Gastritis – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Gastritis means inflammation of mucus lining of the stomach. It means that white blood cells move into the wall of the stomach as a response to some type of injury. Gastritis is a very troublesome disease and can give rise to many life threatening problems, if it is not treated in time.

The symptoms are discomfort, bloating, nausea and perhaps vomiting. The person may also have symptoms that suggest ulcers – burning or pain in the upper abdomen, usually occurring about an hour or so after meals or even during the night. The symptoms are often relieved temporarily by antacids, milk, or medications that reduce stomach acidity.

Causes

Infections with bacteria, viruses, or fungi can cause gastritis. Worldwide, the most common cause of gastritis is infection with Helicobacter pylori bacteria. Viral or fungal gastritis may develop in people who have had a prolonged illness or an impaired immune system, such as those who have AIDS or cancer or those who take immunosuppressant drugs.

Chronic gastritis may be caused by prolonged irritation from the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), infection with the bacteria Helicobacter pylori, pernicious anemia (an autoimmune disorder), degeneration of the lining of the stomach from age, or chronic bile reflux.

Other causes of gastritis include intake of caustic poisons, alcohol, and some medications (such as aspirin or adrenal corticosteroids), as well as physical stress from the flu, major surgery, severe burns, or injuries. For some people, a drug allergy or food poisoning can cause gastritis. Atrophic gastritis is a form of gastritis found particularly in the elderly, where stomach cells are destroyed, potentially leading to pernicious anemia.

Symptoms

The main symptoms of gastritis are loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, headache, and dizziness. There is pain and discomfort in the region of the stomach. Other symptoms are a coated tongue, foul breath, bad taste in the mouth, increased flow of saliva, scanty urination, a general feeling of uneasiness, and mental depression. In more chronic cases, the patient complaints of heartburn and a feeling of fullness in the abdomen, especially after meals.

Treatment

Treatment depends on the specific cause. Some of the causes will disappear over time. Medications to decrease stomach acid release may be recommended.

Treatment usually involves taking antacids to reduce stomach acid, and thereby help relieve symptoms and promote healing. Along with recommendations to avoid certain medicines foods or beverages.

Once the diagnosis of gastritis has been confirmed by a medical professional, treatment can begin. The choice of treatment depends to some extent on the cause of the gastritis. Some treatments target the exact cause of a particular type of gastritis. Most treatments aim at reducing symptoms. Your stomach often will heal over time if it is protected.

Generally, treatment for gastritis involves antacids and other medications aimed at reducing stomach acid, relieving symptoms, and promoting the healing of the stomach lining, as acid irritates the inflamed tissue.
Doctors use several different types of method to treat H. Pylori infection. Most use a combination of two antibiotics and a proton pump inhibitor. Sometimes bismuth (Pepto-Bismol) also is added to the mix. The antibiotic helps destroy the bacteria, and the acid blocker or proton pump inhibitor relieves pain and nausea, heals inflammation and may increase the antibiotic’s effectiveness.

Myocarditis – Definition, Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Myocarditis is an inflammation of the heart muscle. Myocarditis is collection of diseases of infectious, toxic, and autoimmune. Myocarditis may develop as a complication of an infectious disease, usually caused by a virus. It can occur in people of all ages and is diagnosed more often in men than in women. Myocarditis is likely caused by a wide variety of infectious organisms, autoimmune disorders, and exogenous agents, with genetic and environmental predisposition. Myocarditis is defined as inflammatory changes in the heart muscle and is characterized by myocyte necrosis. Many organisms can infect and injure the heart. Type B, a virus among those that usually infect the gastrointestinal tract, is believed to be the most common offending agent. Many other viruses, such as those of polio, rubella and influenza, have been associated with myocarditis. Myocarditis can occur as a rare complication of bacterial infections, including diphtheria, tuberculosis, typhoid fever, and tetanus. Other infectious organisms, such as rickettsiae and parasites, may also cause inflammation in the heart muscle.

Myocarditis is often associated with pericarditis, and many patients present with signs and symptoms that suggest concurrent myocarditis and pericarditis. Myocarditis can be caused by a variety of pathogens including bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Some people have an irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia) or trouble breathing. Usually, a mild case of myocarditis will go away without any lasting damage. Myocarditis can then cause heart failure (with symptoms of shortness of breath, fatigue, fluid accumulation in the lungs, etc.) as well as heart rhythm irregularities from inflammation and/or scarring of the electrical system of the heart. Most cases of myocarditis are subclinical; therefore, the patient rarely seeks medical attention during acute illness. These subclinical cases may have transient ECG abnormalities. Certain chemicals. These may include substances such as arsenic and hydrocarbons. Medications that may cause an allergic or toxic reaction. These include antibiotics such as penicillin and sulfonamide drugs, as well as some illegal substances, such as cocaine.

Myocarditis may start as a flu-like illness that lingers longer than the usual several days. In series of routine autopsies, 1–9% of all patients had evidence of myocardial inflammation. In young adults, up to 20% of all cases of sudden death are due to myocarditis. In South America, Chagas’ disease (caused by Trypanosoma cruzi) is the main cause of myocarditis. As most viral infections cannot be treated with directed therapy, symptomatic treatment is the only form of therapy for those forms of myocarditis, e.g. NSAIDs for the inflammatory component and diuretics and/or inotropes for ventricular failure. ACE inhibitor therapy may aid in the healing process. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, such as enalapril (Vasotec), captopril (Capoten), lisinopril (Zestril, Prinivil) and ramipril (Altace). Beta blockers such as metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL) and carvedilol (Coreg). Diuretics and Digoxin (Digitek, Lanoxin), which increases the strength of your heart muscle contractions and tends to slow the heartbeat.

Treatment for Myocarditis Tips

1. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, such as enalapril (Vasotec), captopril (Capoten), lisinopril (Zestril, Prinivil) and ramipril (Altace).

2. Beta blockers such as metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL) and carvedilol (Coreg).

3. Digoxin (Digitek, Lanoxin), which increases the strength of your heart muscle contractions and tends to slow the heartbeat.

4. NSAIDs for the inflammatory component and diuretics and/or inotropes for ventricular failure.

5. ACE inhibitor therapy may aid in the healing process.

6. Diuretics such as furosemide (Lasix) .

7. Use of a temporary artificial heart (assist device).

Home Remedies for Swelling Feet – Herbal and Natural Remedies

Swelling feet is a common problem that anybody can face. Sometimes it may accompany with pain and can affect your normal routines. So to get relief from foot pain and swelling feet this article has focused on the causes and home remedies for swelling feet.

Causes of Swelling Feet

There are few causes of swelling and pain in the feet, arthritis is most common cause for swelling feet. The common symptom of arthritis is joint inflammation. Swelling in joints, stiffness in joints, restricted mobility in joints and redness are the reason for arthritis. Frostbite is another cause of swelling feet. Swelling of the hands and feet or other areas of the body can occur due to abnormal kidney function, kidney diseases, congestive heart failure, protein deficiency, cancer, or sodium retention. Pregnancy, standing for prolonged periods of time, premenstrual syndrome, an injury, oral contraceptives, low thyroid, anemia and deficiencies of potassium and vitamin B, or allergic reactions are the other reasons for swelling feet.

Swelling foot is really annoying, painful and even prevents you from doing your daily tasks. It is recommended to get a proper medical check-up because swelling foot can be a symptom of various serious medical conditions like arthritis and nerve circulatory problem.

Home Remedies for Swelling Feet

There are several home treatments that are very helpful to get you relief from swelling of the feet. Few of them are discussed as below –

– Hot and cold water massage gives tremendous relief from swelling. It is one of the best home remedies for swelling feet.

– Water has therapeutic benefits for swelling feet. It helps in relieving the pain and swelling from your feet without any fear of side effects.

– Soaking your feet in lukewarm water followed by a gentle massage using cream or lotion is very helpful relief for foot pain or swelling feet.

– Stretching and foot exercise is very effective home remedies for swelling feet. There are some good foot exercises and stretching that you can do as a relief for foot pain.

– Avoid high heels and don’t put a lot of pressure on your feet.

– Wear shoes that fit properly – size, shape and comfort are very important factor in selecting shoe.

– Apply mixture of lemon juice, cinnamon, olive oil, water and milk.

– Apply mixture of peppermint essential oil, water, eucalyptus essential oil and lemon essential oil. It is an effective home remedies for swelling feet and can be done anytime as all the ingredients are available at home all the time.

– Baking powder, rice water with water – Rice water is very good for improving micro circulation.

– A tea tree oil foot soak can also give you relief from foot pain and swelling of the feet.

– Lavender bubble baths and foot massage –It has a wonderful ingredient for your feet.

– Sandalwood oil massage – It has a soothing effect.

Disclaimer: This article is not meant to provide health advice and is for general information only. Always seek the insights of a qualified health professional before embarking on any health program.

Mitral Valve Prolapse: Causes, Complications, And Treatment

Blood returns to your heart from every part of your body. It flows into the organ’s right side through the vena cavae. It leaves the right side and travels to your lungs where it is replenished with oxygen. Newly enriched with oxygen, blood flows into your heart’s left side before leaving the organ in order to be circulated throughout your body.

Your mitral valve (MV) is one of four valves that help regulate the flow of your blood as it moves through your heart. It is located between your left atrium (one of two upper chambers) and left ventricle (one of two lower chambers). This particular valve can experience problems that affect the flow of blood between these two chambers. One such problem is called mitral valve prolapse (MVP).

In this article, we’ll provide a brief overview regarding the causes and potential complications of MVP. We’ll also explain how mitral valve repair addresses the disorder.

Possible Causes Of The Disorder

If the MV is working as it should, its two leaflets (or, flaps) close after blood flows through it into your left ventricle. When the leaflets close, the opening becomes sealed, thereby preventing blood from flowing back into your left atrium. With prolapse, one of the two leaflets is too large and bulges back into the atrium whenever your heart beats. As a result, the opening between your atrium and ventricle does not seal off properly. Blood is allowed to flow back into the upper chamber.

The causes of MVP are unknown, though experts have speculated the disorder is related to Marfan syndrome (a condition in which your body’s connective tissue is irregular). Other possible causes include a specific type of kidney disease and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Often, patients are born with a “floppy” mitral valve.

Potential Complications That Can Arise

Prolapse may be severe or minor. Most patients who have the disorder suffer few if any symptoms. That said, when the condition is severe, it can cause a number of complications, especially in those who are older.

The most common byproduct of prolapse is regurgitation. This is a condition, as already described, in which blood flows from your left ventricle into your left atrium because the opening is not properly sealed. In severe cases of regurgitation, you may be exposed to potential heart failure.

Another side effect of prolapse is an arrhythmia. There is far less danger inherent with arrhythmias than a severely regurgitant mitral valve, though your doctor will probably want to monitor it over time.

Prolapse can also lead to endocarditis. This is an infection of your endocardium, a membrane that forms a lining between your heart’s chambers and valves. MVP may allow bacteria to infect this lining.

How Is The Disorder Treated?

Depending on the severity of the condition, your doctor may prescribe one or more medications to treat the symptoms. For example, beta blockers can help reduce an arrhythmia while aspirin and anticoagulants can help prevent the formation of blood clots.

For patients who are suffering from severe MVP, surgery may be necessary to correct the disorder. A surgeon can either choose to repair the malfunctioning mitral valve or replace it. The latter approach is usually reserved for circumstances in which mitral valve repair is not feasible. If surgery is possible, the surgeon may perform a triangular resection or chordal transfer, depending on which of the two leaflets is abnormal.

Open heart surgery was once necessary to perform mitral valve repair. Today, a minimally invasive approach is commonly taken. There is less postoperative pain and a faster recovery period. If you suffer from a malfunctioning mitral valve that is causing severe problems, ask your physician whether a triangular resection or chordal transfer is an option.

Coronary Artery Anatomy as related to EKG Interpretation

Patients undergoing Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA) are at an increased risk of coronary artery occlusion related to clot formation (thrombosis) or plaque rupture, especially in the acute period after procedure. It is imperative that individuals providing care for this patient population are knowledgeable in reading EKG’s and are able to correlate EKG changes with acute coronary artery occlusions and / or spasms.

When a patient presents with chest pain, pressure, tightness, shortness of breath or other related symptoms status post PTCA, a STAT EKG should be ordered. When caring for a patient post PTCA, is important to know which coronary artery was ballooned and/or stented and be able to identify the EKG leads which reflect those coronary arteries.

The best way to learn how the EKG reflects the coronary anatomy is to take a systematic approach.  Think about where the EKG leads are placed on the patient’s chest and visualize the heart within the chest.  This article assumes that the reader already knows how to read an EKG strip and understands what the P, Q, R, S and T represent on the EKG.

The limb leads are I, II and III. Lead I is between the right arm and left arm; Lead II is between the right arm and left leg; Lead III is between the left arm and left leg.

            The precordial leads are V1- V6. V1 is the fourth intercostal space to the right of the septum; V2 is the fourth intercostal space to the left of the sternum; V3 is directly between leads V2 and V4; V4 is the fifth intercostal space at midclavicular line; V5 is at the same level as V4 but at the left anterior axillary line; V6 is level with V5 but is at the midaxillary line.

The right coronary artery (RCA) provides oxygen supply to the inferior portion of the heart. Therefore, it is leads II, III, and aVf that reflect this artery.

            Next let’s look at the anterior and septal leads. These are V1 , V2, V3 and V4. These leads lay directly over the anterior and anterioseptal area of the heart.  The left anterior descending artery (LAD) lies down the front of the heart, providing the septal and anterior walls with oxygen. Leads V1 and V2 reflect the LAD and septum. The LAD and diagonal branches are reflected in the EKG leads V3 and V4.

            The lateral wall is exactly that. The part of the heart that faces the lateral part of the chest wall. This area is reflected in the leads V5 and V6, I and aVL. These leads reflect the circumflex artery.

            Myocardial ischemia and injury are reversible (2). This is due to an increase in demand, or a decrease in supply of oxygen (2).  An acute MI will have the following progression: Tall T waves in the first few minutes; ST elevation or T wave inversion in the first hour(s); possibly pathologic Q waves in the hours after onset; Q waves remain and ST and T waves return to normal in the days following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) (2).

            Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) must be 1 mm in the inferior leads and 2 mm in the anterior leads (2).  There MUST always be a presence of ST elevation in 2 or more contiguous leads (2).

By definition, a myocardial injury has ST segment elevation of at least one mm above the baseline (1). Other signs may be: straightening of the ST segment that slopes up to the peak of the T wave without any time spent at baseline; tall, peaked T waves; or symmetric T wave inversion (1).

            Myocardial ischemia has a classic pattern of T-wave inversion (1). The ST segment may be depressed 0.5 mm or more below baseline, or the ST segment may remain at baseline longer than 0.12 seconds, or from a sharp angle with the upright T wave (1). The EKG may also present tall, wide-based T waves and inverted U waves.

            A myocardial infarction (MI) may present with the development of Q waves on the EKG in the leads reflecting the affected coronary artery (1). Decreased R-wave amplitude, ST segment depression and T-wave inversion are also sometimes noted on the EKG (1).

References

1        Microsoft Power Point – The NEW 12-Lead ECG. Retrieved from www.wccems.com/Files/12_Lead_ECGs.pdf on June 15, 2010.

2        www.ambulancetechnicianstudy.co.uk/ecgbasics.html Ambulance Technician Study : ECG Basics. Retrieved June 15, 2010.

Heart Attacks and Benefits of Drinking Warm Water

It is always fine to have a cup of chilly drink after a meal. However, the chilly water will solidify the oily material that you have just eaten. It will certainly slow down the process of digestion. Once this “sludge” responds with the acid, it will break down and be engrossed by the intestine quicker than the solid food and it will line the intestine. Soon, this will turn into fats and may direct to cancer.

Therefore, it is greatest to drink hot soup or warm water after each meal. A serious note about heart attacks – You should know that not every heart attack symptom is going to be the left arm hurting. Be aware of intense pain in the jaw line. You may never have the first chest pain during the course of a heart attack. Nausea and intense sweating are also common symptoms. 60% of people who have a heart attack while they are asleep do not wake up.

Pain in the jaw can wake you from a sound sleep. Let’s be careful and be aware. The more we know, the better chance we could survive. A cardiologist says if everyone who reads this message sends it to 10 people, you can be sure that we’ll save at least one life. Read this & Send the link to a friend. It could save a life. So, please be a true friend and send this article to all your friends you care about. Some people say that it is just an old myth to drink warm water to prevent heart attacks and I’d also like to point out that snopes.com declares this information as an urban myth and many other people agree that cold water is not related to cancer or heart attacks in any way.

So, I have no idea if this is true and there is no research to support this theory however I still wanted to share this information about “heart attacks and drinking warm water” with all of you because its always better to be safe than to be sorry. Heart Attack Information A heart attack occurs when the blood flow to a part of the heart is suddenly and permanently cut off, causing permanent damage to the heart muscle. Chest pain is typically severe and does not go away with rest or medicine that is effective with angina. Symptoms may indicate your heart is in danger many months or years before a heart attack occur.

Persistent symptoms, such as shortness of breath, nausea, great fatigue, angina/chest pain, fainting spells and gas-like discomfort, are red flags.

• 1 in 3 matures, both male and female, has some form of cardiovascular disease.

• In 90% of adult sufferers of sudden cardiac death, two or more chief coronary arteries are narrowed or blocked.

• Brain death and everlasting death start to occur in just 4-6 minutes after someone experiences cardiac arrest.

• It is in the early or initial stage that the heart disease is almost certainly curable.

• The brain and heart muscles are the ones which cannot be revived once dead.

• For a huge number of patients, the first and only indication of heart disease is a lethal heart attack. Thus diagnosis becomes tremendously important for everyone and that also pre-emptive and non-invasive.

Ischemic Heart Diseases

Ischemic heart diseases, Ischaemic heart disease or Myocardial ischaemia, is a heart disease that is defined as reduced blood supply of the heart muscle. This is usually caused by coronary artery disease or the atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries.

The possibility of acquiring Ischemic heart diseases is heightened as you age. Smoking, diabetes, hypertension or high blood pressure, and hypercholesterolaemia or high cholesterol levels are also other factors. Those with a family history of ischemic heart disease are also more susceptible.

According to statistics, men are also more common victims of this disease.

Ischemic heart disease is the most common cause of death for men and women in many industrialized countries, including the United States. It does not depend on age although it is most common among older persons.

What are the Symptoms of Ischemic Heart Disease?

Chest pain or exertion and a lesser tolerance to exercise are two of the symptoms of stable ischemic heart disease.

Unstable Ischemic heart disease also has chest pain symptoms but it worsens much quicker.

In general, the symptoms are as follows:

• Acute chest pain such as unstable angina, acute coronary syndrome, or myocardial infarction which is the heart attack, a most severe chest pain that cannot be relieved by resting.

• Angina pectoris or chest pain due to exertion such as emotional situations or unstable weather. If the chest pains are predictable, meaning they occur during particular levels of exertion, then there are a variety of cardiac stress tests that can be implemented to detect the disease.

• Heart failure, which is characterized by the difficulty in breathing or the swelling of the extremities because of weak heart muscles.

Through a person’s medical history, it can be identified among a variety of causes when it comes to chest pain. It could be dyspepsia, pulmonary embolism, or musculoskeletal pain.

How do you become diagnosed with having Ischemic Heart Disease?

Basically you will need to have an X-ray of your chest and blood tests. To be accurate, you are diagnosed with the use of an electrocardiogram, cardiac stress testing, cardiac markers, or a coronary angiogram.

The medical and family histories of the person are recorded, as well as risk factors such as age, sex, hypertension, cholesterol levels, and blood sugar levels.

Treatment will depend on the type of risk as well as the symptoms experienced. Treatment methods could be through medication, coronary artery bypass surgery or CABG or angioplasty (percutaneous coronary intervention).

How do you prevent Ischemic heart diseases?

There are a variety of treatments that are available to those who have a high risk of coronary artery disease, which leads to Ischemic heart disease. One of these is to control the cholesterol levels to those who are diagnosed to have high cholesterol. Smoking needs to be stopped as well. Relaxation and distressing are important as well because high blood pressure needs to be controlled.

Proper diet and exercise are vital when it comes to preventing not only Ischemic heart diseases but many other diseases as well.

Tuberculosis

Mycobacterium tuberculosis was observed by Robert Koch in 1882, who discovered the staining technique to see the bacterium.

In 1943, Selman A Waksman found the antibiotic effective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Streptomycin purified from streptomyces grieseus was administered to human in 1944.

Drug resistance in TB occurred as a result of tubercle bacillus mutations. Soon the resistant mutants appeared, prooving the antibiotic therapy unsuccessful. Therefore combination of drugs were used to solve the problem of antibiotic resisitance.

Multidrug reisistant tuberculosis– MDR TB is TB that is resisitant to atleast two of the best anti TB drugs, isoniazed and rifamycin which are called first line drugs.

Extensively drug resistant TB is defined as TB which is resistant to isoniazed and rifamycin plus resisitant to any fluoroquinolone and atleast one of three injectable second line drugs(amikacin, kanamycin or capreomycin.

MDR-TB varies from patients to patients.

Antibiotics such as para-aminosalicyclic acid  and streptomycin have been in use for more than 50 years.

Patients are required to take upto 15 pills a day, plus daily injections, for atleast six months.

Medical treatment is lengthy and protection through vaccination is today, as before is insufficient.

Every year nearly two million people die from the disease. The bacterium that cause TB are spread in airborne droplets when people with disease cough or sneeze.

TB is considered lung disease however it can attack other parts of body such as kidneys or the brain.

TB is highly contagious and is spread through air.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is resisitant to disinfectants, desiccation and are difficult to stain with water based stain such as Gram.

Infection with tubercle bacillus is characterised by the formation of tubercles, hard nodules in the lungs when Mycobacterium tubercle enters the lungs the macrophages engulf the pathogen but are unable to digest the bacteria due to it’s waxy mycolic acid cell wall.

Mycobacteria begin to multiply within the macrophages, eventually killing the macrophages that protect the host.

The cycle continues as the bacteria released from dead macrophages are then engulfed by other macrophages.

The infected macrophages result in inflammatory response(heat, swelling, dilated capillaries)

The cells at the centre of the tubercle may eventually die, producing either an area of necrosis or an actual cavity.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis can be differentiated from most other mycobacteria by the production of niacin.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a Gram positive aerobic mycobacterium that divides every 16-20 hours. This is extremely slow as compared to other bacteria which tend to have division times measured in minutes(for example Ecoli can divide roughly every 20 minute.)

Mycobacterium tuberculosis are grown on lowenstein jensen media. Middlebrook media are used for faster culture.

Bacteria can takes weeks to grow on culture media.

The Polymerase chain reaction is the rapid method which provides results within hours from specimen of the patients.

TB refers only to disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Similar disease ocassionally result from M.bovis,M africanum, M.microti.

TB of tonsils, lymph node, abdominal organs, bones and joints was once commonly caused by ingestion of milk infected with M. bovis but such infection is largely eradicated in developed countries by slaughtering cows that test positive.

Cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis contains peptidoglycan and complex lipids. 60% of the cell wall is lipid. The lipid fraction consisit of mycolic acid, cord factor and wax D.

Mycolic acid are hydrophobic molecules that affect permeability properties at cell surface.

Mycolic acid prevent attack of the Mycobacteria by cationic proteins, lysozyme and oxygen radicals in phagocytic granule.

Cord factor is toxic to mammalian cells.

Lipids cause resistance to many antibiotics and killing by acidic and alkaline compounds and resistance to lethal oxidation and survival inside the macrophages.

Mycolic acid give rigid cell shape to the bacteria.

The type of mycolic acid can be used to distinguish different Mycobacteria.

Mycolic acid isolated from Mycobacteria are called eumycolic acids which have elevated 60-90 carbon atoms.

Mycolic acids are complex hydroxylated branched chain fatty acids with elevated carbon numbers.

They may also contain diverse functional groups such as methoxy, keto, epoxy ester group and cyclopropane ring.

Mycolic acids containing a methoxy group with double bond or cyclopropane ring are known as methoxymycolic acids.

Mycolic acids containing an a methyl-branched ketone are known as ketomycolic acids and those containing an a-methyl-branch epoxide as epoxymycolic acids.

Mycolic acid known as wax esters contain a double bond or a cyclopropane ring and an internal ester group.

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Fort Worth: New Growth, Great Investment

Fort Worth, Texas has a lot of things going for it; a brisk economy, a comparatively low cost of living, a diverse business environment, an outstanding education system, and affordable real estate, all wrapped up in a fantastic temperate climate and an easy going, friendly community feel. Fort Worth continues to be ranked among the top places in the nation to live and do business.

Downtown Fort Worth is alive with new real estate developments due largely to major corporations which supply the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex with jobs. Major employers in the area include Lockheed Martin Tactical Aircraft Systems, American Airlines, Bell Helicopter Textron, Radio Shack Corporation, SABRE and Pier 1 Imports. This job growth is far outpacing the rest of the nation, even with the slowdown in new jobs as compared to last year.

Fort Worth real estate may not have experienced the same price gains in past years as the rest of the nation, but Fort Worth did see modest gains in properties during that same period. Conceivably, it could be this slower, steady growth that protected the Fort Worth housing market from the national adjustment that is currently underway. Fort Worth real estate prices continue to remain steady or show slight gains while the rest of the county’s home prices are continuing to fall.

While most parts of the nation are experiencing a drop in consumer spending, driven in part by homeowners becoming overextended on home loans and other debt, the Fort Worth is still enjoying vigorous consumer spending.

Not only is the Fort Worth area experiencing a growth in new jobs and bringing an influx of new residents, but the commercial sectors remain strong as well. So whether you’re looking to buy a home or set up a retail or industrial property, there is growth in almost every aspect of the Fort Worth real estate market. In fact the Fort Worth is so strong right now compared to the rest of the nation, it is making news in many overseas markets as a prime investment opportunity.

Perhaps one of the most favorable aspects of Fort Worth homes for sale is the relative affordability compared to the median income. The median home price in Fort Worth compared to that in other major metropolitan areas is still very much in line with the median income, making Fort Worth one of the most affordable communities in the country in which to live. Whether you are looking to buy or lease commercial real estate, wish to purchase a home, or are interested in one of the many Fort Worth condos for sale, activity in all areas of the real estate market is active.

This continued upswing in employment and the affordable housing market are combining to set Fort Worth up for an incredible boom over the next decade, not only in population, but in economic growth as well. It is predicted that Fort Worth will experience some of the biggest growth and greatest prosperity in the nation, which makes this a prime time to invest in Fort Worth real estate.

Fast Facts On Cyberknife Treatment For Inoperable Tumors

A cancer tumor is more than just an abnormal cell growth. It can be deadly. In fact, millions of people who had it already died, and millions more are presently suffering from severe forms of it.

In this page, you will be learning more about cancer tumors and its symptoms. You will also learn about the different treatment interventions that are being utilized to manage them, including the cyberknife treatment for inoperable tumors.

What is a cancer tumor?

It develops through an abnormal mutation of a normal cell or group of cells. The process can be brought about by several factors, like genetics, poor diet, sedentary lifestyle, smoking, stress, and the environment.

It was believe that a person already has cancer cells from the moment he was born, and these become dormant as he grows. However, if he is exposed to the risk factors that were mentioned earlier, these cancer cells will be activated and they can grow into a tumor that will impede normal body processes and caused a lot of symptoms.

The symptoms vary, depending on the site of the tumor growth. If it developed on the intestines, the person will probably experience severe forms of diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloody stools, and malnutrition. If it developed in the larynx, it will be difficult for the person to speak, and he will experience severe throat pain and infections.

What are the treatments for cancer tumors?

Medical science has discovered several treatment modalities to manage cancer tumors. These interventions can either reduce the size of the tumor or totally remove it from the human body.

Chemotherapy. The use of cancer drugs that are being administered orally or intravenously. These drugs are powerful enough to eliminate cancer cells.

Surgery. The removal of the cancer tumor through surgical procedures. It is an invasive procedure, in which skin integrity is broken.

Radiation Therapy. The use of radiation to remove cancerous tumors.

These treatment modalities can be used alone or in combination. They are only being performed by medical doctors or surgeons who have specialized in cancer treatment.

What if these treatment modalities failed?

There are some cases that surgery cannot completely remove all the cancer cells. That is why the doctor will have to decide to use either chemotherapy or radiation therapy to totally eradicate the remaining cancer cells.

Cyberknife treatment for inoperable tumors is one option. It uses low frequency gamma rays to completely eliminate the cancer cells. What is good about this procedure is that it does not involve a break in the skin layers, unlike in surgery. It is also a painless procedure and it has a higher success rate.

This procedure is done in clinics or radiation centers that contain a complete set-up for energy-emission treatment. It is usually being performed with a guidance of an X-ray procedure, so that gamma rays are well monitored. They should be targeted directly towards the tumor and not on healthy cells.

Colorado Cyberknife is one of the advanced centers that utilizes cyberknife treatment for inoperable tumors. It incorporates state-of-the-art facilities and results of research studies on radiation therapy to the procedure.

What is Pneumonia?

Pneumonia is an infection caused by viruses, bacteria, and fungi which affects the human lungs. Pneumonia is a contagious disease and it can spread in the air. By breathing other healthy people bring the germ into their lungs and most of them develop the illness. Sometimes there appear epidemics inside small collectivities.

In healthy individuals, the body is fighting with the bacteria to stop it infect the lungs. This response to the germ activity is called inflammation. An inflammation can occur in the alveoli and makes them fill with fluid, and so the lungs do not function properly any more, they do not give oxygen to the blood or take carbon dioxide from it like they use to do. This causes the breathing problems you have during pneumonia. Other symptoms given by pneumonia are: fever, muscle aches, chest pain, and fatigue.

Symptoms like these can be given also by other diseases like acute bronchitis and only a thoracic X-ray can tell them apart.

Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the most frequent bacterium that leads to pneumonia. Other bacteria involved in the turn up of pneumonia are: Haemophilus influenzae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila.

Pneumonia can be caught from the air, if you inhale small particles of infected sputum or saliva from other people, or if the air conditioner was not cleaned properly. One can get pneumonia easier then other if it has a weakened immune system.

Doctors have classified pneumonia in two types: typical and atypical.
The typical pneumonia gives high grade fever, chills, and cough with yellow or greenish sputum, breathing problems, fatigue, and chest pains.

The atypical pneumonia gives you milder symptoms then the typical one and generally occurs if you have suffered from other illnesses during the last few weeks: low grade fewer, fatigue, abdominal pain, headaches, joint pain.

Pneumonia generally occurs at those who have a weakened immune system, like children, old people and those who have other diseases (HIV, organ transplanted people, cancer, chemotherapy). Smoking, drinking alcohol, working in cold places are also factors of risk.

A check up is indicated when you have some of these symptoms, so that the doctor could fast apply the necessary treatment and spare you from other complications that might occur if you leave pneumonia untreated. Hospitalizing is necessary when you have severe symptoms of pneumonia and so, a drastic treatment must be applied, with bed rest, antibiotic drugs in order to cure the disease faster.

Great resources can be found regarding pneumonia symptoms, pneumonia vaccine and many moreby visiting http://www.pneumonia-center.com/

all the pleurisy symptoms

The main symptom of pleurisy is a sharp or stabbing pain in your chest that gets worse when you breathe in deep or cough or sneeze.

The pain may stay in one post or it may distribute to your shoulders or back. Sometimes the hurting gets a fairly constant dull aching.

Depending on what’s having the pleurisy, you may have other symptoms, such as :.

* Shortness of breath or speedy, shallow external respiration .
* Coughing.
* Fever and palls.
* Unexplained weight loss.

Pneumothorax.

The symptoms of pneumothorax admit :.

* Sudden, sharp chest pain that gets worse when you breathe in deep or cough.
* Shortness of breath.
* Chest tautness.
* Easy fatigue ( fatigue ).
* A rapid heart rate.
* A blue shade to the skin induced by lack of oxygen .

Other symptoms of pneumothorax let in flaring of the nostrils ; anxiety, stress , and tautness ; and hypotension (low blood pressure).

Pleurisy Symptoms in Adults.

Given below are some pleurisy symptoms.

* One of the most common symptoms of pleuritis is a sharp, jabbing pain that can be experienced while taking deep breaths. It is usually preceded by a burning esthesis or dull ache in the area bordering the lungs.
* The color of the tegument around the chest turns blueish in color which is known as cyanosis.
* Pleurisy symptoms and back hurting are closely associated , along with a cutting wizard in the neck opening, abdominal cavities and berms.
* Another symptom of pleurisy is dry coughing followed by shortness of breath or speedy shallow breaths or tachypnea. The cough may also be wet with shadows of sputum and blood.
* Poor people appetence and unexplained weight loss are other symptoms of pleurisy.
* The somebody may also incline to support from pyrexia and palls.

Pleurisy Symptoms and Causes.

Though pleurisy symptoms are chiefly stimulated due to viral infections, there are some other causes besides . Read more on lung infection.

Discourse.

There are versatile methods for caring for pleurisy symptoms depending on its lawsuit . To determine the extremity of pleurisy, the doctor may perform thoracocentesis, a physical process where the fluid is removed and tried out for any infection. A few methods of intervention are listed below.

* If you are suffering from pleurisy symptoms got due to blood clot in the lungs, the doctor may prescribe decoagulants in order to dissolve the blood clots and improve the flow of blood.
* In case of pleural effusion , you may require to undergo a process known as pleurodesis, in order to drain the excessive fluids from your lungs.
* If viral or bacterial infections are the root cause of pleuritis, then they can be cured with the helper of medications like antibiotic drugs or anti seditious drugs like acetaminophen or isobutylphenyl propionic acid . In extreme cases, a surgical procedure is required in order to drain out the infected fluid, induced due to bacterial infections.

Bronchitis: the Respiratory Problem

Bronchitis is the medical condition of Inflammation of bronchi of lungs. Microbes or bacteria and foreign substances that entered the respiratory tract lead to the bronchi inflammation stimulating surplus mucus secretion. Thus bronchitis is also defined as a disease of acute or chronic inflammation in the mucous film of the bronchial pipes. The root cause of bronchitis may also be allergic responses to irritants like tobacco smoke.
The Symptoms of acute Bronchitis includes a profound chest cold, insignificant fever; inflammation, feeble voice, imperfect speech, squatness of breath, annoyance, nausea, lung and body pain; dry or mucous comprising cough. On the basis of the degree of seriousness bronchitis is divided into two categories as acute and chronic bronchitis. Acute bronchitis is a type of the terrible bronchitis disease due to the soreness of bronchial tree and is generally self limiting. Acute bronchitis is quite similar to an awful chest cold along with ultimate subsiding to undetectable levels. The symptoms of acute bronchitis is consider to be undetectable because of the fact that the shrinkage or the contractions of breathing system be inclined to invite auxiliary episodes. Acute bronchitis if left unchecked and untreated lead to more fatal chronic stages or even asthmatic bronchitis and can be more dangerous in newborns, children, and adults with causal respiratory diseases, particularly emphysema.
Long-term persistent injury, as due to smoking, may direct to chronic bronchitis, where severe, irretrievable harm leaves the lungs unwrap to illness and fibrosis. Smoking-associated chronic bronchitis frequently occurs in connection with emphysema and this is known as chronic disruptive pulmonary disease. Treatment of bronchitis includes drugs to widen the bronchi plus endorse coughing, antibiotics, and existence adaptations like giving up smoking.
Smoking is a leading causal factor of bronchitis and therefore it is extremely advisable to give up. Renouncing smoking can overturn the consequences of chronic bronchitis plus permit the patients to direct to a more vigorous life. Drinking large amount of fluids resolve to help acute victims of bronchitis. Although acute bronchitis is virtually not as stern as chronic, it is capable of leading to impediments if kept untreated.

Premature diagnosis and management is dangerous in successfully plunging the symptoms of bronchitis. Antibiotics are frequently stipulated to help eradicate infection. Moreover, inhalers are usually used to assist provisional flair-ups for instance wheezing and coughing thus assisting the patient to respire more contentedly. In severe cases oxygen therapy is accepted where the patient is provided oxygen tank to assist breathing and respiration.
A vigorous diet with exercise courses are also suggested for lessening symptom associated with bronchitis. Ordinary aerobic exercise is courteous in intensifying lung capability and supporting in breathing. Walking has an immense low blow exercise for those with bronchitis disease. Besides, breathing cardiovascular exercises can be supportive as well as learning how to get deliberate, cavernous breathing to fortify the muscles and calm down the patient.
For acute bronchitis the patient should avoid dairy foodstuffs as it will enhance the quantity of sputum produced, complicating the symptoms. As an alternative, cayenne pepper, chicken stock and garlic are suggested as these assist in clearing the mucous. Aromatherapy utilizing eucalyptus facilitates to pacify the irritated lungs and regulate clearer inhalation or respiration. Hot showers or a warm compress too clears the mucus and help in stable breathing. The best solution to bronchitis is quitting smoking as well as being conscious of the second hand smokers.

Is Acute Bronchitis Contagious?

Acute bronchitis is caused by pathogens such as bacteria and viruses. It is an inflammation of the medium sized airways. Is acute bronchitis contagious? My answer is yes, it is. This is when it is caused by pathogens. Other causes of bronchitis are smoking and inhaling dangerous fumes.

Viruses are the most common causes of acute bronchitis. The symptoms felt after a virus bronchitis attack usually disappear after a few days. They do not need any medication. Those caused by bacteria need to be medicated using antibiotics, bronchodilaters and expectorant cough syrups. A thorough diagnosis by a doctor is the only way to know if you have bronchitis and what its cause is.

The diagnosis involves doing tests to your blood and sputum. Chest x-rays can also be done in some cases to establish how far the disease has spread or if it has progressed to pneumonia. Is acute bronchitis contagious? This is a question in many peoples’s minds. The next question they ask is how one can contract the diseases. The answer is through contact with personal belongings or sputum of a sick person.

Proper hygiene is necessary in avoiding this disease. You should not share personal belongings. Using cups and spoons recently used by a sick person but not thoroughly cleaned can cause the disease. Once you have all the facts about bronchitis, answering the question is acute bronchitis contagious will be easy. Prevention measures can also be taken to avoid contracting the disease. This is by taking the oral bronchitis vaccine. This vaccine was developed in 1985 by Professor Robert Clancy of the University of Newcastle Australia.

Dislocated Shoulder Exercises

To understand why the dislocated shoulder joint is the most common accident that people come across, you have to first understand the anatomy of the shoulder. The shoulder joint essentially consists of two bones that are joined in the form of a ball and a socket. The socket lies in the shoulder blade, while the ball to fit it lies in the top of the upper arm. This joint structure is unlike all the other joints, except the hip. So, a severe injury to the shoulder can make the ball come out of the socket. This is a very effective way of preventing the breakage or fracturing of the shoulder joint. Thus, when the shoulder is dislocated, it doesn’t require surgery or putting it in a cast. The easiest way to rectify it would be to force the ball back into the socket manually, though it is a very painful process. The best is to take professional help to prevent further injury. Once the ball has slipped back to the socket, you have to regain the former movement and strength of the joint. For this, you need to perform specific exercises so that it also helps in the healing process. You should do all these exercises with utmost care, so that the weak joint doesn’t dislocate again. Read the article below to know what these dislocated shoulder exercises are. Exercises For Dislocated Shoulder Exercise – 1
Stand straight and support the dislocated arm with the palm of the other arm at the elbow. Now, gently move forward while moving the arms to and fro. After sometime gently move the arms from one side to the other. Exercise – 2
Place the palm of the unaffected arm on a desk and lean on it. Slightly bend the knee of the unaffected side, while straightening the other leg. Now place the arm of the dislocated shoulder on the thigh of the bent leg. Swing the arm clockwise towards as much as possible. Repeat a few times and then swing the affected arm anticlockwise. Exercise – 3
Stand straight facing the wall. Bend the elbow of the dislocated shoulder and position it near your side. Now, using your fist, push the wall and hold that position for 5 seconds. Then repeat again ten times and do a total of three sets. Exercise – 4
Stand straight with the back touching the wall. Bend the elbow of the affected shoulder at right angles and place the upper arm on the wall surface. Then push the elbow against the wall and for five seconds hold the position. Repeat 10 times and perform three sets. Exercise – 5
In this exercise, you have to use a resistance band. Hold the end of the band with the affected arm, while standing facing towards it. Bend the elbow so that you pull the band backwards and then slowly go back to the original position. Place the resistance band behind your back. Hold the end of the band and pull it forward. Then slowly release the pull.
Exercise – 6
Sit on a chair and using the unaffected arm hold the side of the affected one. Bring both the arms towards the head and try to lift it over your head. Stop immediately if you feel pain. Exercise – 7
Stand straight with both the arms relaxed. Simultaneously, raise both the shoulders up to your ears and hold the position. Then, pull the shoulders back while pinching the shoulder blades together. Perform this exercise 15 times.

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Exercise – 8
Lie on your back and raise both the arms pointing to the ceiling. Now, try to raise the shoulders about three inches off the floor, without bending the elbows. Then, lower the shoulders back on the mat. Perform this exercise for about thirty times.