
  1. Using self-instructions to cue oneself about what to do and how to do it.
  2. Using self-praise to commend oneself for engaging in a desirable behavior.
  3. Thinking about the benefits for reaching one’s goal
  4. Imagining oneself successful in achieving a goal or using imagery to distract oneself from engaging in an undesirable behavior.
  5. Substitution positive self-statements for unproductive, negative self-statements

   Ways to help counselees in applying ways of coping with environment, behavior control and cognitive strategies are participating in group sessions, hearing a lecture on a specific strategy, relapse prevention, participating in role plays or rehearsal of the strategy, homework assignment, and mastering one strategy before attempting another.

            A way to approach cognitive therapy is to increase understanding that everyone experiences temporary mental lapses resulting in negative emotions, anxiety, depression, or unreasonable thinking.  Typically, people develop an acceptable level of self-control.  However, some individuals do not comprehend, recognize, or have the capability to function on a rational level without learning new coping or thinking skills.

            A scientifically proven form of cognitive therapy involves identifying distorted, maladaptive patterns of thinking and behaviors and replacing them with a pragmatic, problem-solving way of thinking an acting.  Cognitive therapy helps the clients to change so that issues do not rule one’s life.  The cognitive behavior therapy model emphasizes thought processes with advantages of short-term instruction, with emphasis on getting better, rather than feeling better.  Cognitive behavior therapy is cross cultural and is structured.  Cognitive behavior therapy can be researched, and it is adaptive.

            Cognitive therapy seeks to help the patient overcome difficulties by identifying and changing dysfunctional thinking, behavior, and emotional responses.  This involves helping patients develop skills for modifying beliefs, identifying distorted thinking, relating to others in different ways, and changing behaviors.  The premise, in Beck’s words, is that cognitive therapy is “the way we perceive situations influences how we feel emotionally,” and so by changing thoughts, then behaviors will also change.

            Cognitive behavior modification involves the concepts that an individual’s behavior is mediated by cognitive events; a change in mediating events results in a change in behavior, and an individual is an active participant in learning (Helflin, 1998).

            Cognitive behavioral therapy in its applications to youth populations uses active, performance-based procedures, as well as cognitive interventions to produce changes in thinking, feeling and behavior by developing a constructive world view and a problem-solving attitude.  Factors that are relevant in conducting cognitive behavior therapy with youth are

  1. Recognition of how young clients come to treatment
  2. Use of age-appropriate modes of delivery
  3. Sensitivity to the client’s cognitive and affective development
  4. Awareness of social context in which the youth is embedded
  5. Clarity about the therapist’s role

A comparison of self-management and cognitive therapy can be made with descriptions of the roles of the help-giver, treatment methods and directions to future research in both evaluative treatments.  There are multiple components of strategies that work with various disorders.  Cognitive behavior therapy uses multiple components and procedures.  Which treatment works with what disorder requires multiple approaches.

            Both self-management and cognitive therapy involve intervention for treatment with behavioral tasks, cognitive strategies, specific plans, working individually in groups, task instruction, performance feedback and interpersonal skills.  To effectively evaluate using self-management and cognitive therapy, there should be analysis of life experiences, helping clients to understand the nature of self-talk as self-fulfilling and should be optimistic.  Clients can also be helped in understanding using automatic thoughts, how one deals with irrational ideas and beliefs, cognitive distortions, and pessimistic thinking.

            Models and curriculum of self-management and cognitive behavior therapy are both learning processes with influences of the contingencies and models in the environment.  Cognitive behavior therapy involves mediating processing factors.  The variations can be non interactions with the linear approach, or interactive, elaborated, or self-instruction.

            Further comparisons show that cognitive behavior therapy offers the client a rationale for the approach and techniques used.  The focus is on the person’s functioning in the present time through exploring interrelatonships between thoughts, feelings, beliefs, attitudes, goals of behavior.  Self-management is more behavioral.  It involves self-reinforcement, self-management roots in behavioral explanation.  Self-management must be in relation to the context and consequences.  Both cognitive behavior therapy and self-management involve homework.  For self-management programs to work there should be mediation of readiness and going through stages in readiness.  Both cognitive behavioral therapy and self-management can be offered by guiding treatment.

            Future research on both “self-management and cognitive therapy should reflect on the nature and magnitude of improvement by assessing clinical significance for improvement” (Kendall, p. 89).  There are issues in assessment, role of parents, and family in treatment, mediators of positive outcomes, place of medications, therapeutic factors that may contribute to outcome and the effects of treatment on target disorder.

            Multiple components should be used for long-term self-management and cognitive therapy. Additional interactions and desired outcomes should include cognitive restructuring, problem solving, self-regulation, affective education, relaxation training, modeling, role playing and public speaking.  The posture of the therapist who does self-management and the cognitive therapist should include guiding, directing, and coor-dinating.  The therapists can be consultants by providing the opportunity for clients to try a skill or behavior by providing supportive experiences and weighing the merits and demerits of new tried skills.

            Therapists in both self-management and cognitive therapy are diagnosticians.  Their roles include gathering and integrating information from a variety of sources.  The third major role is for therapists to be educators by helping clients to recognize problems, think of alternatives, enact plans, and to make sense of events and outcomes.

            This article has, with some exploration, discussed self-management and cognitive therapy as treatment methods.  The intended goals are to integrate conscious and unconscious processes of treatment methods by discussing ways by which people regulate their thoughts, emotions, attention, behavior, and impulses.  Self-regulation shapes and is shaped by sound relationships with question.  Cognitive therapy is the best form of treatment because of predictive outcomes.  Both can be utilized in therapy depending on the disorder.

References 

Beck, J. S (1995). Cognitive Therapy Basics and Beyond.The Guilford Press. New York.

Heflin, L.J. et al. (1998). Intervention for children and youth with autism: Prudent choices in a world of exaggerated claims and empty promises.  Focus on Autism and Other Development Disabilities, 13, pp. 194-211.

Kendall, P. (2003).  Cognitive theory and Research, 27(1), pp. 89-104.