How to Get Rid of Bruises

A bruise is a common skin injury that results in a discoloration of the skin. Blood from damaged blood vessels deep beneath the skin collects near the surface of the skin resulting in what we think of as a black and blue mark.

Parsley is a common garden herb, rich in vitamins and therapeutic properties. Parsley has the ability to shrink small blood vessels and is helpful in treating piles, broken or thread veins and bruising. Crush a handful of parsley and apply to bruised area. Repeat regularly with the fresh herb and the leaves will clear up the black-and-blue marks in a few days.

Get rid of a bruise fast… The first step to do once you notice a bruise is simple: apply ice to it. This might seem kind of silly or just too easy, but it works amazingly and it really makes a difference in the amount of time it takes to heal your bruises. To apply ice to your bruises, first make some ice using your freezer. Then place a few ice cubes into a ziplock bag. If it is too cold to place the bag directly onto your flesh, wrap a towel around the bag of ice. Keep the ice on your bruise for at least ten minutes. Then you can let your bruise thaw out for about 10 more minutes, and put your ice bag back into the freezer. Repeat as often as possible for you.

Apply a cold compress on the bruise, immediately after the bruise took place. This will help quicken the healing process and this way you can get rid of bruises a lot faster.

One of the best natural remedies for bruises is by taking apple cider vinegar mixed with water and then apply this mixture directly onto the bruise. The best way to mix this concoction is to take a bowl and put a cup of apple cider vinegar and a cup of water and then mix the ingredients for a moment. After the ingredients have been properly mixed, take a soft wash cloth and place the cloth onto your bruise. Once the wash cloth has dried, you will want to repeat the process several more times. This will allow the body to heal the bruise quicker by eliminating the appearance and sensitivity of the bruise.

The magical formula for healing bruises is to apply Arnika Gel. This gel is made from a plant called Arnika. This is a gel that you simply apply to your skin. It works for bruises and muscle pains. It’s all natural and doesn’t cost very much compared to some of the other creams or gels that are on the market. The best reason to use this gel is that it will speed up the process of healing your bruises and muscles. You should reapply the gel every hour or so. But don’t forget to keep icing your bruise too. The two of these put together will increase your body’s healing capabilities a lot.

The Influence of the Duodenum on Health

This is the third article in a five part series devoted to digestion where we have been following a nutritionally poor meal, typical of America, from the mouth to the esophagus to the stomach. We have seen that the food enters the mouth where enzymes are added via sublingual glands. The meal then moves through the esophagus where it is warmed, and then to the stomach where pre-digestion takes place depending on the nutritional value of the meal (does the meal have enzymes to digest protein, fats and carbohydrates).   Then stomach acid and a strong protein digesting enzyme are added to complete the stomachs processing of this meal.   Now we will follow this nutritionally poor meal from the stomach into the duodenum.

The Function of the Duodenum
The chyme (digested food from stomach the consistency of a milk shake) is slowly transported from the pylorus (a valve at the end portion of the stomach) through the pyloric sphincter into the first part of the small intestine called the duodenum where further digestion occurs.  

The inside wall of the duodenum has a smooth surface like the skin on your face.   It is at this point that the acidic chyme must be alkalized so the assimilation of this nutrient filled liquid is as complete as possible.    In addition, this alkalization is very important so that the acid from the stomach is neutralized and will not burn the walls of the small intestine. 

The duodenum, an eight to nine inch long chamber is where more chemicals of digestion are added.    The Ampule of Papilla is located in the duodenum wall.    This is an opening where bile from the gallbladder, and enzymes and bicarbonate from the pancreas enter the duodenum.    They combine with the chyme to begin the final part of digestion in the small intestines.    Enzymes are also excreted through the walls of the duodenum to assist with this digestion. 

The Average American Meal and what happens at the Duodenum
Your body is aware of what you have eaten (there are sensors in the duodenum) and it calls on your liver, gallbladder, pancreas and other avenues of digestive chemicals to assist in the breakdown and assimilation of nutrients and protection of the digestive tract.   Your body expects you to bring in live food rich in enzymes (uncooked foods such as produce) to assist in this digestive process. 

Here at the duodenum is where the body has a chance to recover from any mistakes made at your mouth.   But without enough raw food to supply the enzymes and alkaline that was needed to create a balanced meal no recovery will take place.   A meal totally unprepared will continue through the duodenum to the small intestine where impossible assimilation is undertaken.   From this point on the damage to your body takes place over and over bringing disease.

If you do not bring in enough live enzymes with the food you have eaten you may expect to have acid indigestion (undigested food), acid reflux, ulcers and constipation all caused by food improperly prepared at your mouth (no live enzymes).    As this improperly prepared food enters the duodenum, your digestive awareness will call on the pancreas and gallbladder to do the job you did not do.   Your pancreas and gallbladder will then strain to prepare this acidic chyme for release into the small intestine.  Allow this to happen enough times and you will get sick.

Constantly releasing acidic unprepared chyme from the duodenum to the small intestine, can lead to such diseases as Crohn’s disease, inflammatory bowel disease and leaky gut.  These in turn can lead to diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, muscular dystrophy, etc.

Why You Should Have An Indican Test

Why Should I Have This Test?

Dysbiosis is most likely the major contributing factor to most diseases and conditions and as such ought to be inquired in to as a possible cause in all medical conditions. Another major reason that this checkup is so important is that unless your gut is healthy you are very unlikely to absorb nutrition from your diet and nutritional supplementation. It is for this reason that the gut is treated first, otherwise it impairs our ability to maximize dietary changes and nutritional supplementation.

What Does An Indican Test Do?

When beneficial bacteria are destroyed by harmful yeasts, fungus, bacteria and viruses the process of dysbiosis and disease starts. The Urinary Indican Test is the correct and elementary checkup used to measure the putrefaction of protein in the digestive tract by unhealthy bacteria. A positive result suggests bowel toxicity because of dysbiosis.

What is Dysbiosis?

Dysbiosis is the term used to explain an imbalance of the bacteria in the digestive tract often resulting from too much yeast, harmful bacteria, viruses or parasites. Studies show that more than 70% of our immune process starts in the intestine. In the event you don’t have the right balance of bowel flora, you won’t have a healthy functioning immune process. Dysbiosis affects the immune process, hormonal balance and the important homeostatic balance of the body. This can also alter neurochemistry leading to conditions such as depression, anxiety and irritability. Dysbiosis can be linked to a whole range of medical conditions affecting every aspect of our health.

How Does Dysbiosis Cause Disease?

Dysbiosis starts when beneficial bacteria are destroyed by harmful yeasts, fungus, bacteria and viruses. This detrimental process can bring about the following:

1. Disruption with the friendly bacteria which causes yeast and fungal overgrowth

2. Putrefaction

3. Allergy and Inflammation

4. Malnutrition

5. Hepatic stress

6. Leaky Gut Syndrome

When the friendly bacteria in the intestines is killed off, this will lead to fungal overgrowth in most instances. When sugars, grains and alcohol are consumed, the intestinal tract will become a putrid and infected. This is the ideal environment for yeasts and fungus to develop and grow. Allergic reactions can occur, causing inflammation of the mucous membranes in the intestinal tract. Inflammation inhibits our body from absorbing valuable nutrients from food, and this then leads to malnutrition. When these yeast begin to line our intestinal wall, they puncture holes in the lining of our gut wall allowing wastes, food particles, bacteria and toxins to leach in to our bloodstream leading to a whole host of other health conditions.

Who Should Have This Test?

If your health is important to you, then this check is for you. This is one of our most popular tests, for obvious reasons. Naturopaths often state that health starts with a healthy gut. Because of this our investigations and treatments often begin with the gut. The Indican Test is an elementary and effective way to monitor and measure the level of unhealthy bacteria in the gut, and to follow up how effective the treatment is at decreasing the load of harmful bacteria and their detrimental effects on the body. Because of this, naturopaths usually recommend this test to all of their patients.

What Is Involved In The Test?

The Indican Test involves taking a basic urinary sample, to which your practitioner will then add some chemicals to ascertain the level of dysbiosis in the gut. Later tests may be taken to be sure that your treatment is decreasing the level of dysbiosis and that your gut function is in fact improving.

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Menstrual Cycle modification-Symptoms, Causes &Treatments;Of Low BBT Temprature Caused By Yang Deficiency in The Yang Phrase

I. Definition
The length of yang or luteal phrase is about 12 -14 days and a third phrase of the menstrual cycle according to traditional Chinese medicine. It is the time when the egg is extruded into fallopian tube, as liver transform yin energy to yang energy. At this phrase, blood and qi move down ward, the endometrial lining becomes softer to prepare the implantation of the fertilized egg, if occurs.
In conventional medicine, at this phrase corpus luteum starts to produce progesterone that triggers the softening of endometrial lining for fertilized egg implantation. If in the yang energy is deficient, it will cause the drop of BBT temperature that affects the chance of fertility.

II. Symptoms
1. Cold
2. Inability to get warm
3. Loose stool
4. Clear urine
5. Slow and weak pulse
6. Etc.

II. The yang deficiency Causes of Low BBT
A. General causes
1. Colding effect
Eating cold foods for a prolonged period of time will cause kidney yang deficiency. Cold foods are yin in nature, after entering the stomach, our body needs to provide more yang to digest it that depletes the yang qi.

2. Life style
Some people like to drink cold drink after taking straight from the refrigerator, eat raw foods, swim in a cold water, go out a lot in rainy weather or cold water,etc., they will cause extra yang produced by the body to counter the affect of the cold.

3. Excessive exercise
Exercise is considered healthy if you can do it properly and understand the limitation of your physical body. Rigid exercise pushes you body over limitation and consume, leading to kidney yang deficiency.

4. Frequently sexual activity
Frequently sexual activity drains the kidney jing, leading to kidney jing and yang deficiency that distort the normal function of kidney in regulating the natural process of conception. In serve case, it may cause menstrual disorder and infertility.

5. Aging
Aging is a biological process that we can not stop, but delay it. While youth is yang in nature, aging causes depletion of yang qi slowly.

B. Organs deficiency causes
1. Kidney yang deficiency
In the first and second phrases, yang energy is subordinated if compares with the yin. if kidney yang is deficient, it not only cause prolonged or shorten yin phrase, but also interferes with liver function in yin/yang transformation.

2. Spleen qi deficiency
Spleen is important is transport qi and food essence to liver for blood storing and blood formation, if for whatever reason ( mostly caused by intake of cold and raw food over a prolonged period of time), the spleen yang qi is deficiency, it will reduce the liver’s function in warming the uterus, leading to lower BBT.

3. Liver qi deficiency
Since liver is impotant to transform the yin energy to yang energy in the third phrase of menstrual cycle, if liver is damaged or qi deficiency, it will cause the transformation dysfunction, leading to yang deficiency and lower BBT in the phrase.

III. Treatments
A. With herbs
1. Lu rong
Lu rong is also known as deer antler, deer antler velvet, it is a great herb that helps to reduce the blockage of the meridian liver and kidney. Since yang qi deficiency is also caused blood deficiency, improving the body yang by strengthening the liver’s function in blood formation and kidney’s function in fluid distribution, it reduces the yang deficiency in the body.

2. Du Zhong
It is also known ecommia bark, it is one the most used herb to enhance the function of meridian kidney-liver by promoting the qi and blood formation. Since the liver is a organ in charge of blood storing and blood formation and kidney is in charge of fluid regulation, it increases blood flow to the entire body and reduces fluid accumulated in the body, thus enhancing yang.

3. Ba Ji Tian
Ba ji tian is also known as Chinese morinda root, sweet and warm in nature. It is also one the herbs used to strengthen the liver and kidney qi and blood yang by enhancing the liver in blood formation and kidney in urinary secretion, thus reducing the yang deficiency causes of abdominal distention, including cramps and pain during menstrual cycle.

4. Etc.

B. With acupuncture
Suggested acupuncture points
1. ST36 (Zu san li)
2. SP3 (Tai bai)
3. SP6 (San yin jiao)
3. KD3 (Tai xi)
4. CV3 (Zhong ji)
5. CV6 (Qi hai)
6. GB4 (Han yan)
7. UB23 (Shen shu)
8. Etc.

C. With foods
1. Rice
2. Leek
3. Onion,
4. Peach
5. Logan
6. Walnut
7. Prawn
8. Shrimp
9. Chicken
10. Lamb
11. Basil
12.Black pepper
13. Etc.

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Rectal Polyps

A Rectal Polyp is a mass of tissue that breaks through the mucous membrane of the colon or rectum and then juts outs into the digestive tract. There are several different classifications of polyps including the common polypoid adenomas, villous adenomas, Focal polypoid hyperplasia, and juvenile polyps (also called hamartomas). Most rectal polyps are found to be benign, except for villous adenomas and hereditary polyps which stand a good chance of being malignant.


Unchecked cell growth in the top layer of the intestinal wall leads to the formation of polyps. Hereditary, age, infection and diet all factor into whether a  person will form rectal polyps as well as what type  they will get. Villous adenomas are commonly found in men over the age of 55 while common polypoid adenomas seem to target women between the ages of 45 and 60. Children under the age of ten  are susceptible to juvenile polyps while both men and women  over the age of 70 stand an increased chance of getting  rectal polyps.


Many people with rectal polyps do not suffer any symptoms and the tissue masses are only discovered after a digital exam or colonoscopy. Rectal bleeding is one common symptom that may indicate the presence of a rectal polyp depending on the lesions location on the colon or rectum. A streak of blood in the stools for example might be an indication of high rectal polyps while freely flowing blood may be a sign of low rectal polyps.

If allowed to grow to a large size, villous adenomas might cause  pain during bowel movements, but since they are generally soft, they rarely block bowel movements altogether.  People with hereditary polyposis can suffer from diarrhea, bloody stools, and secondary anemia, with the change in bowel regularity and abdominal pain usually a sign of recto-sigmoid cancer.

Small grainy growths are usually a sign of focal polypoid hyperplasia. Large inflamed lesions  without a protective tissue covering them is usually a sign of juvenile polyps.


Rectal polyps are usually diagnosed through the use of a colonoscope or similar instrument, or through biopsy analysis.  A barium enema can help find polyps that are located high up in the colon. Villous adenomas can be  found through blood studies that look for low hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and electrolyte imbalances along with supportive lab findings such as blood in the stools.


Treatment is dependent on the size and type of polyp as well as its location in the colon or rectum. Common polypoid adenomas that are less than a ½ inch in size will usually be removed by fulguration (high-frequency electricity). Removal of part of the intestine might be required for polypoid adenomas over 1 ½ inches in diameter as well as all villous adenomas. A biopsy can help remove focal polypoid hyperplasia. Hereditary polyps might require the removal of the affected section depending on the involvement of the digestive tract.  Juvenile polyps generally fall off on their own, but can also be removed with a snare during a colonoscopy.

Uterine Fibroid -causes, Symptoms, Treatment

Treatment Uterine Fibroid

Uterine fibroids (singular Uterine Fibroma) (leiomyomata, singular leiomyoma) are benign tumors which grow from the muscle layers of the uterus. They are the most common benign neoplasm in females, and may affect about 25% of white and 50% of black women during the reproductive years.Uterine fibroids (leiomyomas) are common noncancerous (benign) tumors of the uterus. They grow from the muscular wall of the uterus and are made up of muscle and fibrous tissue.

Fibroids are muscular tumors that grow in the wall of the uterus (womb). Another medical term for fibroids is “leiomyoma” (leye-oh-meye-OH-muh) or just “myoma”. Fibroids are almost always benign (not cancerous). Fibroids can grow as a single tumor, or there can be many of them in the uterus.

Causes of Uterine Fibroid
Uterine fibroids develop from the smooth muscular tissue of the uterus (myometrium). A single cell reproduces repeatedly, eventually creating a pale, firm, rubbery mass distinct from neighboring tissue.African-Americans are 2-3 times more likely to present with symptomatic uterine fibroids and typically will do so at a younger age than the rest of the population of women with uterine fibroids.

Average age range for fibroids to become symptomatic is 35-50.Fibroids can be tiny and cause no problems, but they can also grow to weigh several pounds. They grow slowly. Some women with many fibroids may have an inherited tendency toward developing them.

Fibroids may also cause pain or a feeling of pressure or heaviness in the lower pelvic area (the area between the hip bones), the back or the legs. Some women have pain during sexual intercourse. Others have a constant feeling that they need to urinate.

Signs and symptoms
Subserosal fibroids. Fibroids that project to the outside of the uterus (subserosal fibroids) can sometimes press on your bladder, causing you to experience urinary symptoms. If fibroids bulge from the back of your uterus, they occasionally can press either on your rectum, causing constipation, or on your spinal nerves, causing backache.Irregular or unpredictable bleeding

lower-abdominal pressure, often described as an achy or heavy feeling or associated with the need to urinate more frequently

Treatment of Uterine Fibroid
Watchful waiting
If you’re like most women with uterine fibroids, you have no signs or symptoms. In your case, watchful waiting (expectant management) could be the best course. Fibroids aren’t cancerous. They rarely interfere with pregnancy. They usually grow slowly and tend to shrink after menopause when levels of reproductive hormones dropUterine artery embolization is a new procedure aimed at preventing the need for major surgery. The method stops the blood supply that makes fibroids grow.  The long-term effects of this procedure are still unknown, and the safety of pregnancy after this procedure is questionable.

A laparotomic myomectomy (also known as an open or abdominal myomectomy) is the most invasive surgical procedure to remove fibroids. The physician makes an incision in the abdominal wall and removes the fibroid from the uterus. A particularly extensive laparotomic procedure may necessitate that any future births be conducted by Caesarean section.

Cysts Causes, Symptoms and Treatments of Cysts


A cyst is a fluid filled sac. Cysts develop in various places in the body. Depending on the type of cyst the fluid within the cyst can range from thin and watery to thick and paste-like. Some cysts have a thicker solid outer part with some fluid within.

If you do have a cyst, your doctor will probably want you to have a sonogram so he or she can look at the cyst. What your doctor decides to do after that depends on your age, the way the cyst looks on the sonogram and if you’re having symptoms such as pain, bloating, feeling full after eating just a little, and constipation.

Causes Of Cysts
Follicular cyst. Around the midpoint of your menstrual cycle, your brain’s pituitary gland releases a surge of luteinizing hormone (LH), which signals the follicle holding your egg to release it. When everything goes according to plan, your egg bursts out of its follicle and begins its journey down the fallopian tube in search of fertilization.

Cysts most often arise from swollen hair follicles. Skin trauma can also induce a cyst to form. A sac of cells is created into which a protein called keratin is secreted

Cysts may occur as a result of a developmental error in the embryo before birth, or they may be caused by an infection, or, in some cases, they arise spontaneously and no cause is found.

Symptoms Of Cysts
Lower abdominal or pelvic pain, which may start and stop and may be severe, sudden, and sharp

Pelvic pain during intercourse (dyspareunia)
Pain during bowel movements or pressure on your bowels
Nausea, vomiting or breast tenderness similar to that experienced during pregnancy

Long-term pelvic pain during menstrual period that may also be felt in the lower back
Pelvic pain after strenuous exercise or sexual intercourse
increased temperature of the skin over the bumps or lumps

Grayish white, cheesy, foul smelling material draining from the bump or lump

Diagnosis Of Cysts
A cyst or abscess is diagnosed by a gynecological pelvic exam. If the cyst appears to be infected, a culture is often performed to identify the type of bacteria causing the abscess.

Treatment Of Cysts
The treatment for a cyst depends upon the cause of the cyst along with its location. Cysts that are very large and result in symptoms due to their size may be surgically removed. Sometimes the fluid contained within a cyst can be drained, or aspirated, by inserting a needle or catheter into the cyst cavity, resulting in collapse of the cyst. Radiologic imaging may be used for guidance in draining (aspirating) cyst contents if the cyst is not easily accessible.

Birth control pills. Your doctor may recommend birth control pills to reduce the chance of new cysts developing in future menstrual cycles. Oral contraceptives offer the added benefit of significantly reducing your risk of ovarian cancer — the risk decreases the longer you take birth control pills.

Medical Treatment-Ultrasonic observation or endovaginal ultrasound are used repeatedly and frequently to monitor the growth of the cyst.

What Causes Oral Thrush In Adults?

A fungal organism called Candida albicans is what causes oral thrush in adults.  This problem is easy enough to develop as the Candida lives on our bodies in small numbers all the time, but when the opportunity arises, it will take advantage of any imbalances in the body in order to develop in numbers and rapidly form a thrush infection.   By understanding what causes the infection, you will be able to manage it more successfully and get rid of the problem with the minimum of fuss.

Symptoms of oral thrush

The symptoms of a thrush infection in the mouth can include:

  • Raised or lumpy areas
  • Patches of white, yellow or cream infection
  • Swelling along the membranes in the mouth
  • A burning sensation in the mouth or throat

The causes of oral thrush infections

The Candida albicans fungus is what causes oral thrush in adults.  When this happens, it is generally as a result of an imbalance in the body.  While you are healthy and your body is working in balance, the natural environment and balance between the immune system and the body’s ‘good bacteria’ keeps the level of Candida low.  It is when you suffer some form of stress, if you have been ill, after taking a course of antibiotics and if problems have put your body under pressure that you develop thrush.

In specific terms, what causes oral thrush in adults can include an imbalance as a result of smoking, having dentures that aren’t fitted correctly, taking oral contraceptive pills, having a viral or bacterial infection or having diabetes.  To best treat these problems, you should incorporate remedies that target the Candida fungus and also the underlying causes.  This will help to rid the infection now and limit the likelihood of occurrence in the future.

To get rid of oral thrush you could consider the following options:

Antifungal medication – Treatment with antifungal medication generally takes between 10 days and 2 weeks.  As well as oral medication such as a tablet, lozenges or liquid treatments may also be used and are particularly useful with oral thrush.

Good Oral Hygiene – Through understanding what causes oral thrush in adults, it is also understandable why this is an important step toward treating this problem.  Warm, moist areas are the perfect place for Candida to grow, but with good oral hygiene it is harder for oral thrush infection organisms to become a problem.

Quit smoking – Not only are you going to improve your whole body health and decrease future risk, you’ll find that you can reduce the stress that smoking places upon your body and therefore reduce the likelihood of such an imbalance contributing to a yeast infection.  Quitting smoking is one of the best steps you can take to limit the occurrence of yeast infection.

Knowing what causes oral thrush in adults will mean that you can both target the causes directly and improve the long term outlook by limiting your chances of future infection.  When you remove the major contributing factors, you not only give your body the best possible chance of fighting the infection, you remove the things that allowed it to develop in the first place.

Hepatits – Information, Symptoms and Treatment

Hepatitis means liver inflammation. Viral hepatitis means that a person has liver inflammation due to a virus. Viral infection of the liver makes the liver swell up and stop working well. The liver is an important organ. It helps your body with these functions:

Digests food

Stores energy

Removes poisons

Hepatitis C is a disease of the liver that is caused by the hepatitis C virus, or HCV.Between 15 to 40 percent of people who get hepatitis C are able to fight off the virus during the early, or acute, stage, usually within six months. Between 60 and 85 percent of patients cannot get rid of the virus and develop a long-term, or chronic, hepatitis C infection. People with chronic hepatitis C will have the disease all their lives unless they are successfully treated with antiviral medicines.

The symptoms of acute hepatitis B infection develop within 1-6 months of when you first become infected with the virus, and include feeling sick, vomiting, abdominal pain, fever and feeling generally unwell. Some people develop jaundice (Peelia). This is due to build-up of bilirubin, which is made in the liver and spills into the blood in some liver conditions. Your urine also becomes dark yellow, your stools may go pale, and you tend to itch.

The hepatitis B virus can be passed to an infant during childbirth or shortly thereafter if the mother is infected.

The risk of becoming chronically infected depends on your age at the time of infection. Most newborns and about 50% of children infected with hepatitis B develop chronic hepatitis. Only a few adults infected with HBV develop the chronic condition.Most of the damage from the hepatitis B virus is due to the body’s response to the infection. When the body’s immune system detects the infection, it sends out special cells to fight it off. However, these disease-fighting cells can lead to liver inflammation.

Hepatitis D can only be acquired if the person has an active infection of hepatitis B. The virus cannot reproduce without the presence of the virus causing hepatitis B. If you have chronic hepatitis B and your symptoms suddenly worsen, your doctor should check for hepatitis D. The virus is spread through contact with infected blood and contaminated needles. You can also get the disease through sexual contact with someone who is infected.

The good news is that there is a safe and effective vaccine against the virus. In New Zealand this is on the immunisation schedule for infants and children up to sixteen years, free of charge through general practitioners. The course of vaccine for an infant consists of three doses scheduled for six weeks, three months and five months of age. Mothers who are carriers are identified by a blood test in pregnancy and their babies are offered protection by an injection of immune globulin at birth followed by a course of vaccine.

Immunisation at any age (from babies to old age) is very effective at protecting people against infection. If it is known (by a blood test) that a pregnant woman is a chronic carrier of hepatitis B, a baby can be immunised (given a vaccine) at birth to protect it from hepatitis B infection. The vaccine does not contain live virus, but uses a protein (called surface antigen) from the virus, so you cannot catch hepatitis from the vaccine.

What End Stage Liver Disease Means

End-stage liver disease refers to the 4th stage, or cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is when the cells of the liver start to die and create scarring. It’s caused by chronic liver disease, and the most common causes of chronic liver disease are alcohol abuse and hepatitis C. There are some other less common causes as well, including (but not limited to) hepatitis b, certain medications and metabolic disorders.

Most patients with end-stage liver disease are on or trying to get on the transplant list. Once a person is listed for a transplant, they are given a Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score. This score can go up and down as treatments are administered. The lab values used in the MELD calculation include bilirubin, INR and creatine.

Bilirubin measures how well your liver is excreting bile, INR measures your liver’s ability to make blood clotting factors, and creatine measures how well the kidneys are functioning.

There are many bodily changes that may be encountered during the end stage. Ascites is the build up of fluid in the abdominal area. Edema is when the legs and feet swell due to water retention. Weight loss is caused by loss of appetite. Encephalopathy affects the memory. These are just a few of the changes that may occur. A patient’s doctor will go over everything they can expect when diagnosed with cirrhosis of the liver.

Some people with stage 4 liver disease have a chance of stopping the cirrhosis from getting worse and even start to reverse the effects. Nutrition, stress-relieving techniques and supplements are all important factors in prolonging a person’s life.

There is a complete liver cirrhosis solution out there that guides a person living with this disease on how to give their liver a break, reversing the damage that’s been done. Not only will this solution help to prolong a cirrhosis sufferer’s life, but, more importantly, it will prolong their quality of life as well.

Formation of Kidney Stones in Men

It is four times more likely that men develop kidney stones than women, simply more vulnerable to kidney stones than women. What follows is a list of possible causes and treatments of these small and hardened crystals called kidney stones.

A kidney stone is a hard mass that start forming in the kidney or the urinary tract out of substances in the urine. The size of kidney stones (calculi) may be very small or as large as golf balls. While most kidney stones pass normally out of the body with urine, sometimes the patient will need help of a doctor. These stones originate as microscopic particles and eventually develop into stones with the pass of time. The medical term for this condition of having kidney stones is nephrolithiasis, or renal stone disease.

Generally all adults over 30 are at risk of this condition, but men tend to be more affected when they are over their 40s.

The most common type of stone contains calcium in combination with either oxalate or phosphate. These chemicals are part of the normal diet of a person.

There are many causes of for this condition such as some urinary tract infections. Also Lifestyle and personal health such as drinking less fluids or inactivity over long periods can contribute to this painful problem. Basically kidney stones are formed when there are too many chemicals than could easily be dissolved in the available urine. Among the most common causes for this condition are: high level of urinary calcium (hypercalciuria), insufficient urinary citrate, inadequate water flowing through the kidneys, high urinary oxalate (hyperoxaluria), or high urinary uric acid (hyperuricosuria).

Basically, the kidneys must maintain an adequate amount of water in the urine to be able to dissolve all the removed waste products from the blood. If your body suffers dehydration, then eventually high levels of substances that do not dissolve completely form crystals that slowly build up into kidney stones.

The pain of this condition is for the following reason: As you might know, the main function of kidneys is to remove extra water and wastes from the blood, this way helping to keep a stable balance of minerals in the blood, now while most of the kidney stones are passed out of the body in the urine stream. Now those stones which are sufficiently larger in size may pass out of the kidney but become lodged in the urethra and cause excruciating pain that begins in the lower back and radiates to the groin.

To prevent kidney stones you have to drink lots of water, because water helps to flush away the substances that may form crystals in the kidneys. Based on the size and type of the stone, there are varied kidney stones treatment options: While small stones can be passed off with adequate hydration and exercises, the stones that do not pass off naturally, may have to be treated by Urology Specialists.

My Cat Is Vomiting – When Hairballs Aren’T The Cause Of Cat Vomiting

Perhaps you’ve watched your cat gulp down his chow quickly (like a dog!), then drink a lot of water(like a dog!), then he jumped up on the bed for a nap(like a cat). He wakes up and jumps off the bed — whoops — your cat is vomiting his dinner all over the floor.

If he gives the mess a disdainful glare and sits down in front of the cat food bowl looking for more food, you don’t need to be too concerned. Your cat simply had a load of undigested food in his belly and landed on the floor too hard which caused him to throw up his dinner. While overeating and cat hairballs commonly cause cat vomiting, here are some other reasons why your cat is vomiting and how you should react to them.

1) Swallowing a foreign object, like a plant that irritates the stomach; or dental floss or string, that has tangled itself inside his intestine
2) Pancreatitis
3) Diabetes
4) Hyperthyroidism
5) Kidney disease
6) Inflammatory bowel disease
7) Feline urinary tract infection

If there is blood in the vomit, either bright red or black, get your cat to the vet immediately. This is a sure sign that he’s eaten something poisonous.

Cats aren’t cows, but they do enjoy occasionally eating grass and plants. If your cat is vomiting over and over, but shows no other signs of illness, hold off feeding him for 12 to 24 hours. If he becomes lethargic and won’t eat after 24 hours get him to the vet – fast. He may have ingested something poisonous, or even have another illness like pancreatitis.

Cats love to play with strings of all types: dental floss, thread, yarn, tinsel, fishing line. When they swallow the string it has a chance to tangle up inside his intestines and even cause a blockage.

If your cat is vomiting repeatedly and doesn’t let up, this is a sure sign that he’s swallowed something foreign. An intestinal blockage is life threatening. Get him to the vet.

If you cat is a chronic vomiter – he vomits on a regular basis, but perhaps only once or twice a month he may be suffering from irritable bowel disease. If he drinks and urinates excessively in conjunction with cat vomiting, he may be diabetic, have kidney disease, hyperthyroidism, cancer, heartworm disease, or event a feline urinary tract infection.

If you are a cat owner whose cat is suffering from entangled intestines, or poisoning, or is a chronic vomiter, your cat needs proper diagnosis by a veterinarian. If the diagnosis requires long-term medical treatment, talk to you vet about herbal solutions for your cat.

Vets are turning more today to herbal solutions for treating the illnesses that cause chronic cat vomiting. Glycyrrhiza glabra (licorice) is an excellent tonic for the entire digestive tract including your cat’s intestines, bladder and kidneys.

Urtica urens is used in modern herbalism to promote a healthy metabolism and supports strong thyroid and adrenal functions. Galega officinalis (Goat’s Rue) helps improve pancreatic health and maintain healthy insulin levels in cats. Arctostaphylos uva ursi helps maintain normal pH levels in your cat’s urinary tract.

If your cat is vomiting and you suspect one of these illnesses, natural herbal remedies play a large part in eliminating disease and maintaining wellness. Better yet, help your cat stick to a simple pet health care program that actually gets him on the fast track to recovery using simple, natural herbal solutions.

Food Poisoning Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

Food poisoning

Food poisoning is a common, usually mild, but occasionally deadly illness.

Food poisoning happens when someone eats food or drink that is contaminated with bacteria, or its toxins. Very occasionally, toxins from chemicals or pesticides can also cause food poisoning.

You might think the solution is to get rid of all the bacteria. But it isn’t possible and you wouldn’t want to do it, even if you could. Bacteria are all around us, including in food, and sometimes they can be good for you.

Food Poisoning Symptoms

Symptoms of food poisoning depend on the type of contaminant and the amount eaten. The symptoms can develop rapidly, within 30 minutes, or slowly, worsening over days to weeks. Most of the common contaminants cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramping.

The symptoms of food poisoning occur because food-borne bacteria release toxins or poisons as a byproduct of their growth in the body. These toxins (except those from C. botulinum) cause inflammation and swelling of the stomach, small intestine and/or large intestine. The result is abdominal muscle cramping, vomiting, diarrhea, fever, and the chance of dehydration. The severity of symptoms depends on the type of bacteria, the amount consumed, and the individual’s general health and sensitivity to the bacterial toxin.


Food poisoning can affect one person or it can occur as an outbreak in a group of people who all ate the same contaminated food.

Even though food poisoning is relatively rare in the United States, it affects between 60 and 80 million people worldwide each year and results in approximately 6 to 8 million deaths.

Food poisoning tends to occur at picnics, school cafeterias, and large social functions. These are situations where food may be left unrefrigerated too long or food preparation techniques are not clean. Food poisoning often occurs from eating undercooked meats, dairy products, or food containing mayonaise (like coleslaw or potato salad) that have sat out too long.

The first step in preventing food poisoning is to assume that all foods may cause food-borne illness. Follow these steps to prevent food poisoning:

Wash hands, food preparation surfaces and utensils thoroughly before and after handling raw foods to prevent recontamination of cooked foods.

Keep refrigerated foods below 40 degrees F.

Treatment of food Poisoning

Most infections last 24 to 48 hours, during which time fluid is often lost from vomiting and diarrhea. To prevent dehydration, drink plenty of cooled boiled water and use dehydration powders if the symptoms continue.

Sometimes antibiotic treatment is necessary; this can be determined by testing for the micro-organism responsible.

The most common treatment for simple food poisoning is simply supportive care at home with clear liquids to stay hydrated, and after vomiting or diarrhea subside, the gradual return to eating beginning with a bland diet (such as rice, bread, potatoes and milk).

Duodenal Ulcer – Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

Ulcers often occur within the duodenum, usually in the first part just beyond the stomach which is called the duodenal cap. Ulcers can come in all shapes and sizes. Image 1 shows a single white-based ulcer. Image 2 shows numerous small ulcers scattered across the duodenal cap. Image 3 demonstrates a huge duodenal ulcer almost filling the cap. Note the brownish areas across the whitish base which is caused by some old blood. Some fresh bleeding is seen at the edge. Duodenal ulcers are caused by the bacteria, Helicobacter pylori, or by arthritis medications such as Advil, Motrin, Naprosyn, aspirin and many others. All of these ulcers healed under appropriate therapy.

Duodenal ulcers usually occur in younger people, while gastric ulcers occur in older age groups. It is still not clear what, if any, role stress plays in the development of ulcers. Alcohol and diet are not felt to play a very important role in the formation of ulcers. Some ulcers are caused by an organism called Helicobacter pylori, some are due to medications, and a few are caused by stomach or intestinal cancer. Therefore, treatment and long-term outcome depends on the cause of the ulcer.


Pain in the upper abdomen just below the sternum (breastbone) is the common symptom. It usually comes and goes. It may occur most before meals, or when you are hungry. It may be eased if you eat food, or take antacid medicines. The pain may wake you from sleep.

Symptoms of ulcer disease are variable. Many ulcer patients experience minimal indigestion or no discomfort at all. Some report upper abdominal burning or hunger pain one to three hours after meals and in the middle of the night. These pain symptoms are often promptly relieved by food or antacids. The pain of ulcer disease correlates poorly with the presence or severity of active ulceration. Some patients have persistent pain even after an ulcer is completely healed by medication.


Cigarette smoking not only causes ulcer formation, but also increases the risk of ulcer complications such as ulcer bleeding, stomach obstruction and perforation. Cigarette smoking is also a leading cause of ulcer medication treatment failure.

A duodenal ulcer is caused when the lining of the stomach is eaten away by stomach acid and digestive juices. A type of bacteria called Helicobacter pylori, also called H. pylori, commonly causes this. Other common causes of duodenal ulcers include anti-inflammatory medications such as aspirin and ibuprofen, stress, nicotine, caffeine, and alcohol use.

H pylori infection is generally regarded as the most important etiologic factor in the development of duodenal ulcer. Most authors regard H pylori as the cause of 85-95% of duodenal ulcers. All evidence supports the assertion that H pylori is the major cause of duodenal ulcer.

The most common cause of such damage is infection of the stomach with a bacterium called Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori). Most people with peptic ulcers have this organism living in their gastrointestinal (GI) tract. On the other hand, many people have this organism living in their GI tract but they don’t get an ulcer.


If possible, you should stop the anti-inflammatory medicine. This allows the ulcer to heal. However, in many cases the medicine is needed to ease symptoms of arthritis or other painful conditions. One option is to take an acid-suppressing medicine each day. This reduces the amount of acid made by the stomach, and greatly reduces the chance of an ulcer forming again.

Acidity – Herbs and Ayurvedic Remedies, Acidity Symptom and Other Treatments

What is Acidity?

The human stomach contains gastric glands which are responsible for the proper digestion of food in it. Gastric glands achieve the digestion by secreting various acids, the chief of which is the hydrochloric acid. These acids are aided by various enzymes of the stomach in bringing about digestion. The level of acids in the human stomach is generally controlled; but for some reason if the level of acids increases beyond the
normal levels, then the condition is known as acidity.

Hence, acidity is the condition in which there is an excess secretion of acid within the stomach. Other names for acidity are hyperacidity or acid dyspepsia.

Why is Acidity caused?

The stomach is equipped with these acids in order to be able to digest the food. The acids are released when foods enter the stomach. However some foods are difficult to digest than the others. For such foods, the stomach needs to secrete more acids. Continuous secretions of such acids could lead to acidity in the stomach.

This excessive production of acids could be made higher due to various factors. Ulcers in the stomach are one of the commonest causes in increasing acid production.

People with stomach cancers will also have acidity problems as one of the symptoms. For this reason, acidity should not be ignored if it lasts for a long period of time, or if the person is older.

There is a condition known as the acid-reflux complex, due to which the stomach acids are refluxed back to the food pipe. When this happens, a prominent sour taste is felt in the mouth, and a belch might occur.

What are the Symptoms of Acidity?

When a person has acidity in the stomach, there can be a vast difference in the kinds of symptoms observed. For some people it may be a simple bellyache, but for others, it could lead to days of restlessness with continuous cramps in the stomach.

In fact restlessness is the most common symptom of acidity, followed by nausea and vomiting. There is a sour taste felt in the mouth, which is due to the excess deposition of the acids. Sometimes there are sour belches and passing off wind. Other digestive problems like constipation and indigestion will also occur. In some cases, stiffness is felt in the stomach.

How can Acidity be avoided?

A proper dietary pattern is the best thing in order to avoid acidity. The following tips must be followed:-

  • Avoid foods that are rich in oils and fats. These foods are difficult to digest, so they may make the stomach release more acids.
  • The diet should contain a proper blend of all the tastes. Spicy foods must be just one dish rather than the whole meal.
  • Fibers are necessary in the diet as they help in the digestion.
  • Red meats must be eaten only occasionally, if at all.
  • After a meal, the body must be given some sort of exercise. This could be as simple as going for a stroll.
  • Too much addiction to strong foods such as tea and coffee may cause acidity. This is also true for other addictions such as smoking and alcohol.
  • Do not consume sour foods as they already have acidic contents. Acidic foods to avoid are pickles, curds, tamarinds, vinegar, etc.
  • How can Acidity be controlled with Simple Home Remedies?

    There are several simple household tips to keep acidity under control. The following are some of them:-

  • Eat two plantains early in the morning and down them with a glass of milk.
  • Taking two tablespoonfuls of Isabgol (psyllium seed husks) in milk after every meal is beneficial for elimination of acidity.
  • Squeeze the juice of a whole orange and mix it with roasted cumin seeds. Add some rock salt to flavor it. This solution gives immediate relief from acidity.
  • Eat equal portions of ginger and coriander. This pacifies the digestive fire.
  • Mix equal amounts of ginger extract and mint extract. Having this two to four times a day provides relief.
  • Alternatively, the extract of a ginger can be mixed with equal amount of honey. This is to be put on the tongue every dawn and dusk.
  • Two teaspoonfuls of powder of amla (Indian gooseberry) taken twice a day is also helpful.
  • If the acidity continues for a long time, then try adhering to a milk diet. Milk may initially be troublesome to the digestive system, but the indigestible curds it would form in the body would generally be vomited out.
  • Mixing two teaspoonfuls of ghee in a glassful of milk and taking this once a day acts as a laxative, which would flush out the excess toxins from the body.
  • Coconut water is good for reducing acidity in the stomach.
  • If using rice, make sure it is at least two years old. Wheat flour can also be beneficially used to reduce acidity.