The Lady of Shalott: A Comparison of the First and Second Edition

Copyright (c) 2010 James Holan

The poem finally goes into the fourth and last part where the differences become even more apparent. The most obvious difference between the two version is omitting the second stanza in the final revision. The second stanza basically describes the Lady’s cloths that she is wearing as she enters the boat to go to Camelot via the river. The cloths that are described are very typical in the fact that they are snowy white and flowing, which make her appear pure and clean.

By omitting the cloths, the writer accomplishes two things. First, he dehumanizes her even more. She no longer has the human quality of dress to make her more of a person and give her more of a connection with the reader. Second, it takes away the purity aspect of womanhood. By taking away the thought that the Lady might be good the author creates a since that the woman brought the curse upon herself. Biblically, this is very normal. In the original sin of women, Adam and Eve, the woman brought the sin upon herself, she was dehumanized, made stupid, and was easily manipulated by temptation. The Lady is accomplishing the same thing, she is tempted by Lancelot, she causes the curse to come true because of that, and there are not symbols in the final version to go against this. She is not pure, she has no pure qualities once the robs are removed and she fell into temptation. Thus, Tennyson shows that it is her fault and the reader should not feel for her.

The next move to make her more imaginary and less human happens a few stanza later as the Lady floats down the river. In the fourth stanza a major change is made, instead of singing her “death song” the Lady sings her “last song.” Although this does not seem like a major change it does something extraordinary, it takes away her last human ability, to die. By not referring to her as technically dying the author finally makes her into a “fairy,” thus showing the belief that women are unequal to men in everyway. She is not allowed the right to die, to be a “corpse” as another change shows, and the right to be given a dirty quality such as being “mute.” This protection of her as a woman, suggest that women are not able to handle what men can handle. By changing this around Tennyson shows that women should be held up above the rest, not because they deserve it but because they have to be protected from all things that are not niceties. As the poem comes to a close the changes really begin to show how women and men are viewed differently. In the original version the Lady is given her voice, she dictates her final acknowledgments in what has been dubbed a suicide note, “The web was woven curiously, The charm is broken utterly, Draw near and fear not–this is I, The Lady of Shalott.” Since she was given the ability to dictate her final thoughts she is seen as an equal, she is in charge and she can tell everyone who she is. In the final version, however, she is not given this privilege. Instead, the man that indirectly killed her is given the privilege, thus showing that women should not be allowed to dictate their own life, their own last words. To make it worse, all Lancalot says is, “she has a lovely face, God in his mercy lend her grace, the Lady of Shalott.” This is not the last wish of a woman who has spent her whole life in shadows as the first version shows. Instead Lancelot makes her death seem really insignificant and makes her appear to be bad and in need of mercy from God. This is the final part of the poems dehumanization of the Lady of Shalott. By taking away her voice, it finally makes her nothing put the figurehead of another story where the man gets to dictate everything.

Through all of these differences the poems both maintain on other semblance of a lack of humanity for women. Although Lancelot is given a name, perhaps because it was already a well know name, the Lady of Shalott is never given another identity even though she is the main character of the poem. By not giving the Lady this sense of identity it is a lot easier to see her as merely, a woman, as that is the only way she is identified. In other words, Tennyson stopped her from being taken seriously from the very beginning of both versions by never even allowing her to have her own identity. One really must feel sorry for, The Lady of Shalott. For this reason, it seems that having a male author really contributed to the way the woman was viewed in the poem. Since Tennyson was a man and was a man of the 19th century it is only appropriate that he would not see it necessary to give a woman a name to make a point. Whereas, a bit character, a knight, was given a name easily, still, perhaps it was just because Lancelot makes a good rhyme for Camelot and Shalott.

The Lady of Shalott is a marvelous piece that has been changed to better reflect the era it was written in. It was written in a era where women were just beginning to see rights and where women, for the most part, where not appreciated for their want of rights. By changing the way the Lady was portrayed in his poem Tennyson really shows the reader his feelings on women as being unnatural and not important. Still, the Lady was given a beautiful duty in the poem and was respected in the fact that he at least allowed her to leave her curse, even if it was for a man, Tennyson let her be strong enough to want to break out of the shadows around her. Even with this in mind, however, the differences between the two versions of the poem is still a great representation of how women were viewed in an era where they had no power.

Behcets Disease – Prevention Tips and Treatment Methods

Behçet disease is a chronic condition due to disturbances in the body’s immune system. Behcet’s is a multi-system disease; it may involve all organs and affect the central nervous system, causing memory loss and impaired speech, balance, and movement. Behcet disease is most common and more serious in people with Silk Road bloodlines. Behcet disease is seen worldwide even in those with other ethnic heritage; in the US the incidence is reported to be 1 in 20,000. Behcet’s is a multi-system disease; it may involve all organs and affect the central nervous system, causing memory loss and impaired speech, balance, and movement. Symptoms of Behcet’s disease include recurrent ulcers in the mouth (resembling canker sores) and on the genitals, and eye inflammation.

Effects of the disease may include blindness, stroke, swelling of the spinal cord, and intestinal complications. Behçet’s disease attend to develop in people in their 20’s or 30’s, but people of all ages can develop this disease. More serious problems can include meningitis, blood clots, inflammation of the digestive system and blindness. Men are affected more often, and with more severe disease, than women in some Mediterranean areas. Treatment for Behcet’s disease is symptomatic and supportive. Medication may be prescribed to reduce inflammation and/or regulate the immune system. Immunosuppressive therapy may be considered. Thalidomide has also been used due to its immune-modifying effect. Dapsone and rebamipide have been shown.

Azathioprine, when used in combination with interferon alfa-2b also shows promis. Tetracycline remains the drug of choice for aphthous stomatitis and oral ulcers of BD. Thalidomide has also been used due to its immune-modifying effect. Thalidomide is not used to treat women of childbearing age because it causes severe birth defects. Immunosuppressive therapy may be considered. In more severe cases, oral steroids or immuno-suppressant drugs may be used. Painkillers and anti-inflammatory medicines can relieve pain. Experimental and research drugs (e.g. colchicine, cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, infliximab and potassium iodide). Dapsone and rebamipide have been shown.

Behcets Disease – Prevention and Treatment Tips

1. Interferon–alpha, a drug used in the treatment of hepatitis C.

2. Immunosuppressive therapy may be considered.

3. Thalidomide is not used to treat women of childbearing age.

4. Painkillers and anti-inflammatory medicines can relieve pain.

5. Dapsone and rebamipide have been shownto have beneficial results for mucocutaneous lesions.

6. Thalidomide has also been used due to its immune-modifying effect.

7. Colchicine can be useful for treating some genital ulcers.

The Affects of Stammering/stuttering – How Having a Speech Impediment Can Impact One’s Life

If I were to describe what my life was like during this period I would just say that it was ‘a battle’. In this article I am going to be writing about some of the struggles that I had to deal with and about how the stammer affected my life.

The average fluent person does not realise just how lucky they are. Having a stammer affects your ability to carry out what should be the most simplest of tasks. As an example, I will never forget the time when I was around eighteen years of age, when I went to purchase some petrol. After filling up the car I proceeded to enter the shop to pay etc. The lady behind the counter asked me which petrol pump I had used, for whatever reason I had not even looked and therefore had to take a quick check. I saw that it was pump number seven and straight away a demon came into my head and informed me that I would not be able to say the word. I have always attempted to ignore these voices from my head; however this is easier said than done. The lady asked me again and guess what? Yes, I could not say the word and it came out as ssssssssssssssseven. I felt totally humiliated, not for the first time of course, but tried to act as if I had said it fluently. From that day forward I made sure that I did not use pump number seven again!

Similar things would happen to me when ordering items such as drinks from a bar. I would revert to pointing at a certain bottle of beer and would hold up three fingers to signal that I wanted three bottles, as a way of coping. I should be enjoying going out socialising with my friends but instead it would turn into one big choir.

Attending an interview, making a phone call, answering the phone, reading out aloud from a book at school and general conversation were other areas of weakness. Surely life should not be this difficult.

I took heart from the fact that I would not stammer when I was singing, when I was shouting or when I was drunk. I felt confident that I would one day achieve fluency, this day arrived twelve years ago when I was aged twenty two. Life now seems so easy!

By: blueboy


Stammering is a condition in which a person hesitates in the act of speaking and being unable for a time to pronounce certain syllable or repeating the same syllable over and over.

Stammering is not due to any defect in the brain or in the speech organs, and may be described as! functional disease, or a bad habit, or a sign of diffidence, It begins in childhood and is a practice which one child learns fromanother, just as any peculiarity of speech in one person is liable to be unconsciously mimicked by another. The actual cause of stammering is lack of co¬ordination between the various parts concerned in speech. The organs or speech are the chest, correspond¬ing to the bellows of a harmonium, the larynx, corresponding to the keys and the changes in the mouth effected by the tongue, palate, lips, etc. which correspond to the stops of the organ which modulate the notes. Just as all the three parts of the organ must work in co-ordination, so should the chest, the larynx and the production of sound by the lips, the tongue and the palate.

So much for the traditional view of stammering. The defect is due to a nervous state in reality and must be psychologically treated. The first step is to see that the nervous system is in perfect shape and is in full control of bodily functions as it should be. For that, one has to get rid of the malfunctioning of the body.

The cause of stammering is not known. Brain damage, anxiety and genetic factors play a role in the development of stuttering in certain cases. Stammering may occur when a combination of factors come together and may have different causes in different people. The current research is focussed on the connection between stammering and the neurological coordination of speech. Lot of research has been made about the factors, which contribute to its development in the areas of genetics, neurophysiology, child development, and family dynamics.

Stammering can take the form of repetition of syllables or words, or of blocks in the production of speech. This condition is not usually associated with a psychiatric disorder. However, it can cause stress and embarrassment to the individual. In younger children, attention should be diverted away from the stammer, in the expectation of spontaneous improvement. In older children speech therapy may be necessary; formal exercises, such as syllable timed speech, may be taught. Stammering is a communication difficulty, not just a speech problem it can undermine a childs confidence as well as affect social, educational and employment potentials. Boys are four times more likely to stammer than girls.


Stammering is also due to, though in a lesser measure, lack of co-ordination among the three organs of speech. Establish that co-ordination. If there is any involuntary tremor in your tongue or jaw in the process of pronunciation, let it pass before you articulate your words. The best way to tone up the muscles of the jaw is to put your index finger in the throat and move your lower jaw. Move it slowly in a downward motion; relax the tension of the jaw muscles. Continue this exercise till the mouth does not open without your larynx coming into action.

Sit with a mirror and let the light be on your back. Reflect the sunlight through the mirror into your open mouth. Breathe deeply and open your mouth slowly. Reflect the mirror on your tongue. It should be sticking to the lower part of the mouth, if you have been doing your exercises properly. Loosen your tongue: it should never be stiff. If it is, stammering will result. Articulate the Hindi words Kya ho. It is a good exercise to improve the functioning of your tongue.

Home Remedies:

1. Eating a fresh Goosebery daily is helpful in curing stammering. A Spoon of dry Gooseberry powder with a spoon of pure Ghee taken in the morning is also helpful in curing Stammering.
2. Dip 12 Almonds overnight and peel them in the morning. Grind them and eat with 30 grams of pure butter. Continue this for few months to overcome stammering.
3. Grind 10 Almonds and 10 whole Black peppers with a piece of Sugar candy and take it for some days to overcome Stammering.
4. Eating dry Dates before going to bed but avoid drinking water for a least 2 hours, also helps to clear the voice and cures Stammering.

Diet tips for stammering:

Cinnamon : Chewing and sucking cinnamon provides relief from stammering.

Amla : Chewing fresh amla is helpful in curing stammering of children. The tongue becomes thinner and the speech becomes clear. Mix a tsp. of amla powder with clarified butter and lick it daily. It will help overcome stammering.

Ayurvedic Home remedies for Stammering:

Vallarai is a herb that is found in shades in villages. A few coriander seeds and palm candy are placed inside 3 or 4 vallarai leaves and chewed. Also vallarai leaves can be dried in shade and powdered. This powder taken regularly helps reduce stammering. Paste made by grinding the leaves can also be taken with milk. It is surprising to note that the shape of vallarai leaf resembles the human brain.

Cows ghee is also recommended by Ayurveda to cure stammering. According to Ayurveda texts cow’s ghee acts positively in the sphere of memory, speech, knowledge, wisdom etc. To sense things, store them in memory, express things coherently from memory etc all belong to this domain. Hence cows ghee is used in preparation of medicines that help improve memory, cure stammering, stuttering etc.

Saaraswatha choornam half a teaspoon and brahmi kirutham one and half teaspoon are mixed in honey. This mixture is then placed inside rice balls and taken internally and masticated well. For this purpose it is recommended that you have rice along with hot sambar and rasam as breakfast. After breakfast, saraswatharishtam 30 ml should be taken.

Apply warm brahmi oil on top of head and allow it to soak for about 30 to 45 minutes. Afterwards bathe using warm water. This process helps improve memory as well clear stuttering and stammering.

Reference: HealthOnclick

Acid Reflux and Tonsil Stones

It might be surprising to note that acid reflux and tonsil stones have a link with each other.  Actually, halitosis or bad breadth can be due to GERD or acid reflux or can be related to it in some or the other way indirectly.  According to naturopathic and medical professionals bad breath or halitosis can be due to saliva loss that the food we eat might not be combined with them this in turn results in lack of stomach fluids and activity in the stomach leading toward acid indigestion or acid reflux.  Most of the analysts believe that bad breath is mainly caused because of acid reflux.

Acid reflux is a condition where the contents (mostly liquid) of the stomach get into the esophagus back.  This happens mainly, when the food valve that separates the esophagus and the stomach contents malfunctioning or not working properly.  GERD or acid reflux is said to be a chronic health condition.  Certain conditions like tonsil stones, pregnancy, and esophageal cancer and so on can make the sufferers susceptible to this condition called acid reflux.

Even though the correlation (direct) between bad breath and acid reflux is not known, it is understood that it is due to digestive disorders.  The juices of stomach which splash back into the esophagus can some times even get inside the mouth and bad breath is produced.  With the presence of tonsil stones, the condition becomes even worse.  Most often this condition can be treated properly.  Sufferers can contact their doctors to know about  the various options available to treat tonsil stones and acid reflux and get their problem sorted out.

Tonsil stones and bad breath might not be felt by the sufferers themselves that they can check if they have them by conducting simple tests at home.  One such test that is done at home to find out about acid reflux, tonsil stones and bad breath is to lick the back side of the wrist and let the area with the saliva to dry for few minutes.  The area should be smelt to know the correct result.  Another test that can be carried out in their homes is to scrap the tongue’s posterior using a dental floss or tongue scraper and then smelling the residue that has dried.

In order to avoid acid reflux that has occurred along with tonsil stones, it is better to avoid consuming certain foods and beverages like citrus juices, alcohol, fried foods and chocolate.  In case of being overweight, it is better to change the way of living and loose weight for good.  After consuming food, it is not recommended to lie down at least for two or three hours time.

Home Remedies for Curing Tonsil Stones
Tonsillectomy not only can lead to various health problems later but also does not come at a cheaper price.  The surgery can also hinder day to day activities for some time.  Hence, it is avoided most often. In fact, there are natural and scientifically proven ways to get rid of tonsil stones so they never return. It’s absolutely not necessary to go for a long, drawn out surgery or wasting your money on expensive nasal sprays and tablets. Follow a step-by-step program that will show you exactly how to get rid of your tonsil stones naturally and ensure they never come back! You can learn more about the program that promises a natural cure for tonsil stones from here

Sinus Problems – Can They Really Cause That Much Trouble?

Even if sinus problems occur too often for most of us, should we really stress ourselves about them? Life has too many other good things to offer. There’s no sense in maintaining a depressed state, even when our sinuses are acting up. Let’s take a closer look at some of the most common sinus problems and point out the ways to keep them from causing too much trouble in our lives.

Swollen Sinuses

When the sinuses become swollen or inflamed, there can be several reasons. An irritant might have gotten stuck in the sinuses, such as excessive mucus, or good old dust and pollen, or infectious micro organisms like bacteria. The mucus should be blown out through the nose. Thick mucus can be made thin by drinking water more often than usual. Dust and pollen can be washed out by irrigating the nasal passages. For infectious organisms, it is good to target these with their corresponding medicinal cures. Bacteria can be killed with antibiotics, fungus with anti fungal medicine. A doctor’s advice is always the best to follow for these kinds of infectious sinus problems.

Another reason for the swelling of your sinuses can be due to the development of a related respiratory problem. Common colds, bronchitis and allergies are some examples of these. When faced with several problems at a time, it is best to tackle the root cause in order to be rid of any related sufferings. For common colds and bronchitis, you can treat their symptoms to relieve you of discomfort, but they usually resolve on their own. The best treatment for allergies is to prevent exposure from your allergens. Sinus problems should not become out of hand anymore after taking care of these other related problems.

Nasal Congestion

Your nose can become congested because of sinus swelling or trapped particles. We already tackled both of these sinus problems above. But we haven’t mentioned anything yet about abnormal growths and structures in the nose. Nasal and sinus polyps are small bumps that are non cancerous. A deviated septum is a displacement of a part of the nose, which may be an inborn condition, or a result of a physical injury. For some, having these doesn’t affect them at all. But for others, these abnormalities can clog the nose and cause difficulty in breathing. The regular flow of mucus can also be disrupted. Sinus surgery is recommended for correcting your nasal structure, and for removing obstructive polyps.

There are so many things that could go wrong in life. For sinus problems, do not despair so much. A lot of help is available, due to the fact that these problems are far too common and too easy to resolve. Sinus problems can only cause as much trouble as you let them. Take charge and fight back. Don’t let these problems get the best of you.

Reasons Of Running Nose A Ear Ringing

A runny nose is definitely not a sign of good health. Every onset of disease is announced by a runny nose if it is not fever. Taking it to the other side, a tragic event or a very sad movie or story can give a runny nose. As ear ringing is concerned, after coming up from under the water, one of the ears or both of them usually ring. Although it doesn’t last for long but it has to be shrugged off. A normal ear ringing should not go for more than 30 days.

Some of the common causes of runny nose are Cold or flu, crying, when it’s cold outside and allergies. During cold, the nose turns into mucus machine to keep germs away from your respiratory track and without snot, the respiratory track is wide open for bacteria. When crying, the tears flow into the tear ducts that give out to the nose. When mucus mixes with tears, the nose starts to run. Immediate change of temperature from hot to cold outside can give a runny nose. People who are allergic to dust or fur will start sneezing and can have a runny nose.

Some ear rings may come from complicated reasons which only audiologists can understand. Some of these are tinnitus, tinnitus arising from tooth decay pains, aging, and exposure to loud noise, medicine related and ear infection.

When the ear ring is caused because of tetanus, it can be cured. As ordinary tinnitus doesn’t go beyond 30 days, there is no need to panic. One should avoid touching ears frequently. For avoiding runny nose, there are some handy ways like taking decongestants, blowing the nose often and staying in a warm room. The nose can be scratched when it itches but one should not chase it when it’s runny.

Factors Causing Vaginal Atrophy

What is multiple system atrophy: Multiple system atrophy is a rare type and it does not occur frequently. It is a nervous system disorder and affects the nervous system. This atrophy largely damages the systems that control blood pressure, heart rate and the functioning of bladder. People having this disorder can shows symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. This involves tremors, rigidity and balance problems.

What is vaginal atrophy: Vaginal atrophy is defined as the thinning of the vagina walls due to a reduced level of female hormone called estrogen. This atrophy mainly appears after menopause. It can also happen at the time of breastfeeding or at any time when there is low level of estrogen in the body. If woman is affected with vaginal atrophy, it is not easy for her to get involved in the sexual activity. Healthy genital function is closely linked up with the healthy urinary system function. There are many treatment options available to treat Vaginal Atrophy. Few of the vaginal atrophy symptoms include burning and dryness in vagina, urgency and burning with urination, bleeding after the intercourse, infections of urinary tract and tightening of vaginal canal.

What is Atrophic Vaginitis: Atrophic Vaginitis is also known as vaginal atrophy. Vaginal atrophy is termed as thinning of the vaginal walls due to the low level of estrogens that are present. can even occur at the time of breast-feeding or any time when there is less level of estrogens. Vaginal atrophy makes sexual act painful. Treatments for Vaginal atrophy are handy.

What are the treatment options: The symptoms of vaginal atrophy may be relieved by the use of OTC drugs. Oral estrogen can be used if the symptoms are irritating. This can treat vaginal itchiness and vaginal dryness. There are many other treat options like vaginal estrogen cream (cream applied directly into the vagina with an applicator), vaginal estrogen ring (interjected into the upper area of vagina), and vaginal estrogen tablet (Vagifem). Oral estrogen therapy is also one of the options to treat vaginal atrophy.

Vagifem is the best option to relieve itching, vaginal dryness and burning in women. This medication works by producing the required levels of estrogen that ovary no longer produces. Before you take up the treatment, discuss with your doctor if you are using any medications or if you are suffering from any other medical conditions. Vagifem generic name is Estradiol. Vagifem prescribing information is approved by FDA and comes in a single use disposable applicator tube.

Cataracts – Causes, Symptoms and Treatments

Cataracts is the clouding of the eye’s natural lens. The lens lies behind the iris and the pupil. When a person has cataracts, they may have difficulty seeing. Cataracts affect vision by scattering incoming light.
The lens is positioned near the front of the eyeball. It is protected by the cornea, which covers the front of the eyeball. The purpose of the lens is to focus the light waves that enter the eye. Muscles around the lens can change the shape of the lens. In this way, objects both close at hand and far away can be brought into focus.

There are many misconceptions about cataracts. For instance, cataracts do not spread from eye to eye, though they may develop in both eyes at the same time. A cataract is not a film visible on the outside of the eye, is not caused from overuse of the eyes, and using the eye does not make it worse. Cataracts usually develop gradually over many years; rarely over a few months. Finally, cataracts are not related to cancer, and having a cataract does not mean a patient will be permanently blind.


· Aging
· Congenital disorders
· Genetic abnormalities
· Traumatic cataracts
· Complicated cataracts
· Glaucoma

Other causes of cataract are stress and strain; excessive intake of alcoholic drinks, sugar, and salt; smoking; certain physical ailments such as gastro-intestinal or gall-bladder disturbances; diabetes; vitamin deficiencies; fatty acid intolerance; ageing; radiation; side-effects of drugs that have been prescribed for other diseases.

Signs and Symptoms

The earliest signs of cataracts may mimic other eye conditions including macular degeneration. Many patients will notice they have more trouble seeing unless they use more intense lighting. Still others will notice they have difficulty pointing out finite details when reading or working.

There are several common symptoms of cataracts:

· gradual, painless onset of blurry, filmy, or fuzzy vision
· poor central vision
· frequent changes in eyeglass prescription
· changes in color vision

Detection of Cataract

The presence of a cataract can be spotted with the help of a complete eye examination by an ophthalmologist who may as well discover any other conditions that may be responsible for haziness of vision or other difficulties pertaining to the eyes.
Till date, no medication or diet has proved effective in checking the development of cataracts, and there is no medicine that can rectify a clouded lens.

The cataract operation

In the past, surgeons often waited until vision was very poor before removing the cataract. Now, the operation is usually carried out as soon as eyesight interferes with everyday activities.

Before the operation, a pre-operative assessment is done by the eye team. Usually a local anaesthetic is given before the operation, so the patient will be awake but feel nothing in the eye. The eye specialist will tell the patient what is happening throughout the procedure, and the patient will be made to feel relaxed and comfortable.

Cataract surgery is very successful in restoring vision. In fact, it is the most frequently performed surgery in the United States, with over 1.5 million cataract surgeries done each year. Nine out of 10 people who have cataract surgery regain very good vision, somewhere between 20/20 and 20/40.

Glaucoma – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Glaucoma damages the eye’s optic nerve. It is a leading cause of blindness in the United States. It usually happens when the fluid pressure inside the eyes slowly rises, damaging the optic nerve. Often there are no symptoms at first, but a comprehensive eye exam can detect it. Glaucoma refers to a category of eye disorders often associated with a dangerous buildup of internal eye pressure (intraocular pressure or IOP), which can damage the eye’s optic nerve that transmits visual information to the brain.

In most people, the filtering angles are wide open, although in some individuals, they can be narrow. For example, the usual filtering angle is about 45 degrees, whereas a narrow angle is about 25 degrees or less. After exiting through the trabecular meshwork in the filtering angle, the aqueous fluid then drains into tiny blood vessels (capillaries) into the main bloodstream. The aqueous humor should not be confused with tears, which are produced by a gland just outside of the eye.

In the front of the eye is a space called the anterior chamber? A clear fluid flows continuously in and out of the chamber and nourishes nearby tissues. The fluid leaves the chamber at the open angle where the cornea and iris meet. (See diagram below.) When the fluid reaches the angle, it flows through a spongy meshwork, like a drain, and leaves the eye.

This is caused by trabecular blockage which is where the aqueous humor in the eye drains out. Because the microscopic passage ways are blocked, the pressure builds up in the eye and causes imperceptable very gradual vision loss. Peripheral vision is affected first but eventually the entire vision will be lost if not treated. Diagnosis is made by looking for cupping of the optic nerve.

Angle-closure (acute) glaucoma is caused by a shift in the position of the iris of the eye that suddenly blocks the exit of the aqueous humor fluid. This causes a quick, severe, and painful rise in the pressure within the eye (intraocular pressure). Angle-closure glaucoma is an emergency. This is very different from open-angle glaucoma, which painlessly and slowly damages vision.


Glaucoma is often referred to as the “silent thief of sight,” because most types typically cause no pain and produce no symptoms. For this reason, glaucoma often progresses undetected until the optic nerve already has been irreversibly damaged, with varying degrees of permanent vision loss.

Neovascular glaucoma results from abnormal blood vessel growth that blocks the fluid drainage channels of the eye, resulting in increased eye pressure. Low blood supply to the eye as a result of diabetes, insufficient flow of blood to the head due to blocked arteries in the neck, or blockage of blood vessels in the back of the eye can cause the abnormal blood vessel growth.


The treatment of glaucoma is aimed at reducing intraocular pressure by improving aqueous outflow, reducing the production of aqueous, or both. Doctors accomplish these treatment goals with eyedrops, systemic medications, laser treatment, surgery, or a combination of treatments. If your doctor determines that you have elevated intraocular pressure , an excavated optic disk and loss of visual field, you’ll likely be treated for glaucoma. If you have only slightly elevated eye pressure, an undamaged optic nerve and no visual field loss, you may not need treatment, but your doctor may advise more frequent examinations to detect any future changes.

The Causes of Blindness

A recent analysis of data indicates that vitamin A deficiency is the leading cause of childhood blindness. It was estimated that 70% of the 500,000 children who become blind annually do so because of xerophthalmia. This corresponds to a prevalence of roughly 1 million in view of the high mortality among affected children.

Hemianopsia can result when a hemorrhagic, thrombotic, or embolic stroke affects part of the optic pathway Associated signs and symptoms vary according to the location and size of the stroke, but may include a decreased LOC; intellectual deficits, such as memory loss and poor judgment; personality changes; emotional lability; a headache; and seizures The patient may also develop contralateral hemiplegia, dysarthria, dysphagia, ataxia, a unilateral sensory loss, apraxia, agnosia, aphasia, blurred vision, decreased visual acuity, and diplopia

The link between poverty and treatable visual impairment is most obvious when conducting regional comparisons of cause. Most adult visual impairment in North America and Western Europe is related to age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. While both of these conditions are subject to treatment, neither can be cured. Another common cause is retinopathy of prematurity. In developing countries, wherein people have shorter life expectancies, cataracts and water-borne parasites—both of which can be treated effectively—are most often the culprits (see River blindness, for example). Of the estimated 40 million blind people located around the world, 70–80% can have some or all of their sight restored through treatment.
Another disease is called Trachoma.

Trachoma is caused by a virus that affects the cornea and the conjunctiva or lining of the eyelid. The white part of the eye is called the sclera, and the colored part is the iris. The conjunctiva covers the sclera. Trachoma is contagious. It is spread by flies and contact with towels and other articles that have been used by people who have the disease. Physicians can cure the disease in the early stages by using medicines.

There are different causes of change blindness. According to scientists, change blindness can happen as a result of disturbance or disruption in visual continuity. This disruption can be either due to eye saccade, an eyelid flicker, an eye blink, a shift of the picture or even a film cut in case of a motion picture. In order to differentiate changes in the vision, it is important that there is effective coordination between the eye and the brain where one image is compared with another image that already exists in the memory.

Diseases: These are the leading cause of blindness. There are a variety of diseases that lead to blindness. Popular among these glaucoma, trachoma, cataracts, uveitis and diabetic retinopathy. While in some cases blindness occurs as a result of a parasitic infection in the eye, in others it occurs as a result of malnutrition. Blindness due to vitamin A deficiency is common in most of the developing and under-developed countries.

Glaucoma generally affects older people. This happens when fluids in the eye build up and cause too much pressure in the eye, damaging important nerves, etc.. To know what a person feels like with glaucoma, think of how your eyes feel after coming out of a swimming pool with a lot of chlorine in it. (This does not cause glaucoma, but makes the eyes feel as a person does with glaucoma)This disease can be prevented and eye doctors almost always check for glaucoma when a patient has an eye exam. If the person who has glaucoma doesn’t take the appropriate medicine for the condition, they can lose their eyesight.

Long-Sightedness – What Are The Symptoms, Causes And Who Is Affected?

Long-sightedness and far-sightedness are widely applied terms for hyperopia. It is caused by a defect in the ability of the eyes to focus. When somebody is suffering with hyperopia, it means that they are incapable of focusing on things that are near, causing their vision to appear blurry. This will not impact on their ability to see far away things.

How Eyesight Normally Works

Our sight is created through a process of light rays coming from an object and passing through the cornea and lens, which are at the front of our eyes, which bend the light in order to focus it on the retina, at the back of the eye. From here the light rays are transformed into electrical signals. These signals are then transported to the brain, which decodes the signal and gives us vision.

What Happens When Someone Has Long-sightedness

As with normal sight, the images an individual with long-sightedness sees begin as light rays going though the cornea and lens of the eye. The trouble happens when the light rays do not focus on the retina, instead they are focused outside of the eyeball, keeping the retina from receiving a complete picture.

This may be caused if the eye itself is too short, from front to back, keeping the light rays from being projected onto the retina. Instead the problem might be at the front of the eyeball with the cornea or lens. As the cornea and lens bend the light rays which enter our eyes, if they are unable to direct the light at the required angle to focus onto the retina then the vision will be impaired.

What Are The Symptoms of Long-sightedness?

Long-sightedness can affect people in different ways, based on the lifestyle lead and occupation they do. Individuals with long-sightedness might find themselves suffering from these everyday symptoms:

  • Sore and sensitive eyes can be a result of the continual effort to view close things and to read and write. Your blink rate may be impacted if you are always staring at things trying to bring them into focus, giving your eyes a dry, scratchy feel.
  • Difficulty with focusing when reading books or newspapers is one of the most often recognized long-sightedness symptoms. Many people find themselves trying to hold reading materials at arms length in an attempt to get the contents into focus.
  • Headaches and eye strain are frequent amongst someone with long-sightedness and usually result from the eyes being unable to focus on items nearby. Regular squinting may also occur, resulting in headaches and tiring of the eyes.

Who Is Affected By Long-sightedness?

When thinking of farsightedness many people often assume it is a condition associated to the elderly. While this is true, the long-sightedness that takes place in middle age is called presbyopia and is a result of reduced flexibility of the lens of the eye. This is a natural part of the ageing process, and is easy to correct.

Hyperopia may also affect children, and some infants are even born with the condition. Usually the condition will get better by itself as the child’s eyes develop. Though if not treated, farsightedness can result in other problems, lazy eyes for example.

Detailed Information on Myopia

Myopia also known as Nearsightedness and Shortsightedness. Myopia is a refractive defect of the eye in which line up light produces picture hub in front of the retina when accommodation is relaxed. Nearsightedness occurs if the eyeball is too long or the cornea, the clear front cover of the eye, has too much curvature. As a result, the light entering the eye isn’t focused correctly and distant objects look blurred. Nearsightedness occurs when the physical length of the eye is greater than the optical length. It generally stops progressing as a person finishes growing in his or her early twenties.

Those with a family history of nearsightedness are more expected to develop it. Most eyes with nearsightedness are entirely healthy, but a small number of people with myopia develop a form of retinal degeneration. Nearsightedness affects males and females equally. Nearsightedness is a very common vision condition affecting nearly 30 percent of the U.S. population. There is also growing evidence that it is influenced by the visual stress of too much close work. Generally, nearsightedness first occurs in school-age children. Nearsightedness may also grow in adults due to visual stress or health conditions such as diabetes.

A common sign of nearsightedness is difficulty with the clarity of distant. Nearsighted people often have headaches or eyestrain and might squint or feel fatigued when driving or playing sports. Reading and watching television do not cause nearsightedness. The treatment for nearsightedness depends on various factors such as the patient’s age, activities, and occupation. Vision can corrected with glasses, contacts, or surgery. During this growing period, eyeglasses may be needed as often as every six months to correct the problem. Refractive procedures such as LASIK can be considered for adults.

Persons with tame amounts of nearsightedness may be able to temporarily obtain clear vision for most of their daily activities. Vision therapy is a choice for people whose blurred distance vision is caused by a spasm of the muscles which control eye focusing. Orthokeratology corneal refractive therapy, involves the fitting of a series of rigid contact lenses to reshape the cornea, the front outer surface of the eye. Various eye exercises can be used to improve poor eye focusing ability and regain clear distance vision. People with nearsightedness have a variety of options to correct their vision problem.

How to Cure Near-sightedness and Farsightedness

Near-sightedness and far-sightedness are the two most common eye diseases in our daily lives. All the two problems are related with visual distance. In our daily lives, the two ailments can be cured in some way. If we have bad habits in using our eyes, we may suffer from such ailments.

If we suffer from nearsightedness, our corneas are prolonged. This problem is caused by looking at things very closely and for a long time. When we are school children, we are forced to do something, and our eyes are greatly influenced.

If we are nervous about something, we will suffer from pressure, anxiety, which can influence a lot on our eyes. For young children have to face too much pressure. Especially if they feel bored with something, they will suffer from great strains. With these strains, they tend to stare at something very long and eyes become tired.

Metal stresses and psychological problems can also lead to nearsightedness. If we are too nervous about something, myopia may occur. Suppose, if we are subconsciously worried about imminent matters, we will feel very nervous. Only if these problems are solved can we feel relaxed and comfortable.

Far-sightedness refers to people can only see objects afar. This is a process of aging, especially after 40. When after 40, our lenses will be deformed, for the sake of strained eye muscles. Most of us deem this process is related with age, and it can not be reversed. We usually choose to wear glasses for this problem. But wearing glasses too long can make our eyes lazy in their metabolic process.

In fact, far-sightedness may be a psychological problem. If we often see things afar too long, our eyes will refuse to see present things before us. Little by little, our eyes become lazy at matters of nowadays.

Eye movements are very beneficial for us if we have any of these eye problems. When we look at something near too long, we should spend some time to relax our eyes by looking at objects afar. Contrarily, if we look at something afar too long, we should also read something near.

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