What is Bruises and Treatment of Bruises

A bruise is a mark on your skin caused by blood trapped under the surface. It happens when an injury crushes small blood vessels but does not break the skin. Those vessels break open and leak blood under the skin.

Most bruises are not a cause for concern and will go away on their own. Home treatment may speed healing and relieve the swelling and soreness that often accompany bruises that are caused by injury. However, severe bruising, swelling, and pain that begin within 30 minutes of an injury may mean a more serious problem, such as a severe sprain or fracture.

Bruises Causes

Bruises can occur in some people who exercise rigorously, such as athletes and weight lifters. These bruises result from microscopic tears in blood vessels under the skin.

Certain illnesses and diseases can cause bruising.

Unexplained bruises in children may be the result of child abuse. If you suspect a child is being abused, ask a doctor or community health center how to report your concerns.

Symptoms of Bruises

The main symptoms are pain, swelling, and skin discoloration. The bruise begins as a pinkish red color that can be very tender to touch. It is often difficult to use the muscle that has been bruised. For example, a deep thigh bruise is painful when you walk or run.

Double jointedness (hyper extensible joints), extreme in some cases

Joint pain from frequent dislocation

Eye problems

Nearsightedness, occasionally extreme

Heart problems, such as mitral valve prolapse, aortic root dilatation and spontaneous rupture of large arteries

Family history of ruptured uterus, colon or brain aneurysm

Can Bruises Be Prevented?

Bruises are kind of hard to avoid completely, but if you’re playing sports, riding your bike, in-line skating, or doing anything where you might bump, bang, crash, or smash into something – or something might bump, bang, crash, or smash into you – it’s a good idea to wear protective gear like pads, shin guards, and helmets.

Treatment of Bruises

A bruise by itself needs no medical treatment. It is often recommended that ice packs be applied on and off during the first 24 hours of injury to reduce the bruising. After that, heat, especially moist heat, is recommended to increase the circulation and the healing of the injured tissues.

If the bruise takes up a large area of the leg or foot, the leg should be kept elevated as much as possible during the first 24 hours after the injury.

Acetaminophen or ibuprofen may be taken for pain as instructed on the bottle. Avoid aspirin because aspirin slows the blood from clotting and may, in fact, prolong the bleeding.

Apply ice packs to the injured body area immediately after the injury and apply pressure. The ice pack must be kept on for at least 20 minutes. It may be alternated with a heat pack for the next 48 hours. The bruise must still undergo the appropriate stages of healing. It will change color from red to purple to yellow to brown.

Dog X-Ray

X-rays can be used to diagnose or detect many conditions and disorders in dogs. Bone fractures, bladder stones and tumors can easily be detected through this technique. Sometimes dogs swallow the most ridiculous things that can become lodged in their gastric-intestinal tract such as nails, rocks, fishhooks, safety pins, bones, toys etc…all these things can cause serious damage if not detected soon enough. Some dogs may also suffer from hereditary dog illnesses like elbow dysplasia, hip dysplasia, mitral valve disease, cardiomyopathy and most of these diseases can be identified using dog x-rays.

Hip dysplasia results into severe arthritis in dogs. In this dog illness, the socket joining the demur to the pelvis is shallow. The caput i.e. the ball of the femur is not round and smooth but is misshapen. This causes a lot of friction within the joint as it moves. This results in severe arthritis in the dog. The dog’s natural repair system will repair itself by adding new cartilage. However, the cartilage repair is a relatively slow process because the cartilage lacks blood flow, which is necessary for rapid bodily repairs. The degraded joint may not be able to support the body weight as expected. The joint then becomes inflamed leading to a cycle of cartilage damage and inflammation. The bones of the joint may also develop osteoarthritis, which is visible on a dog x-ray as small outcrops of bone. Hence, the dog x-rays can help us to recognize these fractures so that we can treat them efficiently.

However, taking x-rays require dogs to remain still. Sometimes, the dog squirms and moves during the x-ray. This results in unclear and distorted images of the dog’s insides, which can lead to wrong diagnosis. Sometimes, it so happens that a dog having hip dysplasia is not diagnosed because the veterinary surgeon cannot make out the slight shift of the bone. The dog is already living in infinite pain. On top of this, even after the dog is x-rayed and found to have nothing wrong in his system, do not think the efforts have been wasted. X-rays should always be neatly filed up for future references. To determine the dog illnesses, the x-ray is important and so it is vital for the owner and the vet to position the dog properly on the table and take some measures to keep it still. Some dogs are naturally obedient and won’t move a muscle if his or her owner instructs so. Sometimes, a light anaesthetic is registered to keep the dog still. if the dog is being x-rayed for the muscles, anesthesia is unavoidable.

It happens more often than not, that the dog x-rays might not turn out to be conclusive. In such cases, one should reserve breeding until the x-rays show something definite. By the time the dog is fully-grown the dog x-rays will reveal the proper status of the dog’s bone development. The OFA (Orthopedic Foundation for Animals) will not classify hips in dogs until they are two years of age.

There are other dog diseases like blood clots, esophageal achalasia and bladder stones which x-rays can detect. People are having their dogs x-rayed these days to detect possible bone fractures that the dog might have.

X-rays, therefore, have become inevitable in the field of veterinary practice. In this way, dog x-rays can help to cure the dog illnesses that trouble our cuddly friends.Dog X-Ray

X-rays can be used to diagnose or detect many conditions and disorders in dogs. Bone fractures, bladder stones and tumors can easily be detected through this technique. Some times dogs swallow the most ridiculous things that can become lodged in their gastro intestinal tract such as nails, rocks, fishhooks, safety pins, bones, toys etc.; all these things can cause serious damage if not detected soon. Some dogs may also suffer from hereditary dog illnesses like elbow dysplasia, hip dysplasia, mitral valve disease, cardiomyopathy and most of these diseases can be identified using dog x-rays.

Hip dysplasia results into severe arthritis in dogs. In this dog illness, the socket joining the femur to the pelvis is shallow. The caput i.e. the ball of the femur is not round and smooth but is misshapen. This causes a lot of friction within the joint as it moves. This results in severe arthritis in the dog. The dog¡¦s natural repair system will repair itself by adding new cartilage. However, the cartilage repair is a relatively slow process because the cartilage lacks blood flow, which is necessary for rapid bodily repairs. The degraded joint may not be able to support the body weight as expected. The joint then becomes inflamed leading to a cycle of cartilage damage and inflammation. The bones of the joint may also develop osteoarthritis, which is visible on a dog x-ray as small outcrops of bone. Hence, the dog x-rays can help us to recognize these fractures so that we can treat them efficiently.

However, taking x-rays require dog to remain still. Sometimes, the dog squirms and moves during the x-ray. This results in unclear and distorted images of the dog¡¦s insides. This can lead to wrong diagnosis. Sometimes, it so happens that a dog having hip dysplasia is not diagnosed because the veterinary surgeon cannot make out the slight shift of the bone. The dog is already living in infinite pain. On top of this, even after you x-ray him, you do not find any thing wrong in his system; do not think that your efforts have been wasted. X-rays should always be neatly filed up for future references. To determine the dog illnesses, the x-ray is important and so it is vital for the owner and the vet to position the dog properly on the table and take some measures to keep it still. Some dogs are naturally obedient and wont move a muscle if his or her owner instructs so. Sometimes, a light anaesthetic is registered to keep the dog still. If the dog is being x-rayed for the muscles, anesthesia is unavoidable.

It happens more often than not, that the dog x-rays might not turn out to be conclusive. In such cases, one should reserve breeding until the x-rays show something definite. By the time, the dog is fully-grown the dog x-rays will reveal the proper status of the dog¡¦s bone development. The OFA (Orthopedic Foundation for Animals) will not classify hips in dogs until they are two years of age.

There are other dog diseases like blood clots, oesophageal achalasia and bladder stones which x-rays can detect. People are having their dogs x-rayed these days to detect possible bone fractures that he or she may have. X-rays therefore, have become inevitable in the field of veterinary practice. In this way, dog x-rays can help to cure the dog illnesses which trouble our cuddly dogs.

The Difference Between Colon and Intestinal Cancer

Many people have a problem distinguishing colon and intestinal cancer.

Colon cancer is cancer strictly of the large intestine while intestinal cancer can affect any part of the intestine such as the ileum, duodenum and jujenum. These are all parts of the small intestine.

Intestinal cancer has more to do with the small intestines.

Colon cancer is also referred to as colorectal cancer or Large Bowel Cancer.

It is believed to be caused by adenomatous polyps in the colon.

Your colon is located at the end of your intestines, the last part of your digestive system before the food departs your body.

If you have a family history of colon cancer, it then implies that you have what is referred to as FAP. FAP stands for Familial Adenomatous Polyposis. This is an inherited or genetic form of colorectal cancer syndrome.

People with this syndrome can at an early age begin developing multiple non-cancerous polyps (benign growths) in their colon as teenagers.

It is normally detected through a colonoscopy which is the examination of the colon with the use of CCD camera through a tube inserted through the anus. Treatment of colon cancer is usually through surgery followed by chemotherapy.

It may take several years for symptoms of colon cancer to manifest. It is essential it is treated early to greatly enhance success rates.

Intestinal cancer on the other hand is also called small intestine cancer, duodenal cancer, Ileal cancer and Jejunal cancer.

Wheat Intolerant? Give Us our Daily Bread (or Maybe Not!)

Do You Have a Wheat Intolerance?

I’ve found wheat to be one of the most abundant and problematic foods available today.  In fact, I believe it to be the single largest contributor to intestinal dysbiosis, parasitic infections, and universal food allergies.  Over-consumption and genetically-modified grains are the greatest causes of wheat intolerance and gluten sensitivity.

It’s important to first note that some people can be severely allergic to wheat. They’re often medically diagnosed with the disease called Celiac or Celiac Sprue.  This is an illness that’s treatable, but can be painful and confusing for patients and their families, as there are a lot of lifestyle changes that must be made to accommodate the celiac patient.  Celiac patients are also often allergic to wheat’s “sister” grains, rye, oats and barley.

Fortunately, most people don’t suffer from Celiac disease.  Most problems are from simply consuming too much wheat.  Generally, people can assimilate a small to moderate amount as a PART of their diet.  It’s when we make it the MAJOR part of our diet (western/industrialized diets) that it often becomes a problem.  There are many people who just can’t break down wheat and similar grains, as they lack certain enzymes to do so.  We see this more in O blood types than others, as they don’t fare well on a diet with regular grains.  (I address this further in my Bio-Logikal Diet, based in part on the Blood Type Diet,)

Consuming too much wheat can lead to decreased pancreatic function, which is the decreased output of insulin and digestive enzymes.  This decrease in function can lead to blood sugar regulation problems such as hyper- or hypoglycemia and chronic digestive disorders.

Symptoms of wheat intolerance may include fatigue, memory loss, sleep disruption, allergies, muscle and joint pain, high blood pressure, asthma, headaches, visual disturbances, obesity, chronic digestive disorders, ulcers, food allergies, diarrhea/constipation, inability to absorb vital nutrients, parasitic infections, intestinal dysbiosis (unbalanced normal bacterial count), sinusitis, candidiasis, hypo/hyperthyroid, learning disabilities such as hyperactivity and attention deficit disorder, and menstrual and/or hormonal difficulties…just to name a few.

Over-consumption of wheat can also lead to a sensitized intestinal tract, which is a big contributor to personal discomfort.  I understand there’s a cascade of deterioration as described below:

Normal digestive tract then…

over-consumption of wheat then…

intestinal dysbiosis then…

heightened intestinal immune response then…

degradation of the intestinal lining then…

pancreatic dysfunction (insulin and digestive enzyme deficiency) then…

parasitic infection susceptibility then…

inability to absorb micro-nutrients then…

absorption of un-digested, antigenic proteins… ultimately leading to…

degraded health, lost vitality, and even chronic illness and disease.

While there’s no substitute for moderation when it comes to wheat and the other gluten containing grains (oats, rye and barley), there is a product that can help you when you’ve over-indulged in them.  Glutenzyme is an enzyme product that is designed specifically to break down the proteins within wheat that are very hard to digest.  With the use of Glutenzyme, you can improve your body’s ability to digest and process wheat and similar grains.  A very popular product in Europe, Glutenzyme can help relieve gastric distress, bloating, constipation, diarrhea and other symptoms associated with wheat/gluten intolerance.  People who use Glutenzyme may lose a good bit of water weight when undigested grains seen as a toxin are reduced and inflammation in the bowel is decreased.  My patients tell me they feel lighter and less “bloated”.  They also feel more energetic and have greater mental clarity than they can ever remember!

If you suspect you suffer from wheat intolerance or allergy, I recommend you contact your Health Coach or Doctor for testing and diagnosis.  Your Health Coach will help you set realistic health improvement goals and begin the vitamin, mineral, and supplemental regimen you need to return yourself to the health, energy, and vitality you deserve.

Ovulatory Disorders

Ovulatory disorders

Which is the leading reason of female infertility?

More than 25% of cases of infertility fall in the category of  ovulatory disorders.  Ovulatory disorders, like irregular ovulation or a complete lack of ovulation (anovulation), are usually due to a hormonal imbalance.  Too much prolactin, a milk-producing hormone that suppresses ovulation, or too many androgens (produced mostly by the ovaries and adrenal glands), are considered major reasons behind ovarian dysfunction.  The imbalance of any of these types of hormone may lead to ovulatory dysfunction such that eggs do not develop properly or are not released from the follicles of the ovaries.

Signs of ovulatory disorders:  Women who are suffering from these disorders may not menstruate for several months.  Others may have vaginal bleeding even though they are not ovulating.

Some causes other than hormonal imbalances may involve:

  • Eating disorders,
  • Other medical disorders,
  • Oligo-ovulation is a disorder in which ovulation doesn’t occur on a regular basis, and the menstrual cycle may differ from the normal cycle of 21 to 35 days.
  • Exercising or dieting excessively may also stop ovulation.

How is Ovulatory Dysfunction diagnosed?

Medical history is helpful in diagnosing ovulatory dysfunction.

There are some tests that may be required to confirm the dysfunction.  One or more of the following tests will be a diagnostic tool to manage the problem further.

1.  FSH blood level: This isa blood test which is used to evaluate the amount of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH).  It is mostly used to test if a woman is approaching menopause.

2.  Progesterone blood level: Ablood test that measures the amount of progesterone in blood to diagnose if ovulation has occurred.

3.  Endometrial biopsy: A sample of endometrial tissue is examined to evaluate if it is developed enough to support a pregnancy.  The endometrial tissue may support the diagnosis of ovarian dysfunction in a woman.

4.  Ultrasound:  A scan may see if the follicles are developing normally.  High frequency sound waves are used to evaluate the follicular size.  Small ovaries with a few small follicles may be a sign of various medical conditions that may affect ovarian function.

Ovulatory dysfunction must be considered when a woman has had a tubal reversal and is attempting pregnancy. Although the chances of conceiving after a tubal reversal are good, even secondary to tubal ligation, disorders of ovulation must be considered.  With a tubal reversal and proper treatment of ovulatory dysorders, most women are able to get pregnant again.

Complex diagnostics in patients with colonic polyps and polyposis

Objective

Development of diagnostic and prognostic criteria of severity of the disease and the risk of malignization of colonic polyps for health care institutions of different levels, using modern diagnostic methods (virtual colonoscopy, methods of molecular genetics).

Materials and methods

There are analyzed the diagnostic and treatment outcomes of 183 patients with colonic polyps and polyposis treated at the Republican Coloproctology Research Center (RCPRC) and Republican Oncology Research Center (RORC) of the Ministry of Health of Uzbekistan in 1998-2008.

The diagnosis of colonic polyps and polyposis has been made based on the outcomes of clinical-instrumental and laboratory tests based on the classification of V.D.Fedorov, 1983.

Forms and stages of the diffuse colonic polyposis were differentiated in line with recommendations of V.P.Rivkin, 2006 and based on morphological analysis of biopsy specimens of colonic mucosa.

For diagnostic purposes all examined patients undergone complex clinical-instrumental examination, which included endoscopy, X-ray examination, including virtual colonoscopy (VC) multispiral computed tomography (MSCT) using the device of PHILIPS. There were also performed clinical blood and urine tests, as well as biochemical blood assay.

Genetic part of the survey has been done in 64 patients with different forms of polyps and polyposis and in 20 healthy volunteers with unburdened genetic background.

Genetic research has been done in collaboration with the Laboratory of Human Functional Genomics at the Institute of Genetics and Embryology of Uzbek Academy of Sciences. DNA from the tissue specimens has been isolated using Wizard Genomic DNA Purification Kit (Promega, США) following the producer instructions. For PCR-amplification of fragments of the genes being analyzed the appropriate primers have been used.

Results

The age of patients ranged from 14 до 78.  There were 111 (60.7%) males and 72 (39.3%) females (Table 1). Ratio of males and females made 1.54: 1

Table 1

Distribution of patients by sex and age, n=183

Age of patients, years

Males

Females

Total

abs.

%

abs.

%

abs.

%

Under 20

5

2,7

4

2,2

9

4,9

20-29

26

14,2

20

11,0

46

25,2

30-39

15

8,2

4

2,2

19

10,4

40-49

21

11,5

21

11,5

42

23,0

50-59

24

13,1

20

11,0

44

24,1

60 and older

20

11,0

3

1,5

23

12,5

Total

111

60,7

72

39,3

183

100,0

Average age

43,7±1,45

39,7±1,56

42,2±1,08

Duration of disease varied in wide range. Duration from 1 month to 1 year was in 36 (16,7±2,9%) patients, from 1 to 2 years – in 65 (35,5±3,5%), from 2 to 3 years – in 32 (17,5±2,8%), more than 5 years – in 34 (18,6±2,9%) patients. Duration of the disease up to 1 year was mainly in patients with solitary polyps and juvenile form of diffuse polyposis, from 1 to 2 years – in patients with hyperplastic form, 2-5 years – with adenomatous and adenopapillomatous form.

Solitary polyps are found in 52 (28,4±3,3%), multiples – in 45 (24,6±3,2%), diffuse colonic polyposis – in 71 (38,8±3,6%) patients, out of them Peuta-Jeghers syndrome was found in 13 (7,1±1,9%);  in 15 (8,2±2,0) patients malignant polyposis of colon has been found.

By the level of dissemination of polyps the patients are distributed as follows: distal lesions in 135 (73,8±3,3%), left part of colon in 18 (9,8±2,2%), subtotal in 7 (3,8±1,4%), total in 23 (12,6±2,5%) patients. Mild cases were found in 62 (33,9±3,5%) patients, moderate – in 78 (42,6±3,7%), severe – in 43 (23,5±3,1%).

Distribution of patients by forms and stages of diffuse polyposis of colon: proliferating diffuse polyposis has been found in 35 (19,1±2,9%) patients, out of them I (hyperplastic) stage – in 25 (13,7±2,5%) patients, adenomatous – in 78 (42,6±3,7%), adenopapillomatous polyposis – in 54 (29,5±3,4%). According to publications data while making biopsy it is important to pay attention to the technique of sampling and histological sections preparation.  [1,7,15,18,21,31]. While biopsy sampling during colonofiberscopy, it is important to make electroscission at polyps peduncle with minimal traumatizing of its rest parts.  While taking a sample the excisions has to include the end, peduncle and base of the polyp. The main clinical features of polyposis included symptoms of intoxication, extraintestinal and gastric manifestations (Table 2). The most frequent symptoms were: melena (65,6±3,5%), general weakness (59,6±3,6%), abdominal pains (28,4±3,3%), weight loss (24,6±3,2%), anal pains (16,4±2,7%).

Table 2

Main clinical manifestations of colonic polyps and polyposis, n=183

Claims

Number of patients

абс.

%

Intestinal manifestations:

– melena

– abdominal pains

– bleeding

– presence of pus and mucus

– tenesmus

– meteorism

– diarrhea

– constipation

120

52

67

16

11

8

2

2

65,6±3,5

28,4±3,3

36,6±3,6

8,7±2,1

6,0±1,8

4,4±1,5

1,1±0,8

1,1±0,8

Intoxication symptoms:

– general weakness

– weight loss

– dizziness

– dry mouth

109

45

17

2

59,6±3,6

24,6±3,2

9,3±2,1

1,1±0,8

Extraintestinal manifestations:

– anal pains

– prolapse of polyps during defecation act

– availability of formation in anal part

– liquid stools and gas incontinence

30

9

4

3

16,4±2,7

4,9±1,6

2,2±1,1

1,6±0,9

Gastric manifestations:

– appetite loss

– nausea

– vomiting

8

2

2

4,4±1,5

1,1±0,8

1,1±0,8

Amongst the complications the most frequent ones were hemorrhages (36.6±3.6 %), hemorrhagic anemia (29,0±3,4%), abdominal pain syndrome (27.9±3.3%) (Table 3).

Table 3

Complications of the underlying disease in patients with colonic polyps and polyposis, n =183

Complications

Number of patients

Abs.

%

Bleeding

67

36.6±3.6

Hemorrhagic anemia

53

29.0±3.4

Abdominal pains symdrom

51

27.9±3.3

Chronic colonic obstruction

18

9.8±2.2

Malignization

15

8.2±2.0

Cachexy

9

49±1.6

Strictures

9

4.9±1.6

Acute colonic obstruction

8

4.4±1.5

Pericolic abscesses

5

2.7±1.2

Perforations

2

1.1±0.5

Paraproctitis

1

0.5±0.5

Molecular-genetic research helped to find out, that the diffuse colonic polyposis syndrome is caused by germinal mutation of the suppressor gene of the tumor – APC (Adenomatous polyposis coli). Besides, APC has the oncogene function, because some mutant forms of APC not only lose their normal function, but become able to fix and inactivate normal APC protein. Occurrence of the somatic mutation in a normal allele leads to inactivation of both alleles and occurrence of sporadic colorectal cancer cases [5,6,8,14,16].

Out of 64 genetically tested patients mutation in APC gene has been found in 51 (79.7±5.0%), in such a case, the frequency of its occurrence depended on the form of the disease. In 5 patients there were solitary, in 15 – multiple and in 44 – diffuse polyps, and out of the latter the Peuts-Jeghers syndrome was found in 11. In 16 patients there were found distal, in 8 – left side, in 6 – subtotal and in 34 – total affection of colon. Status of 10 patients was qualified as light, 20 patients – moderate, and in 34 patients as severe. 27 patients have undergone different operations on the occasion of multiple polyps and polyposis. In 27 patients there were found concomitant diseases (cardiovascular, lung, liver, gastro-intestinal tract and endocrine system). In 9 patients there was revealed malignant polyposis.

Availability of mutations of АРС gene made significant influence on the course of the pathologic process. Thus, there were no mutations of APC gene found in patients with light course of disease. In patients with moderate and severe course the frequency of mutations made 85.0±8.0% and 100.0±0.0% accordingly. There is also revealed the connection between the frequency of mutations and the extent of the pathologic process: in cases with distal and left side spread of polyps the frequency of mutations was 56.3±12.4 и 75.0±15.3%, whereas in cases of subtotal and total affection of colon – mutations were found in all examined patients (100.0±0.0%). Also if in absence of mutations there were mainly affected distal parts of colon, polyps were of small size and no complications of the underlying disease were found, in patients with mutations there was found subtotal and total affection of colon, with polyps in shape of “bunch of grape”, big size polyps on the flat base. In patients with mutations in APC gene, especially those with Peuts-Jeghers syndrome, there was found total affection of colon with development of constrictions, malignization, polyps in shape of “bunch of grape”. Quite frequently there was noted cachexy, posthaemorrhagic anemia. All the abovementioned indicate that molecular-genetic testing has to be included to the compulsory diagnostic complex of testing in cases of colic polyps and polyposis. It will allow to improve the results of surgical treatment, facilitating choice of adequate operative tactics. In patients with mutations in APC gene (mainly in cases of Peuts-Jeghers syndrome) there was also found affection of upper parts of gastro-intestinal tract and gallbladder with polyps.

According to results of ultrasound scanning in 2 out of 11 patients with Peuts-Jeghers syndrome there were found polyps of gallbladder. (Picture 1)

Picture 1

During colonofiberscopy and irrigography in patients without mutations in the gene there were found mainly lesions of distal parts of colon, while in patients with mutations in the APC gene there were found the signs of toxic dilatation, stricture, filling defects and “bovine eye” syndrome.

Thus, in patients with multiple and diffuse polyposis, especially those with family polyposis and Peuts-Jeghers syndrome the APC gene mutations are found with high frequency (up to 100%) There is definite connection between availability of mutations in APC gene and inherited predisposition, course of the pathologic process, its extent of spread, clinical manifestations and complications.

Discussion of the results and justification of the complex diagnostic’s algorithm

The main screening principles are based on 3 principles: while making decision on the method and time of starting the screening the family and individual risk factors have to be evaluated; physician has to recommend the further examination in case of positive results of screening; patient has to be informed about both positive and negative sides of each test, in order to make informed choice.

One of the most accessible screening methods is occult blood feces analysis. However, according to literature [2, 3, 4, 15, 16, 19], its sensitivity in patients with colic polyps and polyposis does not exceed 50%. According to our data it is between 0 and 17.6%, depending on  the size of polyps: 0-1% in polyps up to 1 mm, 8-17% – in polyps from1 to 7 mm, and 17.6% – when the diameter of polyp is more than 8 mm. Besides the specificity of this method, according to our data, is 7.2% in polyps with diameter of 1-7 mm, and 11.3% in cases when diameter iss 8 mm and bigger. The diagnostic accuracy is 1% in diameter of the polyp up to 1 mm; 3% if diameter is 1-7 mm, and 9% if diameter is 8 mm and higher.

The other widely used method – sigmoidoscopy, exceeds in its sensitivity the previous one. In polyp sizes up to 1 mm, 1-7 mm, 8 mm and more it constitutes accordingly 3-8, 18-31 and 58,2%, specificity of this method is – 2,1; 22,4 and 61,5%, and diagnostic value – 4, 18 and 31%. From the other side sigmoidoscopy in cases of big polyps and strictures does not allow examining the small intestine and colon fully, besides it is quite painful procedure, which frightens patients.

Colonofiberoscopy is the third by its information value instrumental method. [12,15.20,24,28,29]. According to our data sensitivity of this method makes 28-42, 60-70 и 87,5%, specificity – 58,3; 64,5 и 90,1%, and diagnostic preciseness – 53,6; 70,3 и 80,7%, in cases of size of polyps up to 1 mm, 1-7 mm, 8 mm and higher – accordingly. The method of course requires thorough preparation of the patient, full cleaning of colon. Quite often there are noted false-positive results and impossibility of morphological diagnostics. One can speak about successful colonofiberscopy only in case of reaching by the device to head of blind colon. However if there is a stricture and colon deformation, the diagnostic possibilities and value of the method are significantly reduced.   At the same time colonofiberscopy does not provide information about the internal structure of polypoid formations and does allow identifying the depth of invasion of the malignant tumor to the colic wall, its invasion to neighboring organs, as well as about the condition of regional lymphatic nodes.

Since 1994 for diagnostics of colonic lesions there is successfully used non-invasive method VC, based on analysis of multiple sections, obtained using CT scan [22,23,27,30,31.33.32,34,35,36]. Our results have shown, that in cases with polyps size less than 1, 1-7 mm, 8 mm and more the sensitivity of VC makes respectively 75-80, 100 and 100%, specificity – 85,1; 98,6 and 100%, diagnostic accuracy – 95,3; 100 and 100%. At the same time, this method cannot allow to receive biopsy material from lesion focus and make morphological investigation.

While developing the algorithm of the complex diagnostic of polyps and polyposis we proceeded from the following principal requirements:

1. All levels of the health care system have to be involved to the complex diagnostic process – primary health care (GPs at rural doctor’s stations and city family polyclinics), secondary care facilities (central rural and town polyclinics and hospitals), tertiary care (regional and republican specialized coloproctology centers).

2. Available diagnostic methods have to be applied taking into account both the level and possibilities at health care facilities, as well as the individual patient’s condition.

3. Complex diagnostics has to help to divide patients into groups, according to severity and spreading of the process, which identify the tactics of surgical and rehabilitation treatment. In this aspect the identification and forecasting of malignization of polyps is crucial.

Based on the results of our long-term observation and analysis of global experience, as well as taking into account the abovementioned requirements, we divided the patients into 4 groups, based on the disease severity and colic polyp’s malignization risk levels. We developed the complex of diagnostic and prognostic criteria for evaluation of severity of disease and malignization risk for different level health care facilities (Table 4).

Table 4

Complex of diagnostic and prognostic criteria to identify the severity of disease and malignization risk of colic polyps

Clinical criteria

Number and sizes of polyps

Histology

Diagnostic methods

1 group – minimal risk of malignization

Clinical signs: blood in feces, anemia, possibly tenesmus and dropping out polyps during defecation act, family anamnesis, general symptoms (anemia, weight loss, abdominal pain, anal pain etc.)

Solitary polyps with size no more than 5-8 mm, up to 10 units, rectum is affected more frequently

Adenomatous and villous polyps are prevailing

Primary health care facilities: «hemoccult test»,

Secondary health care facilities (surgical depatrments): + oesophagogastrodudenofiberoscopy, anoscopy, rectoscopy, biopsy

2 group – moderate risk of malignization

Pathologic discharge and frequent liquid bloody stools, in combination with abdominal pain and meteorism, post hemorrhagic anemia, possibly tenesmus and drop-outs of polyps during defecation act.

Multiple polyps with size no bigger than 15 мм, up to 50-100 units, more frequently rectum and distal part of sigmoid colon is involved.

Proliferation, hyperplastic stage of polyposis

Secondary and tertiary health care facilities (proctology units): Oesophagogastroduodenofiberoscopy, colonofiberoscopy, biopsy, preferably virtual colonoscopy

3 group – significant risk of malignization

Pathologic discharges, frequent fluid bloody stools, combined with abdominal pain, meteorism, post hemorrhagic anemia, and cachexia.

Diffuse polyposis, initial stages of Peuts-Jeghers, Trucot, Gardner syndromes, polyps no bigger than 15-30 mm, 100 – 500 units, affection of rectum and colon.

Adenopapillomatous stage of diffuse polyposis with  proliferation and dysplasia foci in epithelium of polyps with various manifestation degrees

Republican coloproctology and oncology centers: oesophagogastroduodenofiberoscopy, colonofiberoscopy, biopsy, virtual colonoscopy, preferably molecular-genetic research (APC, PCR)

4 group – high risk of malignization

Young age, family predisposition, presence of pigment and lentiginosis spots on the red border and hand fingers, enteric manifestations, anemia and cachexy

Total diffuse colic polyposis, intestinal polyposis (Peuts-Jeghers, Trucot, Gardner syndromes)

Peuts-Jeghers polyps with malignization or transformation of carcinoma in situ into adenocarcinoma within mucosa and myenteron

Republican proctology and oncology departments and centers, oesophagogastroduodenofiberoscopy, colonofiberoscopy, biopsy, virtual colonoscopy, oncomarkers: carcinoempryonal antigen, molecular-genetic tests (АРС, PCR)

While developing the complex we identified at first the 4 risk groups for malignization – minimal, moderate, significant and high, based on the need to apply different surgical tactics in each of them. There were developed main clinical criteria for identification with special focus on number and size of polyps, as well as their minute structure.

For each risk group there were identified diagnostic methods, relevant to the specific health care facility to ensure continuity in the process of examination of patients on all levels – from primary up to tertiary one. It facilitates timely send patients to the relevant facility – starting from family doctors and ending by the level of specialized proctology and oncology centers. Special emphasis has been done in the groups of moderate and especially high risk groups for use of the most up-to-date methods – virtual colonoscopy (VC) and PCR. VC, being the most high-informative and valuable method in diagnostics of polyps and polyposis, at the same time is still quite expensive and does not provide full answer in terms of extent or risk of malignization. Complementing it with PCR allows to assess the degree of malignization and, accordingly, to have more differential approach to the choice of surgical treatment tactics.

Conclusions:

1. Early diagnostics and effective treatment of patients with colic polyps and polyposis requires improvement of screening and diagnostics system on all levels of health care system – starting from GPs and ending by coloproctologist and oncologists working at republican specialized centers – through identification of risk groups on the basis of both severity and malignization risk criteria.

2. In order to make efficient choice of the best surgical tactics in patients with colic polyps and polyposis, the complex of diagnostic examination of these patients has to contain modern high-informative non-invasive diagnostic methods, including the ones of molecular genetics for forecasting malignization processes, as well as virtual colonoscopy for assessment of extent and character of a lesion.

3. The developed complex of diagnostic and prognostic criteria of disease severity and risks of malignization of colic polyps meets all necessary requirements of early and effective diagnostics, and can be recommended for wide implementation in health care facilities of all levels.

References:

  1. Abdullakhodjaeva M.S. Modern approaches in research of pathology and pathogenesis of the main disease of human: Commencement address. – Tashkent, 2007. – P. 6 – 8.
  2. Agapov M.Y., Khamoshin A.V. Screening of colorectal cancer: Methodic elaboration for physicians. – Vladivostok, 2002. – 28 p.
  3. Axel E.M., Davydov M.I., Ushakova T.I. Malignant neoplasms of gastro-intestinal tract: main statistical indicators and trends //Modern oncology. – 2001. – №4. – P.141-145.
  4. An V.K., Rivkin V.L. Urgent proctology. – Medicine, 2002.
  5. Analysis of somatic K-ras mutations in colonic polyps //Sazonova M.A., Vaganov Y.E., Korchagina E.L. et. al.// Medical Genetics.-2005.-№6.-P.263.
  6. Anichkov N.M., Kvetnoy I.M., Konovalov S.S. Biology of neoplastic growth (molecular-medical aspects). – Sanct-Petersburg, Prime Euro-Sign, 2004.
  7. Aruin L.I., Kapuller L.L., Isakov V.A. Morphological diagnostics of diseases of stomach and intestine. – Мedicine, 1998. – P. 412-450.
  8. Babin V.A., Mushkin O.N., Dubinin A.V. Molecular aspects of symbiosis in host-micro flora system. //Russian Journ. Hepatol. Coloproctol. – 1998. – №6. – P.76-82.
  9. Barsoukov Y.A., Knysh V.I. Modern opportunities of treatment of colorectal cancer. //Modern oncol. – 2006. – V.8, №2. – P.7-11.

10.  Garkavtseva R.F., Kozoubskaya T.P. “Genetics of gastro-intestinal tract cancer”. Clinical Oncology. Мedicine:  2002,  № 2.-  P.12-15

11.  Kniazev M.V. Is it possible to reduce colorectal cancer morbidity. //”Attending doctor” М.: 2003 № 2-P 31-34.

12.  Pobedinskiy A.A. The role of colonoscopy in diagnostics and treatment of colonic polyps. International conference “Adaptation-compensation mechanisms of regulation of body functions in the modern environment conditions”. – Gomel, –2000.

13.  Portnoy L.M. The place of modern traditional radiology in diagnostics of colonic tumors // Methodical textbook. –  Moscow. 2000. – V. 27, P.11

14.  The spectrum of somatic mutations in APC genes, k – Ras and TP53 in Russian patients with colorectal cancer and precancerous diseases of colon. /Kostin P.A., Generosov E.V., Zakharzhevskaya et al. // Russian Journ. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., Coloproctol. – 2008. – №4. – P.53-62.

15.  Yakoutin N.A., Gorban V.A., Zozoulia M.V. Diagnostics of precancerous diseases and initial forms of colic cancer at pre-admission stage. //Problems of Coloproctology. – Мedicine, 2002. – P. 502 – 507.

16.  Adler G., Fiocchi C., Vorobiev G.J., Lasebnik L.B. Inflammatory Bowel Disease-Diagnostic and Therapevtic Stratigies// Falk Symposium 154. – 2007. – P.237.

17.   Akemi Ito. Indications and limitations of endoscopic surgery on colorectal tumors Digestive Endoscopy,V.12, 2000, P.16

18.   Belous Т.А.. Pathomorphology of precancerous conditions of colon.//Russian J. Of Gastroenterology, Hepathology and Coloproctology. – 2002. – № 4.0. –P.50-56.

19.  Bond J.H. Polyp Guideline: diagnosis, treatment, and surveillance for patients with colorectal polyps //Amer. J. Gastroenterol. –2000. – Vol.95, №11. – P.46–54.

20.  Bories E, Pesenti C, Monges G, Lelong B, Moutardier V, Delpero JR, Giovannini M. Endoscopic mucosal resection for advanced sessile adenoma and early-stage colorectal carcinoma. Endoscopy 2006; 38: 231-235

21.  Cherkasov M.F. Opportunities of screening method in colorectal cancer case finding. // Actual issues of Coloproctology., Moscow, Medicine, 2006

22.  CT colonography predictably overestimates colonic length and distance to polyps compared with optical colonoscopy / Duncan JE, McNally MP, Sweeney WB, et al // AJR Am J. Roentgenol. – 2009. – Vol.193, N5. – P.1291-5.

  1. CT colonography: accuracy of initial interpretation by radiographers in routine clinical practice / Burling D, Wylie P, Gupta A, et al  // Clin Radiol. – 2010. – Vol.65, 2. – P.126-32.

24.  Endoscopic mucosal resection for colonic non-polypoid neoplasms /Ning-Yao Su, Chen-Ming Hsu, Yu-Pin Ho et al. //Amer J. Gastroenterol. – 2005. – Vol.100. – P.2174-2179.

25.  Greenhalh T. Basics of Evidence Based Medicine./Transl. from Engl.- M.Geotar-Med. – 2004. –P. 240.

26.  Identification of a chromosome 18q gene which is altered in colorectal cancer /Fearon E.R., Cho K.R., Nigro J.M. et al. //Science. – 1990. – Vol.247. – P.49-56.

27.  Khomoutova E.Y., Ignatiev Y.T. Multispiral computed virtual colonoscopy in diagnostics of colonic pathology (Review)//Med. Visulisation. – 2008. – №5. – p.73.

28.  Ming-Yao Su, Chen-Ming Hsu, Yu-Pin Ho et al. Endoscopic mucosal resection for colonie non-polypoid neoplasma// Ann. J. Gastroenterol.-2005. –Vol. 100. –P.2174-2179.  Endoscopic mucosal resection for colonic non-polypoid neoplasms /Ning-Yao Su, Chen-Ming Hsu, Yu-Pin Ho et al. //Amer J. Gastroenterol. – 2005. – Vol.100. – P.2174-2179.

29.  Nakajima T. Problem of total colonoscopy for mass screening of colorectal cancer //Dis. Colon. Rectum. – 2004. – Vol.47. – P.1052.

30.  Pickhard P.J. Computed tomographic virtual colonoscopy to screen for colorectal neoplasia in asymptomatic adults //New Engl. J. Med. – 2003. – Vol.349. – P.2191-2200.

31.  Portielje J.E.A. IL-12: a promising adjuvant for cancer vaccination //Cancer Immunol. Immunother. – 2003. – Vol.52. – P.133-144.

32.  Rivera M. Virtual colonoscopy //Gastroenterology. – 2003. – Vol.3. – P.284-287.

33.  Rubito C.A. Classification of Colorectal Polyps: Guidelines for the Endoscopist //Endoscopy. – 2002. – Vol. 112. – P.226 – 236.

34.  Suuzuk K, Rockey DC, Dachman AH.CT colonography: advanced computer-aided detection scheme utilizing MTANNs for detection of “missed” polyps in a multicenter clinical trial // Med Phys. – 2010. – Vol.37, N 1. – P.12-21.

35.  Thornton E, Morrin MM, Yee J. Current status of MR colonography // Radiographics. – 2010. – Vol.30, N 1. – P.201-18.

36.  Virtual colonoscopy: procedure./ Khomoutova E.U., Ignatieva Y.T., Skripkin D.A., Phillipova Y.G.//Radiology – Practice. – 2009. – №2. – P.21-27.

Preventive Measures to Avoid Fibroids- Fibroid Tumor Causes, Symptoms and Treatments – Several Ways of Fibroid Tumors Treatment

A fibroid is a mass of tissue that is formed in the pelvis. A fibroid is a non-cancerous and benign tumor. It may be formed in any part of the pelvis, but, are seen most prominently in the uterus. The fibroid formed in the uterus are known as uterine fibroid tumor. Fibroid tumors are found only in women after puberty. Also, they commonly occur in women between the age group 25 to 35 years. They are rarely found in women who are below 20 years of age. After formation, fibroid tumors constantly keep on growing. During menopause, the fibroid stops growing and sometimes even disappears. What are the causes of fibroid tumors then?

Fibroid Tumors Causes
The exact cause of fibroid tumors are unknown. However, doctors believe that malfunction or abnormal function of estrogen (a female hormone) can result in the growth of fibroids. Therefore, if a woman takes contraceptives or supplements containing estrogen, there are higher chances for growth of fibroid tumors. Similarly, during pregnancy, the body of females naturally produce excess estrogen which can also result in formation of fibroids. What are the signs and symptoms of fibroid tumors? Let us have a look.

Fibroid Tumors Symptoms
Excessive bleeding is the classical symptom of fibroid tumors. Heavy bleeding is observed during all the 4-5 days of menstruation. Sometimes it is also seen that the periods last longer. Due to excess blood loss, anemia can be developed in women. Sometimes, bleeding or spotting is also observed between two menstrual cycles. The following are the other symptoms of fibroid tumors:

  • Abdominal pain
  • Swelling of the abdomen
  • Backache
  • Pain in hips

Sometimes infertility can also be one of the signs or complication of fibroid tumor. Presence of fibroid does not directly affect pregnancy but can causes problems in it. If the fibroid is located in the uterus, it can occupy the space meant for the baby. On the other hand, the fibroids developed in other parts of the female reproductive system can even cause an obstacle in the path of the fertilized egg when reaching its proper place. Most of the times, fibroid tumors are smaller in size and disappear at menopause. However, they need to be treated if they start causing problems. Following are the different fibroid tumors treatments available to treat fibroids.

Fibroid Tumors Treatment
The location and size of the fibroid tumor and the age of the woman play an important role in deciding the treatment method to be adopted for fibroid tumors. If the fibroid develops during the time of menopause (between 43-45 years of age), there is hardly any necessity to treat it as it disappears after menopause. On the other hand, fibroids that are very small in size also do not need to be treated. They can be treated with medications. On the other hand, certain fibroid tumors are larger in size and are located in complicated places. Therefore, they need to be treated with the help of surgical procedures.

Myomectomy is the surgical procedure that is used for the removal of tumors. Although there are chances of blood loss, this is an effective technique. It is also very effective in treating multiple fibroids. If a woman develops a fibroid at an early age, there are higher chances of her getting it again. However, multiple Myomectomy can lead to problems and complications. Another surgery for fibroid tumors treatment is Hysterectomy. It is the complete removal of the uterus. Hysterectomy is undertaken only when the tumor creates problems with other organs due to its large size. Hysterectomy is also undertaken for women who do not wish to be pregnant again. Hysterectomy is also considered as an effective treatment for fibroid tumors. Sometimes, as an alternative for surgeries, certain drugs are taken for fibroid tumors treatment. However these drugs need to be taken regularly and failing to do so can result in making the tumor regain its original size. Read more on women’s health.

In order to make fibroid tumors treatment effective, it is very essential to identify the symptoms as early as possible. There are no preventive measures to avoid fibroids. However, a woman should undertake regular check ups in order to spot and diagnose such abnormalities and treat them as soon as possible.

Discover A Simple Holistic System For Curing uterine fibroids and PCOS Once And For All using 100% Guaranteed All-Natural Method.
Click Here –>Fibroids Miracle

Ganglion Cysts – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment Methods

A ganglion cyst is a tumor or swelling on top of a joint or the covering of a tendon. It is a fluid filled sac which can be felt below the skin. The cause of these cysts is unknown although they may form in the presence of joint or tendon irritation or mechanical changes. It is also known as a wrist cyst, Bible cyst, or dorsal tendon cyst. It is usually attached to a tendon sheath in the hand or wrist or connected with an underlying joint; however, some have no obvious connection to any structures. It may be soft or hard, may or may not be painful, and may get bigger or smaller on its own. It looks like a sac of liquid (cyst). Inside the cyst is a thick, sticky, clear, colorless, jellylike material. Most commonly, ganglions are seen on the wrist (usually the back side) and fingers, but they can also develop around joints on the shoulder, elbow, knee, hip, ankle and foot. The ganglion cyst often resembles a water balloon on a stalk (see Figure 2), and is filled with clear fluid or gel.

Ganglia can form around any joint but they are most frequently found in the wrist and ankles.Ganglion cysts may be single or multilobulated. They are smooth-walled, translucent, and white. They can increase in size when the tissue is irritated and often can “disappear” spontaneously. These masses or cysts appear to grow sometimes but they are not tumours or cancerous. Ganglion cysts, also known as Bible cysts, are more common in women, and 70% occur in people between the ages of 20-40. Ganglion cysts are generally asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic. Symptoms such as limitation of motion, pain, paresthesias, and weakness are possible. In most cases, ganglion cysts cause no pain and require no treatment. In many cases, ganglion cysts go away on their own. One common type of ganglion, called a mucous cyst, occurs with osteoarthritis of the hands. This type of ganglion is usually found at the joint nearest the fingernail.

Causes of Ganglion cysts

The common causes and risk factor’s of Ganglion cysts include the following:

The exact cause of the formation of ganglion cysts is still unknown.

A herniation of the synovial lining of joints and tendon sheaths.

A ganglion develops when a jelly-like substance accumulates in one of two places – a joint capsule or a tendon sheath – and causes it to balloon out.

Some type of injury.

A ganglion cyst might develop after something drops on the foot, if the foot was twisted while walking, or after too much stress was placed on a joint or tendon.

Regular, repetitive movement that stresses your wrist or hand.

Symptoms of Ganglion cysts

Some sign and symptoms related to Ganglion cysts are as follows:

The ganglion cyst usually appears as a bump (mass) that changes size.

The lump is usually soft and immobile.

In some cases, the lump is painful and aching, particularly those at the base of fingers.

Ganglion cysts on the finger may produce deformities of the fingernail.

Pain or tenderness at the site of the bump.

When the cyst is connected to a tendon, you may feel a sense of weakness in the affected finger.

The back of the hands and wrists are most commonly affected.

Treatment of Ganglion cysts

Here is list of the methods for treating Ganglion cysts:

Aspiration usually includes placing a needle into the cyst, drawing the liquid material out, injecting a steroid compound, and then splinting your wrist to keep it from moving.

A steroid solution is injected into the cyst. This is usually done just after aspiration.

If a ganglion cyst tends to reoccur, surgical removal may be recommended.

Acetaminophen (Tylenol) or other over-the-counter analgesics can be used to control mild pain.

Wearing shoes that do not rub the cyst or cause irritation may be advised. In addition, placing a pad inside the shoe may help reduce pressure against the cyst.

A brace or splint may be recommended to immobilize the wrist and reduce swelling.

Hepatitis -definition, Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Hepatitis – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment
Definition
Hepatitis known as an inflammation of the liver , is a gastroenterological disease. Hepatitis is generally categorized as a viral or non-viral hepatitis. Viral hepatitis can be considered “rapid” a position that comes on frequently with severe symptoms and for a short time or “chronic” a position that comes on slowly, may or may not have symptoms for a long time.
Lot of sickness and conditions that can lead to inflammation of the liver, for example, drugs, alcohol , chemicals, and autoimmune diseases ,which are categorize as a non viral cause & some viruses that cause inflame the liver, for example, the virus of mononucleosis and the cytomegalovirus can be categorize as a viral .However,Most viruses don’t impact on liver .But when doctors speak of viral hepatitis, they generally are referring to hepatitis caused by some specific viruses that primarily attack the liver .There are number of viruses that causes hepatitis. They have been called types A, B, C, D, E, F & G. All of these viruses can result an acute disease with appearance number of weeks including yellowing of the skin and eyes called as jaundice, dark urine, high fatigue, nausea, vomiting & abdominal pain. It can take various months to a year to experience fit again. The most common hepatitis viruses are types A, B, and C
Causes
Hepatitis is most generally caused by one of three viruses: A,B,C.
Hepatitis A virus : It is the one of the most common form of hepatitis also known as infectious hepatitis .It is a liver disease caused by the (HAV) hepatitis A virus .Hepatitis A can impact on any person. It (HAV) exist in the stools (feces or poop) of infected persons. HAV is spread when individual ingests something that is infected with HAV-contaminated stool ,in water, milk, and foods, especially in shellfish .
Hepatitis B virus : is a severe disease caused by a virus that harms the liver .It is commonly known as hepatitis B virus (HBV).It also called as serum hepatitis.It can cause a wide number of symptoms ranging from general malaise to lifelong infection, cirrhosis of the liver, liver cancer, liver failure, and death. HBV spreads by contaminated body fluids, such as blood, saliva, semen, vaginal fluids, tears, and urine, a infected blood transfusion ,
shared infected needles or syringes for injecting drugs ,sexual activity with an HBV-infected individual,transmission from HBV-infected mothers to their newborn infants.
Hepatitis C virus: is one of the common liver disease caused by a virus known as HCV(hepatitis C virus) .Infection with the hepatitis C virus can cause chronic liver disease and is the leading reason for liver transplant . HCV is spread by direct contact with an infected person’s blood, getting a tattoo or body piercing with unsterilized tools, sharing drug needles , sexual contact with infected person.
Symptoms
Hepatitis, in its primary stages, may produces flu-like symptoms, including:

  • Malaise
  • Mild fever
  • Muscle or joint pains
  • Appetite loss
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Slight abdominal pain
  • diarrhea
  • Fatigue

Hepatitis in its secondary stages i.e. if hepatitis progresses, its symptoms rarely serious or fatal embryonic to the liver as the source of sickness and rapidly progressing form leads to death. It symptoms, including:

  • Jaundice (yellowed skin, mucous membranes and whites of the eyes).
  • Foul breath .
  • Dark urine or tea-colored urine.
  • Light colored stools that may retain pus.
  • Itching.
  • Enlarged spleen.
  • Hives .

Treatments
There is no specific remedy for hepatitis A. Most cases of hepatitis A resolve themselves spontaneously.
The doctors prescribed rest is the only treatment for hepatitis B is rest, combined with a high protein, carbohydrate food to repair damaged liver cells and protect the liver.An antiviral agent called interferon is prescribed by the doctors if hepatitis B persists.
An antiviral agent called interferon is prescribed by the doctors if hepatitis B persists.
Hepatitis C is cured with a combination of pegylated interferon alfa-2b and ribavirin.
Currently, there is no efficacious treatment for hepatitis D and E.

Liver Cirrhosis – Symptoms and Causes Liver Cirrhosis

Cirrhosis is a term that refers to a group of chronic diseases of the liver in which normal liver cells are damaged and replaced by scar tissue, decreasing the amount of normal liver tissue. The distortion of the normal liver structure by the scar tissue interferes with the flow of blood through the liver. It also handicaps the function of the liver which, through the loss of normal liver tissue, leads to failure of the liver to perform some of its critically important functions.

The liver is the largest organ in the body and is a very important organ to keep the body functioning properly. It is involved in the processing of nutrients and fats, poisons or toxins that find their way into the body, hormones and medications. It controls blood clotting and produces proteins. So, cirrhosis of the liver can affect the functioning of the entire body.

Cirrhosis is a complication of many liver diseases that is characterized by abnormal structure and function of the liver. The diseases that lead to cirrhosis do so because they injure and kill liver cells, and the inflammation and repair that is associated with the dying liver cells causes scar tissue to form. The liver cells that do not die multiply in an attempt to replace the cells that have died. This results in clusters of newly-formed liver cells (regenerative nodules) within the scar tissue.

Symptoms Liver Cirrhosis

Liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma or hepatoma) can develop, particularly when cirrhosis is due to chronic hepatitis B or hepatitis C or alcoholism.
Liver cirrhosis does not develop overnight. It takes several years to develop. While liver cirrhosis is developing, there are usually no symptoms.

Causes Liver Cirrhosis

Blocked bile ducts, which causes bile to back up and damage the liver. NIDDK says that in babies, blocked bile ducts are most commonly caused by biliary atresia, a disease in which the bile ducts are absent or injured. In adults, the most common cause is primary biliary cirrhosis, a disease in which the ducts become inflamed, blocked, and scarred. Secondary biliary cirrhosis can happen after gallbladder surgery, if the ducts are inadvertently tied off or injured.

Chronic Bile Duct Blockage — This condition can occur at birth (biliary atresia) or develop later in life (primary biliary cirrhosis). The cause of the latter remains unknown. When the bile ducts outside the liver become narrowed and blocked, the condition is called primary sclerosing cholangitis. This condition is often associated with chronic ulceration of the colon (colitis).

Chronic hepatitis C – The hepatitis C virus ranks with alcohol as a major cause of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis in the United States. Infection with this virus causes inflammation of and low grade damage to the liver that over several decades can lead to cirrhosis.

Cirrhosis is the third most common cause of death after heart disorders and cancer among people aged 45 to 65. The scar tissue forms bands throughout the liver, destroying the liver’s internal structure and impairing the liver’s ability to regenerate itself or function.

Diseases caused by abnormal liver function, such as hemochromatosis, a condition in which excessive iron is absorbed and deposited into the liver and other organs, and Wilson’s disease, caused by the abnormal storage of copper in the liver.

Function Determines Code for Ureteral Stents or Catheters

Although stents and ureteral catheters have a lot in common, differences in how urologists use them mean reporting different codes for their placement and removal.

In urological circles, a stent represents a special ureteral catheter, such as a double-J or Gibbons stent, that is intended to be left indwelling for a period of time, usually to bypass an obstructive ureteral process such as stones, a tumor or stricture. The stent is constructed to remain with one end in the renal pelvis and the other end in the bladder. After a specific period of time, the stent is replaced (exchanged) or removed cystoscopically. You should report 52332 (Cystourethroscopy, with insertion of indwelling ureteral stent [e.g., Gibbons or double-J type]) for the placement of the stent. For its separate removal, use 52310 (Cystourethroscopy, with removal of foreign body, calculus, or ureteral stent from urethra or bladder [separate procedure]; simple). However, when you are billing for stent exchange, 52310 can never be billed at the same time as 52332 because it is bundled. Therefore, bill only 52332.

A ureteral catheter is used most often to inject contrast material into the collecting system of the kidney and ureter. This catheter is temporary and not intended to be used for long-term drainage. This type of catheter is also placed in the ureter for protection during a procedure within or outside the ureter. At the conclusion of the procedure, the catheter, unlike a stent, is removed. You should use 52005 (Cystourethroscopy, with ureteral catheterization, with or without irrigation, instillation, or ureteropyelography, exclusive of radiologic service) for the catheterization, which includes insertion and removal, says Jan Brunetti, CPC, billing coordinator for Urology Associates of Newport, R.I.

Coding Stent Scenarios

A typical stent scenario involves a patient who presents with left renal colic (788.0, Symptoms involving urinary system; renal colic), sepsis (038.40, Septicemia due to other gram-negative organisms; gram-negative organism, unspecified) and an obstructing left ureteral stone (592.1, Calculus of ureter). The urologist performs a cystoscopy and J stent placement to bypass the obstructing stone. For this procedure, you should report 52332.

Similarly, a patient has right hydroureteronephrosis (591, Hydronephrosis) secondary to an invading cervical carcinoma (180.0, Malignant neoplasm of cervix uteri; endocervix). The patient complains of right flank pain (788.0, Renal colic). The physician places a double-J stent to bypass the obstruction and relieve the pain and hydronephrosis. In this case, you should code 52332.

In another example, following the ureteroscopic extraction of a lower ureteral stone (592.1, Calculus of ureter), the urologist prophylactically places a double-J stent to avoid obstruction secondary to ureteral edema. You should report 52352 (Cystourethroscopy, with ureteroscopy and/or pyeloscopy; with removal or manipulation of calculus [ureteral catheterization is included]) and 52332 appended with CPT 52332 and CPT 52352.

In another example, a urologist ureteroscopically laser fragments a left ureteral stone and places a left ureteral double-J stent. Because of a right renal pelvic stone suspicion, the physician inserts a ureteral catheter into the right system and performs a right retrograde pyelogram. Here, you should code 52353 (… with lithotripsy [ureteral catheterization is included]), 52332-59 and 52005-59. Because the urologist placed the ureteral catheter contralat-erally into the right renal pelvis, this is considered a different segment of the urinary tract and is billable with modifier -59 appended to 52005. For private payers, you should bill for the bilateral ureteral catheters as indicated in the example above. In addition, link 793.5 to the procedures.

Similarly, following a ureteral catheter placement for a retrograde pyelogram in an acutely inflamed urinary system, the patient develops severe edema and ureteral obstruction (593.89, Other disorders of kidney and ureter; unspecified disorders of kidney and ureter; other). The next day, the urologist places a ureteral double-J stent to relieve the obstruction and pain. You should report the procedure on day one with 52005, and day two with 52332. Both codes have zero-day global periods, and no modifiers are needed.

Four Common Causes of Feline Vomiting

Occasional incidents of feline vomiting is usually nothing to worry about if your cat otherwise appears healthy. Mild conditions can cause your cat to vomit, but it can also be a symptom of a more serious disease. Some of the common causes include parasites, hairballs, and infections. Let’s take a look at some of these causes of feline vomiting.

Parasites

The first main cause of vomiting is an infestation of parasites. There are various species of worms that can live in your cat’s stomach or small intestine. You may be able to see them in your cat’s feces or vomit. It’s best to get your cat on deworming medication as soon as possible as an infestation can open your cat to other complications.

Hairballs

Hairballs are also a common cause of feline vomiting. They form as a result of ingested hair that your cat swallows while grooming. Although hairballs can be a problem with all cats, those with long hair develop them most often. To prevent them from forming, you could give your cat more fiber in his diet and groom him yourself on a daily basis.

Infections

The next reason your cat could be vomiting is because he has a viral infection. These viruses can affect the stomach or part of t he intestinal tract. It is also common for your cat to have diarrhea also. Most viral infections will go away after a few days when the body’s defenses kick in.

Diet

Your cat’s particular diet can also cause him to vomit. Various things like garbage, chocolate, or onions can also cause feline vomiting. Poisonous chemicals such as antifreeze can also be to blame. You should also make sure that your cat doesn’t ingest human medications. Your cat may also be simply eating his food too fast. This can be a problem in a multi-cat household where one cat fears another will eat his food.

Food Poisoning – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Food Poisoning is defined as a condition resulting from eating contaminated foods or consuming poisoned berries, mushrooms etc. The commonest cause of food poisoning is stale decomposed food which is contaminated by bacteria.

Food poisoning is defined as an illness caused by the consumption of food or water contaminated with bacteria and/or their toxins, parasites, viruses, or chemicals. Many persons who think they have the flu or a virus are really victims of mild cases of food poisoning, caused by bacteria and viruses found in food. You may have had mild food poisoning -with diarrhea and an upset stomach – but your mom or dad just called it a stomach bug or stomach virus. Many people have had first-hand experience of how unpleasant food poisoning can be, even for a fit and healthy person. And sometimes food poisoning can cause serious illness. Worldwide, diarrheal illnesses are among the leading causes of death. Travelers to developing countries often encounter food poisoning in the form of traveler’s diarrhea or “Montezuma’s revenge.” Additionally, there are new global threats to the world’s food supply through terrorist actions using food toxins as weapons It’s confusing, but one thing is for sure — the bacteria in the rotten leftovers weren’t good for you. But you can learn how to avoid those bad germs in food.

Food poisoning is the result of eating organisms or toxins in contaminated food You might think the solution is to get rid of all the bacteria. But it isn’t possible and you wouldn’t want to do it, even if you could. Typical symptoms include nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping, and diarrhea that come on suddenly (within 48 hours) of consuming a contaminated food or drink.

Causes of Food Poisoning

The common Causes of Food Poisoning :

· Toxic agents include poisonous mushrooms, improperly prepared exotic foods (such as barracuda), or pesticides on fruits and vegetables.
· Fresh fruits and vegetables can be contaminated if they are washed or irrigated with water that is contaminated with animal manure or human sewage. Staph food poisoning and shigellosis are often spread through contaminated water.
· Even though food poisoning is relatively rare in the United States, it affects between 60 and 80 million people worldwide each year and results in approximately 6 to 8 million deaths.
Symptoms of Food Poisoning
Some are common Symptoms of Food Poisoning :
· Abdominal cramps
· Abdominal pain and/or cramping
· Malaise (general uneasiness)
· Fever
· Headache
· Malaise (general uneasiness)
· Nausea
Treatment of Food Poisoning
Here is the list of the methods for treating Food Poisoning :
· The most common treatment for simple food poisoning is simply supportive care at home with clear liquids to stay hydrated, and after vomiting or diarrhea subside, the gradual return to eating beginning with a bland diet (such as rice, bread, potatoes and milk).
· The doctor may also treat any fever to make you more comfortable.
· Antivomiting and diarrhea medications may be given.
· Most food poisonings do not require the use of over-the-counter medicines to stop diarrhea, but they are generally safe if used as directed.
· In more severe cases, antibiotics (such as Cipro), if given early in the illness, can be used to shorten the length of time you are sick.

Peptic Ulcer, causes, symptoms and Unani Treatment

A peptic ulcer is the result of hyperacidity, which is caused by an increase in the hydrochloric acid in the stomach. This strong acid, secreted by the cells lining the stomach, erodes the inner lining of the stomach. Dietetic indiscretion such as overeating, taking of heavy meals or highly spiced foods, coffee, alcohol, and smoking are the main factors contributing to this condition.

Causes: There are several reasons of peptic ulcers. The major causes include excess intake of alcohol, smoking, unhealthy and stressful life style. Excess consumption of junk food, untimely food eating habit also led to peptic ulcer. Acidity and food poisoning may also lead to peptic ulcers. Other causes for peptic ulcer include cancer, side effects of certain medicines, etc. Other causes are the ingestion of certain drugs, food poisoning, certain infections, gout, emotional disturbances, stress, and nervous tension

Home Remedies for Peptic Ulcer

Given below are the simplest and the most effective home remedies for the treatment of peptic ulcers.

Fruits:

Among various other fruits, banana is considered as one of an effective fruit for treating peptic ulcer. Banana helps in lowering the acidic substance inside the body. Take 2-3 bananas mixed in a glass of milk for 4-5 times a day.

Similarly, wood apple ( bael ) is also very useful. Take few bael leaves and keep it into water overnight. Drain the mixture and take this 2-3 times a day.

Fenugreek (methi) seeds:

Take 2-3 tablespoon of fenugreek (methi) seeds and boil it in a glass ofwater. Add little amount of soil to it. Allow the mixture to boil till it become half of its constituent. Take this mixture 2-3 times a day, until the ulcer is not cured completely.

Milk:

Milk is really good for patient with peptic ulcer. Patient should take 2-3 glasses of water everyday. Warm milk containing drops of castor oil is also very good for treating peptic ulcer.

Vegetables:

Among vegetables cabbage is very useful for treating peptic ulcer. Cut cabbage into small pieces, allow the vegetable to boil in water till the constituent become half. Drain the mixture and take this 2-3 time a day. One can also add little amount of black pepper powder to it.

Drumsticks:

Drumstick leaves are also an effective home remedy for the treatment of peptic ulcer. Take 15-20 leaves of drumstick and make its paste. Mix this paste in fresh curd. Take this 2-3 times a day. This is one of the important home remedies for peptic ulcers.

Lemon:

Lemon extract or juice is also very effective in treating peptic ulcer. Prepare fresh lemon juice, add little amount of salt to it. This drink helps in digestion and hence helps in treating peptic ulcers. This is one of the best home remedies for peptic ulcers.

Others: An infusion of the leaves of wood apple is another effective remedy for this disease. Fifteen grams of leaves should be soaked overnight in 250 ml of water. In the morning this water should be strained and taken as a drink. The pain and discomfort will be relieved when this treatment is continued for a few weeks. bael leaves are rich in tannins which reduce inflammation and help in the healing of ulcers. The bad fruit taken in the form of a beverage also has great healing properties on account of it mucilage content. This substance forms a coating on the stomach mucosa and thus helps in the healing of ulcers.

The juices of raw vegetables, particularly carrot and cabbage, are beneficial in the treatment of peptic ulcers. Carrot juice may be taken either alone or in combination with spinach, or beet and cucumber. The formula proportions in case of the first combination are 300ml of carrot juice and 200 ml of spinach juice; and in case of the second combination, 300 ml of carrot juice and 100 ml each of beet and cucumber juice to make 500 ml of juice.

Diets for Peptic ulcer patient: The diet of the patient suffering from a peptic ulcer should be so planned as to provide adequate nutrition, while affording rest to the disturbed organs, maintaining continuous neutralisation of the gastric acid, inhibiting the production of acid, and reducing mechanical and chemical irritation. Milk, cream, butter, fruits, fresh raw and boiled vegetables, natural foods, and natural vitamin supplements constitute the best diet. Healthy food habit, balanced diet rich in food and vegetables are very important for keeping our body system healthy. Patient suffering from peptic ulcer should take diet rich in green leafy vegetable, fruits, milk, cheese, etc.

Unani Treatment: In Unani system of medicine plants, animals as well as mineral origin drugs are being used clinically for the treatment of this disease without any side effect. These are time tested, centuries old, safe for use and cost effective. However, there is a need to maintain their purity, quality and safety by subjecting to scientific validation. Unani physicians recommended the following steps for the treatment of peptic ulcer.

1. Use of easily digestable food

2. Avoid of corrosive drugs

3. Use of astringent drugs for binding effect of ulcers

4. Qurs Tabasheer, Qurs Mulaiyn,

5. Samagh arbi in case of oesophageal ulcer

6. Desiccant and cictrizent drugs are effective after complete clearing of slough from ulcers.

7. Jawarish Zanjabeel

Some of single drus as follows;

Khulanjan (Alpinia galangal wild), Khatmi (Althaea rosea linn), Alwa (Aloe barbadensis mill), Gaozban (Anchusa strignosa), Adrak (Zingiber officinale), Kalonji (Nigella sativa Linn), Asgand (Withania somnifera), Kutki (Picorhiza kurroa), Kela (Musa paradisiacal), Heel kalan (Amomum subulatum), Heel khurd (Elettaria cardamomum), Jaiphal (Myristica fragrans), Neem (Azadirachta indica) etc

19 Best Home Remedies for Acidity

Read this article to know the best Home Remedies for Acidity. First of all let me tell you what is Acidity?

Acidity refers to a set of symptoms caused by an inequity. More names for acidity are hyperacidity or acid dyspepsia. Acid reflux or Acidity is one of the most normal diseases that cause heart burns in the upper body

Acidity can be a result of inappropriate dietary regimen or stress. It is a problem which when left unattended to, results in peptic ulcer and other complications. It is quite a simple problem when it begins, but it can get out of hand easily if not taken critically. It means the excess secretion of acid by the gastric glands of the stomach.

The usual signs of heartburn are a burning sensation or pain in the stomach after one to four hours of a meal. The too much secretion of hydrochloric acid in the stomach causes acidity. Acidity can be a result of improper dietary regimen or stress

The too much secretion of hydrochloric acid in the stomach causes acidity. Some causes of acidity include Alcohol, caffeine, nicotine, chocolate, citrus, tomato, peppermint, fried and fatty foods, over-eating, stress, some medications, and being overweight. Acid Reflux Disease causes harms to the esophagus as the acidic contents from the stomach, containing acids and pepsin, pushes back to the esophagus since the sphincter develops into weak and can no-more prevent the contents from stomach from gushing back in esophagus

Skipping meals, not eating on time, fried and spicy food, stress, anxiety, insomnia, obesity, pregnancy, smoking, alcohol, and wearing tight clothes can give you hyperacidity and heartburn.

Acidity is a problem that occurs very commonly; so going in for medications every time doesn’t seem to be a very good thought. Some home remedies can be used to treat and prevent acidity.

Here is a list of some best Home Remedies for Acidity:

Home Remedies for Acidity

1) Eat a cup of vanilla ice cream or drink a glass of cold milk to get rid of acidity. This is an easy Home Remedy for Acidity

2) Raita prepared with fresh curd, grated cucumber, fresh coriander, tomato is a sure shot remedy in aiding digestion, and helps eliminate acidity.

3) Mint: Fresh mint juice taken every day or fresh mint leaves boiled in a cup of water and sipped slowly after meals also helps to keep the stomach acids at bay

4) Mint juice before meals keeps acidity at bay. This is another good Home Remedy for Acidity.

5) Chewing 5-6 basil leaves relieves flatulence and acidity.

6) Half a glass of fresh pineapple juice should be taken after a meal for treating and preventing acidity

7) A piece of jaggery or gur after lunch and dinner prevents acidity

8) A very simple remedy for acidity is thin butter-milk mixed with 1/4 teaspoon of black pepper powder

9) 9) One of the common Home Remedies for Acidity – Onion (pyaz): The juice of onions is an excellent remedy for acidity.

10) Habitual eating habits and a healthy diet can prevent acidity

11) Drink plenty of water (at least 6 to 8 glasses per day) and other fluids to maintain the acid balance in the stomach

12) A sherbet made with kokum and jeera reduces acidity

13) Lemon rind can also be eaten to prevent heartburn

14) A glass of cold milk provides instant relief. This is an effective Home Remedy for Acidity

15) Eat almonds to give relief to symptoms of acidity

16) Chew a few holy basil (tulsi ) leaves to get relief

17) Bananas, watermelon and cucumber have protective action against the acidity and heart burn

18) Lemon: Juice of one lemon mixed in half glass of water and ½ teaspoon sugar if consumed before meals helps to relieve acidity and is a good Home Remedy for Acidity

19) When suffering from acidity, drink five to eight glass of coconut water a day.