Healing Inflammation With Essential Oils

Most dedicated athletes are willing to try anything within reason (a very flexible term in itself) to overcome injury so that they may resume training and/or competition. ‘Rest’ is never what they want to hear – they want to get right back into the swing of things. The more common injuries – tendonitis, strains and sprains, and variations of these conditions are found in many sports; they typically include inflammation and some sort of tissue damage. Programs for relief are fairly well-known; they each have their plusses and minuses. Rarely, however, do athletes or trainers consider the possibilities of ‘aroma’-therapy. The name itself presents a very ‘touchy-feel’ type of medicine, not considered strong enough or truly effective enough for practical application. However, what aromatherapy is really working with are complex phytochemical compounds with a broad spectrum of interaction with human biochemistry. It is under these auspices that athletes and trainers may investigate the usefulness of Helichrysum Italicum essential oil.

Medical aromatherapists understand the efficacy of essential oils for particular conditions; the oils are not considered a natural cure-all, but each plant offers chemical compounds with clear specificity of effects. Beyond the effects of each chemical compound within an oil, some oils efficacy is a clear synergy of the particular chemical makeup. Individual chemicals within essential oils are well-known antivirals, antimicrobials, anti-inflammatories, expectorants, mucolytics, anti-tumorials…and the list goes on. Some essential oils will contain synergies of these compounds; oils suggested for colds will contain components that are antibacterial, antiviral, and mucolytic (cleanses breathing passages) all in one essential oil. And what does this offer for the injured athlete? The possibility of speedier return to training and competition with Helichrysum italicum essential oil, which contains a synergy of compounds which can act to support healing of a great variety of common injuries.

The physiological basis of many sports injuries, both chronic – from overuse – and acute, from impacts, twists and strains, have many similarities. There is usually some cells that have suffered structural damage – some enough that the cells will die and need to be re-grown. There is typically inflammation, which can be a means of the cells protecting themselves, or a result of fluid leakage into the intracellular space. This fluid can be blood from damaged capillaries, and appear as bruising; either way swelling will prevent proper perfusion – or nutrient and waste exchange – at the damaged site. This can lead to secondary damage – where cells around the originally damaged tendon, ligament or muscle cells are also becoming damaged by lack of oxygenation or nutrient supply. Further damage can occur through the over-production of free-radicals under such conditions. One can imagine the phenomenon of ice being applied immediately after an injury leading to a significantly shorter (and less painful) recovery – a long wait increases the possibility of secondary damage. The ice prevents the secondary damage associated with swelling and oxidation from occurring.

Now for a look at the synergistic actions of Helichrysum Italicum essential oil (there are several types of Helichrysum essential oil available – it is the Italicum, also known as Everlasting or Immortele, that has these particular properties. It is more rare, and more costly than other types of Helichrysum, but worth the extra cost). Helichrysum has a high percentage of anti-inflammatory sesquiterpenes – nearly 50% of it’s makeup. Another 40% is made up of Esters with marked relaxing effects on tissues – relieving tension in injured areas and allowing natural perfusion to take place. The third major component is a di-ketone, which signals tissues to regenerate. These di-ketones are rare, and Helichrysum Italicum contains the highest known percentage.

It is the synergistic activity of these components working together on an injured area that can have a pronounced effect on healing common sports-related injuries. One professional athlete recently relayed an account of his use of the oil – after lack of success in treating achilles tendonitis, he was sure he was going to have to drop out of an important upcoming event. He had been taking MSM, using topical Dimethylsulfoxide, consuming oral anti-infamies, and attempting to address the imbalance which had caused the injury in the first place – all to no avail. After learning about Helichrysum, he decided it was worth a try, and after three days of regular application to the tendon, the pain was gone and he was able to continue his training at maximum capacity!

While this is only one case, it is interesting that relief was found so quickly, and to a chronic injury that was otherwise difficult to treat. The scientific medical aromatherapy literature describes usage for acute injuries (such as recently twisted ankles, wrists, or areas bruised from impact) more frequently. According to Dr. Kurt Schnaubelt in Advanced Aromatherapy, “Everlasting oil is certainly one of the most astounding essential oils. Its very unique chemical composition along with (all) essential oil’s ability to penetrate into tissue and the circulatory system permit some spectacular treatments. Used for bruises, sprains, and twisted ankles – usually accompanied by swelling and subsequent hemorrhages – this oil proves practically to be a wonder cure.” He goes on to mention that the earlier the application of the oil following an acute injury, the more pronounced the heaing effect.

If you decide to try the oil for yourself, be sure of your source, and that the variety is correct one discussed here. The oil is appropriate for range of injuries – minor to major – though of course it is not a substitute for proper medical attention in any way. Using the oil in conduction with a prescribed therapy should be discussed with your doctor. The literature does state that the oil is very well tolerated, and can be applied directly to the skin undiluted. An application of a thin film a few times a day, as soon as chronic pain is noted, or an acute injury occurs, is best. The oil can be used on broken or damaged skin – in fact, it is included in formulas to reduce scar formation along with Rosehipseed and Hazelnut oils (a 5% dilution of Helichrysum in a 50/50 blend of these two base oils can be used to support wound healing). As with any therapy, be aware of how you’re body is responding to treatment, and consult a medical professional with any questions or concerns about it’s use. In summary, Helichrysum italicum essential oil is a gentle, topical treatment which may speed healing for many common sport-related injuries. It is regarded as a very safe oil and is worth a try if you are in need of such support.

Home Remedies for Water Retention

A tendency toward water retention indicates a weakness in the adrenals/kidneys, the circulatory system or possibly the heart. Fluid retention or bloat that seems to be a menopausal and premenstrual problem is easily remedied, says Susun Weed. She notes “If you tend to bloat, the kidneys must work very hard, and become fatigued. In this circumstance optimal fluid intake should be limited to a quart/liter of fluids daily.”

Edema once known as dropsy is an evident case of swelling of your organs or tissue due to collection of fluid. It mainly happens in the feet, ankles and legs because it is the most affected part due to gravity which is also known as peripheral edemawhich affects your face and hands too. There are two kinds of enema pitting edema and non-pitting edema. Pitting edema causes an indentation when you press your fingers on the swollen areas; non- pitting edema leaves no indentation. Women are more susceptible to this kind of condition in comparison to men.

Bananas. Go ape and grab a few bananas. Slice ’em on your cereal, make a smoothie, or just peel and eat them plain. Bananas contain high amounts of potassium, which helps eliminate fluid retention. Not a banana fan? Gobble down a handful of raisins instead.

Avoid diuretics: Though diuretics are effective for the flushing out of excess water in the people with the heart, kidney or liver disease, they can also cause rebound edema. Continuous usage will activate the salt and water retaining hormones and when stopped, these hormones are activated and cause water retention.

Water. When you feel waterlogged, guzzling a glass of H2O might be the last thing on your mind. But it may be the best thing for you. Water flushes out the system better than anything else and can reduce premenstrual bloating. Drink 8 to 10 glasses a day; more when you exercise. (NOTE: This advice is only for PMS bloating. If your water retention is caused by any other medical condition, be sure to ask your doctor before drinking extra water — it may not be good for you.)

A good diet combined with equal amount of exercise can make things very easy
for you. Include cucumber and watermelon in your daily diet for good dose of
potassium.

Exercise continuously: Exercise has been shown to reduce the water retention by flushing out the water and salt through sweating, higher respiration and increased urine flow. If you have been sitting for a long time, walk up and down or climb stairs every hour. You can also try the following exercise: point the toes downward, then raise them up as high as possible which pumps up the calf and foot muscles. You can also raise your hands up overhead.

Essential oils that may help fluid retention include cypress, geranium, juniper, lavender and rosemary. Essential oils may be used in a number of ways including inhalation, baths, vaporizers, mouthwashes and gargles, compresses and massage.

Lie down with feet up: Recline with feet up in the raised position. This will allow the fluid collected in the legs to go to the circulatory systems and from there to the kidneys for excretion.

Mitral Valve Prolapse Syndrome: Chest Pains

A mitral valve prolapse syndrome (MVPS) patient is very aware of his/her heart beats. Of the many MVPS symptoms, a variety of chest pain is one most frightening to the patient.

PALPITATIONS:

Palpitations caused by MVPS are harmless. They can feel as though the heart skipped a beat, like the heart flipped back and forth, or fluttered. Patients describe them in varied forms. To avoid these, drink enough water. A good equation is to drink the number of ounces of water equal to the outside temperature degrees. In other words, if it’s 70 degrees outside, drink 70 ounces of water. Other fluids besides water can be counted, but not stimulants or alcohol. Water is the best fluid.

TACHYCARDIA:

Tachycardia is a sudden rapid heart rate. These frighten a patient. The patient can lie down with his/her head and upper chest elevated so the patient is not completely supine. If the heart rate does not return to its normal rate within thirty minutes, a doctor should be consulted. Stimulants, such as caffeine and chocolate, should be eliminated for they can cause tachycardia.

PVCs:

Premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) are another form of chest pain common to MVPS. They feel like a hard or skipped beat. As though the heart beats, beats, beats . . . Bam! Then the heart returns to normal. Or it might continue in that rhythm for a few minutes. Again, fluids will help this. Also, lying down might console the patient until the PVCs are gone, though exercise is the best treatment for MVPS.

ACUTE CHEST PAIN:

Some patients report acute chest pain such a sword shoved through the heart. These severe pains, if they come often, will need the help of a beta blocker to prevent the pain from coming through. The patient needs to consult a cardiologist or his primary care doctor for advice about this medicine. But do not take a calcium channel blocker. These have caused multiple other problems for the body.

When the heart is in physical pain, a person is fearful and confused. Yet, if the patient knows what chest pains are associated with MVPS, the person can know that all is well and how to control those pains.

©2008 Carol Hegberg

Ischemic Colitis – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment Methods

Ischemic colitis involves an area of inflammation caused by interference with the blood flow to the colon. Most of the classifications of intestinal ischemia in the literature are based on the major causative factors. This is a potentially serious condition and requires care from your doctor. Patients may present with colicky abdominal pain, which becomes continuous. The extent of IBD can range from mild to severe based on the amount of damage from lack of oxygenated blood. The sooner IBD is treated, the more favorable the outcome. Ischemic colitis may result from sudden (acute) or, more commonly, long-term (chronic) blockage of blood flow through arteries that supply the large intestine. The extent of IBD can range from mild to severe based on the amount of damage from lack of oxygenated blood. This is a potentially serious condition and requires care from your doctor. The sooner IBD is treated, the more favorable the outcome. Venous infarction occurs in young patients, usually after abdominal surgery. A sudden drop in the colonic blood supply is key to its development, but in most patients, no specific cause of the decrease can be identified. It may be associated with vomiting, diarrhea, or rectal bleeding. Ischemic colitis can span a wide spectrum of severity; most patients are treated supportively and recover fully, while a minority with very severe ischemia may develop sepsis and become critically ill.

Ischemic colitis is the most common form of intestinal ischemia. The damage produces ulcers in the lining of the large intestine. Ischemic colitis affects primarily people who are 50 or older. The disease was first described by Boley and associates (1) as a “reversible vascular occlusion” of the colon, and Marston and colleagues (2) went on to detail the gangrenous, stricturing, and transient forms. Two mechanisms may cause bowel ischemia: The first and most common is diminished bowel perfusion due to low cardiac output often seen with in patients with cardiac disease or in prolonged shock of any etiology. The second mechanism is occlusive disease of the vascular supply of bowel due to atheroma, thrombosis, or embolism in which the collateral circulation is not adequate to maintain bowel integrity. Patients with mild to moderate ischemic colitis are usually treated with IV fluids, analgesia, and bowel rest until the symptoms resolve. Also known as colonic ischemia, ischemic colitis occurs most often in people age 50 and older. Most patients make a full recovery; occasionally, after severe ischemia, patients may develop long-term complications such as a stricture or chronic colitis. In older adults, ischemic colitis is one of the most common medical conditions affecting the large bowel.

Causes of Ischemic colitis

The common causes and risk factor’s of Ischemic colitis include the following:

Interference with blood flow to the colon is the cause of ischemic colitis.

Abdominal radiation exposure.

Congestive heart failure.

Diabetes.

Previous aortic surgery with unintentional damage to the artery supplying the colon.

History of stroke.

Hypercoagulable states.

Sickle cell disease.

Easy blood clotting (hypercoagulable state).

Symptoms of Ischemic colitis

Some sign and symptoms related to Ischemic colitis are as follows:

Abdominal pain.

Diarrhea.

Nausea.

A feeling of urgency to move your bowels.

Vomiting.

Bright red blood via the rectum ( blood in the stool ).

Low-grade fever.

Back pain, low.

Treatment of Ischemic colitis

Here is list of the methods for treating Ischemic colitis:

Mild, transient ischemic colitis is treated by maintaining good blood pressure.

Chronic ischemic colitis leading to stricture formation is treated by surgical removal of the stricture.

With such conservative measures, symptoms often diminish in 24 to 48 hours in mild cases, without the need for hospitalization.

Severe ischemic colitis leading to gangrene is treated with replacement of blood volume, antibiotics, and surgical removal of the affected bowel area.

Antibiotics are sometimes used.

Surgery may be necessary in some people with ischemic colitis. You may need surgery if you have abdominal tenderness and fever that are severe and persistent, despite initial conservative medical care.

Symptoms of Heart Attack

Heart attack symptoms for women, you know, the typical chest pain (which also applies to men), isn’t always the most noticeable in women. You’d be wondering: A heart attack is a heart attack, does it matter whether it happens to a man or a woman? Why talk about heart attack symptoms specific to women?

Symptoms of Heart Attack in Women: nausea Feeling as though one is about to vomitanxiety a “panic” attack, feeling like there is something wrong but not knowing what it is back pain between the shoulder blades, this often happening INSTEAD of chest pain.

Uncomfortable pressure, fullness, squeezing, or painful sensation in the chest lasting more than a few minutes. Please note that the painfulness may go away temporary but will go back evenly as dreadful if not more painful.

A common sign of an impending heart attack is discomfort or slight pain. The discomfort occurs mostly in the chest area. It is mild to start with and recurs at long intervals. The feeling of discomfort can be a sense of pressure, dizziness, squeezing of the chest and so on. Often this discomfort radiates to other parts of the upper body, like the arms, neck, and back.

The most important treatment for a silent heart attack is restoring the blood flow to the heart. These silent attacks lack the majority of the usual symptoms of a standard heart attack but can still be recognized through ordinary signs such as discomfort in your chest, arms or jaw that seem to go away after resting, fatigue or extreme tiredness, nausea, sweating(particularly cold sweat), breathlessness and dizziness.

Heart disease sneaks up on you when you least expect it. Heart attacks, or myocardial infractions (MI), are the most dramatic manifestation of cardio vascular disease. MI’s will affect approximately 345,000 American women this year. These symptoms are your body’s way of telling you trouble is coming. Women push through their routines for hours or days, using antacids and over the counter pain relievers to mask MI symptoms.

Silent heart attack symptoms do not resemble the classic heart attack symptoms. A known cause of this condition is Silent Ischemia (Decreased blood supply to the heart muscle). When blood flow to the heart is blocked by plaque, the heart muscle in the area of the blockage becomes damaged.

Heart attack symptoms that are important to noteworthy of are chest pain and shortness of breath. Chest pain most especially remains the most important presenting heart disease symptom, it is however important to state that not all chest pains are heart diseases. No!

There are numerous conditions, unrelated to the heart that could give rise to chest pain. These are: Anxiety, pneumonia, pleurisy, peptic ulcers, infection, heartburn, gall bladder, indigestion etc.

There are numerous of panic heart attack symptoms like palpitation and hard breathing pattern. Also, the body responds in a certain way like a person who is frightened. Sample symptoms may include sweating, shaking, and trembling of the hands. Chest pain may also be felt along with dizziness.

Heart disease, methods of treatment and causes of disease

Overview
According to statistics, deaths from diseases of the cardiovascular system in the world growing all the time. Study the causes of these diseases has shown that some of them due to infection, others have a hereditary or congenital nature. However, the largest group of diseases largely an addictions and the consequences of poor lifestyle choices. Such diseases to some extent can be prevented.
Given the nature and causes of heart disease can be divided into five different groups:
– Rheumatic,
– Syphilitic,
– Atherosclerotic disease and high blood pressure,
– Congenital,
– Functional.
In addition, there are some diseases that do not fall into any of the above groups and are worthy of special mention. They are:
– Acute dilation of the heart, resulting from overloading a weak heart muscle a large amount of blood, while it is stretched, increases in size and filled with blood,
– Atrial fibrillation (rapid reduction of individual muscle fibers of the atria, with the full reduction of the atria does not occur), the accompanying heart failure,
– Atrial flutter (regular but rapid reduction of fibrillation, for which no time to ventricles)
– Paroxysmal tachycardia (periods of very frequent heart rate)
– Coronary thrombosis, which usually occurs as a result of atherosclerosis,
– Myocardial infarction (necrosis of the area of ​​heart muscle due to insufficient blood supply)
– Heart failure, the end result of any heart disease
Causes
The cause of rheumatic diseases can be either viral or bacterial infection, or a combination thereof. Manifestations of the heart may include endocarditis (inflammation of the inner lining of the heart), pericarditis (inflammation of the outer shell of the heart) or myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle). Unfortunately, each of these pathologies can lead to permanent damage of the heart.
With incorrect or inadequate treatment of infectious agents (streptococci, pneumococci, gonococci, influenza virus) can migrate through the bloodstream and affect heart valves, causing inflammation. After undergoing rheumatic fever formed valvular heart disease, which prevents proper blood flow. Now, in order to pump blood, the heart will shrink to a greater and greater force.
By itself, syphilis does not cause heart damage. It invades the wall of the aortic arch and aortic valve. In this case, most often formed by the aortic valve defect in the form of its failure (valve valves become weakened, stretch and partially destroyed). So, just thrown out of the heart into the aorta, blood can freely flow back into the left ventricle during diastole of the heart (the time between contractions). The left ventricle begins to accumulate a larger amount of blood the heart muscle is no longer handle the load, and the ventricle is greatly increased.
Atherosclerosis causes narrowing of the arteries that leads to the worst blood supply to organs, including heart muscle. Hypertension is an additional strain on the heart. The combination of increased stress and a weakened heart muscle can eventually lead to organ damage.
Causes of atherosclerosis and arterial hypertension:
– The natural aging process,
– Sensitivity to tobacco and other toxins,
– Prolonged infection,
– Anxiety, stress, stressful life
– An excess of cholesterol in the body.
Congenital heart disease are common. In many cases they did not manifest itself, and are diagnosed at checkups.
But there are several congenital diseases that have very obvious symptoms.
Congenital stenosis of the aorta is too narrow lumen of the aorta, which leads to a strong increase in blood pressure in the upper body and low in the bottom. Complication can be bleeding in the brain.
If there are any holes in the partitions separating the heart into chambers, not buried PFO (hole in the septum between the atria, which is the norm in the fetus), botallova flow (vessel connecting the pulmonary artery to the aorta during the prenatal period). When these evils arterial and venous blood is mixed, and therefore spreads through the body is not enough oxygen-rich blood. Appears cyanotic face and extremities, shortness of breath, specific extensions fingertips, they become like drumsticks and abnormal increase in the number of red blood cells.
Hypoplasia or aplasia of the pulmonary artery also prevents good aeration of blood in the lungs.
Functional disorders – various disorders of cardiac activity, which do not lead to any changes or organic diseases (eg, tachycardia). The main reasons are:

– Toxins and poisons trapped in the body or produced by the body, possibly the intestinal tract,
– Strong excitation or vice versa, depression,
– Drinking coffee, tea, tobacco, alcoholic beverages,
– Digestive disorders, constipation.
Symptoms
– Shortness of breath with little exertion or at rest,
– Weakness, low endurance,
– Heartbeat
– Dry cough,
– Periods of rapid and irregular breathing,
– Choking, constricting pain in the chest,
– Dull pain and discomfort in the liver or heart,
– Swelling of the legs (especially in the evening)
– Night of the patients are trying to lift the upper body (pillow), so it is easier to breathe,
– Restless sleep, insomnia,
– The weaker the heart, the more swollen legs, there is pain in the chest and back, breathing becomes extremely difficult, yet people do not lie.
What you can do
If you find yourself in these symptoms, consult your doctor. Patients with acute heart failure should always be supervised by a therapist, and patients with chronic heart disease should be inspected periodically. No specific treatment regimen at home there. Conversely, patients are strongly advised not to self-medicate and seek medical attention.
During treatment, avoid severe psychological and physical stress, do not drink cold water and do not supercool.
That can make your doctor
For diagnosis a doctor will check the basic parameters of vital body functions such as body temperature, pulse, respiratory rate and heart rate, blood pressure.
If the vital signs are any deviations, the reasons which may be associated with the heart, the doctor will refer you to an electrocardiogram. This simple, completely painless examination. Also, you take a blood test, because damaged heart identifies certain proteins that are found in the blood.
You may have stress tests. You will be connected to the device, which lifts the ECG, and you’ll walk on a treadmill or pedaling on a stationary bike. Such tests are necessary because some symptoms of heart disease do not manifest themselves until the heart is not subjected to any load.
You may need an x-ray angiography for the detection of vascular thrombosis and inadequate blood supply to organs.
Based on the diagnosis you will be assigned to appropriate therapy. Treatment of heart disease usually lasts for years or even life. That’s why you need regular checkups doctors and correction of treatment.
In more severe or acute situations may require more radical procedures such as implanting an electronic pacemaker or bypass surgery.
If necessary, your doctor may refer you to a psychologist. After a heart attack is often depression.
Also, you can recommend an appropriate rehabilitation program. Today, many hospitals offer such programs for survivors of myocardial infarction and other serious diseases. They include special exercises that are conducted under the supervision of a physician, as well as continuous monitoring of cardiac output.
Preventive measures
Prevention of many congenital diseases is compliance with the future mother of daily routine, diet, avoiding harmful habits, regular visits to the gynecologist during pregnancy.
For the prevention of rheumatic diseases should be fully dolechivat emerging infectious disease you have. If you are prescribed a course of antibiotics lasting 7-10 days, go through it completely, even if you feel better the third or fourth day of treatment. Otherwise remain in the body the infection can cause the development of heart disease.
Watch for children’s health, especially when it comes to upper respiratory tract infections, and throat. If these infections are left untreated or treated illiterate (ie, wrong to take antibiotics), then they can lead to heart disease.
The only way to prevent syphilitic heart disease is to prevent infection. Avoid frequent change of sexual partners, use barrier methods of contraception.
Prevention of atherosclerosis and hypertension is diet, moderation in eating and regular exercise. The older you get, the more important to follow these tips.
Give up bad habits, unhealthy lifestyles and promiscuity as quickly as possible. Happiness, satisfaction and tranquility are essential to the preservation of the heart healthy and strong.

Tuberculosis – Emerging Diagnostic Methods

TUBERCULOSIS – EMERGING DIAGNOSTIC
METHODS.

Challenges Ahead.

(Role of Clinical Microbiology Laboratories)

Importance of Microscopy:

Smear examination for the detection of Acid fast bacilli continues to be the gold standard in Diagnosis of Tuberculosis. In spite of several inadequacies, Microscopy for AFB detection is economical, specific and the man power can be trained easily. The detection of AFB in sputum smears helps for higher case detection, and contains the spread of Tuberculosis in the Society.

The smear will become Postive when one has bacilli more than 5,000 – 10, 000 / 1 ml of sputum. Multiple smear examinations, at least three morning specimens are advised and appropriate collection of specimens will increase yield to > 43 %. If efforts were taken in educating patients for 1- 2 minutes in methods to collect the sputum, will yield higher results. Sputum induction procedures are helpful. Today’s emphasis to identify AFB, in smears is more demanding with associated HIV/AIDS, as few bacilli are excreted. Concentration of specimens and digestion of thick and mucous associate specimens with Sodium hypochlorite, Sodium hydroxide, N-acetyl –cystine – Sodium hydroxide will increase rate of detection to > 18 % in sensitivity and incremental yield of 9 %( positve after treatment with above chemicals – positives with direct Ziehl Nelson’s straining ) Sodium hypochlorite is beneficial in HIV positive patients as it is Mycobactericidal and also kills human Immunodeficiency virus, but not suitable for culturing specimens.

Need for Florescent Microscopy

The developing world should explore the Fluorescence microscopy, which will improve the sensitivity of Microscopy in patient who excrete few bacilli as in association HIV infection, The role of Ziehl Neelsen’s method of staining and conventional Microcopy is losing the sensitivity with ever increasing work load, technicians opting to see few fields, monotonous nature of work, the lack of accountability, and inter Institutional quality control protocols. Many systematic reviews indicated use of Florescent Microscopy will increase 10% higher sensitivity and 9 % in incremental yield when compared with Z.N method of staining. About 15 times as many fields of view can be scanned by Fluorescent Microscopy as by conventional Microscopy in the same period. The developing countries face crunch to buy Fluorescent microscopes and to maintain the regular availability of florescent dyes. It is utmost important to develop centralized and dedicated centers for Microscopy to have control on peripheral laboratories. Negative smears by conventional Microscopy needs further attention with optimal microscopy, concentration methods to detect AFB to reduce early mortality among the infected and to contain the spread in society.

Culturing for Mycobacterial Isolation

Sputum culturing remains a gold standard for diagnosing Mycobacterial infections. A Postive grwoth can be demonstrated with few bacilli to as low as 10 – 100 of viable bacilli per I ml of sputum. Cultures show growth of AFB even when patients where on treatment and negative by smear examination. A simple measure with decontamination of specimens and inoculation of at least 150 – 200 µl of concentrate on culture medium will increase the success in culturing. In spite of best decontamination procedures, 1 – 4 % of the isolates are false Postive. The greatest limitation of culturing on Lowenstein – Jensen medium and other equivalent medium is long periods (2 – 12 weeks) for isolation of bacteria.

Advances in Diagnostic Methodologies.

1. Mycobacterial growth in Incubator tube MGIT (Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube) is one new culturing method, costlier to install and automated system. Economic limitations and timely availability of reagents (closed system committed to the manufactures.) continue to hamper the growth of technolology in developing world

2.. Recent success with MODS ( the Microscopic Observation of drug susceptibility Assay ) developed in Peru gained the success as affordable, and primary drug resistance can be performed with simple efforts, But inverted microscope is essential to read the results at frequent intervals. Contamination or hazard to technical personnel is minimal. Even the district laboratories can report resistance to Isoniazid and Rifampicin In spite of several controlled studies on MODS assay is poor to discriminate between, M.tuberculosis from Non Tuberculosis Mycobacterium. The success of MODS is a great breakthrough in detection of MDR strains provided the prevalence of NTM prevalence is low MODS assay can identify patients with TB in approximately on third of time required for culturing on L J medium.

Emerging and Rapid Diagnostic methods.-

1 Fast plaque with phage amplification technology, tested in areas with high rates of HIV infection, had contradicting results, needs more understanding.

2. Quanti – Feron TB test – Done on Blood specimens, based on the principle of ELISA and enzyme linked immunospot. With higher production of Interferon γ (Inf-γ) by cells in response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis, than to the other environmental Mycobacterium in particular to Mycobacterium avium complex. The testing results correlated with Tuberculin skin test reactivity, but still hampered in BCG vaccinated.

3 Elispot – Tested by Elisa methodology detects Interferon γ produced by T lymphocytes in response to latent Tuberculosis
Infection. Elispot gained more clinical acceptability and advantageous, being negative in majority of BCG vaccinated individuals

Both the above testing methods were limited to high end laboratories and cost of testing remained the major limitation in many developing countries. More helpful to diagnose the latent Tuberculosis Infections.

Molecular Technology:

The fast gains of Polymerase technologies by amplification of DNA (PCR) are limited to controlled studies interpreted in relation to clinical context and performance of the laboratory .Rapidly changing molecular technologies, out dating earlier hardware, other equipment and patented primers, added to limitations in the Developing world. Mainly used as restricted research tool, and unaffordable to the needy poor.
Many extra pulmonary tuberculosis cases were benefited with Molecular technology.
Future Goals in Control of Tuberculosis ;

Stop TB partnership, Global Plan for 2006 to 2015 call for strengthening of network to facilitate detect all TB cases including smear negative tuberculosis. The Emphasis should focus on Sputum concentration methods, promoting the use of Fluorescent Microscopy. Helping the smaller laboratories to initiate culturing, and antibiotic sensitivity testing. The present affordable option may remain with utilizing the methodology of MODS .The Developing world wishes to utilize this upcoming technology for practical, and simple way to detect the MDR tuberculosis even at district Laboratories

. Yet there is no fool proof, sensitive and specific test, which is inexpensive and rapid method for Diagnosing the Tuberculosis.

Great challenges include detection and controlling of MDR TB. Strengthening the Smear Microscopy, and more aggressive provisions for enforcing the Fluorescent microscopy, may reduce the incidence of spread of tuberculosis. We have to watch the Impact of X-MDR in the Indian continent. The undergraduate and postgraduate Medical students should be taught with more emphasis on control of drug resistant tuberculosis The best options with implementation of International standards for tuberculosis care with initiation of Major global health participation may bring hope to reduce the incidence of Tuberculosis by 2015.

Article generated for the Medical and Paramedical students and Policy makers on Clinical Laboratories in Developing World on emerging needs in Diagnosis of Tuberculosis.
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E mail at; tvraodoctor2000@yahoo.co.in

How Does Hair Grow?

Many people agonize over the growth rate of their hair. Let’s face it, nothing grows out slower than a bad haircut! What most people don’t realize though, is that your hair is constantly going through 3 stages of growth. Once a hair falls out, it doesn’t mean that that’s it for that particular spot where that hair came from. Your hair is constantly going through the 3 steps – growing, shedding and fresh new growth. When you shed a hair, it’s not the first step toward baldness, but it’s just a continuation of an ongoing cycle.

Anagen Stage
We’ll start with the anagen stage where hair is just growing, getting longer. For some people a hair will continue growing for about 2 years, but for others, it could be as long as 6 years. The length of time that hair grows depends on how old you are and your genetic makeup. The growing or anagen stage is a lot longer for a teenager than for someone who is middle-aged. Your genetics also have a lot to say about how long your hair continues growing.

Catagen Stage
The second stage of hair growth is called the catagen stage. This is when the papilla (the factory for producing hair cells for growth) shuts down. This process generally takes between 2 or 3 weeks. When that happens, the follicle (the skin surrounding the hair root) begins to shrink.

Telogen Stage
The last step in this cycle is the telogen stage. During this stage the papilla (the hair growth factory) takes a rest and the follicle hangs onto the hair for about 2 or 3 months. The hair could fall out during this stage during combing/brushing or during shampooing. It won’t necessarily come out because it was dislodged, it could also be pushed out by the new hair that is starting to grow in the papilla.

In any given time, about 85% of your hair is in the longest stage, the anagen or growing stage. The other 15% is either in the catagen (shutting down) or telogen (shedding) stage. Because of that, you will loose between 50 and 200 hairs per day. It’s perfectly normal to lose and shed hair.

If everyone goes through the same 3 stages of hair growth, why do some people seem to be able to grow hair much faster than others? This is because the papilla (the hair growth factory) produces hair cells a lot faster for some people than for others. Also, the anagen, or growing stage, lasts a lot longer for some than for others. So if one person has an average rate of producing hair cells, and the growing stage lasts 2 years, s/he will have a lot shorter hair than the individual who papilla produces hair cells very quickly and whose growing stage lasts 6 years. But don’t be alarmed. When you lose your longer hairs, they are just finished growing and will very quickly be replaced by the other hairs that are longer and have been growing for some time.

Remember – 85% of your hair is in the growing stage and only 15% in the catagen (shutting down) or telogen (shedding) stage. It’s not going to fall out all at once!

Dogs and Cancer – Signs of Tumors and What to Expect

My Story

I just recently found out that my beloved PitBull named Kaos has or had cancer. If you are a dog owner who treats him like a member of the family you can imagine how scary and traumatic for both you and your dog it can be to think he may be sick.

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I noticed that Kaos had a small bump under the skin on his lower back leg almost on his foot. I thought no big deal and figured it was a bug bite. As the days and weeks went by I was getting more nervous about the bump cause it was still there not changing just sitting there. Then all of the sudden like seriously over night the bump had turned into this nasty red bubble looking thing. It took a month before it started to change and look serious. Before that it was not red and didnt have the bubble yet.

So I made the appointment and the next day he went to the vet. Vet says well I dont know what it is for sure until we get it out of his leg and send it off to be tested. I thought either way it was not supposed to be there so we might as well take it off now. My boyfriend kept telling me maybe we should get a 2nd opinion. I thought the sooner the better. So we had it removed that day. The vet told me to come back in 30 minutes and it would be gone and Kaos could go home. He would sedate him and he would not feel a thing.

This was the first time I had ever left my dog in a strange new place all alone with some strange man poking and proding at him and I felt terrible but had to do it so I did. When I picked him up he seems fine and has a bandage around his leg.

After we got home I looked at his leg and was upset about how big of a cut the vet had left. He even had 4 or 5 stitches. It looked awful and still does. A week later vet calls with results and tells me it was a mast cell tumor and it was a stage 2 but it was a very nasty and aggressive type that often spread to the lymph nodes and we should keep watching Kaos and checking him to make sure no more bumps came up. Then told me to give him 25 milligrams of benadryl every day.

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Anyway the whole week of waiting was hard. I just new my dog was going to die and I cried and cried. I never imagined I would be bawling over a dog like a big cry baby…..but I was. He is the biggest soiled brat but I still love him.

. When he does die I am going to have him stuffed so he will be with me forever…….LOL Just kidding. Im not that crazy. But I do love him a lot.

I am not sure if Kaos is going to get better and stay that way. He doesnt act sick and is still very playful so I am hoping he will be okay and be around for many years to come. He is 5 years old now.

Signs of Tumors And Grade

Check your dog all over like you are petting him and look for any small bumps that were not there before. If the bump changes in any way take him in to get checked out.

The mast cell tumor causes histamine to be released into the blood and may cause your dog to vomit for no apparent reason.

They can also cause the blood pressure to drop or to have a fast heartbeat.

Mast cell tumors are graded according to how serious they are and the potential it has to kill the animal.

Grade I being benign, Grade III being malignant, and Grade II having some ability to go either way.

After removing the tumor depending on how severe it is your vet may prescribe an antihistamine medication or prednisone. Chemotherapy and or radiation may also be prescribed. Chemo and radiation are very expensive but can prolong life for a few years depending on the grade and stage of tumor.

Dont assume the worse if you think your dog may have cancer. If you find out that he does then do what you can to make sure he has a quality life for the rest of the time he has with you. Many times after removing the tumor a dog will be just fine and live a long life and be cured with no returning tumors.

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Causes of Pneumonia, Symptoms and Treatment

Pneumonia is a common but potentially deadly inflammation of the lungs, usually caused by an infection. When the air sacs in the lungs become infected, pus and other liquid fill them, making it difficult to breathe and difficult for oxygen to reach your blood. Pneumonia can affect a single section of your lungs, in which case it’s called lobar pneumonia, or it can affect patches throughout both lungs, in which case it’s called multifocal pneumonia. If both lungs are infected, it’s known as multibar pneumonia.

There are about 30 different causes of pneumonia. However, they all fall into one of these categories:

•    Infective pneumonia: Inflammation and infection of the lungs and bronchial tubes that occurs when a bacteria (bacterial pneumonia) or virus (viral pneumonia) gets into the lungs and starts to reproduce.

•    Aspiration pneumonia: An inflammation of the lungs and bronchial tubes caused by inhaling vomit, mucous, or other bodily fluids. Aspiration pneumonia can also be caused by inhaling certain chemicals.

Typical symptoms are cough, fever, sweats, shivers, being off food, and feeling generally unwell. Headaches, and aches and pains are common. You usually make more sputum which may become yellow/green, and is sometimes bloodstained.

You may become breathless, breathe fast, and develop a ‘tight chest’. A sharp pain in the side of the chest may develop if the infection involves the pleura. (This is the membrane between the lung and the chest wall.) A doctor may hear ‘crackles’ in the chest when listening with a stethoscope.

When a person encounters the symptoms of pneumonia – cough, shortness of breath, chest pain that fluctuates with breathing, fever accompanied with chills and sweats or aggravation of a flu or cold – he or she should consult a doctor right away because this condition may become lethal in some cases if left untreated.

If bacteria cause the pneumonia it can usually be easily treated with antibiotics. Viruses do not respond to antibiotics, but if your pneumonia is caused by a virus antibiotics may be used to help prevent any secondary infections.

Doctors treat pneumonia based on the type of pneumonia a person has as well as other individual factors, such as age and overall health. Bacterial pneumonia is usually treated with antibiotics. Fungal pneumonia is treated with antifungal agents. Viral pneumonia may be treated with antiviral medications but is more often treated simply with recommendations of rest and plenty of fluids. In addition, for all types of pneumonia, doctors often suggest taking over-the-counter medications to reduce fever and pain.

If the pneumonia is severe, or the person affected is either very old or frail they may need to be treated in hospital where antibiotics and extra fluids and can be given straight into the vein (intravenously). If breathing is difficult, extra oxygen can be given through a facemask. About one in every six people with pneumonia are ill enough to need this kind of specialised care.

Relevant Cure for Pleurisy and Pleural Effusion

When you breathe normally, the lungs expand and contract easily and rhythmically inside your rib cage. Each lung is enclosed in a moist, smooth, two-layered membrane, which is called a pleura. The pleura lubricates the moving parts of the lungs and makes breathing easier. The outer layer of the pleura lines the rib cage. Between the two thin layers is a virtually imperceptible space, which is called the pleural space. It permits the layers to glide gently across each other. If either of your pleura becomes inflamed and roughened because of an infection, this seriously impedes the movement of the layers, and you have pleurisy.
Pleurisy is actually a symptom of an underlying disease rather than a disease in itself. The pleurae may become inflamed as a complication of a lung or chest infection such as pneumonia or tuberculosis sleep into the pleural space. This causes a condition called pleural effusion. But pleurisy is not the only cause of pleural effusion; the condition may also be a complication of a generalized disease such as rheumatoid arthritis a liver or kidney disorder, or heart failure . Cancer cells that are spreading from a tumor in the lungs, breast, or ovaries can also cause pleural effusion.
What are the Symptoms?
If you have pleurisy, it hurts to breathe deeply or cough. You may also have severe, but one-sided, chest pain. These symptoms are accompanied by others that are associated with the underlying disorder. The pain will disappear if pleural effusion occurs as a result of pleurisy, because fluid will prevent the roughened or inflamed layers of the pleura from rubbing against each other. If this happens, you may become breathless.

What are the Risks?
Pleurisy and pleural effusion due to infection have become rare disorders. This is because they now can be very effectively treated with antibiotics. Pleurisy is four times as common as pleural effusion.
In most cases the risks of pleurisy are the same as the risks associated with the underlying cause. Advanced pleural effusion can compress the lungs and cause severe breathlessness. Pleural effusion may also lead to empyema .
What Should be Done?
Consult your physician if breathing becomes painful, you seem unusually short of breath, and either or both of these symptoms is accompanied by a fever, no matter how slight. After questioning you about symptoms and previous illness, the physician will probably listen to your chest with a stethoscope and will percuss, or finger tap, your chest while listening for characteristic sounds made by irritated pleurae and pleural effusion. You may need a chest X-ray to help determine what disorder has caused the pleurisy. If you have pleural effusion, one way to diagnose the cause is to study the composition of the fluid, so a sample of fluid may be taken from the pleural space, with a needle and syringe.
What is the Treatment?
Because pleurisy and pleural effusion are symptoms of other disorders, the only way to cure them is to treat the underlying disease. Meanwhile, to ease chest pains, the doctor may recommend that you use an analgesic such as aspirin.

Causes of Chest Pain

Everyone at some point in their lives will experience chest pain and some times its severe chest pain. Your chest covers a large part of your body and there is alot of territory there, so to speak. It also contains most of your bodies vital organs. These vital organs in your chest, are protected by your rib cage, because they are soft and delicate and can be damaged easily. So it is only natural to become alarmed at the onset of chest pain.

Chest pain is one of the most common reasons people seek emergency help at a hospital. The majority of these people seeking emergency help are concerned that they may be having a hear attack. While mild, to extreme chest pain, is one of the common symptoms of a heart attack, there are many other common reasons that can be atrributed to chest pain, even extreme chest pain can. Even a minor injury to the some parts of your body can leave you stricken with extreme chest pain.

This does not mean that you shouldn’t be concerned if you are stricken with serious chest pain and that you shouldn’t seek medical attention. It just means that you don’t have to assume you are going to die if it happens to you. Quit often, chest pain seems to come on suddenly and this in itself can be alarming but how sudden chest pain appears can have little bearing on how serious it is.

A strained back, that leads to swelling around the nerves in the back, causing a pinched nerve, can cause some of the most severe chest pain and it can come on suddenly and also may manifest itself in the center of the chest. This is because an irritated nerve can send a pain signal to other parts of your body and many times does. a bruised or cracked rib, can leave you buckled over with chest pain, that can make it difficult to breath.

These are both chest pain situations that are not indicators of a problem with any of your vital organs. Both of these can be cured with a visit to your doctor and some bed rest. However, chest pain can be a warning sign of more serious problems with the vital organs contained in your chest. Chest pain can be one of the symptoms of a heart attack and you may have other symptoms along with it if it is.

These may include, sweating, dizziness and vomiting. Other symptoms may be pain in you jaw or left arm. You also may experience shortness of breath. Restricted blood flow to the heart, may cause chest pain which may be a symptom of heart disease but not a heart attack. There are several heart related problems that can lead to chest pain, while not causing a heart attack.

One of these is a viral infection of the tissue surrounding the heart and another is any of several issues with the arteries that connect to the heart. Stomach problems, such as heartburn or indigestion can cause severe chest pain also. Prolonged mental stress and or anxiety, can cause chest pain. Chest pain can also be an indicator of serious life threatening health problems that don’t involve your heart at all.

Your chest also contains and protects your lungs and any one of many problems involving your lungs can cause extreme chest pain. Any infection of the lungs, can cause severe chest pain. Even pneumonia, or even a severe chest cold, or the flu can often cause chest pain. Chest pain is also one of the symptoms of lung cancer. There are other vital organs that your chest also contains, that will cause chest pain, if they are diseased, or malfunctioning.

Your gal bladder and also your pancreas, are both contained in your chest and any one of a number of problems with these two organs, will lead to chest pain. Chest pain can be a symptom of gall stones, which is a very painful condition. So if you experience severe chest pain, you should always seek immediate medical help, but don’t try to diagnose yourself because the causes are many.

Bronchitis – Information and Symptoms

Acute bronchitis is usually due to an infection and generally lasts for no more than a few weeks and will resolve either with treatment or on its own. It can be caused by the same viruses that cause the common cold and is a common complication of the cold or flu.

Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi (lung airways), resulting in persistent cough that produces consideration quantities of sputum (phlegm). Bronchitis is more common in smokers and in areas with high atmospheric pollution. Chronic bronchitis is a disease in which there is diffused inflammation of the air passages in the lungs, leading to decreased uptake of oxygen by the lungs and increased mucus production. Bronchitis usually occurs following a viral respiratory infection or with prolonged cigarette smoking.

Signs And Symptoms — Fever is not common in people with acute bronchitis, although it may be a sign of another condition such as the flu or pneumonia. A persistent cough is the most common sign of acute bronchitis; this usually lasts between 10 and 20 days. In some people, coughing produces sputum (mucus); this does not mean that there is a bacterial infection or that antibiotics are needed.

Acute bronchitis is almost always caused by viruses that attack the lining of the bronchial tree and cause infection. As your body fights back against these viruses, more swelling occurs and more mucus is made. It takes time for your body to kill the viruses and heal the damage to your bronchial tubes. In most cases, the same viruses that cause colds cause acute bronchitis. Research has shown that bacterial infection is a much less common cause of bronchitis than we used to think. Very rarely, an infection caused by a fungus can cause acute bronchitis.

With Relieve Your Bronchitis Natural Remedy, you will start fighting bronchitis within minutes. You will learn the root germ that causes bronchitis, and how to keep it from returning. The coughing fits, the wheezing, and the aches and pains will stop. You will no longer have to miss, work and school due to illness. You can save a lot of money, from running to the doctors. You can say goodbye to harmful antibiotics or medication. T

unless you are a smoker antibiotic’s are not needed bronchitis is not a bacterial infection it is viral. how ever you do need to go to the doc if you are having trouble breathing or if your cough is keeping you up they will give you a abutorol inhaler and some codeine cough syrup.

It is quite difficult to choose an appropriate treatment in chronic bronchitis. It is recommended to drink lots of liquids which are very helpful for the evacuation of the mucus. It was showed that antibiotics are not the right choice to treat Bronchitis, because the most of them are caused by viruses which don’t respond to this kind of treatment.

It is not very hard to avoid acute Bronchitis. It is necessary just to wash your hands frequently, get more rest and drink plenty of liquids. Acute bronchitis is usually caused by viruses or bacteria. One can be contaminated with this agents by breathing coughing droplets from the air or by touching contaminated surfaces, by breathing polluted, by smoking or breathing cigarette smoke or other harmful smokes.

Shoulder Dislocation

A joint dislocation occurs when the two joint surfaces, which normally sit in intimate contact with each other, are wrenched away from each other to lie apart without any relationship. Joints have a surrounding ligamentous bag called a joint capsule and this can be typically injured as the surfaces force their way past each other. The surfaces of the joints themselves can be damaged as they hit each other on the way to becoming dislocated. Other injuries which can occur include damage to the local nerves and ligaments.

Shoulder dislocation is the most common type of joint dislocation, accounting for nearly half of all such joint injuries. The shoulder dislocates frontwards, an anterior dislocation, in the vast majority of cases. The most common type of injury is one which forces the head of the arm bone forwards with the arm in a position of abduction, outward rotation and extension, the vulnerable position of the joint. Other mechanisms of injury can include a forceful abduction and outward rotation movement of the arm, a blow to the back of the upper arm and a fall onto the outstretched hand (FOOSH).

A posterior dislocation is uncommon and secondary to a stress on the arm when it is inwards across the body and inwardly rotated, with the large back and chest muscles sometimes pulling the joint out of its socket. This can occur if someone is electrocuted or if they have epileptic seizures, both of which can cause muscle spasms. The shoulder can dislocate downwards if there is a very forceful movement of the shoulder outwards and sideways, with the joint being levered out over part of the scapula above. This sort of dislocation should be closely monitored as complications of the injury are common with nerve damage, blood vessels injury and rotator cuff tears.

There may be no trauma in some cases of shoulder dislocation and instability of the shoulder may occur in all joint directions, typical presenting in patients who have hypermobile joints. This condition is called multidirectional instability and tends to happen in both shoulders, run in the family and be in younger people under thirty. A joint subluxation is often the start of these problems, where the joint slips partly off its partner to an amount and then clicks back into place. An ability to voluntarily dislocate the shoulder can occur, perhaps related to psychiatric difficulties in this group of people.

The presentation of anterior dislocation of the shoulder is for the patient to hold their arm rotated outwards and slightly to the side, the arm bone head easily felt at the front of the joint. The shoulder muscles may be in a powerful spasm and trying to move the shoulder results in high levels of pain. A dislocation of the shoulder posteriorly shows itself by the patient keeping the arm close to the body and turned inwards, the head of the humerus being palpable at the rear of the joint, although this condition has been misdiagnosed as frozen shoulder.

Several techniques are used to reduce a shoulder dislocation and the time it takes for the reduction to be performed is important. The muscle spasm can increase in severity and make the restoration of the normal joint alignment increasingly difficult. The oldest technique is to pull firmly on the arm whilst putting the foot in the armpit to give counter pressure. A more modern technique which is less traumatic is for the surgeon to move the arm bone outwards whilst pressuring the humeral head with their hand. Once the arm is at a right angle out to the side the arm can be tractioned and turned outwards, often leading to the joint being relocated.

Pain is a major presentation problem in shoulder dislocation and there are many alternatives that the medical staff can apply to give good pain relief and ease the process of reduction. A recent reduction can be moderately easily relocated in the absence of strong painkillers or muscle relaxants. The most useful sedative drug will have a quick onset of action, be able to supply good muscular relaxation and with an action which goes off quickly to allow rapid recovery. After the joint is back in place a sling is used for up to three weeks to allow the capsular damage to heal.

Knee Cap Dislocation – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment

A dislocated knee cap is when the triangle-shaped bone covering the knee (patella) moves or slides out of place. The problem usually occurs toward the outside of the leg. See dislocation.

A careful vascular examination is essential, as popliteal artery injury occurs in 7-45% of all knee dislocations. The popliteal artery may be damaged severely in both closed and open dislocations, and such injury must be ruled out in knees that have relocated spontaneously. Palpation of the dorsalis pedis and posterior tibial arteries along with capillary refill evaluation is necessary. The presence of normal pulses does not rule out the presence of significant vascular injury. Coexistent peroneal nerve injury occurs in 25-35% of patients and manifests with decreased sensation at the first webspace with impaired dorsiflexion of the foot.

Causes

Dislocation may also occur as a direct result of injury. When it is dislocated, the knee cap may slip sideways and around to the outside of the knee.
The first few times this occurs, you will feel pain and be unable to walk. However, if dislocations continue to occur and are untreated, you may feel less pain and have less immediate disability. This is not a reason to avoid treatment. Knee cap dislocation damages your knee joint.

Symptoms and Signs

Swelling and muscle spasm progress over the first few hours. With 2nd-degree sprains, pain is typically moderate or severe. With 3rd-degree sprains, pain may be mild, and surprisingly, some patients can walk unaided. An audible pop suggests an anterior cruciate tear but is uncommon. An effusion suggests injury to the anterior cruciate and possibly other intra-articular structures. However, with severe 3rd-degree tears of the medial collateral ligament or anterior cruciate, no effusion may be apparent because these tears can result in an open joint capsule, allowing blood to exit the joint.

Diagnosis

X-rays may be recommended to see how the kneecap fits in its groove. Your doctor will also want to eliminate other possible reasons for the pain, such as a tear in the cartilage or ligaments of the knee. The following imaging procedures may be used to see how the include:

x-ray – a diagnostic test that uses invisible electromagnetic energy beams to produce images of internal tissues, bones, and organs onto film.
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) – a diagnostic procedure that uses a combination of large magnets, radiofrequencies, and a computer to produce detailed images of organs and structures within the body.

Prevention

Use proper technique when exercising or playing sports. Maintain strength and flexibility of the knee. Some cases of knee dislocation may not be preventable, especially if anatomic factors predispose you to dislocation.
Treatment

Non-operative

Normal care of patellar dislocations, when a loose fragment has not been created is the immobilization of the knee for a short period of time (seven to 10 days). During this time, the swelling is reduced and the acute discomfort of the dislocation decreases. Slow mobilization of the knee and of the patellofemoral joint is then begun, and usually full recovery can be expected within a three to six week period. This period of time is significantly lengthened when the patellar dislocation is recurrent.

Initial treatment consists of a knee immobilizer or cylinder cast, followed by gentle active range-of-motion (ROM) exercises. Physical therapy should be involved to help regain joint and leg strength, especially the quadriceps muscles. Taping techniques have been explored with variable results.