Shoulder Dislocation

A joint dislocation occurs when the two joint surfaces, which normally sit in intimate contact with each other, are wrenched away from each other to lie apart without any relationship. Joints have a surrounding ligamentous bag called a joint capsule and this can be typically injured as the surfaces force their way past each other. The surfaces of the joints themselves can be damaged as they hit each other on the way to becoming dislocated. Other injuries which can occur include damage to the local nerves and ligaments.

Shoulder dislocation is the most common type of joint dislocation, accounting for nearly half of all such joint injuries. The shoulder dislocates frontwards, an anterior dislocation, in the vast majority of cases. The most common type of injury is one which forces the head of the arm bone forwards with the arm in a position of abduction, outward rotation and extension, the vulnerable position of the joint. Other mechanisms of injury can include a forceful abduction and outward rotation movement of the arm, a blow to the back of the upper arm and a fall onto the outstretched hand (FOOSH).

A posterior dislocation is uncommon and secondary to a stress on the arm when it is inwards across the body and inwardly rotated, with the large back and chest muscles sometimes pulling the joint out of its socket. This can occur if someone is electrocuted or if they have epileptic seizures, both of which can cause muscle spasms. The shoulder can dislocate downwards if there is a very forceful movement of the shoulder outwards and sideways, with the joint being levered out over part of the scapula above. This sort of dislocation should be closely monitored as complications of the injury are common with nerve damage, blood vessels injury and rotator cuff tears.

There may be no trauma in some cases of shoulder dislocation and instability of the shoulder may occur in all joint directions, typical presenting in patients who have hypermobile joints. This condition is called multidirectional instability and tends to happen in both shoulders, run in the family and be in younger people under thirty. A joint subluxation is often the start of these problems, where the joint slips partly off its partner to an amount and then clicks back into place. An ability to voluntarily dislocate the shoulder can occur, perhaps related to psychiatric difficulties in this group of people.

The presentation of anterior dislocation of the shoulder is for the patient to hold their arm rotated outwards and slightly to the side, the arm bone head easily felt at the front of the joint. The shoulder muscles may be in a powerful spasm and trying to move the shoulder results in high levels of pain. A dislocation of the shoulder posteriorly shows itself by the patient keeping the arm close to the body and turned inwards, the head of the humerus being palpable at the rear of the joint, although this condition has been misdiagnosed as frozen shoulder.

Several techniques are used to reduce a shoulder dislocation and the time it takes for the reduction to be performed is important. The muscle spasm can increase in severity and make the restoration of the normal joint alignment increasingly difficult. The oldest technique is to pull firmly on the arm whilst putting the foot in the armpit to give counter pressure. A more modern technique which is less traumatic is for the surgeon to move the arm bone outwards whilst pressuring the humeral head with their hand. Once the arm is at a right angle out to the side the arm can be tractioned and turned outwards, often leading to the joint being relocated.

Pain is a major presentation problem in shoulder dislocation and there are many alternatives that the medical staff can apply to give good pain relief and ease the process of reduction. A recent reduction can be moderately easily relocated in the absence of strong painkillers or muscle relaxants. The most useful sedative drug will have a quick onset of action, be able to supply good muscular relaxation and with an action which goes off quickly to allow rapid recovery. After the joint is back in place a sling is used for up to three weeks to allow the capsular damage to heal.

Bone Healing with Laser Therapy Treatments

Low-level laser therapy is a painless and noninvasive treatment which uses a laser device that is cleared for the general market by FDA regulations.  This device puts out a low intensity phonic energy that works at the cell and tissue levels to reduce pain and swelling, and promote healing.  

Among many other purposes, low-level laser therapy can promote bones healing and also reduce pain and swelling associated with bone injury.  Basically, the low-level laser initiates the bone cells activity and the energy enhances cell regeneration.  Cell regeneration, then, increase blood flow and decrease inflammation.  

The procedure is very simple and painless.  Basically, the low-level laser device is either held in place or gently moved it around the injured area for a certain length of time specified by your doctor.  Initially, a physical will administer the treatment to go over the procedure and answer all your questions regarding your injury and recovery.  Once he reviews the low-level laser treatment procedures with you, you will perform the treatment from home on your own.  Your recovery period will depend on the extent of your injury.  However, most people notice a relief in pain and swelling almost immediately.  And according to many personal accounts and research, low-level laser therapy has been known to speed up the healing of broken or fractured bone/s two times faster than without the use of low-level laser therapy.

Though low-level therapy is still in the experimental stages, there has been significant healing and pain relieving results seen from who have chosen this treatment.  Those that could benefit from the healing and pain relieving capability of low-level laser therapy for bone related issues are:

•    Those with broken or fractures bones
•    Those who recently had orthopedic surgery
•    Those suffering from bone issues, such as those dealing with arthritis pain
•    Those in any industry that deals with bone injury, such as in sports medicine and physical therapy

Low-level laser therapy and percussor treatment is not used by every doctor.  In fact, there are many who do not yet know of the benefits of using low-level laser therapy.  Therefore, if you think you could benefit from this therapy, you should research a doctor in your area who specializes in low-level laser therapy.

Natural Ways To Strengthen A Fractured Bone

Question:

My 15-year-old son broke his collarbone five weeks ago. He was discharged from the fracture clinic this week and told he could run but not take part in any sport for eight weeks. He is a goalkeeper for a soccer team, and due for trails. Can you suggest anything to help the bone continue to strengthen, so that it won’t break again when he returns to the pitch?

Answer:

Bones form the skeletal system, which has a range of vital functions. They support muscles. which are attached to them, and enable us to move and stay upright. The yellow marrow of the bone stores minerals and lipids (fats). Both red and white blood cells are produced within the cavity of many bones. Bony structures such as the ribcage, skull, pelvic cradle and spinal column protect organs and some give leverage. Bone matrix (structure) consists of crystals of mineral salts such as calcium, phosphate and calcium carbonate, plus protein-based collagen fibres, which hold the minerals together. This makes bone strong, somewhat flexible and resistant to shattering.

Bones are involved in a constant dynamic process of degeneration and regeneration. The various cells include bone-making osteoblasts (which mature into osteocytes), and osteoblasts, which are involved in dissolving bone. As the bones break down, they release minerals which are carried in the blood to various sites -for example, calcium helps skeletal, heart and involuntary muscles to contract. Dissolved bone tissue is immediately replaced by new crystals derived from fresh blood coming into the bones via osteoblasts. Osteocytes provide enzymes that facilitate the ongoing turnover process.

Cuts, burns, bruises and fractures heal on their own, provided the blood supply to them is intact. The speed at which fractures recover also depends on the body’s own healing power, which is dependent on general health. After a fracture, the outer layer or bone surface, which is relatively inactive under normal conditions, becomes alive and forms a collar of cartilage and bone around the break This closes off the internal pan of the fracture where, with the participation of osteoblasts, cartilage and spongy bone tissue are formed. These develop into new bone matrix which consolidates the fractured area. Over a period of time the repair is total, and the newly haled area is even stronger than the original bone.

Normal bone growth and maintenance cannot take place without a constant supply of dietary calcium and phosphate salts. Other minerals such as magnesium, iron, fluoride and manganese are also required. Additionally, the hormone calcitrol, produced by the kidneys, is essential for normal calcium and phosphate ion absorption in the digestive tract. Calcitrol synthesis is dependent on vitamin D, which is either synthesised by the skin, when exposed to the sun, or absorbed from dietary sources. Vitamin C is also essential in bone repair, while vitamins A , K and B12 are necessary for synthesising proteins in bones. Vegans and strict vegetarians are lacking in fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K), which are found in animal proteins, so their bones tend to heal poorly.

When you have a fracture, you must refrain from strenuous work. Excessive activity or stress drains your energy and the body’s healing power suffers.

Here is my advice:

Nutrition

* Eat protein: eggs, fish, chicken and meat (preferably organic).

* Eat homemade chicken broth or marrowbone soup every other day for two months.

* For vegetarians, I suggest Dr Ali’s Protein Powder (Integrated Medical Centre,) one scoop twice daily for six months. Also, add one

teaspoonful of ghee (clarified butter, available from Asian grocery shops) to hot rice or mashed potato.

Supplements

* Take Bone and Joint Formula, one tablet daily for four months (lMC).

* Take Coral Calcium: soak two sachets in two litres of water and drink throughout the day for six months.

* Take Shilajit, one capsule daily for four months (lMC). This mineral, which is found in the higher Himalayas, contains calcium, zinc,  magnesium, iron and other components: ideal or boosting both energy and bone healing.

Cerebral Palsy Types – Ataxic and Spastic Palsy

The name cerebral comes from the two halves of the brain. The other name of this condition, palsy refers to any disorder that affects the body’s movement. Cerebral palsy conditions are all related to the areas of the brain that are associated with the motor systems that control body movement.

These areas have either been damaged or have been disturbed during their development and caused a disruption in the brain’s ability to control movement and posture. There are several palsy types that are characterized by poor coordination, poor balance and abnormal movement patterns.

Almost all cerebral palsy types are non-progressive except ataxic palsy, which is the most rare and most serious cerebral palsy type. This brain conditions cannot be cured, but it has been shown that through early diagnosis and treatment a child’s capabilities can be considerably improved. It has also been discovered that children suffering of a palsy type is most often than not suffering of other medical disorders like epilepsy, growth problems or even vision or hearing problems.

There are four main palsy types. The most common type is the Spastic cerebral palsy type that covers around 70 to 80 percent of the sufferers and it is characterized by stiffly and permanently contracted muscles. Another palsy type of condition is the Atheoid and it is manifested to about 10 to 20 percent of the sufferers. This condition is characterized by uncontrolled and slaw movements. The most serious cerebral palsy type is the Ataxic one.

The ataxic cerebral palsy is manifested to 5 to 10 percent of children with such disorders and it affects depth perception and balance. The mixed type is usually a mixture of two of the above-mentioned types, most commonly spastic and atheoid. The palsy can also be classified as monoplegic, diplegic, triplegic or quadriplegic, depending on the muscle groups affected.

Atheoid cerebral palsy – This palsy type represents about 10 to 20 percent of the cases of cerebral palsy and it should be noted that the percent used to be much higher. The most common causes of this brain condition would be hyperbilirubinemia or RH incompatibility between the mother and the infant.

The most visible dysfunctions caused by this cerebral palsy type are slow, irregular and involuntary movements that occur at the central line of the limb. Most children suffering from this type of palsy lack stability and symmetry. At children with atheoid cerebral palsy the proper support of the hips and trunk is crucial. It should be noted that these children have a perfectly normal brain development, but most of them have speaking problems because of the slowness in the muscles.

Ataxic cerebral palsy – This type of palsy is characterized by lack of balance and difficulty in performing coordinated voluntary movements. It is a rare form of cerebral palsy but it is very often found as a contributing aspect to other types of cerebral palsy. This condition results from damage to the cerebellum and it affects the limbs, trunk and even eyes. It is very common that children with ataxic cerebral palsy have an uncoordinated walk or gait.

Spastic Cerebral Palsy – This type of cerebral palsy is characterized by lack of control over the arms and legs. The muscles are permanently contracted and that is why movement is very difficult to perform. It is usual that the person suffering from this palsy type to experience pronounced resistance of the muscles after the movement was performed.

Mixed Palsy – This type of palsy is actually a mixture of the other types, its symptoms not fitting into a specific classification. The mixed palsy type usually manifests itself by different types of movement disorders. The most common combination is between the spastic and the atheoid types. In this case the brain has suffered damage in the cerebral cortex and the basal ganglia.

Bell’s Palsy: Sudden and Scary, But Treatable

Bell’s Palsy is named after a Sir Charles Bell, a Scottish surgeon who lived in the 19th century and who first recognized the disease. The main symptom of Bell’s Palsy is damage to one of the facial nerves, resulting in a temporary paralysis of the face. This symptom of Bell’s Palsy usually effects only one side of the face, and rarely both sides. The paralysis will occur suddenly, and damage will be apparent within two days.

What are other symptoms of Bell’s Palsy, besides paralysis? Some examples are twitching of the face, a drooping eyelid, and weakness, paralysis, or watery and teary eyes. Other existing symptoms could be dry eye, a lack of taste in the mouth, drooping of the side of the mouth, or drooling. After these symptoms of Bell’s Palsy appear, they can quickly progress to a point of facial paralysis, resulting in facial distortion.

What causes the symptoms of Bell’s Palsy(http://www.mitamins.com/disease/Bells-Palsy.html)? Most physicians pinpoint viral infections, which could come in different forms; for example, cold sore viruses (herpes simplex), or meningitis. The facial nerve becomes inflamed, swells up, and thus the symptoms of Bell’s Palsy appear. Much research has been conducted about this condition by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). This organization supports research throughout the United States through grants given to medical institutions. Much of this research has been focused on the symptoms of Bell’s Palsy, particularly on how nerve damage can be repaired. Understanding the symptoms of Bell’s Palsy could mean that effective treatments are soon to come.

Can Bell’s Palsy be alleviated naturally? One step to take with this condition is lowering blood pressure and blood sugar levels. Currently, no medicines exist in Western medicine that can alleviate the symptoms of Bell’s Palsy. There has been success in Bell’s Palsy treatment(http://www.mitamins.com/disease/Bells-Palsy.html), however, with Chinese traditional methods. Such Chinese traditional methods as acupuncture and cupping have been shown to have positive effects against the symptoms of Bell’s Palsy. Some herbal Chinese medicines have also been shown to be effective. Horse chestnut seed, traditionally used for all kinds of pain, including rheumatism and headaches, is a natural remedy that has shown promise in the natural treatment of Bell’s Palsy(http://www.mitamins.com/disease/Bells-Palsy.html).

Upon first observing the symptoms of Bell’s Palsy, it is very important to act quickly as symptoms can progress very rapidly. Symptoms of Bell’s Palsy may be able to be minimized with medical intervention.

Hernia -causes, Symptoms, Treatment

What is Hernia
A hernia is a protrusion of a tissue, structure, or part of an organ through the muscular tissue or the membrane by which it is normally contained. The hernia has three parts: the orifice through which it herniates, the hernial sac, and its contents.A hernia (rupture) is usually noticed as a lump, commonly in the groin or the umbilical region.It appears when a portion of the tissue which lines the abdominal cavity (peritoneum) breaks through a weakened area of the abdominal wall.

Causes of Hernia
Certain medical conditions. Having cystic fibrosis, a life-threatening disorder that causes severe lung damage and often a chronic cough, makes it more likely you’ll develop an inguinal herniaAnything that raises the pressure within the abdomen, such as heavy lifting (for example, weights or building materials), coughing, even straining on the toilet, can cause a weakness or tear in the abdominal wall.

Although abdominal hernias can be present at birth, others develop later in life. Some involve pathways formed during fetal development, existing openings in the abdominal cavity, or areas of abdominal wall weakness.

Sometimes, the intestines can get trapped in this muscular defect and cause umbilical pain and tenderness. This is called an incarcerated hernia and needs to be evaluated by a medical professional to prevent damage to the intestines.

Symptoms of Hernia
Upper endoscopy is more accurate than a barium swallow radiograph and may be performed in a hospital or a doctor’s office. The doctor may spray your throat to numb it and then, after lightly sedating you, will slide a thin, flexible plastic tube with a light and lens on the end called an endoscope down your throat. Acting as a tiny camera, the endoscope allows the doctor to see the surface of the esophagus and search for abnormalities.

A heavy feeling in the groin
Pain in the groin while standing or moving
Inguinal hernias appear as a bulge or swelling in the groin or scrotum. The swelling may be more noticeable when the baby cries, and may get smaller or go away when the baby relaxes. If your physician pushes gently on this bulge when the child is calm and lying down, it will usually get smaller or go back into the abdomen.

Hernia – Treatment

Laparoscopic hernia repair. Laparoscopic hernia repair is a newer method for repairing an inguinal hernia in adults. A surgeon inserts a thin, lighted scope through a small incision in the abdomen. Instruments to repair the hernia are inserted through other abdominal incisions.

Holding the hernia in by tape, bandages, or other means sometimes makes the person more comfortable but does not lower the risk of strangulation or allow the opening to close; therefore, these are not recommended treatments. Only umbilical hernias go away without treatment.

Newer hernia repair involves minimally invasive laparoscopic techniques. However, hernia operation with open techniques is still a valid option reaching the highest standards of care. Laparoscopic techniques of hernia repair are especially attractive when patients are dealing with recurrent hernias or bilateral inguinal hernias.

SKULL FRACTURES CAUSES,COMPLICATIONS AND TREATMENT

The first concern in a skull fracture is possible damage to the brain rather than the fracture itself; therefore, the injury is considered a neurosurgical condition. Signs and symptoms reflect the severity and extent of the head injury. Skull fractures may be simple (closed) or compound (open) and may displace bone fragments. They’re also described as linear, comminuted, or depressed.

A linear,or hairline, fracture doesn’t displace structures and seldom requires treatment. A comminuted fracture splinters or crushes the bone into several fragments. Adepressed fracture pushes the bone toward the brain; it’s considered serious only if it compresses or lacerates underlying structures. A child’s thin, elastic skull allowsa depression without a fracture.Skull fractures also are classified according to location, such as cranial vault or basilar. A basilar fracture occurs at the base of the skull and involves the cribriformplate and the frontal sinuses. Because of the danger of cranial nerve complications, dural tears, and meningitis, basilar fractures usually are far more serious thanvault fractures.

Causes

Like concussions and cerebral contusions or lacerations, skull fractures invariably result from a traumatic blow to the head. Motor vehicle crashes, bad falls, andsevere beatings (especially in children and elderly people) top the list of causes.

Complications

Skull fractures can lead to infection, intracerebral hemorrhage and hematoma, brain abscess, and increased intracranial pressure (ICP) from edema. A linear fractureacross a suture line in an infant increases the possibility of epidural hematoma.Recovery from the injury can be complicated by the residual effects of the injury, such as seizure disorders, hydrocephalus, and organic brain syndrome.

Assessment findings

The patient’s history—obtained from the patient, family members, eyewitnesses, or emergency personnel—reveals a traumatic injury to the skull. The patient mayhave lost consciousness and developed other neurologic changes. If conscious, he may complain of a persistent, localized headache. Assessment may reveal decreased pulse and respiratory rates as well as labored respirations. On inspection, a conscious patient with a linear fracture and aconcussion may appear dazed. If he has another type of skull fracture, he may appear anxious and, depending on his neurologic status, may have normal responsesor appear agitated and irritable.Because scalp wounds commonly accompany skull fractures, inspection of the scalp may reveal abrasions, contusions, lacerations, or avulsions. If the scalp waslacerated or torn away, you may note profuse bleeding. The patient, however, may be in shock from other injuries or from medullary failure if the head injury is severe.You’ll also note swelling and ecchymosis in the area of the injury, a sign that a fracture has occurred.Other findings on inspection may include bleeding in the nose, pharynx, or ears; under the conjunctivae; under the periorbital skin (raccoon’s eyes); and behind theeardrum. You may also observe Battle’s sign (postauricular ecchymosis).Inspection of the ears and nose may reveal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain tissue leakage. The halo sign—a blood-tinged spot surrounded by a lighter ringcaused by leakage of CSF—may also appear on the patient’s pillowcase or bed linens.Palpation of the head may reveal palpable fractures, areas of swelling and, possibly, hematoma. A vault fracture commonly causes soft-tissue swelling near the site,which makes the fracture difficult to detect without X-rays.During your neurologic assessment, you may observe altered level of consciousness (LOC) along with other classic signs and symptoms of brain injury. Theseinclude agitation and irritability, abnormal deep tendon reflexes, altered pupillary and motor responses, hemiparesis, dizziness, seizures, and projectile vomiting. Lossof consciousness may last for hours, days, weeks, or indefinitely. Keep in mind that linear fractures associated only with concussion don’t produce loss ofconsciousness.Your neurologic assessment also may reveal vision loss in a patient with a sphenoidal fracture, and unilateral hearing loss or facial paralysis in a patient with atemporal fracture.

Diagnostic tests

A computed tomography (CT) scan may locate the fracture. (Cranial vault fractures aren’t visible or palpable.) Reagent strips reveal the presence or absence of CSFin nasal or ear drainage. Cerebral angiography locates vascular disruptions from internal pressure or injury. Magnetic resonance imaging, a CT scan, and a radioisotope scan discloseintracranial hemorrhage from ruptured blood vessels.

Treatment

Although a simple linear skull fracture can tear an underlying blood vessel or cause a CSF leak, most linear fractures require only supportive treatment. Such treatment includes mild analgesics (acetaminophen) as well as cleaning, debriding, and suturing the wound after injection of a local anesthetic. Be sure to note thepatient’s coagulation time if he’s taking anticoagulants at home. An increased International Normalized Ratio (INR) may necessitate treatment with fresh frozenplasma.If the patient hasn’t lost consciousness, he should be observed in the emergency department for at least 4 hours. After this period, a patient with stable vital signs canbe discharged. He should receive an instruction sheet for 24 to 48 hours of observation at home. More severe vault fractures, especially depressed fractures, usually require a craniotomy to elevate or remove fragments that have been driven into the brain and toextract foreign bodies and necrotic tissue. This reduces the risk of infection and further brain damage.

Cranioplasty follows the use of tantalum mesh or acrylic platesto replace the removed skull section. The patient commonly requires antibiotics, tetanus prophylaxis, and (in profound hemorrhage) blood transfusions. The patientmay require sedating medication, such as Ativan (lorazepam) to help reduce seizures, or an anticonvulsant may be required.For status epilepticus, the patient may receive an anticonvulsant, usually 10 to 15 mg/kg of I.V. phenytoin sodium administered at a rate of not more than 50mg/minute. A maintenance dose should then be ordered to prevent the recurrence of seizures.A basilar fracture calls for immediate prophylactic antibiotics to prevent meningitis from CSF leaks. The patient also needs close observation for secondary hematomas and hemorrhages; surgery may be necessary. Also, a patient with either a basilar or a vault fracture requires I.V. or I.M. dexamethasone to reducecerebral edema and minimize brain tissue damage.

Bulging Lumbar Disc

Being fairly common in both young adults and older people, bulging disc can affect just about anyone. Most times they are not a cause for panic and are often discovered by accident while having another medical problem examined. Abnormalities, such as bulging or protruding discs, are seen at high rates on MRIs in patients both with and without back pain. Some discs most likely begin to bulge as a part of both the aging process and the degeneration process of the intervertebral disc. A bulging disc is not necessarily a sign that anything serious is happening to your spine.
It is time to consider the bulging disc serious once the bulging disc bulges enough to cause narrowing of the spinal canal. If there are bone spurs present on the facet joints behind the bulging disc, the combination may cause narrowing of the spinal canal in that area. This is sometimes referred to as segmental spinal stenosis. A lumbar bulging disc is a bulging disc that affects the lumbar spine region.
Each of the twenty four vertebrae in the spine is identified by a code. The lumbar region of the spine is where the low back officially begins. The lumbar region of the spine is directly below the cervical and thoracic regions and above the sacrum. The code that identifies the lumbar region of the spine is L1-L5 and is most frequently involved in back pain because it carries most of the bodies weight and is subject to the largest forces and stresses along the spine.
L1 is approximately where the true spinal cord ends. This is where it divides into many different nerve roots that travel to the lower body and legs. The cauda equina makes up this collection of nerve roots. Cauda equine means horse’s tail and describes the continuation of the nerve roots at the end of the spinal cord.
Intervertebral discs are flat, round structures that are about three quarters of an inch thick. Being made of tough outer rings of tissue called annulus fibrosis they can be found between each vertebra. The inside of the disc is filled with a soft white gel-like substance called the nucleus pulposus. Flat, circular plates of cartilage connect to the vertebrae above and below each disc. Intervertebral discs separate the vertebrae, but they act as shock absorbers for the spine. They compress when weight is put on them and spring back when the weight is removed.
Intervertebral discs make up about one-third of the length of the spine and constitute the largest organ in the body without its own blood supply. The discs receive their blood supply through movement as they soak up nutrients. The discs expand while at rest allowing them to soak up nutrient rich fluid. When this process is inhibited through repetitive movement, injury or poor posture, the discs become thinner and more prone to injury. This may be a cause of the gradual degeneration of the structure and function of the disc over time.

Trigeminal Neuralgia Treatment In India -Low Cost Trigeminal Neuralgia

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Trigeminal Neuralgia Treatment In India

Trigeminal Neuralgia

A Trigeminal neuralgia (TN), also called tic douloureux, is a condition that is characterized by intermittent, shooting pain in the face……

Causes of Trigeminal Neuralgia

  • Pressure of a blood vessel on the root of the trigeminal nerve.
  • Trigeminal neuralgia can occur as a result of aging, or it can be related to multiple sclerosis or a similar disorder that damages the myelin sheath protecting certain nerves
  • Pressure of a tumor on the trigeminal nerve (rare)……

Symptoms Symptoms of Trigeminal Neuralgia

The episodes of pain occur paroxysmally, or suddenly.The electric shock-like pain generally is on one side of the face and is spasmodic, coming in short bursts lasting a few seconds…..

Diagnosis of Trigeminal Neuralgia

Trigeminal neuralgia usually is diagnosed based on the patient’s description of the symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to determine whether a tumor or multiple sclerosis is irritating the trigeminal nerve…..

Treatment of Trigeminal Neuralgia

If medication fails to relieve pain or produces intolerable side effects such as excess fatigue, surgical treatment may be recommended. Several neurosurgical procedures are available….

There are five important neurosurgical procedures : –

  • Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS)
  • Radiofrequency electrocoagulation (RFE)
  • Glycerol injection (GLY)
  • Balloon microcompression (BMC)
  • Microvascular decompression (MVD)

All of these procedures treat the trigeminal nerve at around the same place, close to where it leaves the brain…..

We at We Care Health Services, India have a different approach towards medical tourism as opposed to our counterparts abroad. Our medical tourism process starts with suggesting, brokering and referring the patient to the selected hospital and doctor but does not end there. We have direct first name relationship with all the major doctors and surgeons in our partner hospitals in India. We actually service the patients while they are in India for the surgery / treatment. Our team of Clinical Coordinators and Patient Care Managers meet the patient daily, coordinate clinically and non clinically with the hospital doctors and staff to ensure smooth and trouble less care to the patients and their attendants…..

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We Care Core Values

We have a very simple business model that keeps you as the centre.

Having the industry’s most elaborate and exclusive Patient Care and Clinical Coordination teams stationed at each partner hospital, we provide you the smoothest and seamless care ever imagined. With a ratio of one Patient Care Manager to five patients our patient care standards are unmatched across the sub continent.

How Does A Pinched Nerve Cause Back Pain?

What is a pinched nerve and how does it cause back pain? We have all heard the term either from a doctor or friend. If like me you suffer from an aching back then you maybe a victim of a pinched nerve. All you know is it hurts! All you care about is finding a way to lose the pain. Hopefully this article will help.

A pinched or compressed nerve is what happens when a nerve is irritated because of an injury to the surrounding tissue. In the case of back and spinal conditions the problem is usually from a disc that has bulged out from the vertebrae and is pressing against the root of a spinal nerve. The medical term for this is condition is “radiculopathy”. Pressure on this nerve root can send pain radiated down the nerve. In my case a herniated disc in my lower back pressed against my sciatic nerve resulting in pain shooting all the way to my right foot. In addition to pain you may also experience tingling sensations, numbness and cold.

Is there a cure for a pinched nerve? The good news is yes! In most cases taking Tylenol or other over the counter medication, rest and an ice pack will relieve the pain. In more severe cases spinal injections and even surgery maybe necessary. However more and more doctors are recommending physical therapy and/or some form of exercise program in lieu of surgery.

But how do you prevent a pinched nerve? How do you lose the pain and get on with your life? Well the answer is to find a system that strengthens the back and abdominal muscles correcting muscle imbalance. One of the top rated programs is The Lose The Back Pain System developed by The Healthy Back Institute. This program has helped thousands to lose their back pain for good. The Lose The Back Pain System custom designs a program of specific movements and exercises tailored to your exact needs.

Complete Information on Congenital Torticollis

“Congenital” means a condition which is present at the birth. The congenital torticollis occurs or little time after to the birth. This is known as a torticollis muscular congenital. The congenital torticollis occurs when the muscle of neck to the top which races and towards the back of the neck of your baby (muscle of sternocleidomastoid) shortens itself. This reduces the head of your baby and with a side. The muscle can sometimes be stretched or torn during the birth of the baby. Causes of tear bleeding and inflating, and the fabric of scar replaces a part of the muscle, making it shorter.

The congenital torticollis are caused by a problem of bone in the part of neck of the spine (cervical spine). This is known like congenital malformation of the cervical spine. The symptoms of the congenital chin of torticollis moves to a shoulder, whereas the head inclines towards the opposite shoulder. Usually, the head inclines towards the line and the points of chin on the left, meaning the muscle on the good side is affected. You can note that your baby cannot move his head as well as other babies. You can also note a piece in the muscle of the neck of your baby. Your professional of health will examine your baby.

Your professional of health can also check the hips of your baby. Congenital is treated by the exercises which stretch the neck of your baby. You can also play with your baby in the manners which stretch the neck. If your baby does not improve after 2 to 3 months of drawing. There can be another problem, or the surgery can be necessary to stretch or lengthen the muscle of neck. The piece in the muscle usually goes far only. If the congenital torticollis is not caused by a shortened muscle of neck but by a cervical anomaly of spine, the anomaly of spine is sometimes manageable.

Clinical Analysis of Acute Laryngitis

Inflammation of the larynx may result from bacterial or viral infection or inhalation of irritant gases. Unaccustomed overuse of the voice leads to edema of the vocal cords. Laryngitis is characterized by hoarseness and loss of voice. Irritant nonproductive cough may be present. Treatment consists of rest to the voice, steam inhalations, avoidance of smoking, and administration of analgesics and antibodies. In many cases the condition is self-limiting with rest and analgesics.

Laryngeal paralysis
Paralysis of the vocal cords may be organic or functional. The abductors and the adductors and supplied by the recurrent laryngeal nerves which arise from the vagi. In organic paralysis the abductors, the tensors and the adductors are affected in order of sequence. The completely paralyzed vocal cord lies immobile midway between abduction and adduction (cadaveric position). Abductor paralysis is always organic in nature and it may be uni- or bilateral. On the other hand pure adductor paralysis is always bilateral and it is functional in nature. This is frequently seen in hysteria.

Causes of organic laryngeal paralysis
Involvement of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve is common in mediasternal tumors, aortic aneurysm and enlargement of the left atrium occurring in mitrial stenosis. One or other of the recurrent laryngeal nerves may be affected in the neck by enlargement of the cervical lymph nodes, goiter or other surgical causes. Paralysis of the vagus occurs in infective polyneuritis, diphtheria, fractures of the base of the skull or space occupying lesions in the posterior fossa. Vagal nuclei are affected in brainstem lesions. These include basilar artery insufficiency, bulbar poliomyelitis, motor neuron disease, syringobulbia and tumors.

Clinical features
Symptoms include hoarseness of voice, cough, alteration in the quality of the cough and dyspnea. Organic paralysis is accompanied by cough, whereas hysterical paralysis is not. In bilateral abductor paralysis, the cough is devoid of its explosive phase (“bovine cough”). In unilateral vocal cord paralysis, the hoarseness and loss of voice may disappear with time, since the opposite vocal cord crosses the midline and restores the vocal aperture. Laryngeal paralysis is confirmed by laryngoscopy.

Treatment
It is symptomatic. Bilateral abductor paralysis results in glottis obstruction and it is fatal if the airway is not established by tracheostomy or intubation. Persons with laryngeal paralysis should avoid swimming and diving, since they cannot hold breath and, therefore, they run the risk of drowning.

Laryngeal obstruction
Acute laryngeal obstruction may present as a fatal emergency unless relieved in time.
Causes
• Foreign bodies may get impacted in the larynx, eg, dentures, large chunks of meat of other foreign bodies, etc. Obstruction by bolus of food is more common in subjects intoxicated with alcohol. This is called “Café coronary”.
• Angioneurotic edema due to food, inhaled material or insect stings.
• Acute laryngitis and epiglottitis. This is especially common in infants. The organisms include H. Influenzae, pneumococcus or group A streptococcus. Irritant fumes like smoke, noxious chemicals or corrosives cause acute laryngeal edema.
• Chronic progressive obstruction occurs in carcinoma.

Clinical features
Stridor, aphonia and dysnea are the hallmarks of laryngeal obstruction. Acute obstruction in children leads to cyanosis and inspiratory indrawing of the trachea. The movement of a foreign body within the larynx may be palpable during respiratory efforts. When obstruction due to large bolus of food occurs at table, the victim becomes anxious, restless and cyanosed. He tries to cry, but the voice is lost. If the obstruction continues he falls unconscious and death may occur within minutes.

Diagnosis
Acute laryngeal obstruction should be suspected when an otherwise healthy individual suddenly becomes choked and cyanotic with loss of voice.

management
First aid consists of the removal of the foreign body manually or with a pair of tongs. The impacted foreign body can be dislodged by a sudden forcible thud on the chest with the head lowered.

Heimlich Manoeuvre
This effective method is to be learnt by all first aid teams. The patient is hugged from behind with the rescuer’s hands crossing each other over the patient’s epigastrium and the chest is compressed suddenly. This helps in dislodging the obstruction. If this fails, the airway should be made patent by tracheostomy or by inserting a few large-bore hypodermic needles in to the trachea. The patient is transported to hospital for further management. Further management of chronic obstruction depends upon the cause.

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How to Treat Sore Throat Naturally

Strep throat is inflammation of the throat, tonsils and lymph nodes due to infection with group A streptococcus bacteria. Strep throat is very common during the flu seasons and it can be preceded by mild symptoms such as runny nose, sneezing or cough. The incubation period of strep throat is around 3-5 days and most symptoms occur within this period of time. Common symptoms of strep throat are: throat inflammation and swelling, difficult swallowing, difficult breathing, mucus-producing cough, fatigue, body weakness, headache, nausea, poor appetite, enlargement of the lymph nodes and tonsils, excessive sweating and fever.

Remedies:

1.    Home remedies for strep throat that can act as antibiotics are garlic, honey, olive leaf extract and tea tree oil. Such home remedies for strep throat can help in fighting infection and inflammation, but medical treatment shouldn’t be ignored. In fact, most home remedies for strep throat should be used only in addition to medical treatment with antibiotics.

2.    If you have strep throat you should get a lot of rest and sleep because the body can recover while it’s rested. Hot tea and soup can do good to the irritated tissue inside the throat, and drinking a lot of water can relieve the pain when you swallow.

3.    Tonsillitis is an infection on the tonsil. Sometimes, a doctor will suggest a tonsillectomy, but more often than not, you can also help relieve the symptoms at home. Drink a mixture of lime juice, salt, and boiled water. This will help to ease some of the pain in your throat. Over the counter medications will also help with the fever, as well as the sore throat.

4.    A sore throat is usually the result of a chill. Milk, and milk products are harmful in such a condition. Take a glass of lukewarm water with a spoonful of honey in the morning and before sleep at night. Apply a cold compress to the throat and cover the compress with a woolen cloth. For a week take only bread, vegetables and fruits.

5.    An infusion of cardamom (preferably with cinnamon) is used as a gargle for the treatment of sore throat problems. This infusion is good even if the sore throat is cause due to a serious condition such as influenza; in fact the infusion helps to prevent the influenza itself.

6.    Usually a few gargle with a warm salt water solution will generally reduce any swelling and tends to relieve the discomfort that comes with sore throats. To be effective you should gargle at least one time every hour using one teaspoon of common table salt dissolved in approximately 8 ounces of warm water. In the event that you are bothered by postnasal drip you can safely gargle more often in order to prevent and additional throat irritation.

7.    Make up a big pot of chicken broth. Load it up with lots of garlic, onion, ginger and turmeric to help thin and expel the mucus from your system. This is one of the natural sore throat remedies that can comfort your soul, particularly if it reminds you of your grandmother’s home cooking!

Home Remedies For Tonsillitis

Tonsils play an important role in our body by preventing infection to enter our body. Even though many may tend to forget its importance but we can’t deny the facts. We always tend to think tonsils as the cause of disease instead of tonsillitis. Tonsillitis is the inflammation of tonsils which can be identified by red and swollen color. Tonsillitis problem can lead to ear infection which can lead to a serious problem.

Home Remedies for Tonsillitis

Adults can have soluble aspirins mixed with water. Add warm liquids to your diet as it may help to soothe your throat.

By mixing one teaspoon each of honey and lemon in warm water can make up for a warm liquid which would be very useful to provide some relief to your throat.

Avoid drinking carbonated drinks, alcohol and cigarettes which otherwise would further aggravate your tonsils problem.

You can make a mixture by mixing Echinacea and Goldenseal to treat tonsillitis. Make it into a tea, gargle as well as ingest it too.

It can also provide ample benefit by eating healthy diet of fruits as well as increase the intake of liquids.

You suffer from sore throat due to tonsillitis which can be treated by using some of the simple home remedies by eating betel leaves with mulathi at least 2-3 times a day.

Consuming garlic helps in providing relief to your tonsils due to its anti-inflammatory properties. It is also antibiotic which helps in providing the necessary healing touch.

Oregano a well-known herb used to give that extra tinge to your pizza helps in treating your tonsillitis. This herb is very useful in providing due to its antiseptic and stimulant properties.

Gargling two teaspoons of onion juice mixed with lukewarm is used to gargle which helps in curing the tonsillitis problem.

The dried leaves of Pudina (Mentha Arvensis) can be used in the same manner like the Onion Juice.

You can also helps yourself by mixing one teaspoon fresh ginger juice, one teaspoon honey with two teaspoon of lukewarm water to be gargled for the treatment of tonsillitis.

Haldi/Turmeric is an antibiotic which plays an important part in treating tonsillitis. One teaspoon turmeric powder mixed in one cup of lukewarm cow’s milk helps to alleviate the tonsillitis problem. It will show great results, if had every night.

Warning: The reader of this article should exercise all precautionary measures while following instructions on the home remedies from this article. Avoid using any of these products if you are allergic to it. The responsibility lies with the reader and not with the site or the writer.

Should Obesity be deemed a mental illness in the DSM-V?

Obesity is one of the major public health concerns facing developed and developing countries in the world. Since the turn of the twentieth century, health statistics shows that the prevalence of obesity and overweight has escalated owing to a number of factors including change in lifestyle patterns. In United States, it is estimated that more than a third of the entire population is obese.  It is currently estimated that about 32.2% of United States adults are obese and it is feared that the rates of obesity will escalate in the future going by recent trends.  Obesity has created public health fear because it is related to a number of conditions like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, high blood pressure, and other life threatening conditions.  It is also estimated that it costs United States between $70 and $100 billion every year to treat various conditions arising as result of obesity.  Obesity also reduces individual life by between 5 to 20 years which means rise in cases of obesity will come with devastating effects on the quality of life and life expectancy in the long run.  Although the government has put in place programs that are aimed at fighting obesity, it is should be noted that the prevalence of obesity continues in the backdrop of these strategies. Evaluating the increased cases of obesity, it has become necessary to reason whether these strategies are effective or is it that they are not reaching the targeted population. Obesity is not a problem to particular groups in the society since individuals across the social demographic divide are affected. Current strategies are targeting all groups in the society but they have done little to mitigate the pandemic. These are just few of the facts on obesity that are agitating the call for immediate measures to supplement the current one which are not very effective in fighting obesity.

Paragraph 2: It is well know that obesity is caused by increase in body weight due to excessive accumulation of fat. This means that current strategies have emphasized on the need to reduce body weight since this will be the only way that obesity can be reduced.  However, most of these interventions have flopped because they advocate for the wrong weight loss strategies.  It has been noted with concerns that most interventions to fight obesity are commercialized with means they are advocated by organizations wishing to reap big from the current pandemic. Standard interventions which are based on promoting weight loss through lifestyle changes with an aim of decreasing excessive food consumption and increase engagement in physical exercise are advocated in few campaigns but they are also difficult to sustain.  Although  there have been major intervention that are encompassed in social and  scientific processes in treating obesity and related conditions, morbidity from obesity and related disorders continue to increase due to failure of current strategies and intervention to sustain weight loss.

Paragraph 3: Failure of the above strategies has forced policy planners to go back to the drawing board and think of other strategies that can effectively deal with the pandemic. Great discrepancies that have been recorded between metabolic treatments of consequence of obesity and recorded failure to reverse obesity show that the condition goes beyond metabolic disorder.  Psychologist are reasoning why individuals, despite understanding the grave consequences that accompany obesity, continue to overindulge while engaging in less physical exercises.   In this regard, recent research has shown that there is psychological aspect of obesity which means that it is related to brain disorders.  This implies that consideration of the mental component of obesity can be an important step in treating obesity and facilitate individual compliance with interventions and minimize the relapse.  This means that obesity should be included in the DSM-V that is used in assessing mental disorders. DSM-IV recognizes the existence of eating disorders which bear mental component. It has been used to assess individuals who are suffering from eating disorders like anorexia and bulimia nervosa and in each case, it outline the symptoms of the conditions.  It recognizes that these disorders have severe mental impairment and comes with adverse effects but it does not recognize obesity although it has devastating mental and psychological consequences.  Recent researches show that a basic feature of obesity is compulsive food consumption that leads to failure to restrain from eating.  This symptom is parallel to DSM-IV criteria for substance abuse and dependence on drug, anorexia and bulimia nervosa, and binge eating, which implies that obesity shares feature with the current DSM-IV conditions.  This means that obesity should be included in DSM-V since it has similar symptomatic characteristics with most conditions that are in the current DSM-IV.

Paragraph 4: The main question for this study will be; should obesity be included in DSM-V? To prove that obesity should be included in the DSM-V, this study will prove that there is mental component in obesity.  First, this study will get a close understand of obesity and its prevalence. Second, the paper will look at the risk factors for obesity and factors that have compounded on society efforts to fight the condition. Third, it will review the conditions in DSM-IV and their characteristics.  Lastly, this paper will prove that obesity should in deed be included in DSM-V in light of facts gathered from the previous sections.

Defining obesity and its prevalence

Paragraph 5: Obesity is defined as increase in body weight. It is a medical condition that normally leads to increased body fat leading to increase in body weight beyond the normal ratio of body weight to height. Obese individuals have more than that 20% of recommended body weight. Obesity is different from being overweight and both can be differentiated through measurement of Body Mass Index which is a ratio of body weight and height squared.  Obesity defines BMI above 30 while individuals with BMI between 25 and 29.9 are considered to be overweight.

Paragraph 6: According to Haines and Neumark-Sztainer (2006) obesity is an eating disorder that is directed by unhealthy eating. They show that obesity has been on the rise in United States and more than two thirds of Americans are overweight with an estimated a third of this population being obese. Over the last three decades, the prevalence of obesity and has increased across the demographic divides with 15% of young between the age of 6 and 19 considered overweight.  Recent data shows that in all states, it was only Colorado that had less than 20% of its population obese. This means that most states in United States have more than 20% of their population obese. About 32 states showed prevalence of more than 25% and six states among these had prevalence more than 30% of the population.  On average, the 2008 data estimated that more than 26% of all adults in United States were obese and future projection show that if nothing is urgently done to reverse the trend, more than 41% of adults in United States will be obese by 2015. The number of obese adults in the country has continued to increase from 19.4% in 1997 to 26.6% in 2007.

Paragraph 7: Government statistics also shows that in the last two decades, the percentage of children between 6 and 11 years has more than tripled from 6.5% to 19.6%.  The percentage of teenagers who are obese has increased from 5% in 1980 to 18.1% in 2008. Obesity pandemic is also creeping in early childhood. Statistics shows that prevalence of obesity among children between 2 and 5 years has increased from 5.0% in 1980 to 12.4% in 2006.These statistics shows that the rate of obesity in the population is on the rise and unless something is done to reverse the trend, quality of life for most Americans will continue to deteriorate due to effects of the pandemic.

Paragraph 9: The main reason for having DSM is to provide criteria that can be used by healthcare professionals and the public in general to fight major conditions that are affecting the public. Although DSM has concentrated on mental disorders alone, it is important to consider that any condition that touches on life brings about mental conditions. This implies that with a condition like obesity that has eaten into the life of most Americans, it is important to include it in DSM-IV criteria due to the accompanying effects.

Risk factors for obesity and compounding social factors

Paragraph 10: There are many factors that lead to obesity.  Obesity results from interaction of different factors which can be related to genetics, culture, physical activities, emotional or psychological factors, gender, age, dieting, and medical problems.

Paragraph 11: Genetic factors have been identified as major factors leading to obesity.  Genes play an important role in the body by regulating body caloric intake and research studies have found out that individuals whose parents are obese are also likely to become obese. Research evidence shows that family history increases the chance of becoming obese by 25-30% although this depends on environmental predisposition. A recent research by Khamsi (2007) revealed that there is defective gene referred to as FTO, which is associated with 70% increase risk of obesity. Individuals with two defective copies of FTO genes were shown to be 3 kg heavier than average.

Paragraph 12: On the other hand, culture has been identified as another major factor that leads to obesity.  It has been identified that people learn how to eat and cook following patterns of family and community culture. While there are few individuals who can break this cycle, it is often postulated that cultural factors have a stronger influence on individuals eating patterns. There are social events which are centered on eating large meals which may encourage eating more than their body needs. The modern culture promotes eating habits that leads to obesity. It has become a common practice for families not to eat in their homes but most people prefer to eat out and mostly in fast food restaurants.  It has also become a modern culture to cook using butter, chocolate and other high caloric foods which are contributing to excessive intake of calories. There is a growing behavior of overeating even when individuals are not hungry owing to increased availability of food.

Paragraph 13: Increased food intake, coupled with physical inactivity has increased the risks for obesity. The modern patterns of life are devoid of chances for physical activities. Most Americans are not engaging in physical activities. The concept of ‘automobility’ means that people are driving even for a shorter distance. As a result people become overweight and it becomes difficult to engage in physical activities due to pain in joints and other problems.

Paragraph 14: There are many emotional and psychological factors that are making people to eat more and become obese. In modern American life, food has been taken as a solace when people are stressed.  Every time one feels down, one turns to food and as a result, they eat more and more without knowing that they are full. In addition, food has always been associated with celebration and this condition is compounded by trend toward consumption of fast food in these celebrations. There are a lot of significant memories that are attached to food even after weight loss and most people are not able to escape the cycles to go back to over eating again.