Scar Treatment – Remove Scars Through Herbal Ways

Scars are the fibrous tissue formed on the skin in order to repair broken tissue. When there is an injury, the skin produces more cells in order to re-grow the punctured skin. This tissue is known as a scar.

A scar is easily visible because the cells that go in making up the scar are of lesser quality than the original cells. For example, the scars on the skin are not able to grow any hair since they have no hair follicles. Also they are lesser-resistant to UV radiation.

It is a fact that scars can never be completely healed. There are several medical and cosmetic methods to cover up scars, but none of them can claim to remove a scar completely. The scar can be masked by some methods, like laser surgery, steroid injections, dermabrasion and radio therapy, but none of these methods can remove the scar fully. On the contrary, there might be permanent injury to the skin. On the other hand, Ayurveda deals in some safe herbal methods to remove scars. These methods are generally simple home remedies, and they have no side-effects at all. You can try out these methods before going in for complicated surgical procedures.

Useful Herbs in the Treatment of Scars

– Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis)

Aloe vera is a good home remedy for the treatment of residual scars. Its juice acts as natural bleach. Its juice is applied to the scars, which then slowly reduce and vanish.

– Cucumber (Curcumis sativus)

The cool cucumber helps in the removal of scar tissues also. A paste is made of the cucumber and is applied directly onto the scars. This helps the scars to smoothen out after a few applications left overnight.

– Indian Gooseberry (Emblica officinalis)

The Indian gooseberry, or the amalaki, is very important in the prevention of scars after healing. Amalaki is the richest source of vitamin C, which is needed for cementing open wounds.

Dietary Guidelines for Treatment of Scars

Vitamin E is essential in the healing of a wound. When you are injured, increase the intake of vitamin E in the diet. This is available in the form of nuts, eggs, oilseeds, wheat germ, etc. Taking a lot of vitamin E speeds up the healing process. Because of this the possibility of scars remaining after the injury is very less. It must be noted that vitamin E must be had when the wound is still healing. After the scar is formed, the effects of vitamin E in removing the scar are minimal.

Vitamin C is also essential during the healing process. Vitamin C contains collagen, a cementing material that is very necessary during blood clotting. This can be got from most sour foods, including creams. Creams are considered to be best for this purpose. Cocoa cream is very beneficial in the treatment of superficial scars.

Keep your diet adequate with green leafy vegetables and fresh fruits. Taking a good amount of protein-rich food is also necessary for fast healing with less scars left.

Home Remedies for Treatment of Scars

– Take some vitamin E capsules. Open them and smear the powder or the oil of these capsules onto the scars. This will help the scars heal.

– Aloe vera paste can be mixed with the powder of vitamin E capsules. This can be rubbed onto the scar for better results. This must be done several times a day.

– You can also apply honey directly on the scars and leave it overnight. This application must be done frequently so that the scar gets enough time to get healed completely.

– Put the oil of the tea tree onto the scar and gently rub it in several times a day. The scar will vanish in a few days.

– Alternatively, green tea can be slightly blanched, dabbed onto a cotton swab and then massaged onto the scar. This will also help the scar to gradually vanish.

– Rub ice cubes onto the scars. This is a simple remedy to treat the scars. But the ice must be rubbed several times on the face.

– Olive oil is very good in removing scars. However if you don’t get olive oil for some reason, then you can take any oil and massage it on the scar several times a day. After many days of such treatment, the scar will eventually wear off.

– If the scar is due to a pimple, then the following remedy is useful. Mix a tablespoon of sour cream, a tablespoon of yogurt, a tablespoon of ground oatmeal and a few drops of lemon juice and blend it thoroughly. Apply this paste onto the face for ten minutes. Then wash it off. Do this four times in a day. Remember to use low-fat sour cream if you have an oily skin.

– Cut a clove of garlic into half and rub it on the pimples when you have them. This helps to treat the pimples without leaving a scar behind later on.

All About Vitamin B12 Side Effects

As a vitamin, Vitamin B12 is found in all sorts of food, like fish, meat, and dairy products. Where there is not enough Vitamin B12 in the food you eat, you can also turn to supplements in order to meet your daily requirement of the vitamin. One of the most common conditions that arise due to a deficiency in the vitamin is pernicious anemia, although this is generally found in older people. But while important in the body, as with any vitamin, Vitamin B12 also has its side effects, when amounts in the body exceed tolerable levels.

Some of the Vitamin B12 side effects you should be mindful of include:

    * Cardiovascular – parenteral cyanocobalamin with specific Vitamin B12 side effects such as pulmonary edema, peripheral vascular thrombosis, and congestive heart failure;

    * Dermatologic – parenteral and intranasal cyanocobalamin characterized by transitory and itching exanthema. Worsening or the occurrence of inflammatory folliculitis and acne is also reported as some of the Vitamin B12 side effects when high doses of the vitamin (up to 10 mg/week) are ingested. However, what exactly causes this reaction has not been resolved. It’s just that upon the first couple of injections of the vitamin, acne flares up, but usually goes away after eight to 10 days after the Vitamin B12 injections are stopped. There was also an instance when a severe skin reaction that looked like acne rosacea was associated temporarily with daily doses of the vitamin set at 100mcg of Vitamin B12 and 100mg of Vitamin B6. Again, stopping the dosage stopped the Vitamin B12 side effects. Some medical professionals are of the suspicion that the iodine or sorbitol in some Vitamin B12 ampules may be causing at least some of the skin reactions associated with using this vitamin;

    * Gastrointestinal – there aren’t many Vitamin B12 side effects reported for the gastrointestinal system  but intranasal cyanocobalamin include nausea and glossitis, while parenteral cyanocobalamin include mild transient diarrhea, vomiting, also nausea, and dyspepsia; and

    * Hypersensitivity – these Vitamin B12 side effects are not necessarily the fault of the vitamin itself, but rather due to impurities acquired during the manufacturing process. However, unlike other Vitamin B12 side effects, those associated with hypersensitivity appear in varying rates. Some appear as soon as one dose, while others can take weeks or months to manifest. There have also been cases, although very rare, wherein the Vitamin B12 side effects appeared after several years.

How to avoid Vitamin B12 side effects

The most common reason why Vitamin B12 side effects manifest is due to overdosing on the vitamin. As such, it follows that you can prevent Vitamin B12 side effects from manifesting if you follow the right dosage. If you’re on prescription medication, always make sure that you follow only what your doctor has prescribed. There’s no point in taking more than what you’re supposed to because this will not make the vitamin more effective in addressing your condition. In fact, it may worsen the situation since other conditions may manifest due to the Vitamin B12 side effects. You are taking the vitamin to have better health so don’t throw things out of whack by not following the prescribed dose.

Hailey Lossen writes about such health topics as Vitamin B12 and Vitamin B12 Deficiency.

Catchy Slogans For Hospitals: How To Get The Best Hospital Campaign Slogans & Taglines

Hospital branding is more competitive than ever. That’s because hospitals are more competitive than ever. That’s why healthcare organizations are trying to utilize every advantage possible to attract more patients and more profitable patients. Among of the most powerful ways hospitals can stand out is through catchy campaign slogans. Hospital ad slogans and taglines can be tricky though. It’s tough to represent an incredibly complex healthcare organization in just a few words. To make things worse, in trying to come up with a slogan most organizations have a hard time finding consensus on which of their potential campaign slogans is right for them. That often results in bland, generic, never effective hospital marketing slogans and advertising taglines like “Experience You Can Trust” or “Serving Our Community Since 1989.”

Someone get me a pillow. I’m about to fall asleep!

Catchy slogans, whether they’re hospital advertising slogans for billboards or hospital taglines to compliment your logo, should always offer a point of differentiation and have that point of differentiation delivered in a memorable way. There’s a great slogan being used right now by an academic medical center in Florida. Their slogan is “The Science of Hope.” Talking about the scientific aspect or their organization differentiates them from the for profit hospitals and adding hope into the equation makes it a catchy slogan with a truly feel good tone.

So how do you get great hospital ad slogans, hospital campaign slogans or hospital taglines that demonstrate your differentiation in a clever way? Don’t try and do it yourself! You wouldn’t want a professional slogan writer performing surgery on you so why would you attempt to do their job?

Among the most popular options at present is initiating a confidential hospital advertising slogan contest using a slogan generator website. Using these professional slogan generator sites, simply require you to put up a cash prize of anywhere from $200 – $999. Then professional slogan writers begin submitting ad agency quality marketing slogans, usually starting within 24 hours. Once the contest has ended, usually after a week to two, depending on the site, you select your favorite entry. The best slogan or advertising tagline writer wins the cash and the rights to the slogan/tagline are passed along to you. Slogan writers are found everywhere from the United States to Australia and England.

Your other option is to hire an ad firm with experience in hospital advertising slogans. Yes, that means far fewer choices than a contest slogan site and the price is sure to be more expensive, however that might be the best route if you prefer the traditional way of getting a slogan.

An effective hospital advertising tagline can be among the best investments you can make in your brand. So just like your ask of a great hospital doctor, make the diagnosis, take action and enjoy the fruits of your label – a healthy marketing foundation.

Different Fields of Medicine

There are different fields of medicine that help heal humans. The following article will discuss and help answer the question what are the different fields of medicine, in minds of many aspiring doctors.

Restoration of health, prevention and treatment of disease or illness comes under the field of medicine. Humans have practiced medicine since time immemorial, but it was an act carried out by alchemists and traditional healers who helped cure diseases. With time, men started to understand science and developed scientific medicine to cure people. With time different fields of medicine developed, that some individuals specialize in. There are different careers in the medical field. Those interested in the art of healing, that is, medicine, can find some answers in the following list of different fields of medicine.

What are the Different Fields of Medicine

There are different fields of medicine that have a different nature of work, require different training. There are many students who often want to know more about types of doctors and what they do. The table below will enlist the kinds of doctors. You can choose from either of the following different fields of medicine as a career. Different fields require different educational qualifications and knowledge related to the medical field.

List of Different Fields of Medicine

  • Allergist or Immunologist
  • Acupuncture
  • Addiction Medicine
  • Adolescent Medicine
  • Aerospace Medicine
  • Allergy/Immunology
  • Anesthesiology
  • Audiologist
  • Bariatrician
  • Cardiologist
  • Cardiac Electrophysiology
  • Cardio Thoracic Surgeon
  • Cardiovascular Disease Physician
  • Cardiovascular Surgeon
  • Chiropractic
  • Clinical Laboratory
  • Immunologist
  • Clinical Pathologist
  • Cosmetic Surgery
  • Colon/Rectal Surgeon
  • Critical Care Medicine
  • Cytopathology
  • Dermatology
  • Dermatopathology
  • Diabetes Speciality
  • Diagnostic Radiology
  • Dentist
  • Emergency Medical Technician
  • Emergency Medical Doctor
  • Endocrinology
  • Endovascular Surgical Neuroradiologist
  • Family Practice
  • Gastroenterology
  • General Practice
  • General Surgery
  • Genetics
  • Geriatrics
  • Gynecology Oncologist
  • Hand Surgery
  • Head and Neck Surgery
  • Hematology Oncologist
  • Hepatology
  • Holistic Medicine Hospitalist                 
  • Immunology
  • Infectious Disease
  • Internal Medicine
  • Interventional Cardiology
  • Legal Medicine
  • Medical Oncology
  • Medical Toxicology
  • Neonatology
  • Nephrology
  • Neurology
  • Neuroradiology
  • Nephrologist
  • Neurosurgery
  • Neurologist
  • Nuclear Cardiology
  • Nuclear Medicine
  • Ophthalmologist
  • Optometrist
  • Oncologist
  • Orthopedics
  • Otolaryngology specialist
  • Other specialization
  • Nutritionist
  • Pediatricians
  • Psychiatrist
  • Psychologists
  • Rheumatology
  • Veterinarians
  • Urologist

Best Fields of Medicine

There are a few best fields of medicine that earn the title, highest paying jobs in America. Some of these best fields of medicine are as follows:

  • Cardiovascular Surgery:
    Annual Income: $558,719
    These are doctors who diagnose and treat various heart diseases as well as blood vessel problems related to the heart. This is one of the best paying jobs around and earn a cool average of $6000K or more annually.
  • Neurosurgery:
    Annual Income: $438,426
    The doctor that provides the patient with operative as well as non-operative management related to the central, peripheral and autonomic nervous system are called neurosurgeons. These doctors earn about $550K annually.
  • Vascular Surgery:
    Annual Income: $359,339
    Those doctors who treat disorders of the blood vessels surgically are called vascular surgeons. They earn $400K or more.
  • Orthopedic Surgery:
    Annual Income: $346,224
    An orthopedic surgeon carries out preservation or restoration of the form and function of the bodies extremities, spine and associated bones though surgical, medical and physical means. They are just under the vascular surgeons earning about $390K annually.
  • Radiology:
    Annual Income: $309,361
    Doctors that use radioactive equipments like X-rays, CT scans etc. to diagnose and treat medical problems are called radiologist. They earn a nice sum of about $300K or more annually.

This was some information related to medical field career list. There are many different fields of medicine and you can choose a medical job that suits your career needs. Hope the above paragraphs have helped answer what are the different fields of medicine in a short and simple way.

Different Fields of Medicine

There are different fields of medicine that help heal humans. The following article will discuss and help answer the question what are the different fields of medicine, in minds of many aspiring doctors.

Restoration of health, prevention and treatment of disease or illness comes under the field of medicine. Humans have practiced medicine since time immemorial, but it was an act carried out by alchemists and traditional healers who helped cure diseases. With time, men started to understand science and developed scientific medicine to cure people. With time different fields of medicine developed, that some individuals specialize in. There are different careers in the medical field. Those interested in the art of healing, that is, medicine, can find some answers in the following list of different fields of medicine.

What are the Different Fields of Medicine

There are different fields of medicine that have a different nature of work, require different training. There are many students who often want to know more about types of doctors and what they do. The table below will enlist the kinds of doctors. You can choose from either of the following different fields of medicine as a career. Different fields require different educational qualifications and knowledge related to the medical field.

List of Different Fields of Medicine

  • Allergist or Immunologist
  • Acupuncture
  • Addiction Medicine
  • Adolescent Medicine
  • Aerospace Medicine
  • Allergy/Immunology
  • Anesthesiology
  • Audiologist
  • Bariatrician
  • Cardiologist
  • Cardiac Electrophysiology
  • Cardio Thoracic Surgeon
  • Cardiovascular Disease Physician
  • Cardiovascular Surgeon
  • Chiropractic
  • Clinical Laboratory
  • Immunologist
  • Clinical Pathologist
  • Cosmetic Surgery
  • Colon/Rectal Surgeon
  • Critical Care Medicine
  • Cytopathology
  • Dermatology
  • Dermatopathology
  • Diabetes Speciality
  • Diagnostic Radiology
  • Dentist
  • Emergency Medical Technician
  • Emergency Medical Doctor
  • Endocrinology
  • Endovascular Surgical Neuroradiologist
  • Family Practice
  • Gastroenterology
  • General Practice
  • General Surgery
  • Genetics
  • Geriatrics
  • Gynecology Oncologist
  • Hand Surgery
  • Head and Neck Surgery
  • Hematology Oncologist
  • Hepatology
  • Holistic Medicine Hospitalist                 
  • Immunology
  • Infectious Disease
  • Internal Medicine
  • Interventional Cardiology
  • Legal Medicine
  • Medical Oncology
  • Medical Toxicology
  • Neonatology
  • Nephrology
  • Neurology
  • Neuroradiology
  • Nephrologist
  • Neurosurgery
  • Neurologist
  • Nuclear Cardiology
  • Nuclear Medicine
  • Ophthalmologist
  • Optometrist
  • Oncologist
  • Orthopedics
  • Otolaryngology specialist
  • Other specialization
  • Nutritionist
  • Pediatricians
  • Psychiatrist
  • Psychologists
  • Rheumatology
  • Veterinarians
  • Urologist

Best Fields of Medicine

There are a few best fields of medicine that earn the title, highest paying jobs in America. Some of these best fields of medicine are as follows:

  • Cardiovascular Surgery:
    Annual Income: $558,719
    These are doctors who diagnose and treat various heart diseases as well as blood vessel problems related to the heart. This is one of the best paying jobs around and earn a cool average of $6000K or more annually.
  • Neurosurgery:
    Annual Income: $438,426
    The doctor that provides the patient with operative as well as non-operative management related to the central, peripheral and autonomic nervous system are called neurosurgeons. These doctors earn about $550K annually.
  • Vascular Surgery:
    Annual Income: $359,339
    Those doctors who treat disorders of the blood vessels surgically are called vascular surgeons. They earn $400K or more.
  • Orthopedic Surgery:
    Annual Income: $346,224
    An orthopedic surgeon carries out preservation or restoration of the form and function of the bodies extremities, spine and associated bones though surgical, medical and physical means. They are just under the vascular surgeons earning about $390K annually.
  • Radiology:
    Annual Income: $309,361
    Doctors that use radioactive equipments like X-rays, CT scans etc. to diagnose and treat medical problems are called radiologist. They earn a nice sum of about $300K or more annually.

This was some information related to medical field career list. There are many different fields of medicine and you can choose a medical job that suits your career needs. Hope the above paragraphs have helped answer what are the different fields of medicine in a short and simple way.

http://centralesante.tn

Rashes on Neck – Types of Skin Diseases

Whenever any sign occurs at the area of neck this is known as neck rash. The rashes on neck can be occurred with some reasons and these can be diseases or any skin problem. Some of the common problems that can cause are mentioned below.

Measles-This is a viral infection and is a very common disease in United States. Now a day this is getting less common as with the uses of vaccination. This disease is more common in adults as compare to children. This is an acute and highly contagious viral disease that is marked by distinct red spots followed by a rash. The rashes start from face and reaches to neck. This problem also causes sore throat and sometimes fever.

Lupus- This is an ulcerative kind of skin disease in which linings and different organs are affected. This may come with rashes on cheeks and pain in joints. This is an autoimmune disease, which is more common in women. It affects different parts of body.

Sunburns- The environment around us contains very harmful elements and sunrays supply some problems as sun contains harmful ultraviolet rays, which are bad for skin. The symptoms of sunburns vary from patient to patient but some of the common symptoms include fever, swelling, pain, blisters and shock.

Rosacea– This is a type of skin disease, which is caused more often in adults as compare to children. In this disease blood vessels of the face expand and that results in a flushed appearance with reddishness around the cheeks, forehead, nose or chin.

Boil- Boils are skin problems and it generally occurs due to infection on skin. This results to a painful red bump on the skin. Many a times even a cluster of such bumps is formed which is called Carbuncle.

Acne-Acne is a disorder, which results from the actions of hormones on the oil glands of the skin. The problem leads to plugged pores and outbreaks of lesions commonly called pimples or zits. Acne lesions usually occur on the face, neck, back, chest, and shoulders. Most of youngsters and teenagers complain of having acne on their face. Around 17 million United States people are caused by acne in their teenager or after.

Gassy After Eating Anything – Have Gas And Bloating After Every Meal?

Do you frequently find that you have gas and bloating after every meal? If so then there is a very likely chance that the cause is a problem with your digestive system that needs correcting. This problem is known as a prevalent fungus that lives in an estimated 90% of the population. It’s called candida albicans and it can cause a lot more than just gas and bloating after eating food as I’ll explain. I’ll explain some natural cures for gas and bloating and then how this fungus may be the real reason you’re experiencing these chronic issues.

First 2 quick natural cures for Gas and Bloating

#1. Probiotics – If you haven’t tried these before, then now is the time. These beneficial bacteria are a major reason for gas and bloating, more specifically a lack of them is the cause. You see whenever you take an anti-biotic or a drug of some kind it has a very high likelihood of destroying most of these good bacteria. Over time a large portion of these bacteria can become killed off, this leaves room for bad bacteria and fungus such as candida to spread.

#2. Digestive Enzymes – Very often over the course of eating a very processed and toxic diet the body will begin to deplete its ability to produce digestive enzymes. These enzymes can be of a huge help to those suffering from gas and bloating, however they themselves are not the cure. In many cases the overgrowth of candida in the body will actually reduce your bodies production of enzymes. This being just one of many ways in which candida is involved in weakening digestive processes in the body.

The solution to eliminating digestive problems of all kinds once and for all in an effective diet and cleanse targeted to eliminating candida and all the other contributing factors that allow for candida to destroy a healthy body. Not only does candida negatively affect digestion but also affects moods and has been linked as the main cause of ADD/ADHD and something called brain fog where it seems like concentration is always impaired. If that wasn’t bad enough it is also a common cause of allergies and even asthma. There is a list of over 100 potential symptoms caused by candida. The best solution is to take a candida test and determine if you are at risk.

Phobia: a Brief History of the Word

Phobia is a derivative of the Greek word “phobos”, meaning fear. It does seem however, to have two different definitions. Here are a couple of examples: a) an extremely intense and overwhelming sense of fear with regard to a specific stimulus or b) an intense dislike or hatred of something.

Here are a couple of examples: Arachnophobia is an intense fear of spiders. I know a few people that have this particular phobia and I find it quite disturbing to watch just how they react upon sighting one. This reaction can even present itself when they view a picture of one or see one on TV. It’s obvious that spiders cause them a great deal of discomfort.

Homophobia is a fear of homosexuals. Here we see a different interpretation of the word phobia. In this case it means an intense dislike or hatred toward homosexuals rather than an intense and overwhelming fear that would invoke terror in the heart of the homophobic.

So, what is the difference between a phobia and a fear? Most people have fears of one kind or another. Fears of: examinations, speaking in public, etc. etc. In fact, I have a fear of public speaking. A couple of times in my life, I’ve been asked to stand up in front of a crowded room and give a talk on a specific subject. As I recall, just prior to walking out onto the stage, my hands started to sweat, I felt anxious and my legs turned almost to jelly. These feelings are normal and, once I got out there and into my stride, I started to feel good and, as I did, the anxiety along with my sweaty hands and jelly legs disappeared. Now, if I had a phobia about speaking in public, then, wild horses wouldn’t have got me onto that stage in front of all those people.

How do I know this? Well, I was agoraphobic for twenty odd years and I have first-hand experience of what it feels like to have a phobia. To give a very brief definition, agoraphobia is a fear of panic attacks. Having experienced several panic episodes whilst travelling, I eventually gave up going outside altogether and became housebound.

Until quite recently, phobias were incurable. The only relief that could be offered was in the form of medication but, under normal circumstances, this would only be administered if the phobia were such that it restricted the sufferer’s life. However, nowadays there is a system that will allow a person to overcome their phobias and take back control of their life once more. I used this system to say goodbye to my panic attacks and agoraphobia for good.

Symbols in A Passage to India

Introduction:

Forster is a distinguished novelist both in modern English and world literature history. All his life, his main achievements are six novels and two short story collections. His works ignite criticisms of different views, among which individual relationships and the theme of separateness, of fences and barriers are the main problems that the author always focuses on. After the author’s two visits to India, the great novel A Passage to India (1924) was produced, which continues his previous style, i.e. probing the problem of personal relationship in a more complicated situation, and my article aims at having a comparatively deeper discussion about the crisis of human relationship in A Passage to India. Notably, it is a novel by E. M. Forster set against the backdrop of the British Raj and the Indian independence movement in the 1920s. In a word, it is a novel of cultural, social, psychological, and religious conflict arising mainly from clashes between India’s native population and British imperialist occupiers. Altogether there are certain parts in this article highlighting on the author’s philosophy, the imperialism, racialism and colonization in A Passage to India from the perspective of symbolism.

The Use of Symbolism in A Passage to India:

As far as the definition goes, generally, the word ‘symbol’ stands for something else, esp. a material object representing something abstract- Middle English symbole, creed, from Old French, from Latin symbolum, ‘token, mark’, from Greek sumbolon, ‘token for identification’ (by comparison with a counterpart). From the viewpoint of literary & literary critical terms, it indicates an object, person, idea, etc., used in a literary work, film, etc., to stand for or suggest something else with which it is associated either explicitly or in some more subtle way. E.M. Forster’s A Passage to India is painted with the colour of a wide range of symbols. They include-

       1. The Marabar Caves

           a. The Reverberation of the Cave

           b. The Echo Representing a Hindu Resonance

       2. The Image of the Green Bird

       3. The Wasp Symbol

       4. Social Events: Parties, Picnics, and Celebrations

       5. Mosque, Cave, Temple, and Weather

       6. Nothing as a Metaphor

       7. The Infinite Sky

       8. The Pankhawallah Image

       9. The Snake Imagery

     10. The Collision of the Boats

     11. Other Insignificant Images

1. The Marabar Caves:

The imaginary caves in A Passage to India are modelled by E. M. Forster on actual caves about twelve miles from the city of Gaya in the state of Bihar. Nevertheless, the actual caves are known as the Barabar Caves, not the Marabar Caves (Forster’s fictional name for them). A Buddhist leader of the second century B.C, being liberal of other religions, ordered workers to cut the caves from rock faces as holy places for monks of the Ajivika religion. There are four Barabar caves. Their even inner walls maintain expanded echoes. 

Forster’s A Passage to India is intense with the type of symbolic language that we generally connect with poetry in spite of the deep political themes of the novel. Forster depicts the manifestation of a blaze (in one of the more amazing passages) against the extremely reflective shell of a Marabar cave:

“The two flames approach and strive to unite, but cannot, because one of them breathes air, the other stone. A mirror inlaid with lovely colours divides the lovers, delicate stars of pink and grey interpose, exquisite nebulae, shadings fainter than the tail of a comet or the midday moon, all the evanescent life of the granite, only here visible. (2.12.4)

The Marabar Caves stand for all that is unfamiliar about natural world. The caves are older than anything else on the earth and represent emptiness and meaninglessness—a factual void in the earth. They disregard both English and Indians to act as guides to them, and their weird and wonderful attractiveness and hazard disturb tourists. The caves’ strange feature also has the power to make tourists such as Mrs. Moore and Adela face parts of themselves or the cosmos that they have not formerly recognized. The all-reducing boom of the caves causes Mrs. Moore to see the darker side of her mysticism—a declining promise to the world of relationships and a growing ambivalence about God. Adela faces the disgrace and humiliation of her understanding that she and Ronny are not in fact attracted to each other, and that she might be attracted to no one. In this sense, the caves both devastate meaning, in reducing all remarks to the same sound, and expose or describe the unspeakable, the aspects of the universe that the caves’ visitors have not measured until now.

The  Reverberation of the Cave

No matter what the sound is, e.g., sneezes, whistles, shouts, noise etc. return the equivalent echo in the first of the Marabar Caves: boum, or a variation of it such as ou-boum. This echo shows to ridicule the Hindu idea that the whole universe, and everything in it, consists of a particular spirit, Brahman (not to be confused with Brahmin or Brahma). Even the human soul, called atman by Hindus, is part of this spirit. Therefore, a whistle is a sneeze and a sneeze is a soul, since all are Brahman—that is, all are the same essence. The echo frightens Mrs. Moore because she unclearly realizes that it symbolizes a power that decreases everything to equality—a dull, bare sameness. Even biblical words that she had lived by become part of the Brahman and thus lose their meaning, as reported by the narrator in the last paragraph of Chapter 14. Mrs. Moore thinks about the cave-incident and tries to write a letter to her children, Stella and Ralph. 

“[S]uddenly, at the edge of her mind, Religion appeared, poor little talkative Christianity, and she knew that all its divine words from “Let there be Light” to “It is finished” only amounted to boum. Then she was terrified over an area larger than usual; the universe, never comprehensible to her intellect, offered no repose to her soul . . . .”

After that, her experience in the cave troubles her, and she becomes bad-tempered and sad. Her life and everything she believes in lose their meaning like the biblical words. India had charmed her when she arrived in the country but now it drives her back. Its interesting mystery has turned into the “muddle” spoken of by other Britons.  No, she does not curse the country and its people as Major Callendar and Mrs. Turton do. Nor does she take Adela’s side against Aziz in the days leading up to the trial. But, she can no longer tolerate India; it is too much for her. She decides to leave; she does not even wait to give evidence for Aziz.

“Why should I be in the witness box?”

she later says to her son Ronny.

“I have nothing to do with your ludicrous law courts.”

The narrator then reports Heaslop’s thoughts:

“She was by no means the dear old lady outsiders supposed, and India had brought her out in the open.” 

She is oppressed by the Asian heat, her health declines and she dies on the ship and becomes part of the huge barrenness of the Indian Ocean. 

Adela Quested is captivated with India like Mrs. Moore when she arrives in the country. But, she fears that its unrestrained variety will turn her into just another pessimistic, disappointed Anglo-Indian if she marries Ronny Heaslop and becomes an inhabitant of India. However, she sees a shine of optimism in Indian history, especially in the person of the Mogul emperor Akbar (1542-1605), who ruled from 1556 until his death. He set up modifications (to unite the common people) that centralized government functions. Furthermore, though he himself was a Muslim, he encouraged conversation between people of all religions—Hindus, Muslims, Parsis, and so on—and even tried to begin a new religion that united parts of other religions. 

Adela asks Aziz in Chapter 14 about Akbar, “[W]asn’t Akbar’s new religion very fine? It was to embrace the whole of India.” Aziz answers by saying that Akbar was a great ruler and Akbar’s plan of a particular Indian religion was incorrect.

“Nothing embraces the whole of India, nothing, nothing, and that was Akbar’s mistake.”

Adela then says,

“I hope you’re not right. There will have to be something universal in this country—I don’t say religion, for I’m not religious, but something, or how else are barriers to be broken down.”

She ends up saying that without a unifying power she would find it complicated as an Anglo-Indian to “avoid becoming like them [Mrs. Turton and Mrs. Callendar].”

Afterward, she enters one of the upper caves alone and scratches a wall and hears the echo. She later says that Aziz assaults her it is at this point. She struggles back with her field glasses, escapes the cave, races through a field of cactuses that tear her skin and insert needles in it, and returns to Chandrapore with Miss Derek. She is confused, in a state of fright. She frequently hears the echo after her recovery. But, she has no hint regarding its meaning unlike Mrs. Moore. When she asks the old woman what it means, Mrs. Moore replies,

“If you don’t know, you don’t know; I can’t tell you.”

She fails to understand the sound and becomes like the other English men and women who cannot understand Indians. She yet starts to question her own insightfulness and starts to recognize that she has wrongly blamed Aziz. But, Ronny and the others, who are using her as an tool to penalize the Indians, influence her that she was correct about Aziz.  However, she gathers the bravery at the trial to confess that she was wrong and drops the charges. Then she leaves India too. The leaving of Miss Quested and Mrs. Moore predicts the historical British departure from India in 1947, which Forster may perhaps have seen as unavoidable. 

The Echo Representing a Hindu Resonance

Certainly, the most unforgettable figure of speech in A Passage to India is onomatopoeia: the boum echo in the caves. It calls to mind the om sound recited by Hindus and Buddhists. “Encyclopaedia Britannica” says about this sound, 

“The syllable Om is composed of the three sounds a-u-m (in Sanskrit, the vowels a and u coalesce to become o), which represent several important triads: the three worlds of earth, atmosphere, and heaven; the three major Hindu gods, Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva; and the three sacred Vedic scriptures, Rg, Yajur, and Sama. Thus, Om mystically embodies the essence of the entire universe. It is uttered at the beginning and end of Hindu prayers, chants, and meditation and is freely used in Buddhist and Jaina ritual also.”

Different critics have explained the three sections in diverse manners. Gertrude M. White thinks that the splitting up of the novel into Mosque, Caves and Temple match with thesis, antithesis and synthesis of the Hegelian dialectics. However, G. D. Allen refuses her disagreement saying that the three sections stand for the ways of work of knowledge and of love (as specified in Hindu philosophy) as well as Islam, Hinduism, and Christianity. As said by Wilbur L. Cross, Forster has attempted to portray “the native as he appears to himself, as he appears to the British official and as he really is when his mind is revealed, presenting a civilization which the West can disturb but will never acquire.” Whereas R. A. Brower is of the view that “the communication between Britons and Indians, are more generally the possibility of understanding relationships between say two persons.”

However, most of these explanations are half-done and fall short to realize Forster’s fundamental purpose. The fact is that the three sections symbolize the three stages of man’s spiritual expedition. Forster had promoted the relationship of the seen and the unseen in Howards End and he observes the dissimilar ways in which this association can be best recognized. The unnoticed has an influence on the social, spiritual, and emotional lives of the people and Forster looks for establishing the way in which this influence is maintained best.

2. The Image of the Green Bird:

Both Adela and Ronny agree for the first time (in Chapter VII) to end their engagement; suddenly, they see a green bird sitting in the tree above them. However, they are totally unable to identify the bird. Adela thinks that the bird represents the unidentifiable feature of all of India: just when she thinks she can realize any feature of India, that characteristic alters or vanishes. In this sense, the green bird represents the muddle of India. The bird, in another capacity, indicates an unusual anxiety between the English and Indians. The English are preoccupied with knowledge, literalness, and naming, and they use these devices as a means of gaining and maintaining supremacy. In contrast, the Indians are more thoughtful about nuance, undertone, and the feelings behind words. The Indians identify that tags can blind one to significant facts and differences whereas the English demand for cataloging stuffs. The unidentifiable green bird proposes the inappropriateness of the English mania with categorization and order with the shifting value of India itself; actually the land is a hundred Indias that disregard tagging and understanding.

3. The Wasp Symbol:

The wasp becomes visible a number of times in A Passage to India, generally along with the Hindu idea of the oneness of all living things. The wasp is generally represented as the lowest creature the Hindus integrate into their idea of widespread unity. Mrs. Moore is intimately associated with the wasp, as she finds one in her room and becomes thankful of it. Her quiet regard for the wasp shows her own candidness to the Hindu idea of collectivity, and to the mysticism and indescribable excellence of India overall. Nevertheless, the wasp also symbolizes the limits of the Hindu vision as the wasp is the lowest creature that the Hindus think about. The vision is not a cure-all, but only a prospect for harmony and understanding in India.

4. Social Events; Parties, Picnics, and Celebrations:

A number of bad parties appear in A Passage to India; we witness parties such as, the Turtons’ Bridge Party, Fielding’s tea party, and Aziz’s picnic. All of these events become terribly unsuccessful. Generally, these disastrous parties function as images for the British Empire in the book.

The novel presents that each of these events go in vain because of the British need for exclusion, for hierarchies, for societal restrictions, and for setting up an us-versus-them that eternally constructs an us as better than them. Racial discrimination is an addition of this wish for segregation, and empire is also no exception to it, which is based on the standard that we are superior, more educated, more up to date, more dominant than them. Aziz’s misfortune of a picnic is just a fabulous example of how vicious the British longing for segregation can be. Nevertheless, this longing for segregation is not limited to the British single-handedly. The book unlocks as Mohurram, a Muslim celebration, advances. The Mohurram riots were connected with manifestations in favor of Aziz for the duration of the trial. Nonetheless, prior to the trial, the Mohurram problems referred to the unavoidable twists between the Muslims and the Hindus regarding the procession direction The Mohurram riots are an metaphor for the religious factionalism that continues to terrorize the South Asian subcontinent even today. Contrary to these failed social occasions, let us take a quick look at the Gokul Ashtami fiesta, which is a celebration set up to fail. The event rejoices all beings, exclusive of not a soul and nothing, not even the smallest of insects or the silliest of jokes; Godbole remembers Mrs. Moore (back in Chandrapore) and a wasp; he does not get in touch with some elevated command in his spiritual trance.

5. Mosque, Cave, Temple, and Weather:

E.M. Forster divided the novel not simply into chapters, but it is also separated into three parts entitled “Mosque,” “Cave,” and “Temple.” The parts are also ordered by the three seasons in India:

     a) “Mosque” takes place during the cool weather,

     b) “Cave” during the hot weather, and

     c) “Temple” during the rainy season.

These part divisions situate the tone for the events described in each part. The first part of the novel, in “Mosque,” Aziz’s indication to the architecture of the mosque as that of “call and response” synchronizes with the common mood of this part of the novel, where people are meeting each other at different societal functions. People are normally peaceful and open like the cold weather.

On the contrary, the climax of the novel is found in the “Cave” section of the novel. Taking place during the hot weather, feelings are irritated, and nobody seems to be able to think quietly and logically. The whole population of Chandrapore is turned wrong way up as riots and disorder encircle the trial just as Mrs. Moore’s grip on life was in danger by her knowledge of emptiness inside the cave.

Lastly, the “Temple” part tries to sweep away the confusion of the “Cave” section with its torrential rains. The chapter rejoices the Hindu belief of the oneness of all things with Godbole at the Gokul Ashtami celebration in relation to the Hindu motif of the temple, and provides us with a shaky understanding between Fielding and Aziz.

6. Nothing as a Metaphor:

Nothing in the novel is in fact something in a twist that Godbole would surely be pleased about- it is a symbol nothing. The novel starts with the word “nothing” in its first sentence. You might have observed that the novel appears gripped with breaches and cracks. The novel is almost planned like a donut, with a large hole where Adela’s experience in the cave should be. But, if you think about it, even though nothing is written about Adela’s understanding in the cave, it does not indicate that nothing happened or that nothing can be said. Actually, it is perhaps the most remarkable part of the book exactly for the reason that it is omitted. As the narrator comments that the Marabar Caves are extraordinary. The extraordinariness of nothing is definitely one of the stranger and surely forceful motifs in the novel.

7. The Infinite Sky as a Vital Symbol:

The reappearance of the infinite sky above is not meaningless. The author has intentionally done so with a view to presenting a deeper meaning through it. It happens in the successive chapters and its descriptions seem to be lively characters to us. It goes without saying that the sky is so limitless that it holds all things together and could be interpreted as a symbol of inclusiveness, but it also represents the huge area of either British colonial control or the unimaginable hugeness of India itself, to a great extent.

8. The Pankhawallah Image:

This unimportant lowborn labourer is luckily awarded with power and attractiveness. He is not aware whatsoever how far he fits into the society where he toils involuntarily for a meager amount so as to maintain himself and almost certainly a family. He does not recognize the seriousness of the emergency that has disturbed the people who had crowded encircling him in the court room. This detachment of the modest labourer has struck a blow at the small-minded working of her delirium-shrouded brain and provoked a kind of goodness of thinking in Adela. As a result, her viewpoint and vision turns out to be widened.

9. The Snake Imagery

George H. Thomson wrote a scholarly article about the snake symbol prevalent in A Passage to India; the very article appeared in “English Literature in Transition, 1880-1920”. According to him, the novel pivots on the mighty contrast between two settings: the wasteland world of ‘Caves’ and the rain soaked jungle world of ‘Temple’. The wasteland world, at the centre of which is the Marabar Hills and caves, signifies the absence of God and indicates his nonexistence. The jungle world, at the centre of which is Mau and its great religious festival, signifies the presence of God. This theme of presence and absence of God, adumbrated in the novel by Godbole and reflected in the major symbols, is reinforced by a variety of minor symbols.

The significance of snakes and images of snakes in the novel will illustrate Forster’s careful deployment of such minor symbols. But, in assessing the snake imagery in relation to the presence and absence of God, it is important to remember that the development of this theme is in many respects, non-theological. The idea of presence and absence is generalized and finds expression in the quality and nature of the reality-unreality encountered in the Indian universe.

Near the close of the novel, Aziz and Fielding go for a ride in the Mau jungle. As they near the end of their ride, we read:

“They splashed through butterflies and frogs; great trees with leaves like plates rose among the brushwood. The divisions of daily life were returning, the shrine had almost shut” (p.321).

For Aziz and Fielding, who have come together in the closing gestures of the Mau festival, the god has extended his temple even to the Mau jungle. This is important in evaluating a detail mentioned earlier in their ride:

“Presently, the ground opened into full sunlight and they saw a grassy slope bright with butterflies, also a cobra, which crawled across doing nothing in particular, and disappeared among some custard apple trees” (p. 317).

This is the first actual snake to appear in the novel. With two trivial exceptions, it is also the first real snake to be mentioned in a novel well-furnished with references to snakes, scorpions, serpents, and dragons. The exceptions are the snake said to have been cut in two by the kitchen boy and the highly poisonous Russell’s Viper said to have been found in a classroom at Government College. The first is a casual illustration of the superstitions of the uneducated Indian, the second is an illustration of the absence of order and reasonable probability in the world of ‘Caves’. Apart from these, all the snakes, serpents, and monsters are nonexistent.

At the beginning of the story, Aziz—as an afterthought—mentions to Mrs. Moore the dangers of snakes from the Marabar. The context suggests that Aziz is improvising these snakes to suit his feeling of the moment (p. 21). As it turns out, however, the Marabar is a rich source of snake images if not of actual snakes.

As the expedition to the Marabar Hills gets under way, the country is “invisible except as a dark movement in the darkness,” and in the sky “the stars of the sprawling Scorpion had begun to pale” (p. 132). Later, perched on the elephant, Adela sees a snake; a black cobra, explains Aziz. But, Ronny’s binoculars, the symbol of the inquiring intellect, reveal to Adela the twisted stump of a toddy-palm (p. 141). Inside the cave,

“the striking of a match starts a little worm coiling… the cave is stuffed with a snake composed of small snakes, which writhe independently” (pp. 147-148).

Whatever is said in the cave, the comment is always the same ‘ou-boum’, and the serpent descends and returns to the ceiling (pp. 149-150). After Aziz has lost himself among the caves, he finds the place full of grooves that lead “this way and that like snake-tracks” (p.154), and the expedition leaving the Marabar unwinds out of the corridor (p. 159).

(http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/english_literature_in_transition/v009/9.2.thomson.html)      

10. The Collision of the Boats:

The occupants (Ralph, Stella, and Fielding) get wet when the boats smash together close to the floating image of the Lord. This getting soaked has figurative importance that in spite of all endeavour, in spite of mosques, caves, temples, and the holy soil of the very old land of India, the diverse cultural units cannot be included into a particular logical part.

11. Other Insignificant Images:

Once, a nameless beast or Being strikes the Nawab Bahadur’s car. This indicates the immoral repression of the natives by the bureaucrats under the excuse of ruling them on the authority of regulation and fair dealing. This and other symbols mix the different and opposing details of the story together to allow them to gush into a spacious current of huge human plea.

Conclusion:

In the end, the novel helps us to see how the flickers disclose the strange shades of colour refracted off the minerals in the stone to bring the frozen, hard stone to evanescent life. Forster’s writing style serves one of the familiar ideas of the novel: art is a way of giving shape to the muddle, of helping us make sense of the world around us. The best works of art use form not to remove the muddle, but to hold it close, to direct the readers’ attention for eternity away from the undisturbed protection of the familiar, to the unknown and strange.

Works Cited:

Arnold, Edward. “A Passage to India”, Friday 20 June, 1924. http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/1924/jun/20/classics

Forster, E.M. A Passage to India. New York: Alfred K. Knopf, 1942.

“Om”.  Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 11 May. 2012 <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/428173/Om>.

Thomson, H. George. “English Literature in Transition, 1880-1920”, Volume 9, Number 2, 1966, pp. 108-110 | 10.1353/elt.2010.1389. http://muse.jhu.edu/login?auth=0&type=summary&url=/journals/english_literature_in_transition/v009/9.2.thomson.html

Challenges faced by Human Resource Managers in the Era of Gloablization

“The real wealth of a nation is its people. And the purpose of development is to create an enabling environment for people to enjoy long, healthy and creative lives. This simple but powerful truth is too often forgotten in the pursuit of material and financial wealth.”

INTRODUCTION

Globalization of Indian economy is compelling organization to rethink their future strategies. It is now widely recognized that transformation is a pre-requisite to their survival and growth. Business organization in India especially public enterprises are experiencing winds of change. For the HR function, there would not be a more existing and challenging opportunity than managing the complexities of change and transformation. HR today is playing a lead role along with business functions in creating the necessary momentum and internal capabilities.

Now first let us understand what we mean by globalization.

WHAT IS GLOBALIZATION?

Every day we hear it on news, we read it in the newspapers, we overhear people talking about it… and in every single moment the word ‘globalization’ seems to have a different meaning. So what is globalization?

“…integration of business activities across geographical and organizational boundaries.”

“The capacity to treat the world as one market while…dealing with many culturally diverse merchants.”

“…the process by which markets expands to include competitors for customers and productive inputs without regard to national boundaries”.

“…doing business with a world wide focus… rather than doing business in an international market with the focus from a home-country viewpoint.”

Globalization is not just a recent phenomenon. Some analysts have argued that the world economy was just a globalized 100 years ago as it is today. Yet the term is used since the 1980’s, reflecting technological advances that have made it easier and quicker to complete international transactions, both trade and financial flows. The most striking aspect of this has been the integration of financial markets made possible by modern electronic communication.

At a political and economic level, globalization is the process of denationalization of markets, politics and legal systems i.e. the use of the so-called global economy. Globalization refers to an extension beyond national borders of the same market forces that have operated for centuries at all levels of human economic activity (village markets, urban industries, or financial centers). It means that world trade and financial markets are becoming more integrated.

At a business level, we talk of globalization when organization decides to take part in the emerging global economy and establish themselves in foreign markets. First they will adapt their products or services to the customer’s linguistic and cultural requirements. Then, they might take advantage of the internet revolution and establish a virtual presence on the international market place with a multilingual corporate website or even as an e-business.

Overall, globalization requires a combination of linguistic, engineering and marketing knowledge that is not easily available. (Sparrow, Paul, R, 2006)

Globalization is linked to four major aspects:

  1. Trade
  2. Capital movements
  3. Movement of people
  4. Spread of knowledge

DRIVERS OF GLOBALIZATION

Driving factors of globalization can be divided into four groups:

MARKET DRIVERS

  • Convergence of per capita income
  • Convergence of life styles
  • Organizations behavior as global customers

COST DRIVERS

  • Push for economics of scale
  • Advances in transportation
  • Emergence of newly industrialized countries with productive capability and low labor costs

COMPETITIVE DRIVERS

  • Growth of global networks making countries interdependent
  • Rise of new competitors intent on becoming global competitors
  • Increased formation of global strategies alliances

GOVERNMENT DRIVERS

  • Reduction on tariffs and other trade barriers
  • Privatization of industry in many parts of the world
  • Creation of trading blocks (i.e. EU)

Globalization has elevated the importance of HRM development in organization. These changes have led to the notion of the HR system as a strategic asset. Many of the arguments about processes of globalization within the HR function rest on the assumption that there has and continues to be longitudinal change in the conduct of HR. in the intervening seven years a wide range of contextual changes have led to significant globalization of activity, including: the transfer of work abroad, either to outsourced providers or on a global in-sourcing basis; the e-enablement of many HR process; greater sophistication in the HR information technology, new structures for international HR functions; greater competition for talented staff at all levels of organization; more protracted and strategic talent pipelines. In particular, there has been a very strong marketing, corporate communication and IT influence on the HR function. The HR function is realigning itself in response to this process of cross-function globalization (building new alliances with these functions) creating new activity streams and new roles and skills required of the HR function (Sparrow, Brewster and Harris, 2004).

HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGERS: THEIR ROLE IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT

Issues facing HR are expected to change dramatically in the next decades. Thus, HR professionals must play special roles in dealing with these changes and must develop specific competencies to support these roles.

Workplace flexibility is expected to be on the rise as the future workplace, the ‘virtual office’ is characterized by creative and flexible work arrangements. As more employees work off-site-up to two thirds of an organization in the 21st century – there will be an increase in emphasis on performance and results as opposed to the number of hours worked. In addition, off-site employees can expect to attend fewer meetings. Specified work will become much more collaborative and management will spend nearly all its time managing cross-functional work teams who enjoy a lot of autonomy. In essence, there will be a movement, a trend towards a decentralized model of HR.

HR managers will have to accommodate employees in their virtual work locations and find ways to manage corporate culture, socialization and employee orientation. In order to obtain and maintain a competent workforce, they must act as organizational performance experts and shape employees behavior without face to face meetings.

Another expected change in HR is the ‘Global Business’ concept world trade knew a major growth during the last years and there is forecasted as well the growth of international businesses, especially among small firms. Organization rely more and more organization HR specialists as the facilitators of work across borders and among different cultures. Therefore, they must be knowledgeable of other cultures, languages and business practices. They will be required to develop and manage an international workforce, maintain written and unwritten corporate polices for transportability to other cultures, keep top management informed of the costs of not paying attention to the transnational issues and provide their services to a variety of locations world wide.

Concerning the recruitment in the above mentioned ‘global business’ it will be important which strategy will be adopted by the management.

Globalization will impact HR managers by requiring new skills such as language capabilities. For e.g., in order to recruit employees from other cultures, HR managers will either have to learn new languages or else they will certainly have to have foreign speakers on staff. But in order to facilitate communication among people coming from a wide range of language backgrounds, in most multinationals, it is preferred to speak English.

However, when we talk about Globalization and culture, then how does this relation influence businesses and HR professionals’ attitudes?

Organization must take into account cultural differences that shape managerial attitudes, when developing multinational management programs. For e.g., British managers value individual achievement and autonomy, whereas French managers appreciate competent supervision, fringe benefits, security and comfortable conditions, while Indian managers gives more importance of their culture and tradition.

HR managers must therefore be familiar with and understand other cultural norms to promote organization diversity. An organization that recognizes and promotes cultural diversity will benefit because it will be employing the market that it serves. With increasing globalization and competition within the market, a diverse workforce is conducive to attracting and retaining a strong client base. While competing in an international market, employees from diverse national backgrounds provide language skills and understanding of other cultures. HR professionals will also be responsible for providing cultural sensitivity training for the organizations employees and for managers throughout the entire organization. (Czebter, Anamaria, 2002)

DILEMMAS FACED BY AN HR HEAD

 Unlike the other industries where HR is considered as a functional need, there is a need to view HR as a partner or a business enabler. One of the constant challenges faced in this area is to align HR to business. The five R’s therefore, assume utmost significance in HR strategy. The HR team needs to get in right from the stage of defining the business strategy to Resourcing, Recruiting the right talent, Retaining the talent, Retraining and Restructuring.

However, if we see the scenario of HR in IT company, we find that flexibility appears to be the key for success and survival as IT has become such a dynamic field due to the constant developments and upgradation in the area of technology and changing customer requirements. Topping all these reasons is also the trend of globalization, which tries the HR test of endurance. The ability and the willingness to modify job structure, job classification and the organizational structure as often and as quickly as necessary are important elements in a successful recruitment and retention strategy for IT professionals. This challenges of managing expectations and change puts constant pressure on the professionals.

The challenge does not stop with recruiting the right person but with how we are going to manage the performance of our employees. The challenge would be to create a performance culture where in opportunities are provided for enhanced performance and where giving out optimum performance becomes a way of life.

Training and development is another area. In the IT industry training takes on a new connotation. It is not just about identifying training needs and giving the required training. It is foreseeing and anticipating the requirements and developing suitable training so that the employees are well-equipped to handle the challenges.

Another major challenge is how we are able to incorporate all the sub-systems in HR and help them in achieving the ultimate goal – exceptional performance. People have to be groomed to get in tune with the performance culture. Creating an environment that stimulates the creation of knowledge and its sustenance throughout the organization is big challenge. No longer can the HR department carry on with its traditional functions. However, Human Resource Information Systems (HRIS) is to be put in place – to build and sustain a performance – driven culture. The role will shift to that of facilitator. HR will have to involve the whole organization in this process and act as a counselor and facilitator and that is the most gigantic challenge the HR of any organization faces.

In the face of such challenges faced by HR managers, a question arises as to what competencies an HR manager needs to equip them in order to survive in the turbulent phase of globalization.

COMPETENCIES FOR A HR MANAGER

In order to effectively deal with all the changes, HR professionals must develop competencies that will allow them to carry out their roles, competences like:

  • Flexibility
  • Team work
  • Communication
  • Decisiveness
  • Leadership
  • Strategic planning
  • Network building
  • Client service orientation
  • Organizational awareness
  • Self confidence
  • Sharing of expertise
  • Global and cultural understanding
  • Multiple language competencies

In addition to increasing and sustaining technological skills relating to communication developments, HR professionals will may also be required to increase their numerical and data compilations skills. As increasing demands merge to provide specific measurable results that prove effectiveness in their area, HR professionals will be required that produce quantifiable results that prove that their department is delivering specified outcomes based on the objectives and goals set forth by the organization.

In addition to delivering specific measurable developments, managers will also need to know what contributed to the results declared. This may mean that HR professionals will be required to be familiar with and administer employee survey and provide for accurate data compilation and regression analysis.

As a result of the increase in technology, innovation and globalization over the last 20 years, HR professionals around the world are forced to be more efficient, more effective and more competitive. They need to respond to the demands of global competitiveness by becoming more familiar with language skills, cultural awareness and diversity promotion. Additionally, HR professionals must be committed to continuous learning, being familiar with cutting edge communication. If HR managers won’t pay enough attention to their changing role, serous consequences could result, including the deterioration or even perhaps the elimination of the HR department. (Halcrow A, 1998)

TO SUM UP

However, the research has shown that the HR function in international organization has to meet a series of challenges. Three key conclusions about the role of HR professionals working in the field of international recruitment selection and assessment can be drawn:

  1. The added value of the HR function in an international firm lies in its ability to manage the delicate, balance between globally coordinated systems and sensitivity to local needs, including cultural differences, in a way that align with both business needs and senior management philosophy.
  2.  There now appear to be a distinction to be made between international HRM and global HRM.
  3. In this transition, the old functional divides between international recruitment, international management development and international reward management have become increasingly weak.

Over the last 20 years, the workplace has changed in more ways that one could have ever imagined, resulting from the increase in technology, innovation and globalization. The next decade will bring even greater change, impacting all facets of the workplace, including major changes for the HR department and HR managers. In order to respond to the demands of globalization, HR managers will require new skills and competencies relating to language and culture, technology capabilities to facilitate overseas communication, methods to measure and quantify effectiveness and evaluate strategies and return on investment. Evidently, these new skills and competencies will result in an emerging new role for HR managers, requiring them to be strategic business partner, supportive of the overall corporate strategy.

The future role of HR professional will change from a less administrative role to more of a strategic role. HR managers will continually be required to prove their effectiveness and their existence. They will be expected to understand international business practices and promote cultural diversity within the organization. They will need to understand the core business of the organization and become partners with line managers. They will need to prove that their initiatives and programs are result-oriented, providing specific measurable results in terms of business competitiveness that contribute positively to the bottom-line of the organization. They will be required to stay current with leading edge as more and more organization is faced with the demands of globalization and strategic alliances with other organization around the world.

REFERENCE

  1. Czebter, Anamaria, (2002), ‘Labor market and Gloablization: Human Resources management in global enterprises, Centre International de Formation Europeenne, Nice.
  2. Halcrow A, (1998), ‘Survey shows HR in Transition workforce’.
  3. Sparrow, Paul, R., (2006) ‘Globalization of HR at function level: Exploring the issues through International Recruitment, Selection and Assessment Process, working papers, Cornell University.
  4. Sparrow, Paul, R., Brewster, C., and Harris, H. (2004), ‘Globalizing Human Resource Management’, London, Routledge.

Stroke -causes, Symptoms, Treatment

Treatment of Stroke

Stroke is the rapidly developing loss of brain functions due to a disturbance in the blood vessels supplying blood to the brain. This can be due to ischemia (lack of blood supply) caused by thrombosis or embolism, or due to a hemorrhage. In medicine, a stroke, fit, or faint is sometimes referred to as an ictus [cerebra], from the Latin ice re (“to strike”), especially prior to a definitive diagnosis.

As a stroke survivor or a caregiver for a stroke survivor, did you know that having a stroke puts you at greater risk for another stroke? Now, National Stroke Association has partnered with Bristol-Meyers Squibb Sanofi pharmaceuticals to develop the STARS program.

Stroke Risk Factors
The first, called an is chemic stroke, is caused by a blood clot that blocks or plugs a blood vessel or artery in the brain. About 80 percent of all strokes are is chemic. The second, known as a hemorrhagic stroke, is caused by a blood vessel in the brain that breaks and bleeds into the brain. About 20 percent of strokes are hemorrhagic.

Sex (gender) — Stroke is more common in men than in women.  In most age groups, more men than women will have a stroke in a given year.  However, more than half of total stroke deaths occur in women.  Embolic stroke. An embolic stroke occurs when a blood clot or other particle forms in a blood vessel away from your brain — commonly in your heart — and is swept through your bloodstream to lodge in narrower brain arteries. This type of blood clot is called an em bolus.

Cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking has been linked to the buildup of fatty substances in the carotid artery, the main neck artery supplying blood to the brain. Blockage of this artery is the leading cause of stroke in Americans.

What are stroke symptoms?
Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm or leg, especially on one side of the body. The loss of voluntary movement and/or sensation may be complete or partial. There may also be an associated tingling sensation in the affected area,Sudden confusion, trouble speaking or understanding. Sometimes weakness in the muscles of the face can cause drooling.

The diagnosis
The woman and her husband are reassured after the physical examination that all is well, but the doctor wants to do some testing. And electrocardiogram (EKG) is performed to confirm normal heart rhythms and a CT scan of the brain is done, since small areas of bleeding can also cause stroke and TIA. After these results return as normal, a carotid ultrasound is obtained to ensure that there is no critical narrowing of the carotid artery, which would require surgery.

Treatment of stroke
Thrombotic medicine, such as tPA, breaks up blood clots and can restore blood flow to the damaged area. People who receive this medicine are more likely to have less long-term impairment. However, there are strict criteria for who can receive thrombolytics. The most important is that the person be examined and treated by a specialized stroke team within 3 hours of when the symptoms start If the stroke is caused by bleeding rather than clotting, this treatment can make the damage worse — so care is needed to diagnose the cause before giving treatment.

Schizophrenia, One of the Most Catastrophic Mental Illnesses

Being one of the most debilitating and baffling mental illnesses, schizophrenia varies in its severity from individual to individual, although it has a specific set of symptoms.
It is known that usually this illness can be controlled with treatment, and many people may recover from it, if they continue treatment and rehabilitation for many years.
It is possible that patients with schizophrenia will need to continue treatment for all their life, but treatments can allow many of them to work, live with their families and friends, and find life enjoyable.

Schizophrenia begins usually during adolescence or young adulthood, appearing gradually. In many cases young people feel tense, can’t concentrate and withdraw socially. Work, social relationships and appearance will begin to deteriorate.
In time, the symptoms will become very bizarre, the patient will develop peculiar behavior, begins talking in nonsense, and has unusual perceptions. It is known that this is the beginning of psychosis.
It was seen that schizophrenia deals with relapse and remission, which means that sometimes people with schizophrenia seem to be normal, but when the acute or psychotic phase comes, they stop thinking logically and may lose all sense of who they are.
Delusions, hallucinations or disordered thinking and speech can appear.
When patients have hallucinations, they hear voices that a normal person does not, and these voices can comment on the patient’s behavior, can give orders or insult. It is known that there can also appear visual hallucinations, like seeing unreal things, or tactile hallucinations, such as a burning or itching sensation.
Delusions are thoughts that have no basis in reality, are bizarre, and we can mention that, for example some patients believe that someone is planning to harm them, that someone is reading their thoughts, that the aliens can control them and other things.
It was seen that patients can also suffer disordered thinking. In this case, the associations among their thoughts are very loose. They can make up their own words which have no meaning for the others, they can shift from one topic to another that is completely unrelated, without realizing that they are making no logical sense and other things.
Schizophrenia is a very severe condition, it distorts the ability of the patient to know whether an event or situation they perceive is real. They wonder if the voice they hear is only in their head, or is real, if what they see is real or happens only in their head. This uncertainty adds to the terror that already is presented in them because of the distorted reality they perceive.

Psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia may lessen during remission but there are symptoms that continue during both remission and relapse. We can mention here social withdrawal, inappropriate or blunted emotions, and extreme apathy.
There are a lot of types of schizophrenia. For example, a patient that has a lot of feelings of persecution is called to have paranoid schizophrenia, the one who is often incoherent but has no delusions has disorganized schizophrenia.
We must also say that lack or absence of initiative, motivation, social interest, enjoyment and emotional responsiveness are signs of the negative or deficit schizophrenia.
About 150 of every 100,000 persons will develop schizophrenia, it affects men and women equally, and even if it is relatively rare, schizophrenia is one of the most catastrophic mental illnesses.

For more information about schizophrenia or even about paranoid schizophrenia please review this page http://www.schizophrenia-info-center.com/paranoid-schizophrenia.htm

Alopecia – Definition, Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Alopecia simply means hair loss (baldness). Alopecia areata is a form of hair loss from areas of the body, usually from the scalp. Alopecia areata affects both males and females. Alopecia areata does not make you feel pain and does not make you feel sick. In 1–2% of cases, the condition can spread to the entire scalp (Alopecia totalis) or to the entire epidermis (Alopecia universalis). Some people may lose more hair. Rarely, the disease causes total loss of hair on the head or complete loss of hair on the head, face, and body. Alopecia areata usually starts with one or more small, round, smooth bald patches on the scalp and can progress to total scalp hair loss (alopecia totalis) or complete body hair loss (alopecia universalis). Alopecia areata is an autoimmune disease. Normally the immune system protects the body against infection and disease. In an autoimmune disease, the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks some part of your own body. In alopecia areata, the immune system attacks the hair follicles. On rare occasions, the person loses all of the hair on his or her head (alopecia areata totalis) or entire body (alopecia areata universalis). Alopecia is the medical term for baldness; there are various types of alopecia, including alopecia areata.

Alopecia areata tends to occur most often in children and young adults. However, it can also affect older individuals. Alopecia can certainly be the cause of psychological stress. There are several different hypotheses as to what causes alopecia areata. Genetic factors seem to play an important role since there is a higher frequency of a family. Trichotillomania is the name of a mental disorder that causes a person to pull out his/her own hair. Alopecia areata often occurs in families whose members have had asthma, hay fever, atopic eczema, or other autoimmune diseases such as thyroid disease, early-onset diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, vitiligo, pernicious anemia, or Addison’s disease. Systemic diseases often affect hair growth either selectively or by altering the skin of the scalp. Hyperthyroidism (too much thyroid hormone) causes hair to become thin and fine. Hypothyroidism (too little thyroid hormone) thickens both hair and skin. Androgenetic alopecia in men has been associated with several other medical conditions including coronary heart disease and enlargement of the prostate, a walnut-sized gland in males that is located below the bladder. In women, androgenetic alopecia is associated with an increased risk of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS is characterized by a hormonal imbalance that can lead to irregular menstruation, acne, excess body hair (hirsutism), and weight gain.

There are several available treatments for Alopecia. Two relatively new drugs—minoxidil (Rogaine) and finasteride (Proscar)—promote hair growth in a significant minority of patents. UVB is generally used to treat skin conditions but is also used for people with severe hair loss.Steroid injections are commonly used in sites where there are small areas of hair loss on the head or especially where eyebrow hair has been lost. Anti-inflammatory drugs that are prescribed for autoimmune diseases. Corticosteroids can be given as an injection into the scalp or other areas, orally (as a pill), or applied topically (rubbed into the skin) as an ointment, cream, or foam. Hair transplantation is completed by taking tiny plugs of skin, each containing one to several hairs, from the back side of the scalp. Another surgical procedure used to treat androgenic alopecia is scalp reduction. Cortisone pills are sometimes given for extensive scalp hair loss. Cortisone taken internally is much stronger than local injections of cortisone into the skin. It is necessary to discuss possible side effects of cortisone pills with your physician. , there are various cosmetic and protective techniques that people with alopecia areata can try. Include is Using makeup to hide or minimize hair loss. Wearing sunglasses to protect the eyes from the sun and the environment. Wearing coverings (wigs, hats, or scarves) to protect the head from the elements.

Sudden Hearing Loss Ringing – Sudden Ear Ringing

Sudden Hearing Loss Ringing

People have suffered from sudden ear ringing or tinnitus for generations. Tinnitus is simply when someone hears a constant ringing in one or both of their ears, with no external sounds, noise or music present etc. This sudden ear ringing can vary from low to high pitch and it can be in one ear or both. At some point in most of our lives we have probably heard something like this but didn’t consider it as having tinnitus because the sound did not last for very long.

It is possible for individuals to experience a sudden ringing of the ears. There are several different explanations of why this occurs. Most of the time, the ringing is not permanent and only lasts for a few minutes to a day or two. Sometimes the ringing of the ears is due to a build-up of wax or dirt in the ear canal. It is very dangerous to try to dig out the wax build-up. In order to cure this occurrence, buy an over-the-counter wash from your local drugstore that will clean the ear canal in a safe and gentle manner. You might also be experiencing sudden ringing in your ear due to an acute ear infection. Sudden Hearing Loss Ringing

From time to time it is the prescribed or over-the-counter drugs that can cause a sudden onset of ear ringing. Unfortunately, on rare occasions these medications can actually lead to permanent tinnitus and/or hearing loss. It is also possible that once the prescribed amount is reduced, the ringing of the ears will be diminished or go away entirely. Some of the drugs that might having ear ringing as a side effect include naproxen sodium (Naprosyn, Aleve), loop-inhibiting diuretics, aminoglycoside antibiotics, quinine/anti-malarials, salicylate analgesics (which is higher doses of aspirin), oral contraceptives, ibuprofen and many other non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, anti-depressants, and chemotherapy. Ear ringing relating to an ear infection might also be related to the use of ototoxic antibiotics.

Other causes of sudden ear ringing may be due to a trauma occurrence rather than something that occurs naturally like a dirty ear or an ear infection. Some automobile crash victims have reported a sudden onset of tinnitus after receiving a traumatic head injury. Some individuals have reported a sudden onset of tinnitus after receiving certain dental procedures such as a difficult tooth extraction or an ultrasonic cleaning that can cause hearing damage due to conduction of loud sounds through the bone directly to the ear. And of course, there is little you can do to protect your hearing in these instances. There is nothing that ear plugs can do because the sound is internal. A procedure you can protect your hearing from are MRI’s, CAT’s and other non-invasive scanning machines. These machines are very loud and could damage your hearing even if your head is outside of the machine while it is running. Most competent imaging facilities should supply you with earplugs. Sudden Hearing Loss Ringing

The Pros and Cons of Baby Sign Language

According to those who support the use of baby sign language, it advances the communication between parents and infants. Baby sign language is therefore recommended not only to deaf-mute babies and their parents but to all babies.

Clears communication lines
Babies want to communicate. However, they can better associate the right gesture to its meaning than the right word to its meaning. So, it will take more time for a baby to communicate effectively through speaking. Sign language can help bridge the delay. During the time that your baby cannot express himself through words yet, he may be able to do so through signing.

Prevents tantrums
When your baby cannot express himself well, you the confused parent may not respond correctly. When this happens, your baby can get very frustrated. This can result to tantrums. If you are trying to get him to sleep, you may have a much harder time. Maybe he is trying to tell you that he wants something first but you cannot deliver because you cannot understand.

Promotes self-esteem
Signing helps your baby communicate. When he realizes that you can understand him, he will feel proud of his accomplishment. As a result, your baby will start developing a healthy self-esteem. This will encourage him to communicate more with you.

Makes things orderly
If both you and baby can understand each other, the situation at home can be more peaceful and more orderly. You can respond promptly to your baby’s needs so baby is content and eager to further the bond.

Stuttering treatment for adults

If you deal with this issue and think that you are the only one, guess again. More than 3 million Americans alone deal with this speech impediment. You yourself probably know all too well how difficult it is to live life this way, with the ever present reality of rejection, critisism, or fear of those things.

To be totally honest, there is no single stuttering treatment that works as a cure. However, it is possible to reduce the stutter to the point where you can funtion, and maybe surpass it altogether. Some very famous people have done just this.

Regardless, if you go in search of a stuttering treatment, you must find one that is carefully tailored to who you are. Everyone stutterer has slightly unique symptoms that must be addressed, and preferably by a professional speech pathologist.

There are currently many different ways to treat stuttering issues. Here is a small list of some of your options for stuttering treatment.

Anti-Stuttering Medications

There ae medications for this, but make sure that the ones you plan on taking are prescribed by your doctor.

Make sure that the medications you are going to  take to reduce stammering are prescribed by your doctor. Certain medications such as risperidone, olanzapine, and haloperidol typically lower the incidence of stammering by 30 to 50 percent. Just make sure that you are fully aware of the side effects. Still this can be a great method of stuttering treatment.

Avoid medications that trigger or increase the severity of stammering. These drugs include SSRIs  (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) such as Zoloft and Prozac. Ritalin, a dopamine agonist, is not recommended as well for stutterers.

Stuttering Modification Therapy

This form does not have the goal to completely stop stutter, because it is impossible. Its job is to simply modify it instead. It also works on getting rid of the urge to avoid social settings,
and decrease the paranoia of dealing with stutter in these environments.

A speech pathologist can work with you on this level to actually help you become an excellent public speaker even with this disorder, which is why this is one of the more common forms of stuttering treatment.

Fluency Shaping stutter Therapy

This one focuses on making use of good articulation, breathing techniqes, and methods for relaxing the person who has the stutter.

When you go through this process you will learn how to breath with your diaphragm, increase tension of the vocal cords as you begin to talk, extending vowel sounds to decrease the speed of which you talk, and lessen the pressure that you put on your articulation.

In fact, 70 or so percent of patients who use this method see great results after sticking with the stuttering treatment for the 1 – 2 suggested years.

Anti-Stuttering Devices

There are even devices that have been built to help with the effects of stuttering. There are
many different types, but some of the most common will relay a stutterer’s speech back to him or her so that they can carefully monitor and correct as needed.