Detailed Information on Metabolic Disorder

Metabolic disorders are genetic conditions where enzymes used to digest food do not function properly. They can lead to mild to severe brain damage, physical disability, organ failure and even death. Metabolism is the process your body uses to get or make energy from the food you eat. Food is made up of proteins, carbohydrates and fats. Chemicals in your digestive system break the food parts down into sugars and acids, your body’s fuel. Your body can use this fuel right away, or it can store the energy in your body tissues, such as your liver, muscles and body fat.

The main features of metabolic syndrome comprise insulin resistance, hypertension (high blood pressure), cholesterol abnormalities, and an augmented risk for clotting. Patients are most often overweight or obese. Metabolic syndrome is quite common. Approximately 20%-30% of the population in industrialized countries have metabolic syndrome. Many medical conditions, genetics and the environment both play important roles in the development of the metabolic syndrome. Genetic factors influence each individual component of the syndrome, and the syndrome itself.

A family olden time that includes type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and early heart disease greatly enlarged the chance that an individual will develop the metabolic syndrome. Environmental issues such as low activity level, sedentary lifestyle, and progressive weight gain also contribute significantly to the risk of developing the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is present in about 5% of people with normal body weight, 22% of those who are overweight and 60% of those considered obese. Adults who continue to gain five or more pounds per year raise their risk of developing metabolic syndrome by up to 45%.

Obesity is likely the greatest risk factor of metabolic disorder. Additional risk factors of metabolic disorder include smoking, eating an excessively high carbohydrate diet, lack of activity, and consuming an alcohol-free diet. The treatments for metabolic disorders vary, depending on what type of condition is involved and how severe the symptoms are. Weight reduction usually requires a specifically tailored multifaceted program that includes diet and exercise. Sometimes medications may be useful. Metformin (Glucophage), usually used to treat type 2 diabetes, also has been found to help prevent the onset of diabetes in people with metabolic syndrome.

Diabetic Cure – The No Glucose, No Insulin Diabetic Cure

Diabetes is in no way an infectious disease, yet the growing trend in statistics manifests that diabetes is spreading out globally as if it is an infectious disease.

The next decade’s projection is that statistics will grow even bigger because those who are currently afflicted will be passing on the disease to their descendants as genetic deficiency. Diabetic cure if any is urgently needed to stop the increasing growth of these statistics.

The root causes have been previously established as mainly due to the inability of the insulin hormones to help in the absorption of glucose as a body nutrient. The pancreas works doubly hard to give out fresh supply of insulin as an automatic response to the rising blood sugar level.

However, the insulin hormones cannot keep up with the rate by which the pancreas produces and the resiliency by which the cells deflect the glucose substance. Diabetes type 1 takes place and finding a diabetic cure is surely a matter of urgency.

Social and environmental factors are now great contributors especially in the cases of children who have developed insulin-resistant cells due to improper diet and a sedentary lifestyle, leading to obesity.

However, majority of these children acquired their diabetes from at least one parent who was passed down with this affliction coming from several generations. Causes have been established but the diabetic cure remains elusive.

There are records however to prove that diabetes has been cured but not as a result of the $51 million worth of research granted to the American Diabetes Association.

The Proven Natural Diabetes Cure

As early as 1999, a 52-year old family doctor in Lawrence, Kansas, treated type 2 diabetic patients with an approach already popular during the depression era and with proven track record of success. The doctor’s patients didn’t stay sick with diabetes affliction.

The doctor’s first line of cure was by totally eliminating carbohydrates from her patient’s diet. In a general context, the doctor’s diabetic cure bordered on reversing all the symptoms of type 2 diabetes. As one believer described it, it was only a matter of clearing out the refrigerator of all possible sources of glucose.

This may be an exaggeration but the point of the matter is that the pancreas is instigated to produce great amounts of insulin in response to the amounts of glucose present in the body.

This being the case, cells that are insulin resistant will not produce much significance in as much as there isn’t a great amount of glucose to contend with. A little infusion is all that will be needed to raise the blood sugar level to normal.

The good doctor’s treatment has not gained support from the American Diabetes Association despite the $51M research they have conducted since 2005. The treatment is so pure and simple, the diabetes sufferer who can’t seem to find the right diabetic cure, can consider this as a way of managing his diabetes with the help of his physician and/or dietitian.

Hence, if this natural diabetic cure works, you’re as good as cured.

Alvin Hopkinson is a leading health researcher in the area of natural remedies and diabetes natural treatment. Discover how you can reverse your diabetes for good using proven and effective home remedies, all without using harmful medications or drugs. Visit his site now at

Obesity – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Obesity is one of our nation’s most critical health problems; each year, hundreds of thousands of people are affected by serious and sometimes life-threatening mental and physical complications as a direct consequence of their obesity. Appropriate treatment not only improves individuals’ quality of life, it can save lives.

Symptoms of Obesity

Following are the major obesity symptoms:

Excessive sweating with bad smell
Feeling fatigue without doing any work
Excessive hunger and thirst

Joint pain and reduced mobility
Osteoarthritis, a disease in which the joints deteriorate
Loss of flexibility and increased incidence of musculoskeletal injuries
Pulmonary (breathing) problems, including sleep apnea

Causes of Obesity

Genetics (hormones).


High diet of carbohydrates.

Slow metabolism.

socioeconomic factors – There is a strong relationship between economic status and obesity, especially among women. Women who are poor and of lower social status are six times more likely to be obese than women of higher socioeconomic status. The occurrence of obesity is also highest among minority groups, especially among women. Eighty-two percent of African-American women 20 years old or older are overweight.

Obesity occurs when your body consumes more calories than it burns. In the past, many people thought that obesity was simply caused by over-eating and under-exercising, resulting from a lack of will power and self-control. Although these are significant contributing factors, doctors recognize that obesity is a complex medical problem that involves genetic, environmental, behavioural, and social factors. All these factors play a role in determining a person’s weight.


For some children, especially if they are still growing taller, it’s more important to stabilize weight and allow them to grow into their weight. Overweight children who are still growing do not necessarily need to lose weight but simply maintain so that they can grow into their weight. The earlier a child is identified as being overweight or at risk the easier it is to treat. Because it’s hard to permanently change dietary and exercise habits, it’s essential to do something sooner rather than later.

Other treatment typically includes dietary changes to limit fat and calorie intake, increased exercise, and changes in eating habits or patterns. Severe cases might require surgical options to reduce the size of the stomach or to bypass a portion of the stomach and intestines.

Prescription Medications for the Treatment of Obesity   

While most side effects of prescription medications for obesity are mild, serious complications have been reported. Valvular heart disease has recently been reported to occur in association with the use of certain appetite suppressant medications. As a result of these reports, the manufacturer has voluntarily withdrawn two medications, fenfluramine (Pondimin) and dexfenfluramine (Redux) from the market.

Although surgery (such as gastric bypass) is the last resort for the treatment of obesity, it can be extremely effective. However, it should be performed at an experienced surgical center, because such operations can carry significant risks, especially in the post-operative period. Consensus recommendations are to limit surgical therapies to patients with morbid obesity (BMI > 40).

Skin Rashes – Herbal Medicine for Skin Rashes

“Skin rashes” is a general term that describes a group of spots, an area of inflammation, or changes in the color or texture of the skin. Most of the time a rash that has been present for a couple of days will go away on its own. Warning signs that should send you to the doctor sooner rather than later are pain, rapid swelling causing shortness of breath, bleeding blisters in the mouth or eyes, skin that is rapidly turning dusky or black, and large amounts of skin peeling in sheets. As you can see, using rash rule #1 of frustration will get you to the right place.

The most common rashes and their causes:

Contact Rashes – are common rashes often caused by dyes and chemicals in clothing, rubber, latex and elastic, cosmetics, soaps, detergents and plants like Poison Oak, Poison Ivy and Poison Sumac?

Dandruff or Seborrheic Dermatitus – are common rashes associated with age, stress, fatigue, weather extremes, oily skin, infrequent shampooing and alcohol-based lotions.

Other common rashes include Eczema (often associated with allergies or asthma), Psoriasis, Impetigo, Shingles and rashes caused by a host of childhood diseases like chickenpox, measles and scarlet fever.

Herbal Medicine for Skin Rashes

Apis : Apis is to be used in the homeopathic treatment of person affected with skin rashes where an allergic response from the body to an allergen was the cause of the rash, resulting in a condition like hives, this treatment must also be followed where the rash is pinkish in color and is accompanied by a swelling in the affected area usually appearing with burning and or stinging pain and discomfort. Further more the application of external cold compresses can alleviate the swelling and the discomfort in the affected regions of the body. The appearance of any of these symptoms in the body of the affected person requires the utilization of Apis as a homeopathic remedy.

Ledum: Ledum is to be used in the homeopathic treatment of individuals afflicted with a skin rash, where the rash is given to swelling and puffiness along with itchy sensations. The application of cold compresses may soothe the discomfort felt from the swollen and itchy areas. The appearance of any of these symptoms in the affected person requires the immediate use of Ledum as a homeopathic remedy.

Homeopathy Ape: Graphites, Pulsatilla, Rhus tox. And Sulfur may be helpful. Herbal Medicine Marigold tea, calendula ointment, or aloe Vera gel is all helpful. Aromatherapy Add 12 drops of fennel, geranium, or sandalwood to 2fl oz/60ml of carrier oil.

Goldenseal: To make an astringent wash, pour 1 cup boiling water over 2 teaspoons powdered root. Let cool. Apply four times a day. After each application, sprinkle a little powdered root on the rash.
Herbal Healing Ingredients: Extra Virgin Olive Oil, Comfrey Root, Marshmallow Root, Marigold Flowers & Beeswax.

Witch hazel: Make a no distilled extract by soaking 1/2 cup leaves in 1 cup water for 24 hours. Add 2 tablespoons alcohol as a preservative. Or use a standardized commercial extract. Apply up to four times a day.
Utica: is to be used in the homeopathic treatment of a skin rash afflicting a person having all the symptoms of a nettle rash in appearance as well as in the sensations, the skin is covered by blotches, accompanied with an intense stinging and burning sensation.

What Are Sore Veins

Sore veins are disorders of the veins that can cause pain in the sufferer. The most common sore veins are varicose and spider veins, which, aside from being painful, can create a demarcation on the legs. A weakening in the vessel wall often causes varicose veins, which may appear as swollen, twisted clusters of blue or purple veins. Sometimes, thin red capillaries called spider veins surround these veins. Spider veins are a group of small blood vessels located close to the surface of the skin. Spider veins may also be called venous telengiectasias.

Both spider and varicose veins can occur on any part of the body, but they are most often presented on the pelvic area and lower extremities. The demarcation causes by these sore veins often appear because they are very close to the surface of the skin.

What are the symptoms of sore veins?

Many people with varicose or spider veins may not experience any pain, but are often concerned by how their legs look. Those who do experience discomfort from sore veins most often report swelling in the legs, muscle cramps, soreness, burning, throbbing and tingling, soreness behind the knee, itching of the veins, and discoloration of the skin, primarily around the ankles.

The condition most often occurs in women, who most often try to hide them with support panty hose especially designed for the disorder. Although not a sign of a serious condition, they appear to be mostly aggravated by long periods of standing. In women, symptoms can grow worse during menstruation or pregnancy. Varicose Veins increase with age and can affect 30-60% of the adult population.

What are the causes of Sore Veins?

Varicose and Spider veins often occur when healthy vein walls become weak and swell. This will cause the blood to back up and pool inside the vein. Varicose veins can also be attributed to an increased pressure in the leg veins or defective valves in the veins.

There are a number of factors that can bring about the development of sore veins, the most common factors being heredity, advancing age, jobs and activities where prolonged standing occurs, obesity, birth control pill use, hormonal fluctuations during pregnancy or menstruation, hormone replacement therapy, wearing tight clothing, injury to the veins, blood clots and certain disease of the liver.

Will Painwave X4000 help with Sore Veins?

Positively! The Painwave X4000 is a non-invasive, drug-free method of relief that can help anyone who suffers from the aches and pains associated with sore veins. The Painwave X4000 works in concert with the body’s own bioelectromagnetic ecosystem and has no side effects. To use it, simply wave the device gently over the surface of the skin in a small circular motion. After chronic, long-term use, the Painwave X4000 will promote improved circulation, cell activity and lymphatic movements. These enhancements are beneficial in the relief of pain and other discomforts. In many cases, this stimulation will greatly reduce or eliminate pain completely.

Note: the information on this page should not be used to perform a self-diagnosis. If you have sore veins, contact a practicing, certified physician for a full medical evaluation.

Psoriasis Treatments – Home Remedies for Psoriasis

Psoriasis is a disease which contains a skin problem. The psoriasis causes are that it a non contagious disease which affects the skin and joint part of the skin. If diagnosed it occurs red scaly skin on the affected area which also cause irritation and redness. Later on this skin problem turns into thick patchy skin with white scaly skin. The psoriasis causes are risk and also it can be for the long time if not diagnosed. There are many factors and causes in these diseases. Inherent causes of psoriasis means if the person’s family members suffer from psoriasis like from parents or grandparents it is for sure the person also may get diagnosed to psoriasis. The psoriasis causes are connected to the immune system and the T cells i.e. white blood cells. This T cells acts to the reproduction of the skin cells. If the body gets wrong signal in the immune system for the reproduction of skin, the T cells generate cause of skin cells which occur like extra skin, redness, flaky, scaly and it also itchiness and if rubbed it bleeds.

The psoriasis symptoms are common if diagnosed to a person, it occur dryness on the skin and red scaly patches, sometimes it thickens the skin and more redness and itchiness occurs. The psoriasis symptoms are classified in three categories like non pustular, guttate and pustular inverse. They are classified in the range of mild, moderate and severe. If the person is diagnosed to the mild psoriasis, on their skin only light white patches occurs. But if one is diagnosed to the severe psoriasis they suffer more red scaly skin and patches. One can sometime feel burning sensation. These patches and redness are mostly found on the joint part of the body including knees, elbows, trunk and scalps.

Scalp psoriasis is a very common cause affected to many of the people. It is a mild psoriasis affected on the scalp with slightly scaling. But it can be some time severe also with thick skin, crusting plaques which covers almost entire scalp. The Scalp psoriasis can extend to the forehead from the hairline and also at the back of the neck and behind ears where the hair reaches. It also affects on the other body part including chest, most of the men who has hair on their chest the scaly also extends to the certain area. The Scalp psoriasis appears some powdery type with silver sheen. In some case if the scalp psoriasis is infected with bacteria or yeast the disease gets worse. One should also avoid direct contact to the sun in such cases. There are various treatment and also many products recommended by doctors or some other people. Some of the product contains high chemicals which some times may cause irritation and itchiness. There are special psoriasis treatments which one can use if diagnosed. Home remedies are the best treatment used by majority of the people. Following are the psoriasis treatments:

* One can use regular sea water for bathing or can apply on the affected area. It is known as one of the best remedies to be used.
* For the home remedy bitter gourd is the best remedy for psoriasis treatments. One should use the fresh bitter gourd juice with one teaspoon of lemon juice taking in empty stomach.
* Use a mudpack and apply on the affected part. It helps to remove the toxins and lighten the redness and itchiness.

The list of home remedies for psoriasis treatments does not end here. There are various methods and treatment to be applied if diagnosed.

What causes yeast infections in men?

Yeast infections in men are less common than in women, so you may wonder what causes yeast infections in men.  The causes can be similar to women, but certain aspects of the condition can appear in a different manner in men than in women.  Treatment of this condition is generally similar in both men and women, with both traditional and natural treatment options for yeast infection. Many people will also follow a preventative approach to yeast infections, which can be particularly useful to ensure that there is no reoccurrence of the infection.

Causes of yeast infection in men

The Candida albicans fungus is what causes yeast infections in men, just as in women.  The organism exists in limited amounts on nearly all adults, but the usual balance that is maintained can become disrupted for a number of reasons.  When there is no longer a regular balance to keep the numbers of the organism in check, an infection can develop.  The following are some of the main reasons why yeast infections can develop in men:

Intercourse – The Candida fungus can be passed along during intercourse with an infected partner, leading to the development of a yeast infection.

Tight or wet clothing – Candida thrives in the warm, moist areas that can be created by tight or wet clothing around the genital area.

Pre-existing illness – When an illness such as diabetes or another type of pre-existing illness exists, there are two reasons why the organism can develop into an infection.  In conditions such as diabetes, the elevated sugar levels provide an ideal source of nutrients for the fungus to increase in numbers.  With other pre-existing medical conditions, lack of good nutrition, a weakened immune system and stress on the body also provide the opportunity that Candida needs to increase in numbers.

Yeasty foods – in particular beer, can encourage excessive production of the Candida fungus.

Taking antibiotics – If you have been taking a series of antibiotics, the reduction in good bacteria in the intestinal tract leaves a gap that the Candida organism is quick to fill. This increase in the number of organisms is what causes yeast infections in men.

Signs and symptoms of yeast infection in men

  1. To determine if a man has a yeast infection, there are particular signs and symptoms that are usually evident.  These can often be less obvious than the signs and symptoms in women, but they will still be present.  We already know that the Candida fungus is what causes yeast infections in men, just as in women.   Similarly, among the symptoms of a Candida infection in a man are stinging and soreness on the genitals, as well as itchiness.  The man may also have some blistering and inflammation of the genitals and there is likely to be some discharge as there may be in a woman with a yeast infection.

Treating male yeast infections

To treat a yeast infection, you could use traditional medications and/or natural therapies that will help to alleviate the condition and prevent the recurrence of the infection.  Medication can include the use of oral treatments to help fight the infection, as well as creams or ointments that are designed to reduce the severity of the infection and relieve symptoms such as itchiness and burning. Natural remedies such as tea tree oil can also help to get rid of the symptoms and causes of the infection, while improved diet and eating foods like yoghurt which is rich in naturally good bacteria is also an effective option for treating what causes yeast infections in men.

Understanding what causes yeast infections in men can help someone who has suffered from an infection to take the necessary steps to prevent it from occurring again in the future.  Looking out for the signs of yeast infections and treating them early on can stop the problem from becoming more severe.  And with the use of medication and natural therapies, the symptoms and underlying causes of the yeast infection can quickly be eliminated.

Different Types of Allergies

Allergy is the most common condition through which every individual suffers at least once in his lifespan. Allergy is caused by the naturally occurring substances known as allergens. When these allergens react with your body, it release the histamines to control the effect of the allergens, hence allergy is caused. Pollen, dust, and bee venom are the types of allergens. Allergy is the result of excessive activation of certain white blood cells called mast cells and basophils by a type of antibody known as IgE, resulting in an extreme inflammatory response. Another definition of allergy explains it as an abnormal reaction by an individual’s immune system against a normally harmless substance. Some common well-known allergic reactions are allergic conjunctivitis, allergic rhinitis, asthma, food allergies, hay fever, hives, and eczema.

Allergies are categorized in the different types on the basis of the body parts they affect and on the basis of allergens. Different types of allergies are as follows:

1. Food Allergy

Food allergy is the one of the most common type of allergy. You can not decide that who is allergic to which food item. The most common symptoms of the food allergies are runny nose, itching, urticaria, vomiting, nausea, coughing, and angioedema. When this reaction becomes severe it is called as anaphylaxis. Children suffer from the food allergic reactions the most because there immune system is not well developed and they take that food for the first time.

2. Gastrointestinal Tract Allergy

Gastrointestinal tract allergy is caused when you eat any item or inhale any item that contains allergens. The allergen enters the gastrointestinal tract and causes the irritation of the tract. Abdominal pain, bloating, vomiting, and diarrhea are the symptoms of the gastrointestinal tract allergy.

3. Pet Allergies

Many individuals are allergic to pets. Allergens are found in the skin, hairs, saliva, and urine of pets. These allergens cause the eyes, nose, and skin allergies. Rashes, such as eczema and hives (urticaria) and irritation of eyes and nose are the symptoms caused by the pet allergies.  

4. Tree or Grass Pollen Allergy

Maximum number of individual suffers from the allergies caused by the pollens that are released by the trees and plants during the flowering season. These allergies are generally called as the seasonal allergies. It is called as the allergic rhinitis. Sneezing and coughing are common symptoms caused by pollen allergy.

5. Dust Allergy

Dust allergy is caused when the dust particles (allergens) enters your nose, eyes, ear, and skin. Dust allergy is the one of allergies that can lead to the dangerous consequences. Swelling of nasal mucosa, impaired hearing due to entrance of allergens in eustachian tube, dead skin as the pores of the skin are filled with dust, and redness of eyes are the common symptoms of the dust allergy.

6. Smoke Allergy

Air pollution is growing day by day because of the smoke released from the different places. Some individuals are allergic to smoke released from vehicles, some are allergic to smoke released from factories, and some individuals to the smoke from cigarettes. These allergic show the symptoms like coughing, bronchoconstriction, wheezing and dyspnea, sometimes outright attacks of asthma.

7. Insects Stings and Bites Allergies

Allergies are caused when the insects stings or bites. Throat swelling, hives over the entire body, difficulty breathing, nausea, diarrhea, and shock are some of the symptoms caused by insect bites. Rashes on the skin are also noticed on the part where the insect bites.

8. Latex Allergy

This is the allergy seen among the individuals who are allergic to the rubber latex. Latex allergy may cause allergic reactions ranging from sneezing or a runny nose to anaphylaxis, a potentially life-threatening condition. Doctor should be consulted immediately in case of severe allergic reactions.

9. Clothes Allergy

Yes, it is true that some people are allergic to clothes. Laundry detergents can cause people to break out in an itchy rash; some individuals are particularly allergic to cotton or nylon and they get red rashes on their body when they wear those clothes. Even eczema is noted in some cases.

10. Hay fever

A very common allergy caused by the pollens or anthers released by the trees or plants during the flowering season and by the release of leaves during the shedding season. Sneezing, itchy nose and/or throat, nasal congestion, and coughing are common symptoms of hay fever. You can also notice fever in the individual suffering from the hay fever.

11. Medicines Allergy

Some cosmetics or some medicines cause allergic reactions on the people either externally or internally. Antibiotics are the most common medications that cause the allergies. If you suspect a medicine allergy, talk to your doctor first before assuming a reaction is a sign of allergy. Note: Please take the medications only and only after taking the permission from the doctor.

12. Chemical Allergy

Dyes, household cleaners, and pesticides used on lawns or plants can also cause allergic reactions in some people. Sometimes even the harmful chemicals are released in the water bodies by some chemical factories and thus cause the allergic reactions when we drink that water or wash the face with that water. Please note that this is the most severe case of allergy.

Risperdal – Cure for irritability

A few mental disabilities are symptomatic of certain imbalances in the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain. Drugs such as Risperdal are categorized as an antipsychotic. It helps to control any imbalance and maintain the levels of the chemicals of the brain within the accepted range. It is given to treat disorders like schizophrenia and bipolar disorder which cause severe and chronic depression. It is also given sometimes to treat autism in children, for controlling any irritability displayed by these children as is often the case with autistic kids.

This is strictly a prescription drug and must be taken only as per the dosage given. It is normally not given to kids unless specifically prescribed by the doctor. Risperdal cannot be used to treat dementia related psychosis. It can cause grave undesirable situations and ailments such as cardiac ailments, pneumonia or even mortality in older persons who have dementia related disorders.

While taking this medication, a number of side effects like symptoms may present themselves like extreme sensitivity to high or low temperature. Dehydration can occur and it is a good idea to keep drinking fluids to keep hydration levels at the optimum. These precautions must be paid more attention especially during the summer months or when doing vigorous exercise routines. Risperdal can also cause mental confusion like state and clouding of thoughts. If any activity, which requires constant keen attention and alertness need to be done, exercise caution.

There are risks involved in taking this medicine. This is especially noteworthy if serious symptoms such as fevers, jerking of limbs, excessively perspiring, quick heart rate, and muscle spasms, nervous tics of the head and neck muscles, faint feeling and trouble focusing present themselves. The doctor must be informed instantly if any of these happen. There can also be wrongful interaction of other drugs that along with taking Risperdal. Consult with the doctor if two different medications can be consumed at once.

Risperdal can contain phenylalanine as a component. If one is a phenylketonuric inform the doctor and also take extreme precaution when taking this drug.

Risperdal is a well known drug and at the same time it is widely considered as the best option for most of the strange diseases that you might come along. It is always advised to buy these drugs at a reputed Online Drugstore, as you can save a lot of time and money. You can click here to Buy Generic Risperdal

Depression – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Why Did the Great Depression Occur?

Economists still cannot agree on what caused the Great Depression. Most however have agreed that it was a combination of events and decisions that came into play that caused the Great Depression.

It has been suggested that people who tend to get depressed may have inherited a subtle chemical abnormality in their brain. This might make them more sensitive or susceptible to one or more of the life events mentioned above.

• Persistent sad, anxious or empty feelings
• Feeling constantly pessimistic
• Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, helplessness
• Loss of interest in hobbies or activities
• Tiredness and loss of energy
• Difficulty concentrating, remembering, making decisions


Traumatic Factors
o The loss of a loved one or death of a parent during childhood increases the chance of a person developing depression in later life.
o Being abused, neglected or abandoned during adolescence.
o Traumatic experiences, such as moving away, divorce from a partner, losing a job and a family or friend break up.
Trigger Factors
o Unemployment
o Loss of a parent, sibling or partner
o Absence of someone to talk to and confide in

Postpartum Depression
Postpartum Depression is a type of depression that a mother experiences immediately after childbirth. It is more serious and lasts longer than ‘baby blues’.
Postpartum depression occurs in approximately 10 percent of childbearing women.

The symptoms of postpartum depression include:
• Feeling sad or down often
• Frequent crying or tearfulness
• Feeling restless, irritable or anxious
• Loss of interest or pleasure in life
• Loss of appetite
• Less energy and motivation to do things
• Depressed mood—tearfulness, hopelessness, and feeling empty inside, with or without severe anxiety.

• Loss of pleasure in either all or almost all of your daily activities.


The rapid hormonal changes that accompany pregnancy and delivery may trigger depression. After childbirth, women experience a big drop in estrogen and progesterone hormone levels. Thyroid levels can also drop, which leads to fatigue and depression. These hormone dips—along with the changes in blood pressure, immune system functioning, and metabolism that new mothers experience—can all play a part in postpartum depression. It has been theorized that women who are more sensitive to these hormone imbalances develop postpartum depression.

How is postpartum depression treated?
Therapy, support networks and medicines such as antidepressants are used to treat postpartum depression. Psychotherapy has been shown to be an effective treatment and an acceptable choice for women who wish to avoid taking medications while breastfeeding.
• Antidepressant medicine, which effectively relieves symptoms of postpartum depression for most women. Since breast-feeding is also important for your baby, talk to your doctor and your baby’s doctor about an antidepressant medicine you can use while breast-feeding. Certain selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and tricyclic antidepressants are considered relatively safe for use while breast-feeding.
Treatment for Postpartum Depression can be as varied as the symptoms. Common approaches include:
• Creating a supportive environment for the mother
• Self-Care
• Support groups
• Counselling
• Psychotherapy
• Medication

Treatment for Phobias

A phobia is a type of anxiety disorder. It is a strong, irrational fear of something that poses little or no actual danger. A phobia is a constant, extreme or irrational fear of an animal, object, place or situation that wouldn’t normally worry the majority of people. A phobia is when you have an overwhelming need to avoid any contact with the specific cause of the anxiety or fear. Each year, 7.8% of American adults suffer from a phobia. phobias were the most common mental illness among women in all age groups and the second most common illness among men older than 25.

In fact, phobias are the most common psychological disorder women and the second most common disorder among men over 25. Phobias are divided into two types. Simple phobias type is about a single object, situation, or activity. Complex Phobias involves several anxieties, including fear of entering shops, crowds, and public places, or of travelling in trains, buses, or planes. Social phobia is another complex phobia. Social phobia is a fear of social e.g. a wedding, or performance situations e.g. public speaking. 1 to 2 % of men and women have a social phobia and it is usually linked to low self-esteem and fear of criticism.

Many things and situations can cause anxiety, nervousness or fright. Anxiety disorders rarely disappear and may grow worse without appropriate treatment. Effective treatments are available that may help you to keep your fear in check. Behavioral therapy focuses on changing specific actions and uses several techniques to decreases or stop unwanted behavior. Exposure therapy involves starting to confront the fear and stopping avoiding it. The best treatment for phobia is a psychological treatment called cognitive behavioural therapy. Medication may be used according to individual need and symptoms.

It is sometimes used in addition to psychological therapy. Antidepressants can be effective for severe social phobia. Antidepressants or tranquillisers (benzodiazepines) may be recommended for agoraphobia. Some doctors may prescribe medicines called benzodiazepines (such as diazepam, also known as Valium) to ease symptoms in the initial stages of a psychological programme. However, these can only be taken for short periods because they can lead to dependence. Other drugs, called beta-blockers, are sometimes used to reduce the symptoms of anxiety and have also been used together with psychological treatment programmes.

Concept Analysis Of Anxiety

  1. I. Abstract

The paper is an examination of anxiety as a concept. This report began with a definition of the concept and some statistics surrounding the prevalence of anxiety among patients. Thereafter, the paper looked at observational traits of the disease. Thereafter, it was necessary to look at its occurrence in three different case studies; i.e. a typical case study with no other medical conditions, a contrary case study with other medical conditions and borderline case study where an individual registered two types of anxiety disorders. This paper will be useful in nursing education because it will contribute towards concept analysis, it will be insightful in research and management because it will provide new information about how to handle different conditions of the disorder.

A Definition and background

Anxiety is a condition in which an individual is in a constant state of worry or is always nervous regardless of normal actions. This state of anxiety eventually leads to anxiety disorders which are then regarded as emotional or psychological health conditions.

Anxiety and anxiety related disorders are one of the most common mental reasons for seeing medical professionals today. This is why recent statistics indicate that about a quarter of the country’s population have exhibited symptoms of anxiety disorders. It is a worrying trend for nursing practitioners specifically and for the medical profession in general because it signifies serious mental health problems. (Hayes & Strosahl, 2004)

One of the major reasons for these excessive occurrences is that society’s demands have changed. Today’s working environment is more demanding than ever before. Relationships are becoming increasingly difficult to maintain thus serving as fertile ground for  propagating anxiety. Anxiety may occur in various forms. Sometimes, it may be exhibited as a mild case, in other scenarios, it can progress to become severe and can impede one’s day to day life. Anxiety usually manifests itself in the form of a series of disorders most of which include; phobias, generalized anxiety disorder, post traumatic stress disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder and separation anxiety disorder. Some of the latter mentioned forms exhibit more or less the same symptoms. Consequently, one can deal with them as distinct groups.

B Purpose of the analysis

The purpose of the analysis is to demystify anxiety as a clinical disease. The research will give some insights into various features of the concept. It will also examine the consequences of anxiety on patients. These will all be analyzed though the use of typical cases, non-typical cases and cases that lie in between. Additionally, the empirical referents relating to this concept (anxiety) will be examined in greater detail.

  1. III. Literature review

Fox (2001) asserts that the major characteristics in almost all persons who suffer from anxiety is the existence of fear. All individuals are faced with fear at one point or another in their lives. However, those who are controlled by it are said to be suffering from anxiety or anxiety disorders. (Craske and Barlow, 2003) This fear is so intense that it hampers the person from performing their daily obligations or roles.

In certain scenarios, anxiety may be manifested in the form of tension or anticipation about a certain issue. The latter form is mild. In other instances, anxiety may be exhibited by acute panic attacks. Bourne (2000) explains that the following physical symptoms are prevalent in a number of patients diagnosed with anxiety

  • Tension
  • Headaches
  • Loss of appetite
  • Stomach upsets
  • Lack of sleep
  • Diarrhea
  • Muscle aches

Besides these symptoms, acute cases of fear among patients with anxiety disorders may be depicted. For instance, certain individuals get panic attacks. When this occurs they may begin having a dry mouth, experience numbness in their bodies, difficulty breathing, chest discomfort, racing hearts, disorientation, low concentration spans, dizziness and unsteadiness. (Hoffman & Barlow, 1999)

Many writers also assert that the largest percentage of cases of anxiety are characterized by cognitive traits where cognitive refers to matters concerning the mind. When anxiety strikes, certain ideas or images are usually present in one’s mind. Usually, anxious individuals think that some danger may befall them or the person they care about. (Chorpita & Barlow, 1998) This is usually depicted as a phobia where an individual believes that something dangerous may happen to them even when the chances of its occurrence are quite slim. In order words, one of the major cognitive characteristics is possession of irrational thoughts. Such person usually distort actual facts and lack control over their thoughts. (Bourne, 2000)

It should be noted that these cognitive traits are not beyond the sufferer of the anxiety disorder. In fact, these patients are well aware of the excessiveness of their thoughts. However, they lack the ability to limit these excesses and usually continue thinking about the issue regardless of its irrationality.

Kearney et al (1997) claim that social phobias may occur when individuals fear circumstances surrounding social situations. For instance, one may assume that they can get embarrassed by interacting with others. Also, there may be a scenario in which one fears failure or garnering approval from one’s peers.

In panic attacks, Craske et al (1991) explain that when individuals get panic attacks, they are likely to imagine that they are on the verge of death, loosing control or going crazy. The latter authors have also highlighted the issue agoraphobic thoughts. Here, the individual under attack will usually operate under the fear of another panic attack and may require the presence of another individual in order to stop them. Also, such individuals usually assume that these are things that present constant danger in their lives.

Barlow and Lehman (1996) claim that obsessive compulsive thoughts are also another unique cognitive trait. Here, one cannot seem to stop the continuous thoughts about a certain issue which they are obsessed about. For instance, one may be constantly thinking of getting violent with another person or with oneself. Also, such persons may be obsessed about their daily responsibilities, religion, appearance, death, illness, germs, contamination and many other examples.

Campbell and Barlow (2000) explain that such persons with post traumatic stress disorder may be fixated with flashbacks on a traumatic event. Consequently, such person may have difficulties sleeping and may even report cases of night mares. Furthermore, it is possible to find that these people may blame themselves for the traumatic event.

Generalized anxiety disorders are usually manifested amongst people who have worries about general issues in their lives. For instance, such persons may worry about their financial situations, their health etc. (Bourne, 2000)

It should be noted that the latter forms of anxiety disorder are reflected differently depending on a number of demographic traits. For instance, age is an important factor because children’s forms of anxiety disorders are manifested in unique forms; some of them may be afraid of monsters in the closet or eyes watching them at night. Children may also express these anxieties in totally different manners from their adult counterparts. Gender is another important demographic trait. Women are more concerned with certain obsessions or thoughts in comparison to their male counterparts. Also, cultural influenced have a large part to play. Carske et al (1991) explain that what may be deemed as a critical issue in one society may be completely unimportant in another. Consequently, care must be taken to ensure that each and every case it treated uniquely.

Certain behavioral traits are synonymous with individuals as explained by Andrews et al (2003) The latter authors assert that some people may choose not to go to a certain place if there is likelihood that that place may have things which they are afraid of. Additionally, these authors explain that others may simply leave a certain place if they feel that they have been overwhelmed by those fears. In other words, this behavioral trait is known as avoidance. Most of the cases may be direct, however, avoidance can sometimes be quite complicated. In certain scenarios, it is possible to find that an individual repeats their actions from time to time. For instance, if someone is afraid of burglars, they may keep checking their door locks continually.

Elfert & Forsyth (2005) explains that avoidance as a behavioral characteristic can be a severe problem because it has a tendency to worsen the anxiety. Usually, this is one of the traits that make coping with anxiety disorders extremely difficult.

CPA (2004) asserts that almost fifty nine percent of anxiety cases may catapult into clinical depression if left untreated. This usually occurs when certain individuals let the problem progress for long periods of time. Usually, these people may feel powerless over their anxiety disorders. Consequently, they may develop feelings of hopelessness and frustration. Additionally, the ADAC (2003) add that it is common to find such persons developing a dependence on drugs or alcohol. Sometimes, such person may be looking for ways in which they can calm themselves down and this is usually achieved by the drugs. The latter association calls this self medication.

  1. IV. Observation

A Antecedents

Sometimes, anxiety may be brought about by genetic factors. For instance, if one’s parent had anxiety disorders, then one’s chances of depicting anxiety disorders are also heightened. Genetic factors can explain the reason why identical twins posses this trait both at the same time. In fact, identical twins account for some of the highest cases of family related anxiety disorders. (Maisel, 2003)

Anxiety disorders are manifested by a series of cognitive behaviors, consequently, this implies that the brain could be an important antecedent to the condition. If normal brain functions have been hampered, then chances are that one might depict anxiety disorders and their symptoms. Also, is essential to remember that anxiety disorders can respond to medical treatment. Usually, these treatments target brain functions and it therefore denotes the fact that anxiety disorders are brought about by brain malfunctions.

One of the major antecedents to this problem is psychological. One’s personality has a large role to play in determining whether an individual will suffer from anxiety disorders or not. When an individual has poor social skills, then it is likely that they may be treated negatively in a number of situations and this may then people them into developing anxiety disorders. (Kaplan and Saddocks, 2003)

Additionally, some people may just have a low self esteem. If left unchecked, this can lead to anxiety because it causes them to have irrational fears about circumstances that do not solicit such fears in the first place. Usually, these people do no believe that they have the ability to carry out normal day to day function such as fending for their families. Consequently, such individuals develop anxiety disorders.

One of the most prevalent and common antecedents to anxiety disorders are related to life experiences. The following is summary of some of the situations that could trigger an anxiety disorder

  • Violence
  • Abuse
  • Poverty
  • Susceptibility to illness
  • Etc            (Hayes, 2005)

It should be noted that the highest cases of anxiety disorder antecedents fall in the latter category. When a person has been subjected to sexual or violent abuse by a member of their family, then chances are that that person may live in constant fear of their attacker or the nature of their attack. Family abuse is one of the major causes of general anxiety disorders.  Additionally, when a person has been a victim of violence .i.e. if they were attacked by an armed robber, then chances are that that person may develop an excessive fear of another attack. Consequently, this heightens the chances of developing an anxiety disorder. In addition to the latter it is also possible to find that those persons who have grown up in poverty are likely to manifest excessive fear of poverty related conditions.

B Attributes / characteristics/features

There are certain characteristics that depict mild forms of anxiety. In other words, they show that the disorder is still at its early stages. For instance, when a person is in the early stages of panic attacks, then they are likely to depict mild signs as sweating, chills or hot flashes.

If a person has a case of anxiety disorder manifested a phobia, then early stages of the condition may be depicted in a number of ways. When a person is in a situation that triggers the phobia, the person puts up with the situation but after undergoing a lot of stress. Also, early signs of phobias may be depicted when a person stays for a much shorter time than they should in a certain scenario. (Twamas  and Bangi, 2003)

In cases where patients are suffering from agoraphobia, then early stages of anxiety can be depicted when that person finds it extremely difficult to interact with others or to conduct their daily obligations as a result of the fear of panic attacks. It should be noted that in the early stages it is usually possible to go about daily activities but with great difficulty.

For those suffering from obsessive compulsive disorder, then early stages of the disease can be manifested in cases where those respective individuals start thinking about certain issues. Usually, these thoughts may precede actions to cope with the anxiety. For instance, a person constantly thinks about the level of their cleanliness or the safety of their house.

In the middle stages of anxiety disorders, more severe symptoms start being exhibited. For those individuals with panic attacks, then the symptoms begin to be more dominant in this scenario, one might feel dizzy or nauseous. In certain circumstances, it is common to find that the person who suffers from such anxieties may begin feeling pain in the chest or register abdominal pains. These kinds of symptoms are indications that the disease is progressing at a fast pace. (CPA, 2004)

In the middle stages of a phobia, it is likely that the affected individual may avoid cases that case the phobia in certain instances and then endure those phobias in certain cases. For instance, if one has a social phobia, then they stop going to social gatherings but may still be able to do basic tasks such as going for shopping or gathering with family members. Also, if a person is suffering from the fear of other panic attacks, then that persons may only attend selected gatherings while skipping most of them.

If a patient has obsessive compulsive disorder, then the middle stages are usually depicted by certain rituals. In this case, the person now progresses from just thinking about the obsession to actually doing something about it. For instance, one may frequently check on the kitchen oven to find out if they had switched it off. Or they may keep washing their hands from time to time.

If a person has post traumatic stress disorder as a form of anxiety, then the middle stages of the conditions are usually characterized by a lack of sleep. In certain scenarios, that person may constantly be jittery or on guard because of fear of the event. For example, if a person was  a victim of a burglary, then they may always be keeping vigil or having nightmares about the incident.

For those with general anxiety disorder, the middle stages are depicted by substance abuse such alcohol dependence, severe headaches, trembling, muscle tension and an overall avoidance of situations that can cause the issue as explained by Andrews et al (2003)

Late stages of anxiety disorders also differ depending on the type of anxiety which one suffers from. For those individuals with panic disorders then late stages are usually characterized by behavioral and cognitive traits. At this stage, patients may fear death or may think that they are going crazy. Also, these people may feel out of touch with the rest of the world and may retreat to their own ‘cocoons’. Some physical manifestations at such a point include shortness of breath, a chocking sensation, extreme beating of the heart or symptoms that resemble heart attacks.

Those who have phobias also depict certain peculiar characteristics at the late stage. For instance, one may stop doing any activity at all. Those with social phobias may never leave the house again. Also, those with agoraphobia may then spiral into depression thus being unable to do anything else or go on with their personal responsibilities as asserted by Craske and Barlow (2003).

In cases where an individual registers certain cases of obsessive compulsive disorder, then chances are that at the last stages, that person may increase the number of times which they perform their rituals. For instance, if one was obsessed about personal hygiene, then they may take three hours to prepare for work every day. Also, if someone was obsessed about safety, then they may increase the excessiveness of their security measures. Also in the late stages of the conditions, it is likely that a person will increase their dependence on drugs or substance abuse as a way of relieving their anxiety. (Elfet & Forsyth, 2003)

If a person had been diagnosed with post traumatic stress disorder, then it is likely that that person may exhibit cases of numbness or may seem detached from his or her surroundings. Consequently, such individuals may not be able to perform their day to day functions and may therefore have spiraled out of control. The late stages of this anxiety disorders can also be characterized by depression where the person feels that they have lost control of their lives.

If a person was suffering from generalized anxiety disorder and has reached their last stages, then that person is likely to spiral into depression. In certain circumstances, that person may begin recording other mental difficulties even when those difficulties had been non –existent before. Also, such a person my appear tired all the time, they may begin depending on drugs to cope with their anxiety and some of them may centre their lives around that thing that they worry about. For instance, if the anxiety is about finances, then everything their family does will be linked to finances and their need to conserve it.

C Consequences

The consequences of anxiety disorder vary from individual to individual and also depend upon what an individual did to cope with the anxiety. If an anxiety disorder is detected during earlier stages, then chances are that the person can deal with it either through pharmacology or psychological and thus curb the problem. However, if the person allows the situation to spiral out of control i.e. to reach its last stages, then anxieties can bring with it other mental health and social problems. For instance, it would cause drug abuse and hence dependence. Also, if a person is in their last stages, then they are likely to register depression.

It should be noted that one form of anxiety disorder can create other forms. For instance, panic attacks can eventually lead to phobias related to the attacks and failure to seek treatment may eventually lead to depression. Consequently, anxiety disorders are not mutually exclusive; they bring in other diseases that can cause tremendous harm to the individual under consideration. (Maisel, 2003)

Additionally, some of the symptoms associated with anxiety can lead to extreme cases, for instance, when one exhibits shortness of breath, then they may put themselves in greater danger by loosing control of their actions. This can lead to injury from secondary sources. Perhaps the worst consequence of anxiety disorders is that they can cause some brain malfunctions that eventually lead to mental breakdowns. In other scenarios, some persons may choose to commit suicide. However, the latter may usually occur when one chooses not to do anything about their earlier circumstances.

D Empirical referents

The first thing that needs to be done when tackling cases of anxiety disorder is accurate assessment and diagnosis. Here, there is a need to look at the symptoms that a certain patient may be suffering from. In other words, one analyzes the psychotic symptoms depicted by the patient. Additionally, it is necessary to look into the level of complexity of the symptoms. This also means that the level to which the anxiety disorder has impaired one’s functions should be assessed.

It is also necessary to look at the resources available to assist in the treatment process. This means that the family of the affected individual should be mobilized. Also, there should be an assessment of the financial resources required to provide the patients with adequate treatment.

In close relation to this, is the need to asses a patient’s risk of suicide. Because anxiety disorders can proceed to extreme levels i.e. when they have reached the last stages, then one ought to examine the likelihood of this occurrence. By doing this, then nursing practitioners will be ensuring that they have dealt with the most dangerous scenarios in subsequent order.

It is absolutely necessary for medical practitioners to ensure that there are no other mental health problems that exist aside from anxiety disorders. This is mostly as a result of the fact that most anxiety patients rarely have one single mental disorder. Likely cases include depression and alcohol abuse. (Maisel, 2003)

It is also essential for one to look for ways in which they can prevent possible occurrences of the same in the future. This means that nursing practitioners ought to monitor a patient’s response to treatment. If the treatment does not seem to be working i.e. the patient has relapsed, then it would be advisable for one to look for other avenues that can be used to treat the disease in the future. (Kaplan and Saddocks, 2003)

E Model case

The ideal example of an anxiety disorder can be depicted by the case of a thirty three year old man; George. George works in a car dealership businesses as a sales man. He has been doing relatively well in his job and is one of the most valuable workers in his company. However, George has been registering cases of insomnia where he may not sleep for three days on end. At other times, George may extreme a lot of tension in his muscles which subsequently leads to pain. He has also been exhibiting a lot of headaches over a long period of time.

Additionally, George has also explained that he worries a lot to the point that his friends call him the worrywart. He feels that he may not be able to secure a future for his family if he looses his jobs or if he passes away. Additionally, George worries about the security of his job. Being a sales man means that he constantly has to meet deadlines. Those deadlines will determine the amount of commission he gets and the reviews that he receives from his manager. George feels that in case he looses his job, he may not be able to secure another one that offers him generous financial rewards as the one he is currently holding.

Besides these symptoms, George has begun registering high blood pressure. He has been unable to cope with the pressure at work because he can no longer complete the work that he used to complete in the past. This means that he has not been able to meet his deadlines adequately. Additionally, George has recorded some heart palpitations that occur from time to time.

These are also symptoms of General anxiety disorder. (Kaplan and Saddocks, 2003)

However, in order to asses George critically for treatment, it is necessary to use  a cognitive behavioral model shown below

Fear stimulus

No support from spouse

Unstable career

Meeting family responsibilities

Was abandoned by parent at early age and thus does not feel good enough

Threat misinterpretation

These issue will cause loss of family

These fears will case failure to family

The fears will cause an inability to take care of self


Symptoms: Racing mind, Exhaustion

Avoidant coping

Works more

Relies on medicine heavily

Gets constant reassurance from wife and work colleagues

Corrective experience

Absent; temporary relief from avoidance

This case was handled by two-week treatment programs in which the misperceptions of danger were corrected, exposure response was adopted, the patient was taught skills to cope with anxiety symptoms, and he received supportive psychotherapy for dealing with the issues that impeded his success. After the plan, George began relying less on the medications, he also reduced the cases of sleep disorders and reported overall success in dealing with the symptoms of anxiety. (Elfet & Forsyth, 2003)

F Contrary case

Christine is a twenty eight year old lady who works as restaurant chef in a busy location. She is single mother who is raising a five year old son. She had been diagnosed with fragile syndrome X ever since her childhood. In other words, Christine is a rather shy person but is also very friendly. In certain instances when she has to meet a new person, Christine, cannot stare at a stranger’s eyes and usually greets people while looking at the floor or sideways.

Christine has always known that she is different from the rest. This is because she is extremely sensitive to people’s comments and they create anxiety within her. She constantly worries about her competence, acceptability and performance. This also implies that she is a highly sensitive person and would react very aggressively to comments made about her. Lately, her anxiousness has been increasing; she has been registering symptoms of panic attacks. ( Elfet & Forsyth, 2003)

Because Christine had a history of another disease, it was necessary to provide her with pharmacological treatment tailored for persons with fragile syndrome X. She started taking serotonin inhibitors and this assisted her in dealing with the anxiety symptoms.

G Borderline case

Timothy is a fist born among a family of three sons. His family has had a history of anxiety disorders. He began experiencing panic attacks five years ago. Two years after the panic attacks, he witnessed his father’s dead body at the scene of their real estate business. And this triggered a fear of blood, ill people or dead bodies. Hi symptoms were therefore manifestations of both post traumatic stress disorder and panic attacks hence a border line case.

Treatment involved a medical approach in which Timothy was given parlzolam. This was fact acting and assisted in eliminating the panic attacks.  In order to deal with post traumatic stress disorder, he was exposed to violent movies at gradual paces. He saw horror films that gradually minimized the fear of dead bodies.

  1. V. Application to Nursing

A Practice

The latter findings will be very insightful in nursing practice because they will pave the way for dealing with anxiety disorders in different forms. This research has merged nursing psychology with other aspects of the nursing course. Consequently, it will offer alternatives to conventional treatment. Additionally, the research will also be very helpful in demystifying treatment of anxiety disorders.

B Education

In nursing education, the paper will be useful in understanding how concept analysis can be conducted. Through the use of anxiety as a concept, this paper will serve as an example of how empirical referents, symptom analysis and other aspects of the paper can be applied to specific medical cases. (Maisel, 2003)

C Management

The paper will assist in nursing management because it will go long way in streamlining some of the courses of action that need to be taken when coping with mental patients. It will assist in improving the efficiency of nursing practice and also the speed of response. On top of the latter the paper will also go a long in applying systematic analysis to cases.

D Research

The paper has contributed to nursing research because it has provided new insights into anxiety and anxiety disorders as a disease. This work has contributed to nursing research because it has compared three scenarios of anxiety i.e. borderline, typical and peculiar cases and has thus brought out different ways of handling it.


The paper is a report of a concept analysis of anxiety. Anxiety is depicted through a series of symptoms that range from physical, cognitive to behavioral. Each stage of anxiety disorders is characterized by its own symptoms that usually progress with time. Consequently, when the condition is detected early enough, the patient has a better chance of recovering from it.


Fox, B. (2001): Power Over Panic: Freedom From Panic/Anxiety Related Disorders; Prentice Hall

Maisel, E. (2003): The Creative Person’s Path Through Depression; Rodale

Hayes, S. and Strosahl, K. (2004): A Practical Guide to Acceptance and Commitment Therapy; Springer

Hayes, S. (2005): Get Out of Your Mind and Into Your Life: The New Acceptance and Commitment Therapy; New Harbinger Publications

Bourne, E. (2000): The Anxiety & Phobia Workbook; Harbinger Publications

Eifert, G. and Forsyth, J. (2005): Acceptance & Commitment Therapy for Anxiety Disorders; New Harbinger Publications.

Kaplan, T. and Saddocks, P. (2003): Synopsis of Psychiatry: Behavioural Sciences/ClinicalPsychiatry; Lippincott Williams and Wilkins

Iwamasa, G. & Bangi, A. (2003): Women’s Mental Health Research; Routledge

Andrews, G., Hunt, C., Crino, R., Creamer, M., Page, A.  & Lampe, L., (2003): The treatment of anxiety disorders; Cambridge University Press

Anxiety Disorders Association of Canada (2003): Mental Health and Mental Illness; Science and Technology Report, 12, 58

Canadian Psychiatric Association (2004): Achieving and sustaining remission in depression and anxiety disorders, CJP report, 49, 3

Craske, M., & Barlow, D. (2000): Mastery of your anxiety and panic; Graywind Publications- Psychological Corporation

Hofmann, S. & Barlow, D. (1999): The costs of anxiety disorders: Implications for Psychosocial Interventions; Oxford University Press

Kearney, C., Allan, W., Albano, A., Barlow, D. & Eisen, A.  (1997): The phenomenology of panic disorder in youngsters; Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 11, 1, 49-62

Craske, M., Barlow, D.  & Brown, T. (1991): Behavioral treatment of panic disorder: A two-year follow-up; Journal for Behavioral Therapy, 22, 13, 289-304

Chorpita, B. & Barlow, D. (1998): The development of anxiety – The role of control in early environments; Psychological Bulletin, 124 3-21.

Barlow, D., & Lehman, C. (1996): Advances in the psychosocial treatment of anxiety disorders; Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 727-735

Barlow, D., & Campbell, L. (2000): Mixed-anxiety depression and its implications for models of anxiety and mood disorders; Comprehensive Psychiatry, 41, 2, 55-60

What is Insomnia? What is the principal cause of Insomnia?

Understanding why we need sleep and knowing the root cause of insomnia is the first step in coming to terms with and treating it.

How do we define insomnia?
Insomnia is the term used to describe a lack of quality sleep; either taking ages to get to sleep, difficulty in staying asleep or waking up too early and being unable to get back to sleep.

What are the effects of insomnia?
People who suffer from poor quality sleep tend to be irritable, inattentive, lacking energy and accident prone.They are more likely to suffer from depression, heart disease and strokes.Continued sleep deprivation brings about changes in the activity and timing of important hormones such as melatonin, cortisol, leptin, thyroid hormones and prolactin. It has been shown in studies that this pattern of hormonal changes has also been witnessed in sufferers of depression and in age-related chronic conditions such as obesity, diabetes and hypertension.
This is just a taste of the negative effects of insomnia and that’s without mentioning the adverse effect it has on our immune systems or the incredible impact from daytime fatigue on the occurrence of “accidents”; remember Chernobyl or Exxon Valdez.

What is sleep for anyway?
Nobody really knows exactly how sleep works. For centuries it was believed that sleep was just a neutral state of mind and body but modern science is beginning to identify the many positive affects a natural, good night’s sleep has.

The brain’s metabolic rate and temperature is reduced allowing the mending of certain brain cells which would otherwise have difficulty in regenerating.In our deepest sleeping, during the rapid eye movement (REM) phase we do most of our dreaming. It’s at this stage when the receptors of the essential drugs serotonin, histamine and norepinephrine take a rest, restoring them to the appropriate level of sensitivity. This restorative measure is believed to be important in regulating our moods during the waking hours.

Sleep and weight loss
If you’re trying to lose weight and believe that sleep loss won’t adversely affect weight loss, think again. In childhood, human growth hormones (HGH) are responsible for tissue production, but as we grow into adults HGH becomes responsible for, amongst other things, weight regulation. HGH is only released when we sleep.

Sleep to learn
Many studies have been conducted and they have shown that whatever we take in and learn during the waking hours needs to be processed and consolidated before it is put to memory and reflected in our abilities. The process of sleep enhances this in an inestimable way.

So what is the main cause of insomnia?
There may be many reasons why we don’t sleep well but the main cause of insomnia is simply stress.
Our lives, like that of any other organism, are kept for the most part at an optimum state of balance. Our hormonal secretions, fluid levels, temperature and so on are kept in balance so that the mind and body can perform at its peak.
The “flight or fight” response when being confronted by a predator is the most common example of a stress response but it can also be triggered by much less profound events such as crowding, noise or darkness. But even less obvious is that a stress response can happen to events such as fear, anger and even extreme pleasure.Sometimes we can live in a permanent state of stress response and prolonged states of stress can leave the body in a constant state of alarm and imbalance.
The process of sleep runs contrary to the effects of stress response. Falling to sleep involves the gradual shutting down of systems, a decrease in metabolism and the cessation of the readiness for action. Going to sleep makes us less alert and decreases arousal. The stress response increases arousal and makes us more alert.

Stress is the main cause of insomnia
The hormones secreted as a result of stress responses excite the body’s systems. When stress is chronic we are hyperaroused.When we are hyperaroused we can’t sleep.
If you are susceptible to the stresses brought about by daily life which impact on your night time sleep there are sleeping techniques using the senses that can maximize the quality of sleep, bringing enrichment to your waking days.

Ingrown Toenail – Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

When a toenail is ingrown, the nail is curved downward and grows into the skin, usually at the nail borders (the sides of the nail). This “digging in” of the nail irritates the skin, often creating pain, redness, swelling, and warmth in the toe.

If an ingrown nail causes a break in the skin, bacteria may enter and cause an infection in the area, which is often marked by drainage and a foul odor. However, even if your toe isn’t painful, red, swollen, or warm, a nail that curves downward into the skin can progress to an infection.

Often, you can take care of ingrown toenails on your own. If the pain is severe or spreading, however, your doctor can take steps to relieve your discomfort and help you avoid complications.

If you have diabetes or another condition that causes poor circulation to your feet, you’re at greater risk of complications from an ingrown toenail.


While many things can cause ingrown toenails, the major causes are shoes that don’t fit well and improperly trimmed nails. Shoes that are too tight press the sides of the nail and make it curl into the skin. Nails that are peeled off at the edge or trimmed down at the corners are also more likely to become ingrown.

Causes include:

1. bad maintenance [like cutting the nail too short, rounded off at the tip or peeled off at the edges (versus being cut straight across)];[1]

2. ill-fitting shoes [those that are too narrow or too short can cause bunching of the toes in the developmental stages of the foot (frequently in those under 21), causing the nail to curl and dig into the skin];

3. trauma to the nail plate or toe [which can occur by stubbing the toenail, dropping things on the toe and ‘going through the end of your shoes’ during sports, can cause the flesh to become injured and the nail to grow irregularly and press into the flesh]


An ingrown toenail occurs when part of the nail curves into the flesh of the toe . It can occur on all toes but affects the big toe. If dirt and sweat enter the infected area that causes the skin of the nail to become red, swollen, and tender. A small amount of pus will come out of the edge.

Early in the course of an ingrown toenail, the end of the toe becomes reddened and painful with mild swelling. There is no pus or drainage. It may feel warm to the touch, but you may not have a fever.


When the problem is mild, you may only need to soak your foot in warm water for 15 to 20 minutes and place dry cotton, such as part of a cotton ball, under the corner of the nail. Signs that the problem is getting worse include increasing pain, swelling and drainage of the area. Sometimes minor surgery is needed to remove the part of the nail that is poking into the skin.

Various over-the-counter preparations are available that can harden the skin and shrink the soft tissue along the edge of the nail so it grows normally. A soft, foam toecap can be worn while the ingrown nail heals.

Toenail Fungus – Cure for Toenail Fungus

Finger nail and toe nail fungus is a very common fungal infection affecting millions of people. Although it is common, it is not as easy to treat as many people would think. Fungus is everywhere, in our environment and in our bodies and can even take up residence in our nail beds. When infected, the nails will look thick and dull. Eventually, it will become crumbly and could result tin the loss of your nail or even your toe nail. It looks ghastly, feels unpleasant. and can even dispel a bad odor, as the nail beings to root and die. Our nail beds are not very well protected so its easy for the fungus spore to enter without too much effort.

Treatments come in all shapes and sizes. Surgery, prescription drugs, over the counter topical solutions. One things for certain, prescription drugs are expensive and not guaranteed to yield results.It also involves side effects that even the medication professionals are reluctant to tell us. Many people don’t have health insurance so this is not an option. A better alternative is too try a topical solution that contains natural ingredients. Some of these topical solutions have shown to be very effective in eliminating nail fungus infections completely, with proper use. Long term or short term, they do work to cure nail and toenail fungus. Treatment can last as long as a month or even longer but to be sure its completely gone you should consider running your treatment even after your condition is completely eliminated just incase. In my case, i continue to treat all my nails even though my condition clear up many months ago. Its just good preventative maintenance.

In certain cities where humidity is a problem during certain months of the year, for ladies, try to reduce your use of nylons and switch to cotton or natural wool. I know this is not possible for some, but if you’ve have a history of toenail fungus in the past, this is one way to reduce a re occurrence. At the same time, men and women should try to wear breathable shoes and keep your feet washed and dried as much as possible. Do you have a history of sweaty feet? If you do, wearing breathable shoes is very important and can help. Other important an infection as spores can easy spread to others.

Where to get more information on toenail fungus.


June Holland is and ex toenail fungus sufferer. Read my story and find out how i cured my toenail fungus in less then 3 weeks and what treatment options I used.