Bronchitis – Causes, Symptoms, Types and Treatment

Bronchitis (pronounced brong-KIE-tis) is an inflammation of the air passages between the nose and the lungs. It affects the trachea (pronounced TRAY-kee-uh), or windpipe, and the bronchi. The bronchi (pronounced BRON-kee) are air tubes through which air flows into and out of the lungs.

Bronchitis is an acute inflammation of the air passages within the lungs. It occurs when the trachea (windpipe) and the large and small bronchi (airways) within the lungs become inflamed because of infection or other causes.
The thin mucous lining of these airways can become irritated and swollen.
The cells that make up this lining may leak fluids in response to the inflammation.

Coughing is a reflex that works to clear secretions from the lungs. Often the discomfort of a severe cough leads you to seek medical treatment.

Types of Bronchitis

There are two main types of bronchitis: Acute and Chronic.
Acute bronchitis may follow or accompany the flu, or it may begin without having had an infection. Acute bronchitis usually lasts about 10 days. If you smoke or are around damaging fumes (such as those in certain kinds of factories), you are more likely to get acute bronchitis and to have it longer. This is because your bronchial tree is already damaged.

Chronic bronchitis is a condition involving the inflammation of the main airways (bronchial tubes) in the lungs that continues for a long period or keeps recurring. When the airways are irritated, thick mucus (also called sputum) forms in them. The mucus plugs up the airways and makes it hard to get air into the lungs, leading to shortness of breath and persistent cough.

Symptoms

Infectious bronchitis generally begins with the symptoms of a common cold: runny nose, sore throat, fatigue, chilliness, and back and muscle aches. A slight fever (100° to 101° F) may be present. The onset of cough (usually dry at first) signals the beginning of acute bronchitis. With viral bronchitis, small amounts of white mucus are often coughed up. When the coughed-up mucus changes from white to green or yellow, the condition may have been complicated by a bacterial infection.

Causes of Bronchitis

Bronchitis is mainly caused due to certain germs, the susceptibility of certain constitutions cannot be denied. Ayurveda ascribes its onset to impairment of the digestive process, where anyone or all digestive organs could be at fault. According to the theory of ayurveda, if digestive process is cured to normal then boronchits can also be cured to normal.

Bronchitis is predominantly caused by smoking, and has also been linked to pneumoconiosis, excessive alcohol consumption and exposure to cold and draught. Expectorant drugs may be used. When effective, they loosen secretions in the air passages and increase expectoration. Actually, the proverbial remedy, chicken soup, as long as it has plenty of pepper, garlic and possibly curry powder, can be helpful for the same purpose.

Treatment

Medicines called bronchodilators that are usually prescribed to treat asthma will help to open the bronchial tubes and clear out mucus.
Medicines called mucolytics which thin or loosen mucus in the airways, making it easier to cough up can also be used to treat chronic bronchitis.
Persistent symptoms and more severe disease are treated with anti-inflammatory medicines called steroids (of the glucocorticoid type) which are given with an inhaler.

Dislocated Shoulder Information –

The shoulder joint is the body’s most mobile joint. It can turn in many directions. But, this advantage also makes the shoulder an easy joint to dislocate. A partial dislocation (subluxation) means the head of the upper arm bone (humerus) is partially out of the socket (glenoid). A complete dislocation means it is all the way out of the socket. Both partial and complete dislocation cause pain and unsteadiness in the shoulder.

A dislocated shoulder is an injury in which your upper arm bone pops out of the cup-shaped socket that’s part of your shoulder blade. A dislocated shoulder is a more extensive injury than a separated shoulder, which involves damage to ligaments of the joint where the top of your shoulder blade meets the end of your collarbone. If you suspect a dislocated shoulder, seek prompt medical attention. Most people regain full shoulder function within a few weeks after experiencing a dislocated shoulder. However, once you’ve had a dislocated shoulder your joint may become unstable and be prone to repeat dislocations.

The joint between the humerus and scapula, also called the glenohumeral joint, is a ball-and-socket joint–the ball is on the top of the humerus, and this fits into a socket of the shoulder blade called the glenoid. This joint is incredible because it allows us to move our shoulder though an amazing arc of motion–no joint in the body allows more motion than the glenohumeral joint. Unfortunately, by allowing this wide range of motion, the shoulder is not as stable as other joints. Because of this, shoulder dislocations are not uncommon injuries.

The shoulder joint is the most frequently dislocated joint of the body. Because it can move in many directions, your shoulder can dislocate forward, backward or downward, completely or partially. In addition, fibrous tissue that joins the bones of your shoulder (ligaments) can be stretched or torn, often complicating the dislocation.When your shoulder dislocates, a strong force, such as a sudden blow to your shoulder, pulls the bones in your shoulder out of place (dislocation). Extreme rotation of your shoulder joint, such as during a throwing movement, can pop the ball of your upper arm bone (humerus) out of your shoulder socket (glenoid), which is part of your shoulder blade (scapula).

Dislocation is the result of a traumatic injury, caused by extreme forces that stretch muscles, ligaments, and tendons. Sport injuries and vehicle accidents are prime causes of shoulder dislocations. The injury occurs when the Humeral Head (ball-like shape at the end of the Humerus) is forced out of its socket. This type of injury may also include fracturing or breaking of the Humerus (upper arm bone), torn soft tissue, chipping of the Labrum or Scapula (components of the shoulder), and even scraping of the shoulder’s Capsule (cup-like area soft tissue of the shoulder).

Shoulder dislocations are almost always anterior – that is, the head of the humerus moves forwards. In some rare cases, this can happen in the opposite direction, with the head of the humerus being forced backwards. This is known as a ‘posterior dislocation’, and is more common following a fit, or if falling on an outstretched hand. The arm will tend to be held into the body (in internal rotation and adduction), and as this is slightly harder to reduce, X-Rays are very important. If possible a Lateral and/or Axillary view is needed to check for fractures.

Dislocated Shoulder Information –

The shoulder joint is the body’s most mobile joint. It can turn in many directions. But, this advantage also makes the shoulder an easy joint to dislocate. A partial dislocation (subluxation) means the head of the upper arm bone (humerus) is partially out of the socket (glenoid). A complete dislocation means it is all the way out of the socket. Both partial and complete dislocation cause pain and unsteadiness in the shoulder.

A dislocated shoulder is an injury in which your upper arm bone pops out of the cup-shaped socket that’s part of your shoulder blade. A dislocated shoulder is a more extensive injury than a separated shoulder, which involves damage to ligaments of the joint where the top of your shoulder blade meets the end of your collarbone. If you suspect a dislocated shoulder, seek prompt medical attention. Most people regain full shoulder function within a few weeks after experiencing a dislocated shoulder. However, once you’ve had a dislocated shoulder your joint may become unstable and be prone to repeat dislocations.

The joint between the humerus and scapula, also called the glenohumeral joint, is a ball-and-socket joint–the ball is on the top of the humerus, and this fits into a socket of the shoulder blade called the glenoid. This joint is incredible because it allows us to move our shoulder though an amazing arc of motion–no joint in the body allows more motion than the glenohumeral joint. Unfortunately, by allowing this wide range of motion, the shoulder is not as stable as other joints. Because of this, shoulder dislocations are not uncommon injuries.

The shoulder joint is the most frequently dislocated joint of the body. Because it can move in many directions, your shoulder can dislocate forward, backward or downward, completely or partially. In addition, fibrous tissue that joins the bones of your shoulder (ligaments) can be stretched or torn, often complicating the dislocation.When your shoulder dislocates, a strong force, such as a sudden blow to your shoulder, pulls the bones in your shoulder out of place (dislocation). Extreme rotation of your shoulder joint, such as during a throwing movement, can pop the ball of your upper arm bone (humerus) out of your shoulder socket (glenoid), which is part of your shoulder blade (scapula).

Dislocation is the result of a traumatic injury, caused by extreme forces that stretch muscles, ligaments, and tendons. Sport injuries and vehicle accidents are prime causes of shoulder dislocations. The injury occurs when the Humeral Head (ball-like shape at the end of the Humerus) is forced out of its socket. This type of injury may also include fracturing or breaking of the Humerus (upper arm bone), torn soft tissue, chipping of the Labrum or Scapula (components of the shoulder), and even scraping of the shoulder’s Capsule (cup-like area soft tissue of the shoulder).

Shoulder dislocations are almost always anterior – that is, the head of the humerus moves forwards. In some rare cases, this can happen in the opposite direction, with the head of the humerus being forced backwards. This is known as a ‘posterior dislocation’, and is more common following a fit, or if falling on an outstretched hand. The arm will tend to be held into the body (in internal rotation and adduction), and as this is slightly harder to reduce, X-Rays are very important. If possible a Lateral and/or Axillary view is needed to check for fractures.

Types and Treatment of Bone Fractures

Did you know that each of us, on average, will have two bone fractures over the course of our lifetime?  Naturally, some people, on account of their vocations, avocations and lifestyles, will have more. Human activity can generate fractures of every bone in the body. Some bones, like the skull bones and ribs, form protective compartments for certain vital organs. Other bones provide the framework for muscles, tendons, and other locomotor structures that allow us to move about in our environment. This discussion will deal with the more common fractures which are sustained in day to day activities.

First of all, let’s discuss the kinds of fractures. One category involves whether the fracture is complete with separate bone fragments, or incomplete where bone fragments still partially joined. Another category is open fracture versus closed fracture. An open fracture is usually caused by a bone fragment puncturing the skin, so that the fracture is exposed to the outside. A closed fracture does not communicate directly with the outside, i.e., there is no broken skin. Other fractures, such as linear, spiral, or transverse, have to do with the fracture’s relationship to the long axis of the bone, that is, lengthwise, around, or across the bone. If the fracture has more than one fragment, it is called comminuted.

The basic principle in treating a fracture, both in first aid and in definitive care by a physician, is fracture immobilization. Applying a splint or other device to prevent movement of the fracture is of utmost importance. If a broken bone is moved, it can rupture nutrient blood vessels, cause further bleeding around the fracture, or even convert a closed fracture to an open one. 

The second thing a physician has to address is whether there is nerve damage or blood vessel damage associated with the fracture. An entrapped nerve or artery would usually necessitate surgical treatment of the fracture.

The third thing that has to be assessed is fracture gap and angulations of the fracture deformity. If a fracture is too widely separated or angulated, surgery and internal fixation deices to repair the fracture may be needed.  The final determinant is whether the fracture is open or closed. An open fracture has to be treated surgically to ensure the maximal possibility of healing.

Most fractures can be treated by external splinting or casting. The rule is to cast one joint above and one joint below the fracture, so that the tendons and muscles won’t tug on the fracture site and prevent healing. The initial healing process involves the laying down of fibrocyte cells at the injury site which produce a rubbery substance called collagen. This collagen is gradually calcified over the next several weeks as the fracture heals. Calcification can usually be seen by x-ray at six to eight weeks, but total fracture healing may require several months.  One common place to sustain a fracture is the wrists and lower forearms. People tend to thrust their hands out in front of them to break a fall, and this often causes these fractures. A common fracture of the wrists of children and the elderly is the Colles Fracture, which produces a dinner-fork deformity of the wrist due to the angulated fracture of the radius bone. Most wrist and forearm fractures respond well to closed reduction (manipulation to reduce the angle and gap) and heal well with casting.

Another common fracture is the collar bone, or clavicle. This often occurs from a fall on the elbow or shoulder. It is treated with a sling and usually knits back together well, though there is often a temporary fracture deformity. Occasionally the fracture ends have to be surgically joined.

Rib fractures usually occur from direct blows to the ribs. They are very painful, but there is not an adequate way to splint them. An elastic rib belt was once used, but was found to cause pneumonia on the affected side. So the main treatment is enough pain medicine for comfort until the ribs start to heal and the pain subsides.

Skull fractures usually occur from direct blows. Because of the proximity to the brain, cranial nerves, and facial structures, their evaluation and treatment usually fall to neurosurgeons, ENT surgeons, or oral surgeons.

Compression fractures of the spine can occur from bone aging, or from major decelerative injuries. If there is impingement on the spinal cord or nerve roots, neurosurgeons or specialized orthopedic surgeons assume their care. Hip fractures are, as we know, common in the elderly. This is because their bones are weakened and brittle by the osteoporosis of aging, and they are more prone to falls. Usually surgery is required to retain function of the hip, and the healing process is prolonged.

It takes a lot of force to fracture a healthy femur, the big bone of the upper leg. This usually occurs in a fall from height or a motor vehicle accident. The fracture is often treated with traction to reduce it, and may require open surgery.

Fractures of the ankle are common in sports, falls, and motor vehicle accidents. If angulation and gap distance are not excessive after reduction, and if there isn’t tendon separation, these are most often treated with cast applications.

That’s the topic of fractures in a nutshell. The physician treating a fracture has a lot of factors to consider. He needs to mentally calculate the strength and direction of forces which caused the fracture. He needs to study the exact nature of the fracture with x-rays or maybe a CT scan. He must determine if there is concomitant nerve, blood vessel, or tendon injury. Finally he must determine whether the fracture can be managed by reduction and splinting or casting, or if it will need surgical correction.

John Drew Laurusonis

Doctors Medical Center 

www.doctorsmedicalctr.com

Types and Treatment of Bone Fractures

Did you know that each of us, on average, will have two bone fractures over the course of our lifetime?  Naturally, some people, on account of their vocations, avocations and lifestyles, will have more. Human activity can generate fractures of every bone in the body. Some bones, like the skull bones and ribs, form protective compartments for certain vital organs. Other bones provide the framework for muscles, tendons, and other locomotor structures that allow us to move about in our environment. This discussion will deal with the more common fractures which are sustained in day to day activities.

First of all, let’s discuss the kinds of fractures. One category involves whether the fracture is complete with separate bone fragments, or incomplete where bone fragments still partially joined. Another category is open fracture versus closed fracture. An open fracture is usually caused by a bone fragment puncturing the skin, so that the fracture is exposed to the outside. A closed fracture does not communicate directly with the outside, i.e., there is no broken skin. Other fractures, such as linear, spiral, or transverse, have to do with the fracture’s relationship to the long axis of the bone, that is, lengthwise, around, or across the bone. If the fracture has more than one fragment, it is called comminuted.

The basic principle in treating a fracture, both in first aid and in definitive care by a physician, is fracture immobilization. Applying a splint or other device to prevent movement of the fracture is of utmost importance. If a broken bone is moved, it can rupture nutrient blood vessels, cause further bleeding around the fracture, or even convert a closed fracture to an open one. 

The second thing a physician has to address is whether there is nerve damage or blood vessel damage associated with the fracture. An entrapped nerve or artery would usually necessitate surgical treatment of the fracture.

The third thing that has to be assessed is fracture gap and angulations of the fracture deformity. If a fracture is too widely separated or angulated, surgery and internal fixation deices to repair the fracture may be needed.  The final determinant is whether the fracture is open or closed. An open fracture has to be treated surgically to ensure the maximal possibility of healing.

Most fractures can be treated by external splinting or casting. The rule is to cast one joint above and one joint below the fracture, so that the tendons and muscles won’t tug on the fracture site and prevent healing. The initial healing process involves the laying down of fibrocyte cells at the injury site which produce a rubbery substance called collagen. This collagen is gradually calcified over the next several weeks as the fracture heals. Calcification can usually be seen by x-ray at six to eight weeks, but total fracture healing may require several months.  One common place to sustain a fracture is the wrists and lower forearms. People tend to thrust their hands out in front of them to break a fall, and this often causes these fractures. A common fracture of the wrists of children and the elderly is the Colles Fracture, which produces a dinner-fork deformity of the wrist due to the angulated fracture of the radius bone. Most wrist and forearm fractures respond well to closed reduction (manipulation to reduce the angle and gap) and heal well with casting.

Another common fracture is the collar bone, or clavicle. This often occurs from a fall on the elbow or shoulder. It is treated with a sling and usually knits back together well, though there is often a temporary fracture deformity. Occasionally the fracture ends have to be surgically joined.

Rib fractures usually occur from direct blows to the ribs. They are very painful, but there is not an adequate way to splint them. An elastic rib belt was once used, but was found to cause pneumonia on the affected side. So the main treatment is enough pain medicine for comfort until the ribs start to heal and the pain subsides.

Skull fractures usually occur from direct blows. Because of the proximity to the brain, cranial nerves, and facial structures, their evaluation and treatment usually fall to neurosurgeons, ENT surgeons, or oral surgeons.

Compression fractures of the spine can occur from bone aging, or from major decelerative injuries. If there is impingement on the spinal cord or nerve roots, neurosurgeons or specialized orthopedic surgeons assume their care. Hip fractures are, as we know, common in the elderly. This is because their bones are weakened and brittle by the osteoporosis of aging, and they are more prone to falls. Usually surgery is required to retain function of the hip, and the healing process is prolonged.

It takes a lot of force to fracture a healthy femur, the big bone of the upper leg. This usually occurs in a fall from height or a motor vehicle accident. The fracture is often treated with traction to reduce it, and may require open surgery.

Fractures of the ankle are common in sports, falls, and motor vehicle accidents. If angulation and gap distance are not excessive after reduction, and if there isn’t tendon separation, these are most often treated with cast applications.

That’s the topic of fractures in a nutshell. The physician treating a fracture has a lot of factors to consider. He needs to mentally calculate the strength and direction of forces which caused the fracture. He needs to study the exact nature of the fracture with x-rays or maybe a CT scan. He must determine if there is concomitant nerve, blood vessel, or tendon injury. Finally he must determine whether the fracture can be managed by reduction and splinting or casting, or if it will need surgical correction.

John Drew Laurusonis

Doctors Medical Center 

www.doctorsmedicalctr.com

Cerebral Palsy -Which Nerves are Affected

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a form of brain damage that affects thousands of newborn children around the world every year. With no definitive cure known as of yet, people who have CP tend to suffer its effects for their entire lives. It is caused by damage to the motor control centers inside the brain. There are several types of CP that occur during pregnancy, childbirth and up to three years of age. Among them is spastic cerebral palsy. It is the most common form and contributes to over seventy percent of CP cases.

Spastic cerebral palsy causes the muscles to stiffen; making movement difficult. During normal muscle functioning, muscles work in pairs. Each has two sets of nerve pathways; pathways that route signals to the brain and pathways that receive the signal. Normally, both work in tandem with each other to ensure free movement.

In the case of a person with spastic CP, both sets of nerves become active together. This floods the nervous system with messages, which causes a traffic jam of signals to be created. Eventual tenseness in the muscles is created, which in turn causes the muscles to malfunction. The muscles in the areas affected will become stiff and when they are forced to stretch, they may cause sudden, jerky movements.

Muscle involvement may differ from person to person, although the muscles of the legs and arms seem to be the most affected body parts of an individual suffering from spastic CP. There are a few variations of this disorder. One is spastic diplegia. It is a type of spastic cerebral palsy where the leg muscles are severely affected. So much so that the legs turn in and cross at the knees. With spastic diplegia, a person can experience stiffness of their legs when they try to walk.

Another form is spastic hemiplegia. It involves half of each limb being severely affected. This type is generally diagnosed when a physician examines an infant for hand preference. An infant less than one year of age does not show any type of hand preference. If an infant is affected with spastic hemiplegia, however, the child will show hand preference on the affected side of the body.

Therapists normally use muscle-relaxing substances like botulism toxins during treatment for the spastic form of cerebral palsy. It is injected into a certain group of muscles being prepared for surgery or physical therapy. If further mobility and flexibility are still not achieved during a particular therapy session, then decompression of a patient’s spinal cord and nerves will need to be performed in order to decrease the transmission of nerve impulses on particular muscles; thereby relaxing them. Sometimes, orthopedic devices are used to help keep the limbs in their proper position and enhance movement.

As time wears on, spastic CP can cause debilitating symptoms and disability can result from not receiving treatment. Loss of bladder control, uncontrollable shaking and hand contraction can be permanent. Depending on the level of function and severity of the condition, treatment for the spastic form of cerebral palsy can vary from person to person.

Paralysis – Best Ayurvedic Treatments & Cure

CAUSES: Paralysis is most often caused by damage to the nervous system or brain, especially the spinal cord. Major causes are Stroke, Trauma, Poliomyelitis, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), Botulism, Spina Bifida, Multiple Sclerosis, and Guillain-Barré Syndrome etc.

Paralysis may be localized, or generalized, or it may follow a certain pattern. For example, localized paralysis occurs in Bell’s palsy where one side of the face may be paralyzed due to inflammation of the facial nerve on that side. Patients with stroke may be weak throughout their body (Global Paralysis) or have Hemiplegia (weakness on one side of the body) or other patterns of paralysis depending on the area of damage in the brain. Other patterns of paralysis arise due to different lesions and their sequelae. For example, lower spinal cord damage from a severe back injury may result in Paraplegia, while an injury higher up on the spinal cord, such as a neck injury, can cause Quadriplegia. Patients with paraplegia or quadriplegia often use equipment such as a wheelchair or standing frame for mobility and to regain some independence.

SYMPTOMS: The Symptoms often accompany Paralysis from any cause include: Numbness and Tingling, pain, Changes in Vision, Difficulties with Speech, or Problems with Balance. Spinal cord Injury often causes Loss of Function in the Bladder, Bowel, and Sexual Organs. High Spinal cord Injuries may cause difficulties in Breathing.

According to Ayurveda, Paralysis is compared with PAKSHAGHATA. It has been discussed in Vata Vyadhi Prakaranam. It is known to be a complicated, as Pranayathana & Marma (Pressure Points) are involved. Vata involvement is a major factor for its complications. The Line of Treatment is as follows:

“Swedanam Sneha Samyuktham Pakshaghate Virechanam!!”

Swedanam (Suddation), Snehanam (Oleation) and Virecanam (Purgation) are the main modalities of treating Pakshaghata Patient. The other Panchakarma Procedures like Nasyam (Nasal Effusion), Vasthi Karma (Medicated Enema Procedures), Siro Vasthi, Kerala Procedures like: Elakizhi (Leaf Bundle Massage), Navarakizhi (Shali Shastika Pinda Swedam), Pizhichil (Sarvanga Dhara), Siro Dhara (Pouring of Oil on the Head) etc are done according to the patient’s requirement and severity. Brumhana Chikitsa, Vata hara Chikitsa and Marma Chikitsa are indicated.

Researched Internal Medicines are usually prescribed along with Diet and Life style Modifications. A Vata pacifying diet and proper dietary habit are essential for long-term success. Additional Vata pacifying regimens including daily oil massage and Sensory Therapies complete the treatment.

Meditation, Yogic practices, Pranayama, The Breathing Exercises are to be done on a regular and daily basis to overcome the stress and the disease. One should follow Achara Rasayana (The Art of being the Best of Soul) like being Sathwik, following elders advise, keeping and controlling the hard feelings, controlling the mental urges etc.

We give the Best Treatments for “PARALYSIS” with High Success Rates at Dr. Kranthi’s Institute of Ayurvedic Sciences & Research, The Kerala Ayurvedic Care, Speciality Panchakarma Centre, 3-6-101/1, St no: 19, Basheerbagh, Hyd-29. Contact Dr Kranthi R Vardhan on 9246166636 for appointments, evaluation and Treatments. Visit us at www.ayursages.com or write to us at info@ayursages.com.

Hernia – Causes, Symptoms, Treatment

Hernia occurs when a part of an organ protrudes through the muscular fiber that has the role of keeping that organ in its place. This usually happens due to a weakness that appears in the muscles that are around the organ, and causes them to tear and let a part of it come out through the small opening that is created. That part of the organ that protudes will create a proeminent bulge that can usually be seen.

Hiatal hernia (often referred to as hiatus hernia) is the protrusion (or hernia) of the upper part of the stomach into the thorax through a tear or weakness in the diaphragm. Hiatal hernias may develop in people of all ages and both sexes, although it is considered to be a condition of middle age. In fact, the majority of otherwise normal people past the age of 50 have small hiatal hernias.

Causes

While specific causes are not really known, hiatal hernias have been associated with the following:

1. Pregnancy and delivery
2. Weight gain
3. Increased abdominal pressure from chronic coughing
4. Straining during difficult bowel movements

First of all there may be a mechanical cause. Improper weight lifting, hard coughing bouts, sharp blows to the abdomen, tight clothing and incorrect posture may contribute to the development of this problem. Improper lifting may be (though not necessary) the biggest mechanical cause of this disorder. If the air is not expelled out of a person’s lungs during lifting, it can force the stomach into the esophagus. So be careful with that.

Symptoms

Some people who suffer from hiatal hernia usually don’t have any symptoms at all. However, hiatal hernia can generate symptoms such as heartburn, abdominal pain and discomfort and nausea. Most people affected by hiatal hernia suffer from heartburn, which usually intensifies after meals. This common symptom of hiatal hernia occurs due to reflux of the stomach content inside the esophagus. When doctors suspect the presence of hiatal hernia in patients, they usually perform additional tests in order to confirm the clinical diagnose.

Irreducible hernia, just as its name suggests, can not be pushed back. This usually means that an old hernia is transforming, and complications can appear. It can easily lead to strangulation of the tissue. It also has some other different symptoms like vomiting. Strangulated hernia, a form that is more dangerous, as mentioned before strangulates an organ or tissue and it cuts its blood supply. This type of hernia can also present vomiting symptoms and the strangulated area is always painful.

Treatment

Hernia is a problem that can be treated. Its repair may be performed under local or general anesthesia. Even though is a safe surgery, hernia repair is not recommended for all the patients. Many factors may influence the choice of having a surgical intervention. These factors include age, health the type of hernia. Complications may occur if the patient is a smoker or an alcoholic.

The best treatment for primary inguinal hernias is considered to be the Lichtenstein repair. Not being a hard to do procedure this type of treatment may be used by non-specialist surgeons too. The results of this intervention are less pain and a smaller period of recovering. For bilateral hernias a laparoscopic repair is not only recommended, but necessary. There are some factors that influence the choice. One of them and one of the most important factors are the pores size. The mesh should not contain pores smaller than 10 um in diameter because these may develop bacteria that makes the pores inaccessible to leukocytes.

Compression Fracture Of Spine – Forming A Self Diagnosis

A compression fracture of the spine may result in no signs or symptoms, but in other circumstances can result in back pain and discomfort and a stooped over stance. In a compression fracture of the spine, one or more spinal bones (vertebrae) collapse. This short report takes a look at the main reasons why these kinds of fractures occur and delves deeper into the possible symptoms and treatments.

Compression Fracture Of Spine Symptoms And Causes

Chronic onset: Signs and symptoms will not always be observed in a particular person who develops a compression fracture and the evidence of the situation may initially be discovered through an x-ray done for other reasons. In some circumstances signs could develop slowly over time and may involve:

  • A gradual onset of back pain
  • Loss of height (up to 6 in. over time)
  • Stooped over posture, known as “Dowager’s Hump”

Acute onset: In some cases, signs will develop suddenly and cause sudden and serious back pain which remains in one local location of the back. The onset of abrupt back pain due to a compression fracture will typically be felt in the mid to lower part of the back. This pain is identified as “knife-like” and can be disabling and take months of recovery before pain alleviates.

There are may possible causes of compression fractures which include:

  • Weakening of the bones owing to osteoporosis (most common cause)
  • Weakening of the bones owing to a pathology such as a cancerous tumor.
  • Trauma to the spine such as a car collision or fall

Fractures which come about as a result of osteoporosis typically impact the vertebrae of the mid and lower back. These sorts of fracture may develop no symptoms at first, especially at times of rest, but back pain may be aggravated by walking. Numerous spinal fractures may lead to a stooped stance termed a kyphosis. This is seen as a hump-like curvature of the spine, like the Hunchback of Notre Dame.

Compression Fracture Of Spine Diagnosis And Treatment

A physical exam and spinal x-ray may be required to affirm the diagnosis of compression fractures of the back. Other tests that may be performed include a bone density test to discover the presence of osteoporosis; a CT scan, MRI scan, or bone scan if there are concerns about the existence of a tumor or damage due to high-impact trauma to the spine (i.e. car collision or a fall from a height).

Treatment can depend on the cause of the compression fracture:

In individuals with osteoporosis, the osteoporosis is treated with doctor prescribed drugs and pain is managed with pain drugs and bed rest. Patients may benefit from physical therapy to develop the muscle strength necessary to better support the backbone. Surgical procedure is an uncommon option, but for back pain that can not be controlled with conservative measures, surgical procedure may be considered (i.e. balloon kyphoplasty, vertebroplasty). Fractures due to osteoporosis tend to get less painful with rest and pain medication, but some can result in persistent pain and disability.

If the fracture is brought about by a tumor, treatment will be focused on healing the cancer. The prognosis will rely on the form of tumor involved.

If the fracture is bring about by trauma, rest, pain medicine, and bracing to support and immobilize the area is typically mandated for 6 – 10 weeks. If bone fragments are in the spinal canal, surgery may be necessary to get rid of the fragments. Spinal fusion to fuse the vertebrae together and stabilize the spine may additionally be mandated. Compression fractures due to trauma should normally heal in 8 – 10 weeks with proper care. Recovery time could increase if surgery was involved.

Upper Back Pain

Upper back pain is not as common as the lower back pain. But pain is pain. When the pain process starts, it is unbearable. The two common identified causes of upper back pain are:

1. Muscular irritation (also known as myofascial pain)
2. Joint dysfunction.

There can be many other causes- injury, accidents, upper disc displacement and many more.

There is a great deal of stability and less motion in the upper back, which is thoracic spine region. So, spinal disorders are not very common. Conditions like herniated disc, spinal stenosis, degenerative disc disease and spinal disability can cause upper back pain, but such cases are few. This being the case, it is difficult to identify the causes for the upper back pain, precisely. Even an MRI Scan or CT Scan will not be of much help. So, it is not easy for the doctor to find a surgical solution, if the pain persists for a long period.

Modern amenities are not without the accompanying problems. A poor posture over a period of time creates strain in a particular region and that region happens to be your upper back, in case you are a computer operator and work throughout the day in front of your PC. Neck pain and shoulder pain are the comrades -in arms -of the upper back pain.

Here are some more causes of upper back pain:

1. Lack of strength in the particular region.

2. Injuries and damage to the muscles of the region caused through repetitive motions i.e. working in a particular machine in a particular manner. Take for example, hand molding machines. On an average a person does 1500 hand-operated motions in a working schedule of 8 hours.

3. Muscle strains and sports injuries.

Here again. You have to understand your back pain. With the nature of your work known to you, identify the area of your upper back, which is mostly strained. Do such yoga asanas, which help to ease the stress in that area. Do regular oil massage. If this is done in a systematic manner, there would not be any cause for the upper back pain to happen.

Because upper back is a big area, and also ‘muscle junction’, you have to adapt to a system of doing several stretching and strengthening exercises.

If you get the upper back pain, do not panic. Avoid hard medications and painkillers at any cost. Even best of the hospitals, the renowned specialists, have understood the virtue of physio-therapy. Follow it now, for your suffering is due to your past failings and negligence!

Trigeminal Neuralgia – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment Methods

Trigeminal Neuralgia is a pain that is described as among the most acute known to mankind. It is also known as tic douloureux. It is a chronic pain condition that causes extreme, sporadic, sudden burning or shock-like face pain that lasts anywhere from a few seconds to as long as 2 minutes per episode. The condition is characterized by pain often accompanied by a brief facial spasm or tic. Pain distribution is unilateral and follows the sensory distribution of cranial nerve V, typically radiating to the maxillary (V2) or mandibular (V3) area. If you have trigeminal neuralgia, attacks of such pain are frequent and can often seem unbearable. These painful attacks can be spontaneous, but they may also be provoked by even mild stimulation of your face, including brushing your teeth, shaving or putting on makeup. Trigeminal neuralgia is considered by many to be among the most painful of conditions and has been labeled the suicide disease, due to the significant numbers of people taking their own lives because they were unable to have their pain controlled with medications or surgery.

Trigeminal neuralgia affects the trigeminal nerve, one of the largest nerves in the head. There is some evidence that the disorder runs in families, perhaps because of an inherited pattern of blood vessel formation. It usually occurs after the age of 70 and is unusual in anyone under the age of 50. Although sometimes debilitating, the disorder is not life-threatening. It is a disorder of the trigeminal nerve, which is the fifth and largest cranial nerve. The pain of trigeminal neuralgia may occur in a fairly small area of your face, or it may spread rapidly over a wider area. A less common form of the disorder called “Atypical Trigeminal Neuralgia” may cause less intense, constant, dull burning or aching pain, sometimes with occasional electric shock-like stabs. It affects women three times more frequently than men. This condition may also occur in younger people with multiple sclerosis. Two to four percent of patients with TN, usually younger, have evidence of multiple sclerosis, which may damage either the trigeminal nerve or other related parts of the brain.

Causes of Trigeminal neuralgia

The common causes of Trigeminal neuralgia include the following:

The cause of the pain usually is due to contact between a normal artery or vein and the trigeminal nerve at the base of your brain.

Drinking.

The cause of the pain usually is due to contact between a normal artery or vein and the trigeminal nerve at the base of your brain.

Physical nerve damage or stress may be the initial trigger for trigeminal neuralgia.

Sometimes, the cause of trigeminal neuralgia is a blood vessel or small tumor pressing on the nerve.

Disorders such as multiple sclerosis (an inflammatory disease affecting the brain and spinal cord), certain forms of arthritis, and diabetes (high blood sugar) may also cause trigeminal neuralgia, but a cause is not always identified.

Symptoms of Trigeminal neuralgia

Some symptoms related to Trigeminal neuralgia are as follows:

Pain is brief and paroxysmal.

Increased sensitivity of the skin or numbness of the affected skin area (feeling similar to a local anesthetic, such as a Novocaine shot).

Difficulty sleeping.

An attack of trigeminal neuralgia can last from a few seconds to about a minute.

Loss of appetite.

Stabbing facial pain.

Jaw pain.

Impaired function of affected body part due to pain, or muscle weakness due to motor nerve damage.

Treatment of Trigeminal neuralgia

Here is list of the methods for treating Trigeminal neuralgia:

Medicines such as anticonvulsants and tricyclic antidepressants.

Mild over-the-counter analgesics such as aspirin, acetaminophen, or ibuprofen may be helpful for mild pain. Narcotic analgesics such as codeine may be needed for a short time to control severe pain.

Doctors may sometimes prescribe other medications, such as lamotrignine (Lamictal) or gabapentin (Neurontin).

Pain may be treated long-term with an opioid such as methadone in some patients, but due to the nature of the neuralgia, traditional analgesics typically have negligible effect.

Pain specialists use invasive therapy, including nerve blocks as well as nerve destruction, and nerve decompression techniques, to treat trigeminal neuralgia

If medication fails to relieve pain or produces intolerable side effects such as excess fatigue, surgical treatment may be recommended.

Self-Help Research

                                               SELF-HELP

                        HOW TO OVERCOME FEAR

    ACONITE Napellus is a poisonous plant (called “dakra” in Hindi).  It is one of the five species of Aconite plant cultivated in America but also found in Europe and the Himalayas.

    This homoeopathic medicine is given to those suffering from acute inflammatory conditions of the brain, lungs, heart, kidneys and other organs of the body.

    Also, for those suffering from anxiety, great nervous excitability, generally reflected in the form of fear of death.

    The fear is so marked that at times a patient starts predicting the time of his death.

    These conditions may be triggered of by exposure to dry cold air, particularly in autumn when the days are hot but the nights are cold.

    This medicine is effective in removing children’s fear of dark places.  Also, for people who feel frightened after receiving a threat.

    The fear, in case of women, may lead to abortion, or stopping of menses.  They may suffer from fear of death at the time of first delivery.

  Also, for breathing difficulty for babies born after tedious labour.  A good medicine for school-going problem cildren, who are at times punished severely either by parents at home or by teachers at school.

    Frequent dose of 30 potency daily until condition improves.  For chronic cases, there are other medicines.

                        FOR TONGUE-TIED LAILA-MAJNU

        AMBRA grisea, also known as Ambergris, is prescribed to persons who are intensely shy and blush easily.  They cannot do anything in the presence of others.  They generally suffer from acute constipation.  It is also ideal for those who become nervous in the company of strangers.  They either begin to cough or suffer an attack of hiccups.  At times they become asthmatic and their heart begins to pound at the very thought of having to make love.

    Ambra helps get over the shock of repeated deaths or business loss in the family.  In certain cases the unpleasant memories of the past haunt the patient.  Concentration becomes difficult.  It results in fitful sleep.

    Ambra is ideal for stopping bleeding from the nose, especially if it occurs in the morning.  It provides relief to women who discharge blood in between menstrual periods.  Even a slight exertion is enough to start the bleeding

    During periods, the left leg turns blue.  At times the periods may commence one week before the scheduled date followed by soreness, itching and swelling of the genitals.

    Dose:  6 or 30 potency dose may be repeated after every 6 or 12 hours until improvement is noticed in the condition.

                                HOMOEOPATHIC BADAAM

ANACARDIUM is a homoeopathic medicine prepared from the seeds of marking nut (used by washerman for identification markings on clothes.  The Indian name of this plant is “bhilava”.

    It is a remedy for mental fatigue, when even a slight mental exercise brings on a dull pressing headache.

    Also, for those who suffer from sudden loss of memory; when things told at a given moment are forgotten minutes later.

    Anacardium is prescribed to overcome memory weakness after an exhausting disease, or due to old age.

    Impaired memory may lead to depression or irritability or aversion to work, lack of self-confidence.  Also, fear of examinations, interviews or public appointments.

    Confusion reigns supreme in such persons.  They may also become suspicious that they are being observed.  They cannot easily take a decision.

    A patient may also become violent, and suffer from profound melancholy and hypochondriasis.  He may cause bodily injury to others without any cruel, malicious or wicked intention.

    It is also suitable for those who are hypersensitive when it comes to religious issues.

    It acts as “smiriti sudha” for the students, if taken 10 to 15 days before the examination in 200 potency doses weekly.

    This dose is also advised for patients mentioned above.

                                         OH! MY STOMACH

    ANTIM crudum, is a chemical compound also known as black sulphide of Antimony.  This homoeopathic medicine is commonly prescribed for gastric trouble due to sluggish stomach.

    It is more effective for those who overload the stomach with fat food, milk, meat, sweet, etc, and find it uncomfortable later.

    Owing to this, there may be a thick milky-white or dirty coating on the tongue, with or without violent, cutting pain in the abdomen, along with a feeling of heaviness in the stomach.

    Diarrhoea often follows such dietic errors, where stool may contain indigested food with partly watery fecal discharge.  At times loose motions may alternate with constipation, particularly noticed in old people.

    Antim crudum is also given in old cases where the trouble began after a swim or after a cold bath.  Headache is a common complaint after a cold bath in chilly winter.

    A good medicine for gout and arthritis of fingers, where the swelling and pain are worse owing to cold damp weather or after a cold bath, and one gets relief by heat.

    Antim crudum is prescribed for corns.  It is also effective in curing brittle nails.

    It has been found efficacious in stopping ache in decayed teeth (stumps) when there is an unbearable pain after eating or after taking cold drinks.

    For the hysteric or other sentimental patients, who generally remain sad, impulsive and have suicidal tendencies, especially by drowning.

    Also for young children who may be irritable and fretful when touched or looked at.  Some among them who become obese, Antim crudum is a remedy.

  Dose:  6 or 30 potency dose may be repeated three times every day.

                              NIP THE COLD IN THE BUD

    ANTIM  tart, a salt commonly known as Tartar emetic, is an indispensable

life-saving homoeopathic medicine.

    Owing to its marked action on respiratory system, particularly of the lungs, it not only helps in the absorption of mucus secretion, but also strengthens the lungs to expel the mucus.  Also resists subsequent attacks of cold.

    This homoeopathic drug is mostly prescribed for bronchitis, bronchopneumonia (cold in chest), asthma and other chest complaints.

    It is beneficial for young children and old, weak people, who easily become victims of exposure to sharp cold spell in winter, and suffer from chest congestion.

    Patients cough but are unable to get phlegm (mucus) out owing to weak body or the lungs.  Thus, the chest rattles.  The victim feels difficulty in breathing while lying in bed.

    The newborn and other infants may have their first attack at the time of birth.  But such children become prone to subsequent exposure to cold later in life until they reach adolescent age, if not treated judiciously.

    During such attacks the face becomes cold and darkish blue owing to lack of oxygen supply.  They may have low or high fever with their tongue thickly white-coated.  The nostrils may be dilated and in flapping condition and the child coughs loudly.  He becomes dull, drowsy and unconscious.

    Antim tart also relieves asphyxia from drowning, from foreign bodies, such as buttons, seeds, pebbles or marbles stuck in trachea or bronchi(air passage) or may be due to paralysis of lungs where the victim is almost breathless and gasps for air.

Dose:  3x or 30 potency dose to be repeated three to six times a day during acute attacks until the patient is all right.  For chronic cases 200 or higher potency doses.

                        ARNICA:  MUST FOR EVERY HOME

    “FALL HERB” or Panacea lapsorum, better known as Arnica grows in the mountains of Europe in plenty.  The tincture is prepared from the whole flowering plant.

    Arnica is called the king of traumatic remedies in homoeopathy because of its extensive use in injuries, fractures and haemorrhage.

    The acute manifestations are soreness, bruises and there is ache allover the body.

         Injuries

    The patient does not like to lie down as every thing on which he rests seems hard and uncomfortable.  He, therefore; constantly keeps on changing position.

               

    There may be ecchymosis (black and blue spot) caused by a fall or an accident with or without fever.

    Arnica has been found effective when there is internal head injury due to fall or blows and is known to remove the clot.

    Also, for patients who avoid any contact on account of pain and intense agony, particularly in inflammatory condition of gout and rheumatism.

       Sports

    Arnica is a great muscular tonic for the sportspersons, farmers, labourers and cyclists, etc. who are doing heavy physical work and when they feel limbs and whole body sore and aching.  The joints are also felt sprained.  It simply relieves discomfort even after hectic day of shopping, tours and picnics.

    Arnica alongwith other sports medicines, if taken under the guidance of an experienced homoeopath, may replace the use of drugs (anabolic steroids), generally taken for building up the stamina and the body muscles, without any fear of a positive dope test.

        After delivery

    It is effective in preventing abortion after a fall or shock.  Also, to prevent complications after delivery.  Helps contraction of uterus to expel placenta.

    A good drug for uterine haemorrhage, particularly after coition.

     It is excellent medicine for sore gums and is useful in stopping heavy bleeding and pain after tooth extraction.

    It removes the ill-effects of charcoal gas poisoning during winter season when a person becomes unconscious due to lack of oxygen.

    Dose – one thousand (or 1M) potency to be repeated as required.  For patients rendered unconscious after receiving head injury, etc., 10 M liquid drops would do the needful.

    Arnica should be kept in every house and everybody should know its use at the time of emergency.

                                  ARSENIC ALBUM

    ARSENIC album is commonly known as Sankhavisha or Sankhiya.

    It is effective in acute gastric disorders, maybe due to food-poisoning, gastroenteritis or cholera….. after consuming cold drinks, ice-cream, iced water, pickles, sauces, rancid food melon, etc.

    Arsenic album is an effective medicine for those persons who take excessive tea and smoke a lot, resulting in cardiac irritability and other heart problems.  This may lead to ascites and general swelling in the body, especially in those who are anaemic and weak.

    An excellent medicine for the gangrenous condition of mouth and throat, noma, aphthae and diphtheria, etc.  Also, for gangrene of internal organs and external body parts after injury, when there is sudden redness and shrivelled condition of the mucous lining.  The patient likes to keep the affected part covered.  It is also found useful in carbuncles and other spreading ulcers which ooze putrid watery discharge.

    Arsenic album acts wonderfully as a palliative medicine for those incurable cancerous problems where patient writhes with burning and stinging pain and suffers from agony.  Also, the chief remedy for angina, when it is of purely neurotic origin.

    It is a prime medicine for acute or chronic asthma which may often be associated with cardiac problems, where the suffocative attacks come at about midnight.

    It is good medicine in common cold when there is difficulty in breathing at night due to stuffy nose.

    Also, in tuberculosis of the upper one-third of the right lung, when the patient feels frequent but sharp pricking pain under the right collar bone.  The pain may be accompanied with a feeling of constriction in the chest, particularly noticeable on going upstairs or uphill.

    Arsenic album is an invaluable medicine for malarial fever when the patient gets attacks around noon or midnight.

    It is also an excellent medicine in those lingering cases of malarial fever (despite routine quinine course) when it takes the form of typhoid.

    This medicine is recommended in skin trouble (dry itching) of bran-like eruptions (as in dandruff) when the patient scratches the affected part until it is raw and bleeds.  At times scratching may lead to anxiety.

    Dose:  3 or 30 potency dose may be repeated at an interval of 3 to 4 hours until improvement beings.

                                        BELLADONA

 BELLADONA is a perennial herb which grows in the sandy parts of Europe and Asia.  The tincture is extracted from the entire plant before flowering time.  It was used as a cosmetic to brighten the eyes and flush the cheeks by Venetian ladies in olden times.  The medicinal value of this plant is due to its alkaloids, Atropin and Belladonin.

    This is the principal homoeopathic medicine recommended for relieving blood blood congestion in the head, chest, uterus, joints, skin, etc.  Owing to congestion in the brain, there is sudden and violent throbbing (pudpudi ka dard) in the head, particularly on the right side, which gets worse on bending down and lying down.  Belladona is especially prescribed to plethoric (with shining of cheeks) and vigorous persons particularly young children who are sensitive to changing atmospheric temperature.  They go to bed hale and hearty but wake up with sudden body temperature, which could be as high as 104 or 105 degrees Fahrenheit, may be with flushed face, red eyes, widely dilated pupils, moving the head restlessly from side to side.

    At times the child may become delirious and develop fear of imaginary things, or perform aggressive acts.  There may be convulsions due to high temperature along with strabismus (squinting of eyes).

    When there is no fever the child may wake up with a start and is frightened.  After falling asleep he may experience that he is falling down.

    Belladona is exceptionally good for pregnant women who marry late in life.  During labor, the uterus does not relax owing to deficient, ineffectual and spasmodic nature of labor pains, hindering the expulsion of the foetus.

    It also checks the bleeding after delivery.  Also, when the caking up of the breast (mastitis) of nursing women occurs and red streaks develop, this medicine is useful.

    Belladona is helpful in sore throat due to inflamed tonsils when the swallowing of liquids becomes difficult.  There may be a feeling of lump in the throat.

    Belladona is also useful in acute inflammatory conditions of stomach and bowels when there is a burning pain, great distress and distension.  Inflamed part is sensitive to slightest motion, touch and pressure, may be due to appendicitis, etc.

    It is equally useful in removing irritation of the bladder and urinary tract when there is retention of urine.  Also, dribbling of urine due to brain fever, etc.

    Belladona is effective in acute inflammatory rheumatism when there is painful swelling of joints which turns red.

    Dose:  200 or 1 m potency may have to be repeated at an interval of 15 or 30 minutes in severe pain or high fever

                               MULTI-PURPOSE MEDICINE

    BARYTA carb. or barium carbonate, is recommended for children who show signs of mental backwardness.  Such children are usually intensely shy and timid.  They slink away from strangers.  Their growth is stunted and their belly is swollen, face bloated, limbs emaciated and neck and groin glands are enlarged.  Their comprehension is weak.

    Baryta is also ideal for senior citizens who show symptoms of senile dementia (common feature is child-like behaviour).  It is effective in the treatment of enlarged prostate glands due to advanced aged among males.

    It is an excellent remedy for cerebral haemorrhage resulting in one-sided paralysis.

    Baryta is said to cure (as well as prevent) enlarged tonsils and related cough in children who are sensitive to cold and get frequent attacks of tonsillitis.

    If you are old and have difficulty in swallowing solid food, are hard of hearing, have tumours, lumps and tubercular growth and suffer from constipation, try baryta.

    Dose:  6 or 30 potency dose two or three times a day until improvement is noticed.  For higher potency dose consult your doctor.

                                     LIVER DISORDERS

CHELIDONIUM majus, also known as calendine, a herb is prescribed to those suffering from jaundice and other liver disorders.

Symptoms:  the skin is white, eyes are yellow, and the stool is whitish, grey or yellow and pasty.  The urine may be very pale.  Such patients may also have a strong desire for hot drinks.

The patient may be dyspeptic.  The taste of the mouth may be bitter and the tongue coated.  They may develop an intense dislike for food.  It is also prescribed for the treatment of gallstone and colic pain.  There may be fever owing to enlargement of liver.

Chelidonium is useful in pneumonia when the patient feels “tightness” in the chest, experiences difficulty in breathing and suffers from dry, spasmodic, paroxysmal cough, especially at night.

Also effective in neuralgia of the right side of the face, eyes and ear.  At times, neuralgia may precede pain in the liver and may extend from the right cheek to the teeth or the eyes.

Such patients may sometime experience “icy coldness ” on the tip of the fingers and at times their right foot may feel cold while the left is normal.

Dose:  6 or 30 potency dose to be repeated at 3-4 hours intervals per day in jaundice till the condition improves.  For gallstone, colic – 200 or 1 M potency doses may be given in consultation with the doctor.

                                                   AN AUTUMN CURE

    COLCHICUM AUTUMNALE, commonly called meadow saffron, is prescribed if the patient is sensitive to strong odours of raw or cooked food.  The reaction to odours may result in fainting nausea, retching and weakness.  It helps combat the feeling of nausea among pregnant women.  It is effective in controlling abnormal distension of the belly.

    Colchicum helps cure diarrhoea and dysentery, especially during the autumn season when the stools are bloody and full of scrapings from the intestine which may lead to protrusion of the anus.  Sometimes, stools may have jelly like mucus of variable character.  The patient may feel tingling, itching, burning or tearing pain in the anus.

    It is a splendid remedy for acute rheumatism and gout, specially in joints of fingers or the toes.  The pain generally gets worse on cold day and due to dampness, generally in the evening and particularly during the period of fall.

    It is lso recommended for summer rheumatism when the heat may slow down the flow of urine or the quantity of solids in the urine.  The urine becomes black or ink like.

    Colchicum is useful in wryneck.  Symptoms:  severe pressing pain in the neck and the muscles become tense.  At times swallowing becomes difficult.

    It helps prevent rheumatism and gout from affecting the hear, which otherwise leads to valvular defects along with muffled heart sounds and tight feeling in the chest and breathing difficulty.

    Dose:  30 potency dose may be repeated at 4 to 6 hours interval.  For distension 200 or 1 M dose may be repeated at 5 to 10 minutes interval until improvement in the condition.

                FROM TEETHING TROUBLE TO DELAYED MENSES

    Calcarea carb is common calcium carbonate.  This homoeopathic medicine is generally prescribed for delayed development and maturation of bones.  As a result an infant learns to stand and walk late.

    At times bones are formed irregularly leading to rickets (crooked bones),
knock-knees, bow legs, spinal curvature, delayed teething, exostosis, osteomalacia (adult rickets) and laryngomalacia, i.e., poor development of voice owing to weak voice box.

    Also, head bones and sutures take long time to close.  The head seems enlarged in relation to the size of the body, and at times the child is unable to hold his head up.  The enlargement may be due to hydrocephalus (collection of fluid).

    Calcarea carb is an excellent medicine for obesity in children and other grownup persons.  Also, for women who become corpulent after delivery.

    Such persons may be fair-skined or blond but flabby.  They sweat profusely all over the body.  The sweat is more pronounced on the head, nape, chest, armpit and genitals.

    Also, for persons who feel cold, particularly in the head, abdomen, feet and legs.  Since the patient is also sensitive to cold damp air, at times the body gets swollen.  The feet too are cold in winter.  But in summers the feet burn.

    Calcarea carb removes intolerance of milk in milk-fed babies during teething.  Also, for children who crave for eggs.   And for indigestible things like chalk, coal, slate pencils, earth, clay, etc.

    The abdomen of such children is distended like an inverted saucer, and painful to pressure owing to accumulation of wind, etc.  The rest of the body may be emaciated, with glands of the neck and lower jaw swollen.

    It is also a good medicine for polypus growth in the nose, ears, vagina, uterus, and bladder.  Also, for cystic growth and papillomata (benign tumour).  At times there is bleeding from these orifices owing to polyps.

    Calcarea carb removes cramps of calves, fingers and toes, etc.

    An excellent medicine for deafness, fever, painful limbs and paralysis, etc, occurring commonly among potters, brick-makers, fruit growers, etc.  Also for those who have breathing problems as a result of living in shady and cold places.

    Calcarea carb is also for women who are anaemic, have late menses or no menses at all, and thus rendered sterile.

    Calcarea carb is recommended to lactating mothers who have the problem of excessive or deficient milk secretion.

    It is also effective for males who have involuntary nocturnal emissions.  It removes the ill-effects of masturbation and too frequent sexual indulgence, where coition is followed by excessive perspiration, weakness, irritability, etc.

    Calcarea carb is beneficial in ulceration and opacity of the cornea.  It is an excellent medicine for those who have kidney and gallstone problems and experience profuse perspiration on the hands and feet during colic.

    Dose:  30 potency, two to three times a day as per requirement.  In severe pain 200 or 1 M potency repeated doses may be given until improvement starts.

                                   FOR WINTER COLD

HEPAR SULPH, also known as Hahnemann’s calcium sulphide, is prepared by mixing powdered oyster shell with pure flowers of sulphur in equal parts.

    This homoeopathic drug is prescribed for patients who are inherently irritable and whose speech and actions are hasty.  They may finish long sentences in one breath.  Every small thing disturbs these patients and make them intensely angry and violent.

    Also suited to dyspeptic patients who have great longing for vinegar, wine and sour and strong flavoured things.  Such patients are also oversensitive to pain.  The skin of the affected part may become very sensitive to touch, and the patient cannot even bear the touch of clothes.

    Hence useful in boils, abscess, ulcers, felon, and many other inflammatory and suppurative conditions of glands such as tonsils.

    Hepar sulph is also recommended to babies who are irritable and are always smelling sour, in spite of much washing.  They may have sour-smelling diarrhoea.

    It is an excellent medicine for cough and cold caused by sudden change of temperature, especially when sudden icy-cold winds blow.

    The patient coughs more in the mornings and evenings.  There is no chest congestion, though there is rattling, barking sort of sound while coughing with soreness in the chest.

    There may be stuffy feeling in the head, face and chest with blocked nose and hoarse voice in the beginning.  But profuse nasal and throat discharge takes place subsequently with pricking pain in throat.  The throat may become worse after eating any thing cold.

    There may be weakness of bladder and urine is passed slowly.

    Dose:  It can be taken in 30 potency, to be repeated at an interval of 3 to 4 hourly daily till the condition improves.

                                 FOR SENSITIVE WOMEN

                  

    IGNATIA Amara (or St Ignatia bean) is derived from a climbing shrub found in Cochin and some other parts of the world.  The tincture is prepared from the seeds of its fruis.

    This homoeopathic medicine is especially meant for those with a nervous temperament, particularly sensitive women.  It is one of the chief remedies for hysteria.

    For those who easily get excited, keep brooding or have experienced disappointment of love!

    Persons who are mentally and physically exhausted owing to grief.  Also for mental  sufferings due to regular conflict and tensions at home.

    Ignatia Amara is beneficial for those who often take drawn signs, much sobbing, etc.  Also, for those who are unhappy and can’t sleep because of grief.

    For those who have lost a near and dear one and are unable to control their emotions.

    The present socio-political state of turmoil may also lead to hysteria, at times leading to suicide.

    Ignatia Amara is meant for patients who have symptoms mentioned above.

    A small dose of 6 or 30 potency may be given everyday in the morning until the condition improves.

    For those who are chronic patients, should consult a Homoeopath.

                                           SPRING AILMENTS

LACHESIS is also known as “bushmaster” of “surukuku”, a deadly poisonous snake of South America.  The venom of this snake is used as medicine.

    This homoeopathic medicine is mostly prescribed for new and old inflammatory conditions and other troubles which generally begin on the left side of the body and later spread to the right side whether it is sore throat, tonsillitis, mumps, headache, eye, ear, kidney or ovary problems.  Even in arthritis, paralysis, etc.

    Also, for persons who are often unable to swallow warm liquids.

    Lachesis is effective in dry hacking cough in children caused by tickling in throat, particularly in the voice box.  The cough becomes worse during sleep.

    Lachesis is effective in heart diseases when a patient’s face becomes purple and bloated.  The patient wakes up with palpitation, experiences breathlessness and suffocation.  The patient is afraid of going to sleep.

    The palpitation of the heart may also occur when a patient goes into warm room or has hot water bath.

    Lachesis is very effective in overcoming insane jealousy and suspicion.  The patient suspects every one without any reason, even servants and children.  He may not take medicine even from a doctor suspecting that he would be poisoned.

    At times, a person becomes too talkative.  The patient seems to be in a hurry and becomes impatient.  Sentences are at times left half finished.

    It is also a good medicine for headache, especially in left temple, maybe due to heat in summer months, but mostly due to disrupted natural discharge, such as menses and nasal discharge.  The headache occurs in the morning after waking up.

    Lachesis is useful in gangrene when the affected part is purple or mottled in appearance.  Also, effective in fistulous openings, fissures and piles.

    It is equally useful in whitlow (felon, carbuncles, abscesses, malignant pustules, pemphigus, herpes, chickenpox, malignant ulcers, etc., when the affected part is sensitive to touch and bluish purple in colour.  Also useful for heavy drinkers who develop a red nose.  At times the nose may be red owing to heart problems.

    It is also effective in paresis (semi-paralysis) of the tongue.

    Lachesis is a leading medicine for menopausal disorders, when the period stops and all sorts of troubles make their appearance, such as hot flushes, headache, mania, etc.  Also for painful menstruation where pains are relieved by the flow of the blood.

    Dose:  200 or 1 M potency single dose is sufficient.

                             LACK OF CONFIDENCE  

               

    LYCOPODIUM clavatum is a perennial herb which grows in Europe and Asia.  This homoeopathic medicine is recommended to all age groups, particularly for old persons with keen intellect.

    Also, for persons who are nervous and emotional.  Lycopodium is beneficial in failure of intellectual functions (sensorium), particularly in old men.  The patient may become forgetful.  There may be aversion to undertaking a new assignment.  And there is general lack of confidence.

    Thus a good medicine  for lawyers, lecturers and other public men.

    Effective for children who dread mathematics.

    Lycopodium is effective medicine for gastric trouble resulting from recent or old liver trouble.  The patient may have insatiable hunger (bulimia) with much bloating after eating, particularly after lunch hours or in the evening.

    At times there may be a feeling of satiety, which may alternate with a feeling of hunger of peculiar kind where the patient sits down at the table very hungry, but after a few morsels he feels distressingly full.

    Sometimes the patient may fast or miss one or two meals a day.  Such condition is generally observed in those patients who are either suffering from diseases like arthritis, gout or stone problems, or are likely to develop such troubles in the near future.

    Also in diseases where symptoms run from right to left side of the body as in sore throat, including tonsillitis and problems of chest, abdomen, liver and ovaries.

    It has cured many cases of right-sided hernia in children.

    Lycopodium is effective in snuffles (obstruction of nose) in children and young people.  The eyes may at times remain half open during sleep.

    Also effective in poor vision and night blindness.

    Lycopodium helps the patient of neglected pneumonia when it is associated with liver complications.

    It has been found useful in all fevers, particularly malaria, where attacks of chill may come between 8 a.m. and 9 a.m. or between 4 p.m. and 8 p.m. and the patient may shiver with incessant yawning and nausea.

    Lycopodium is an excellent medicine for kidney stones and there is red sediment in urine generally passed after a terrible attack of renal colic.

    It is one of the best remedies for impotent persons.  But it is not an aphrodisiac and its abuse can be dangerous.

    Equally useful for women when they have dryness of vagina leading to burning pain during and after coition.  Sometimes vaginal bleeding takes place after passing stool.  At times gas emits from female genital.

    Lycopodium has been found effective when there is premature greying of hair.  Also, for baldness at the top of the head.  And falling of hair after delivery in women.

    Dose:  200 or 1 M potency dose may be taken once every week until condition improves.

                         PROBLEMS OF EARLY GROWTH

PHOSPHORUS is a poisonous substance found abundantly in bone, flesh, cheese, peas, etc., besides as a mineral in rock phosphate.  Its therapeutic value lies in its inherent power to irritate mucus membranes of various body systems.

    This homoeopathic medicine is selectively prescribed for delicate but active, intelligent and sensitive young persons who register early body growth.  Such persons tend to stoop and may later suffer from ailments leading to tuberculosis, if proper care is not taken.

    Since these young persons have low vitality, they are easy victims of common cold; which may be protracted dry, irritating hoarse cough; worse in the evening, after drinking, eating, talking or laughing.  Or, persistent thin nasal discharge after an attack of pneumonia or bronchitis.

    Phosphorus is the prime medicine for recurrent bronchial diseases which follow common cold.  The most commonly observed complaints being bronchitis and bronchopneumonia (pasli chalna).

    It is useful in stopping bleeding in haemophilic and haemophiloids patients when the blood is bright red and noncoagulable.  Besides it has marked power to stop haemorrhage from any outlet, may it be the mouth, nose, vagina or anus.

    Phosphorus is the only homoeopathic medicine for the constriction of lower end of food pipe (Achalasia and scleroderma) when there is difficulty in swallowing and at times food comes out immediately after swallowing.

    Blindness, either due to paralysis of optic nerve or after electric shock or after lightening, can be removed by the timely use of phosphorus.  It is also useful in early stages of cataracts, when the vision is misty but patient can see better either by shading the eyes with hands or in twilight.

    A good medicine for acute or chronic diarrhoea when stool is passed involuntarily immediately after eating or drinking, with gurgling in stomach and down to intenstine.  The stool may be greasy.  At times fetid, painless stool oozes out.

    The most notable feature is that patient may have a desire for cold drinks even in the extreme chilly weather.  The patient is not able to lie on the left side as it causes anxiety, pain in heart and palpitation.  Thus useful in various heart problems, particularly the fatty heart.

    Phosphorus is an excellent medicine for the necrosis (degeneration) of the lower jaw of people working in match factories.  It is also an antidote for the ill-effects of chloroform, iodine and excessive use of the common table salt.

    Dose:  1 M potency one dose a day to be taken only once.  Normally, it should not be repeated without consulting a doctor.

                              FOR GENTLE AND TIMID PERSONS

PULSATILLA nigricans is commonly known as pasque or wind flower, which grows in Europe in plenty.

    This homoeopathic medicine is generally recommended to gentle and timid persons, particularly females who dread the opposite sex, and hence aversion to marriage.

    Also, for children who are fussy and easily get discouraged when snubbed or punished.

    These patients may have a dislike for fat or fried food, such as omelette, channa-bhatura, puri-parantha, meat, pork, etc., owing to weak digestion.  Often the patient complains of bad taste in the mouth in early morning.  The tongue may be coated, and despite dry mouth there is no thirst.

    A patient complains of heavy stomach after eating.  Sometimes pain may occur in stomach after an hour of eating.

    Pulsatilla is effective in rheumatoid arthritis, etc., when pain shifts rapidly from one joint to another.

    It is an excellent medicine for toothache when pain is almost unbearable.  The patient feels relieved after keeping water in the mouth.

    Also, in ear-ache in children and others when the pain appears in the evening or at night.   The ear may appear red and puffed.

    Good medicine for cold that primarily settles in the nose and later in the chest.  The discharge is thick, yellowish green and bland.

    It is helpful in bronchial asthma in children from suppressed rash in measles, or in women from suppressed menses.

    Also effective in recurrent styes, especially the upper eyelids.

    Pulsatilla is an excellent medicine for eye problems when the patient is always rubbing the eyes.  The vision may be dim due to early stage of paralysis of optic nerve.

    Delayed menses at puberty which may be due to nervous nature or severe anaemia.  At times violent headache may be felt by girls owing to non-commencement of menses.  Also, when the labor is delayed and difficult owing to wrong position of the foetus in the womb.

    Pulsatilla is equally effective in leucorrhoea (white vaginal discharge) when it is thick milky white or creamy, may be associated with low backache.

    Also, when there is milk in breasts of the girls at puberty and non-pregnant women during menstrual flow.

    It is commonly prescribed to cure the after-effects of mumps when breasts and testicles get inflamed and swollen.

    Als effective in suppression of gonorrhoea.  Normally such patients are afraid of lying down, as they get an irresistible urge to pass urine frequently.

    A little girl child who kicks covers of at night and has involuntary urination at night, can be given Pulsatilla.

    A typical Pulsatilla patient sleeps on her back with hands over the head, and wants the head high as she feels uncomfortable with one pillow.  And she does not wake up fresh.

    Dose:  3x or 30 potency dose may be repeated after 4 to 6 hours daily until improvement starts.

                                 FOR SPRAINS & STRAINS

             

RHUS tox, also known as poison oak, is prescribed for sprain and overexertion of muscles or tendons.  This can also be caused by lifting heavy objects or stretching to reach an object at an uncomfortable angle.

    This homoeopathic medicine is recommended to overcome weakness of joints from sprains after a dose of Arnica has removed the first and most painful symptoms.

    In women there may be prolapse, or uterine haemorrhage, due to weakness of pelvic muscles from strain or lifting of heavy load.

    Rhus tox also cures fevers and paralysis of the limbs resulting from exposure to cold damp weather.  There is frequent urge to urinate.

Bed-wetting

    Also useful in involuntary urination (bed-wetting) by children, particularly boys at night owing to weakness of the bladder.

    For those suffering from enlargement of heart owing to strenuous and violent exercise (athlete’s heart); or any other organic heart disease where the pulse is quick,  irregular and weak resulting in numbness of the left arm.

    Recommended for inflammation and redness of the skin, with intense itching particularly of the fingers or toes; owing to cold weather or due to frost bite.  There may be vesicles herpes, eczema like condition of the skin, particularly during the rainy season where the areola (base) is red or purple in colour.

    Rhus tox is suitable in chronic rheumatoid arthritis, spondylosis and spondylitis, when the patient initially finds it difficult to move.  The patient feels better after walking or warming up for some time, therefore he gets exhausted because of weak joints.

    Excellent medicine for eye complaints during rainy season due to excessive dampness.  There is redness of the eye with profuse gush of hot tears on opening the swollen lids (eye flue).

    Rhus tox is forbidden for women in early stages of pregnancy.

    Dose:  30 potency doses repeated daily for acute cases.  For chronic cases of arthritis, etc., 200 potency weekly.

                                    TV AND ACHING EYES

RUTA graveolens, or Rue, is a native plant of South Europe.  The tincture is prepared from fresh herb gathered shortly after blooming.

    This homoeopathic drug is prescribed for the wounds on bone surface caused by a blow, accident or a fall.  The patient complains of soreness and aching pain at the fractured site even after the repair process.

    Ruta is also known to remove contraction of hands and feet after injuries.

    For the tubercular outgrowth of the bones and repeated dislocations, particularly of the knees, ankles and the wrist joints.

    A perfect medicine for farmers, carpenters, gardeners, labourers, cobblers, tailors and mechanics, who use iron instruments resulting in formation of hard nodules (corns) in the palms and fingers.  Also for students and other people who hold their pens tightly while writing.

    An excellent medicine for the ganglion (the cystic tumor) particularly of the right hand.

    Ruta is given to those with aching eyes after too much reading, or doing fine needle work or watching TV continuously.  This may result in frequent winking of the eye.

    A valuable medicine for the prolapse of the rectum, especially after delivery.

    Dose:  200 potency single weekly dose until the visible signs and symptoms have been overcome.

                                        FOR WEAK CHILDREN

            

SANGUNARIA canadensis, commonly known as the “blood root is a perennial plant that grows abundantly in the United States of America.  The tincture is prepared from the fresh root.

    This homoeopathic medicine is prescribed mainly to young children who are weak either from birth or afterwards.  They do not have normal appetite.  But they are fond of toffees, ice cream, golgappa and other sweet, sour or saltish things.

    “The child brings his only chappati back home in tiffin”, is the general complaint of mothers of such children.  Grinding of teeth at night along with salivation while asleep, may occur in such children.

    Children with pinworms (chalune) may feel irritation in anus and the surrounding area, thus spend sleepless nights.  Or they may complain of mild pain in the belly.  The children are sensitive to cold and sour things and may develop a red patch on the cheek owing to chest problems, such as acute or chronic bronchitis, bronchopneumonia and tuberculosis, etc.

    Sangunaria may particularly be required in pneumonia when lungs are filled with blood and the sputum (in grownup persons) may appear rust-coloured and smell offensive.

    Sangunaria is an excellent medicine when women have headache during menopause.  The headache begins on waking up at the time of sunrise.  It continues to get worse during noon and then diminishes at sunset.

    The headache begins from the nape of the neck and spreads upward and settles over the right eye.  It generally gets aggravated by light, noise and strong smell.  The patient likes a dark room, is compelled to lie down.  Sometimes when the headache is severe, the patient vomits food, bile or the slime, and gets relief from pain.

    Sangunaria is effective in rheumatoid arthritis of the parts where bones are least covered with flesh, particularly right shoulder, the elbow or the knee.  Also, good medicine for the stiffness of the neck or the back when the pain extends to the head on right side, or to the right arm, especially in spondylosis.

    Dose:  3x or 6x potency dose three or four times a day in pneumonia.  For other problems 30 potency dose, two to three times a day until improvement starts.

                      HOMOEOPATHY & BIGREY NAWABS

    NUX VOMICA is known as poison nut, “kuchla” in Hindi.  This homoeopathic medicine is prepared from “poison nut” seeds.  One third of all the diseases are reportedly cured by this medicine alone.

    It is said “if you do not know what should be prescribed then give Nux Vomica.  It is often used as an antidote for over-drugging.

    Nux Vomica is generally prescribed to males who are thin, irritable, and lose temper by slight provocation.  Also for those who do a good deal of mental work, study a lot or handle business affairs and lead indoor life.

    Because of mental strain, such people often seek the help of stimulants, such as coffee, liquor, or use sedatives like opium or any other cannabis preparation.

    People who take rich food, attend parties and generally overindulge themselves until late night, often have irregular bowel movement (or have constipation).  They take laxatives like Hajmola, liver tonics, etc.

    Nux Vomica soothes and calms over-excited nervous system and improves digestion and bowel movement.  It increases appetite, vigour and gives potency to males who have ruined themselves by excessive use of stimulants.  That is why it is called the medicine of “bigrey” Nawab (spoilt men).

    It may be taken in low potency of 6 or 30 (in case of irritable over-excited persons), and above 200 or more potency in case of habitually constipated and hard drinkers.  It is one of the best remedy for mania-a-potu (acuge alcoholism).

Nux Vomica of 6 and 30 potency should be taken once a day before going to sleep at night.  If it is 200 potency then it should be taken once a week.  If it is still higher then once a fortnight.

Voice Disorders and Voice Therapy – Voice Therapist at Bangalore

A voice is termed “disordered” when the vocal quality of an individual is altered/changed in such a way that it is thought to be abnormal to the listener. The onset and development of these disorders can be “sudden” or “slow.

Singers, teachers, actors, call center executive ,doctors, lawyers, nurses, sales people, corporate leader, political leader, public speakers are among those who make great demands on their voices. Unfortunately, these individuals are most prone to experiencing voice problems.

Some of these disorders can be avoided by taking care of your voice by learning vocal hygiene technique and technique of voice projection with least effort by speech language pathologist/Speech therapist. Consult a Speech Language Pathologist/Otolaryngologist if you have any voice problem for more than 15 days. For more information you can also click on http://speechtherapyindia.in

An Introduction to different kinds voice disorders:
Puberphonia:
Definition: A male speaks in high pitch voice (female like) even after the age of 14 years. Many times people on phone confused that they are talking to a female. 
Etiology: During puberty in males the mass and length of the vocal fold increase and the pitch decreases. Few of the people although having the appropriate vocal fold mass and length after the puberty, but they are not able to switch to the new low pitch voice (male like). Its reason can be usually long time habits from childhood, speaking into a high pitch voice. 
Treatment: It can be very easily treated by voice therapy (vocal exercises).Speech language pathologists/speech therapists are the professionals who are trained for voice therapy. Duration mostly can be 1-2 week.

Functional Aphonia:
Definition: absence of voice 
Etiology: (1) acute stress to vocal folds (2) laryngeal pathology or other disease 
Symptoms: no voice present 
Treatment: Voice therapy by speech language pathologist/speech therapist

Spasmodic Dysphonia:
Definition: a disorder described as both functional/organic bases that is a rare condition with a neurological basis 
Etiology: (a) psychological influence (b) unknown cause 
Symptoms: strained struggled effortful voice which is hoarse with tremors, jerky voice onset, intermittent voice breaks, breathy spasms, hypernasality, failure to maintain voice 
Treatment: Voice therapy by speech language pathologist/speech therapist
Q. I recently read about an experimental voice cord injection technique to help patients with spastic dysphonia. Does it work?
A. You are referring to an experimental procedure used in some hospitals, whereby the patient’s vocal cord is injected with botulinum, an invasive toxic substance. Botulinum is a diluted form the deadly botulism. The downside and side effects affecting the body, as well as the vocal cord, are not fully known. The procedure causes a temporary parasis or paralysis rather than a permanent paralysis of the vocal cord and generally involves repeated doses for life. It was orignally thought that the injection would last nine months, but the period may be reduced to six months, three months, or six weeks. 
In the December, 1999 National Spasmodic Dysphonia Association Newsletter, page 7, Dr. Gerald Berke, Chairman of UCLA Head and Neck Division reports regarding Botox (botulinum toxin): “…there are some obvious drawbacks. It requires lifelong visits from 4 to 10 times per year for repeat injections. The injections are not inexpensive. The interval between post injection breathiness, good voice, and the return of symptoms may not be very long in some patienst. Hypersensitivity and antibody formation have been shown to produce some long term structural changes in muscle cells.”

Ventricular Dysphonia:
Definition: a condition in which the false vocal folds, the ventricular bands adduct together over the true vocal folds below 
Etiology: (1) pathology may be unknown (2) may occur due to true vocal fold disease 
Symptoms: monotonous voice, low pitched 
Treatment: Voice therapy by speech language pathologist/speech therapist

Hoarse Voice:
It can be the result of vocal nodule, vocal polyp, Hyperkeratosis, Leukoplakia (Keratosis), contact ulcer, Vocal fold paralysis. Any of these medical problems should always be followed by voice therapy with the medico surgical management, otherwise it can reoccur .Because voice therapy not only work on present problem but also work to remove the reason of the occurrence of these disorders..

Vocal Nodules:
Definition: localized benign growths on the vocal folds that are usually thought to be a result of vocal abuse. 
Etiology: due to vocal abuse when the tissues are under constant stress induced by frequent, hard oppositional movement of vocal folds 
Symptoms: soreness or pain in neck, sensation of something in throat, hoarseness, and breathiness 
Treatment: Mostly voice therapy if the size is small in some cases surgery is needed and that should be always followed with the voice therapy otherwise it can reoccur even after surgery as the voice therapy work on the reason of occurrence of the vocal nodule and other voice problems.

Vocal Polyps:
Definition: soft fluid filled bulges located at the front region of the vocal fold 
Etiology: vocal abuse 
Symptoms: hoarseness, shortness of breath, audible inhalation 
Treatment: Medico surgical and voice therapy

Hyperkeratosis:
Definition: a mass of accumulated keratin (a scleroproteinous pigmented spot or covering) which may grow on the inner glottal margins which may occasionally develop into malignancy 
Etiology: smoking, alcohol use, environmental pollution and other factors 
Symptoms: pronounced hoarseness 
Treatment: Medico surgical and voice therapy

Leukoplakia (Keratosis):
Definition: a disease characterized by a whitish patchy thickening of the epithelium of a mucous membrane. A precancerous lesion develops on the tongue or the inside of the cheek as a response to chronic irritation. 
Etiology: Chronic smoking or tobacco use. 
Symptoms: hoarseness, roughness 
Treatment: Medico surgical and voice therapy

Contact Ulcers:
Definition: A small ulceration that develops on the medial surface of the vocal processes of the arytenoid cartilages. Laryngoscopically, a contact ulcer will be visible as a buildup of pink or pinkish-white tissue on one of the vocal processes of the arytenoids. 
Etiology: (1) predominantly in males average age of 50 who engage in a great deal of aggressive speaking or so called type A personality. (2) constant throat clearing that is secondary to irritation of mucosa due to gastroesophageal reflux or regurgitation of peptic acid. 
Symptoms: constant throat clearing, vocal fatigue, and breathy voice with some hoarseness accompanied by discomfort or even stabbing pain 
Treatment: Medico surgical and voice therapy

Vocal fold paralysis:
Definition: a unilateral or bilateral paralysis of the vocal folds occurs when conduction of nerve impulses is temporary blocked, the axons of the nerve section, or the nerve fibers are entirely cut which disturbs glottal closure due to lack of adduction of the affected vocal fold. 
Etiology: (1) peripheral lesions of Vagus nerve (2) neuritis (3) neoplasm’s in neck, bronchi, and chest (3) acute external trauma to neck (4) surgery (5) idiopathic causes (6) birth trauma (7) central nervous system disease 
Symptoms: breathiness, hoarseness, diplophonia, and aphonia 
Treatment: Medico surgical and voice therapy

Few Tips to Prevent Voice Problems
Limit your intake of drinks that include alcohol or caffeine. These act as diuretics (substances that increase urination) and cause the body to lose water. This loss of fluids dries out the voice. Alcohol also irritates the mucous membranes that line the throat.Drink plenty of water. Six to eight glasses a day is recommendedDon’t smoke and avoid second-hand smoke. Cancer of the vocal folds is seen most often in individuals who smoke.Practice good breathing techniques when singing or talking. It is important to support your voice with deep breaths from the diaphragm, the wall that separates your chest and abdomen. Singers and speakers are often taught exercises that improve this breath control. Talking from the throat, without supporting breath, puts a great strain on the voice.Consult speech language Pathologist to learn vocal hygiene.You can also some more tips by clicking on http://speechtherapyindia.in

Sore Throat – Symptoms and Treatment

A sore throat is a disease primarily located in the area around the tonsils. It is also known as pharyngitis or tonsillitis.The pharynx is the part of the throat that lies between the mouth and the larynx or voice box. It is associated most commonly with the common cold or influenza. While most sore throats heal without complications, in some cases, they develop into a serious illness.

Sore throat refers to the inflammation of the pharynx or back of the throat. It occurs frequently when a person has a cold or an attack of influenza. 10% of sore throat may be due to strep throat infection. Strep throat is an infection of the pharynx, caused by group A streptococcus bacteria, whereas sore throat may be a viral or a bacterial infection. Strep throat is common among children and teenagers, between the ages of 5 to 15.

Sore throats have many different causes, and may or may not be accompanied by cold symptoms, fever,or swollen lymph glands. Proper treatment depends on understanding the cause of the sore throat.

Sore throats are normally caused by either a viral or bacterial infection. The most important difference between a virus and bacteria is that bacteria respond well to antibiotic treatment and viruses do not. A sore throat is commonly spread by: sharing drinks, kissing, coughing, nose blowing, and sneezing.

Symptoms

Symptoms of sore throat throughout the body include fever, headache, nausea, and malaise. These may be present with either a viral or bacterial infection. Symptoms specific to the throat include pain with swallowing for pharyngitis and a hoarse voice when laryngitis is present. Cold viruses tend to cause more coughing and runny nose than strep throat.

For the vast majority of sore throats, there are no treatments to cure the disease. These cases of sore throat are caused by viruses, against which there are few medications. Antibiotics may be prescribed for bacterial sore throats. But they will have no effect on viral sore throats.

Cinnamon is regarded as an effective remedy for a sore throat resulting from a cold. One teaspoon of coarsely powdered cinnamon, boiled in a glass of water with a pinch of pepper powder, and two teaspoons of honey can be taken as a medicine in the treatment of this condition. Two or three drops of cinnamon oil, mixed with a teaspoon of honey, also give immense relief

Therefore, drinking enough fluids is very important. When it is hard to drink, it is important to decrease your body’s requirements for fluid through rest and lowering any fever that is present. Choose high-quality fluids such as soup broth (which replaces both salt and water losses) and sugar-containing solutions (they help the body absorb the fluids more rapidly). Avoid caffeine because it can cause water loss.

Complications

Complications such as rheumatic fever (inflammation of connective tissue and joint pain), scarlet fever (fever with body rash), tonsil abscess, and glomerulonephritis (kidney disease) can result from untreated streptococcal infection. Severe pharyngitis associated with Corynebacterium diphtheriae and infectious mononucleosis can obstruct the airway and cause lower respiratory problems (e.g., pneumonia).

Tonsillitis – Symptoms and Causes of Tonsillitis

The tonsils are fleshy clusters of tissue that lie in bands on both sides of the back of the throat, above and behind the tongue. The tonsils’ major function is to catch incoming germs before the germs cause infections in the throat, mouth, or sinuses. Tonsils contain infection-fighting cells and antibodies that stop the spread of the germs further into the body.

There are 3 main types of tonsillitis: acute, subacute and chronic. Acute tonsillitis can either be bacterial or viral (75%) in origin. Subacute tonsillitis (which can last between 3 weeks and 3 months) is caused by the bacterium Actinomyces. Chronic tonsillitis, which can last for long periods if not treated, is almost always bacterial.

As children grow and develop, the tonsils and adenoids eventually begin to shrink and are probably no longer important in protecting against disease-causing germs. Even in young children, removal of infected tonsils or adenoids does not seem to weaken the body’s defenses. There are many other tissues in the body that are part of the immune system. These tissues, known as lymphoid tissues , also make antibodies to fight against infection.

Symptoms of Tonsillitis

The symptoms of tonsillitis may vary depending on whether the infection is caused by a virus or by bacteria. If your tonsillitis is caused by a virus, such as the flu virus, you may have other flu symptoms, such as a runny nose, and aches in your body. If your tonsillitis is caused by bacteria, you may have a skin rash, or a flushed face.

The main symptom of tonsillitis is a sore throat. The throat and tonsils usually look red and swollen. The tonsils may have spots on them or pus that covers them completely or in patches. Fever is also common.

A child with tonsillitis needs plenty of nourishment and rest. If your child finds swallowing so painful that eating is difficult, try serving liquids and soft foods, like nutritious soups, milkshakes, smoothies, popsicles, or ice cream.

symptoms of Tonsilitis may vary on an individual basis for each patient. Only your doctor can provide adequate diagnosis of symptoms and whether they are indeed symptoms of Tonsilitis.

Other symptoms include fever, chills, tiredness, muscle aches, earache, swollen glands in the neck, and pain or discomfort when swallowing. Very young children with tonsillitis may become fussy and stop eating.

Causes of Tonsillitis

The tonsils are lymph nodes in the back of the mouth and top of the throat. They normally help to filter out bacteria and other microorganisms to prevent infection in the body.

Tonsillitis is caused by viruses or bacteria that infect the tonsils. They cause the tonsils to become inflamed and swollen. One of the first symptoms of tonsillitis is a severe sore throat (see sore throat entry). Tonsillitis causes include viral infections such as the flu, the common cold, mononucleosis. Streptococcus is the most common bacterial cause. Bacterial tonsillitis can be treated with antibiotics, but viral tonsillitis cannot.

Viruses are the most common pathogens responsible for tonsillitis in children under the age of 6 years. A number of respiratory viruses can cause tonsillitis, including the Reovirus, Adenovirus, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Influenza virus, echoviruses.

The chief cause of tonsillitis is a toxic condition of the system, which is brought to a head by a sudden lowering of vitality, resulting from exposure and sudden chill. The tonsils enlarge and get inflamed when the toxins cannot be got rid of through the normal channels of elimination such as the bowels, kidneys, and skin.