Detailed Information on Fractures

A fracture is commonly referred to as a broken bone. The bones of the shape of the human body, or skeleton, which supports and protects the soft parts of the body. The bones are living tissue. They are growing fast at one ‘s early years, and renew themselves when they are broken. Bones have a center called the marrow, which is softer than the outer part of the bone. Bone marrow cells that had developed in red blood cells which carry oxygen to all parts of the body and the white blood cells that help fight disease. Bones also contain minerals calcium and phosphorus. If the broken bone punctures the skin, it is called an open fracture or. Fractures occur frequently due to car accidents, falls and sports injuries. Another issue is osteoporosis, which causes a weakening of the bones.

Fracture of the bone may also occur due to certain health problems that weaken the bones, such as osteoporosis, certain types of cancer or steogenesisimperfecta.

First aid for fractures includes stabilizing the break with a splint in order to prevent movement of the injured part. Apply ice packs to limit swelling and help relieve pain until emergency personnel arrive. Don’t apply ice directly to the skin — wrap the ice in a towel, piece of cloth or some other material. Apply pressure to the wound with a sterile bandage, a clean cloth or a clean piece of clothing. Don’t try to realign the bone. Surgical methods of treating fractures have their own risks and benefits. A plaster or fiberglass cast is the most common type of fracture treatment, because most broken bones can heal successfully once they have been repositioned. Traction is usually used to align a bone or bones by a gentle, steady pulling action. Proper diet and exercise.

Fractures Treatment Tips

1. Don’t try to realign the bone.

2. Apply pressure to the wound with a sterile bandage.

3. Proper diet and exercise may help in preventing some fractures.

4. Traction is usually used to align a bone or bones by a gentle, steady pulling action.

5. Apply ice packs to limit swelling and help relieve pain until emergency personnel arrive.

6. A plaster or fiberglass cast is the most common type of fracture treatment.

7. Don’t apply ice directly to the skin wrap the ice in a towel, piece of cloth or some other material.

Shoulder Fracture? Try Physiotherapy

Fractures of the humerus are common and make up about 5% of all fractures, with 80% of them either undisplaced or just minimally displaced. More common in people suffering from osteoporosis, it is common to have a forearm fracture on the same side. Damage to the nerves or circulatory system is possible from these fractures but not often seen. Common areas of fracture are the neck of humerus at the top of the arm(fractured shoulder) and the mid shaft of the arm bone.

A fall onto the outstretched hand, onto the elbow or onto the shoulder itself is the most common cause of a fractured arm. Since many of the arm muscles insert onto the humeral head, when the injury occurs the muscular action involved can displace the fragments and complicate the management. 65 years old is the peak incidence for this kind of fractured humerus and if younger patients suffer this fracture the likely cause will involve high forces such as traffic accidents or sports injury.

If the fracture occurred without significant force then a pathological cause such as cancer must be suspected. On physio examination pain will occur on movement of the shoulder or the elbow, there may be extensive bruising and swelling, the arm may appear short if the fracture is displaced in shaft fractures and there is very restricted shoulder movement. Radial nerve damage is rare in upper humeral fractures but more common in fractures of the shaft, leading to “wrist drop”, weakness of the wrist and finger extensors and some thumb movements.

Shoulder Fracture Management

Initial management is to restrict the patient’s movement and give them enough painkillers to make them comfortable. Upper humeral fractures can be managed conservatively if not displaced but if the greater tuberosity is fractured then an injury to the rotator cuff must be considered, more common in older people, injuries with high forces involved and where there is a lot of displacement. The typical treatment is a collar and cuff sling, allowing the elbow to hang in mid air and keep the humerus in line. Shaft fractures may be managed by humeral bracing.

Fractures with three or four parts plus displacement often need surgical treatment, with open reduction surgical fixation (ORIF) more often required in younger patients. In older people the humeral head may be replaced as the fracture may not heal or give an acceptable pain or movement result. Shaft fractures usually heal without surgery (plating or nailing) and are managed in a functional brace.  Complications include frozen shoulder, avascular necrosis of the humeral head in multi-part fractures and nerve injury in shaft fractures. Six to eight weeks is typical healing time with older people often suffering a permanent reduction in shoulder movement.

Physiotherapy Management of Shoulder Fractures

Initially the physio assesses the arm, asking the patient about their pain level as this varies greatly, examining the swelling and bruising of the arm. The physiotherapist then checks the available range of movement of the shoulder, elbow, forearm and hand. Any muscle weakness and sensory loss is noted as this may denote nerve damage. If not operated on, a sling is continued with and if the fracture is not too painful or severe, early exercises are started by the physiotherapist. Pendular exercises, with the patient bending over at the waist, are important in the early stages as they allow movement of the shoulder joint without much force.

Once the three week stage is reached the fracture will have begun to heal and auto-assisted exercises can be started, where the patient helps the affected arm with the uninjured one. This is progressed to unassisted exercises, moving the arm up above the head, behind the back and behind the neck. As the six week point approaches, when the bone has effectively healed, the physiotherapist will start the patient doing more forceful exercises involving gentle stretches at the end of range to improve mobility. Mobilisation techniques to the shoulder joint and strengthening exercises using Theraband are progressed to increase muscle power and joint range.

Types of and Causes of Cerebral Palsy

Cerebral palsy is not a disease it is a condition. Cerebral refers to the brain and palsy means weakness or lack of muscle control. In addition, cerebral palsy is not a single problem, but a complex disease in which virtually all brain cell types could need repair. Approximately 90 percent of all cases are caused by brain injury during the prenatal period (before labor begins). This condition is caused by damage to brain cells that control the movement of muscles. A person with cerebral palsy can have mild to severe physical disabilities. There are varying degrees of therapies depending on the degree of condition. However, just because a person has cerebral palsy, it does not mean they will have other disabilities. Causes and Risks

Recent studies suggest that cerebral palsy is mostly due to factors affecting the brain before birth. In about 70 percent of cases, cerebral palsy results from events occurring before birth that can disrupt normal development of the brain. This condition is caused by an injury to the brain during pregnancy, at birth, or shortly after birth. The symptoms are usually not noticeable at birth. It was previously assumed that it was caused by fetal distress, such as a lack of oxygen, during the birth process. However, lack of oxygen at birth has not been shown to be the major cause. The motor deficits of babies are usually unrecognizable before 4-6 months of age.

A preemie’s risk of cerebral palsy is much higher than that of a full-term baby. In addition, exposure to herpes group B viruses was associated with a two-fold increase in risk. Reproductive/urinary tract infections also may increase the risk in a preterm delivery. Preemie’s are already at risk for cerebral palsy and account for approximately one-third of the cases. Adequate prenatal care may reduce the risk of the unborn baby.

Viral infections, lead poisoning, or head injuries that occur early in life can result in acquired cerebral palsy, a less common condition. Spastic cerebral palsy, the most common type, is a condition in which there is too much muscle tone. However, cerebral palsy is NOT a progressive condition, meaning that it does not worsen over time. Cerebral palsy generally is a long-lasting (chronic) condition.

There are roughly 8,000 infants born with this condition each year and some 1,200-1,500 preschool age children acquire cerebral palsy annually. Most children are diagnosed by age 5. Despite significant improvements in obstetric and neonatal care in recent years, the incidence of cerebral palsy has not decreased.

Types
Athetoid cerebral palsy affects the ability to control muscles, leading to involuntary and uncontrolled movements in the affected muscles

Spastic cerebral palsy is the most common type of cerebral palsy. Approximately 60 percent of all individuals with cerebral palsy have spasticity that is characterized by tense, contracted muscles. Doctors will often describe which type of spastic cerebral palsy a patient has, based on which limbs are affected. Ataxic cerebral palsy affects the sense of balance and depth perception. Children who suffer from ataxic cerebral palsy can be described as being very shaky and unsteady.

Symptoms

Children with cerebral palsy may develop eating difficulties, bladder and bowel control problems, breathing problems, and learning disabilities. Children with cerebral palsy have limited use of their arms due to the dysfunction of their neural motor control and stiffness of their joints. Dysarthria is common in people with cerebral palsy, due to problems involving the muscles that control speech and mastication. Although Cerebral Palsy is a permanent condition, as a person learns and grows and practices skills, more control over movement may be achieved.

Treatment

Treatment of cerebral palsy requires a team of specialists to help maximize and coordinate movement, minimize discomfort and pain, and prevent long-term complications. Because the symptoms of cerebral palsy can cause behavioral and emotional problems, many children benefit from counseling or behavior therapy. It is also not “curable” in the accepted sense, although education, therapy, and applied technology can help persons with cerebral palsy lead productive lives.

The goal of drug therapy is to reduce the effects and prevent complications. Physical, speech, and occupational therapy along with counseling today are employed to help people lead healthy, productive lives. Most children with cerebral palsy benefit from early and regular physical and occupational therapy. In addition, education, therapy, and applied technology can help persons with cerebral palsy lead productive lives.

Conclusion

With early and ongoing treatment, the disabilities associated with cerebral palsy can be reduced. People living with cerebral palsy are usually able to live independently in the community, with or without assistance. With support and treatment, though, many people with cerebral palsy can live healthy, happy lives.

Handicapped Dog Pet Back Hind Leg Paralysis Weakness Disability Causes And Treatment In India

Limb paralysis is a very common condition in dogs which can occur both in fore leg or hind leg, but more common in hind legs. Various reasons for hind limb paralysis are trauma due to accident or fall from height or fight among animals. Other common causes are old age, neurological and degenerative diseases, tick paralysis and nutritional hind quarter weakness.
Due to the paralysis or hind quarter weakness dog is unable to walk and bear weight on its legs which leads to recumbency. Recumbency has several complications like muscle degeneration, disuse atrophy of the muscles, neuronal degeneration, soft tissue damage, pressure sores and decubital ulcers. In addition to this, the blood supply to the area gets disturbed. As veins are superficial seated, they get blocked due to the weight of the animal whereas arteries are deep seated and initially blood continues to pool which causes marked swelling of the area (odema). Later, production of super oxides damages the cells and local tissues which take the form of a vicious cycle causing further production of free radicals and more damage. The blood supply will eventually stop leading to the death of the limb leaving to no other option but to amputate the leg of the animal. In addition to trauma, neoplasia can also lead to the amputation of the limbs/legs.  If treated properly at an early stage the complications of the recumbency and amputation of leg can be averted for which proper ambulation and rehabilitation is very important. Earlier, when more than one leg was lost (amputated), then there was no other option available, especially in India and the animal was put to sleep (euthanized). But now the conditions have improved markedly in India and such animals can live further with proper treatment.
Animal should be lifted from the ground and should be given proper treatment as early as possible so that the blood supply to the area becomes normal. Rehabilitation and physiotherapy should start as they increase the rate of recovery. To facilitate the standing of the dog, devices are now available in India in variety of forms like slings, two wheeled wheel chair/wheel carts and four two wheeled wheel chair/wheel carts. In addition to this, orthotic and prosthetic devices are available in India at nominal cost (http//www.innovationindia.webs.com) which can markedly improve the living pattern of the animals. An orthotic is defined as devices used to support or protect an injured limb like braces (e.g. knee brace). A prosthetic device is designed to replace a missing limb or body part (e.g. artificial limb). The products available in India have several advantages for the pet lovers and owners the most important of which is the reduced cost. In addition to this, the products are custom made i.e. product is made individually for each animal/dog.
Slings may be strapped around the body or fitted for the fore limb or hind limb or both. Straps are long hand held to allow handler support the dog. Slings help in transitioning a recumbent pet to standing position.
Whereas, in certain cases, a combination of fore limb and hind limb devices becomes necessary for total body support, to prevent decubital ulcers and complications of recumbency. Wheel carts also known as canine wheel chairs or simply carts are such device which are beneficial to provide support, allow independence fro the owner and the dog and prevent the deleterious effects of recumbency. When placed in the wheel cart/chair, the dog needs some days to get habituated to the device. For a few initial days, the dog should be supervised so that they don’t fall or get struck in some object. Also they should be able to eat and drink in carts, for this, their feeding bowl may be elevated from the ground. These wheel carts with two or four wheels are designed for dogs which are permanently disabled, according to the need of the individual animal, now in India (http//www.innovationindia.webs.com). With little hard work, care and love the life of these speechless animals can be improved, so let’s join our hands together to make this happen.

The Causes And Symptoms Of Umbilical Hernias

Umbilical hernias are believed to be a harmless medical condition that normally affects babies. The hernia develops when a part of the intestine is driving through a weak area in the abdominal muscles. While this condition is commonly seen in babies it has the ability to bear upon certain adults as well.

The majority of these types of hernias will have the power to close by itself around the time the baby has turned one. However, there are times in which it may take somewhat longer to cure. If the hernia has not repaired itself by the time the youngster is four or if an adult notices that they have one then they need to seek medical care and use surgery to mend it.

Umbilical Hernia Symptoms

The hernia will develop a bulge close to the navel. This bulge can be between half an inch to two inches long. Numerous individuals will only notice the bulge while they child is crying, straining, or coughing. As soon as they are calm or laying down on their back it will commonly go away.

While the umbilical hernias in infants do not create any pain and do not affect the baby in a terrible way some adults will not be so lucky. In these cases the adult will have a good amount of discomfort from the hernia and a slight amount of pain.

Umbilical Hernia Causes

The cause of umbilical hernias in kids will come about while the woman is still pregnant. During this time the umbilical cord will journey through a small opening in the abdominal muscles in the baby. The gap will usually close before the mother gives birth. Still, if the muscles do not have the ability to unite with each other then the weak region in the abdominal wall will create the hernia during birth or when they are older.

Kyphoplasty, The Latest Treatment For Vertebral Compression Fractures

Vertebral compression fractures may occur with major trauma, such as a motorcycle accident, or with something as insignificant as a sneeze, or stepping off of a curb. With a compression fracture, the bone compressed and collapses into itself, similar to squeezing a Styrofoam peanut between your fingers.

How much force it takes to cause a compression fracture, depends on the quality of the bone. Elderly women with osteoporosis have frail, thin bones, which are easily crushed. But even the young strong bone of an 18 year old, will collapse if sufficient force is applied. These fractures may also be caused by metastatic disease, and multiple myeloma, which can weaken the bone to the point that it simply collapses.

A large majority of these fractures are termed wedge fractures, which refers to the shape of the fractured vertebra. The anterior, or front part of the vertebra, is compressed, and the posterior or back portion maintains its height. But in some cases, when sufficient force is applied, the entire vertebra is flattened.

Compression fractures cause the sudden severe pain and disability. The compression fracture itself will generally cause only back pain, focused at the sight of the fracture. Occasionally, when fracture fragments are forced out of place and begin pressing on nerves, there may be buttock and lower extremity pain as well.

Historically, the treatment for these fractures has been bed rest, and pain medication. Depending on how stable the fracture was thought to be, sometimes a brace or body cast would be added. Young people were more likely to survive the period of immobility. In the elderly population, with multiple medical problems, there was a high rate of mortality from the immobilization. People often had complications with pneumonia, blood clots, and loss of muscle. In many cases, even though the fracture would heal, people were never able to return to regular activity.

In 1998 the first kyphoplasty was performed. This new procedure has been shown to restore the height of the vertebra, and quickly stabilize the fracture. There is almost an immediate reduction in pain making it possible to mobilize patients the day after surgery. Braces or body casts are generally not necessary.

This surgery is performed through a tiny 1/2 inch incision. A large needle is threaded precisely into the center of the damaged vertebra, using flouroscopic x-ray guidance. Then a balloon is inserted and inflated in the center of the fracture. This pushes the fracture fragments back out to their original position, re-establishing the dimensions of the vertebra, and correcting any deformity.

When the surgeon is satisfied with the shape and height of the vertebra, the balloon is deflated and withdrawn. The void that is left is then filled with methyl methacrylate, which is the same bone cement that is used to glue prosthetic joint replacements in place. Within minutes this hardens and immediately stabilizes the fracture fragments.

Most people are up the next day. If their pain is not completely resolved, is greatly improved. They are generally able to return to their normal activities within a few weeks.

There are risks with any surgery, but kyphoplasty is minimally invasive and the risks are considered to be very low. It is reported that in up to 10% of cases some methyl methacrylate will extrude outside of the vertebra. In most cases this is harmless and does not cause any problems. The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons reports that in 1 case in 10,000 this cement may damage or irritate nerves or the spinal cord. A second surgery may be required to remove the excess cement.

The benefits of this procedure are that it greatly shortens the time of pain and disability that people with compression fractures are forced to endure. Because people are mobilized the day after surgery, it greatly reduces the risk of complications associated with prolonged bed rest.

When comparing the risks and benefits of using kyphoplasty to treat a vertebral compression fracture. The benefits seem to outweigh the risks, and this procedure may be worth considering.

Vertebral compression fractures may occur with major trauma, such as a motorcycle accident, or with something as insignificant as a sneeze, or stepping off of a curb. With a compression fracture, the bone compressed and collapses into itself, similar to squeezing a Styrofoam peanut between your fingers.

How much force it takes to cause a compression fracture, depends on the quality of the bone. Elderly women with osteoporosis have frail, thin bones, which are easily crushed. But even the young strong bone of an 18 year old, will collapse if sufficient force is applied. These fractures may also be caused by metastatic disease, and multiple myeloma, which can weaken the bone to the point that it simply collapses.

A large majority of these fractures are termed wedge fractures, which refers to the shape of the fractured vertebra. The anterior, or front part of the vertebra, is compressed, and the posterior or back portion maintains its height. But in some cases, when sufficient force is applied, the entire vertebra is flattened.

Compression fractures cause the sudden severe pain and disability. The compression fracture itself will generally cause only back pain, focused at the sight of the fracture. Occasionally, when fracture fragments are forced out of place and begin pressing on nerves, there may be buttock and lower extremity pain as well.

Historically, the treatment for these fractures has been bed rest, and pain medication. Depending on how stable the fracture was thought to be, sometimes a brace or body cast would be added. Young people were more likely to survive the period of immobility. In the elderly population, with multiple medical problems, there was a high rate of mortality from the immobilization. People often had complications with pneumonia, blood clots, and loss of muscle. In many cases, even though the fracture would heal, people were never able to return to regular activity.

In 1998 the first kyphoplasty was performed. This new procedure has been shown to restore the height of the vertebra, and quickly stabilize the fracture. There is almost an immediate reduction in pain making it possible to mobilize patients the day after surgery. Braces or body casts are generally not necessary.

This surgery is performed thru a tiny 1/2 inch incision. A large needle is threaded precisely into the center of the damaged vertebra, using flouroscopic x-ray guidance. Then a balloon is inserted and inflated in the center of the fracture. This pushes the fracture fragments back out to their original position, re-establishing the dimensions of the vertebra, and correcting any deformity.

When the surgeon is satisfied with the shape and height of the vertebra, the balloon is deflated and withdrawn. The void that is left is then filled with methyl methacrylate, which is the same bone cement that is used to glue prosthetic joint replacements in place. Within minutes this hardens and immediately stabilizes the fracture fragments.

Most people are up the next day. If their pain is not completely resolved, is greatly improved. They are generally able to return to their normal activities within a few weeks.

There are risks with any surgery, but kyphoplasty is minimally invasive and the risks are considered to be very low. It is reported that in up to 10% of cases some methyl methacrylate will extrude outside of the vertebra. In most cases this is harmless and does not cause any problems. The American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons reports that in 1 case in 10,000 this cement may damage or irritate nerves or the spinal cord. A second surgery may be required to remove the excess cement.

The benefits of this procedure are that it greatly shortens the time of pain and disability that people with compression fractures are forced to endure. Because people are mobilized the day after surgery, it greatly reduces the risk of complications associated with prolonged bed rest.

When comparing the risks and benefits of using kyphoplasty to treat a vertebral compression fracture. The benefits seem to outweigh the risks, and this procedure may be worth considering.

David Stevens PA-C
Living with Back Pain

Harley Davidson VRSC Motorcycle

These Harley Davidson VRSC motorcycles come under the revolution models with VR engines. The VRSC designation is given to all the street motorcycles.
The VRSC is followed by the letters A, B, D, R, SE or X to denote the model of the bike.

Additional information:
The main features of this type of Harley Davidson VRSC motorcycles are as follows:

1.It has a characteristic ‘V-Rod’ with the engine.
2.It has the fuel injection method.
3.There is provision for the cooling of the liquid and
4.There are specialised over head cams.
5.There is presence of cleaner cover which supports the radiator.

The V-rod feature has gained a wide support over the world. There is an anti lock brake system. There is an added efficiencyfrom 1130cc to 1250 cc which provides more support to the bike.

THE CURRENT MODEL SERIES:

VRSCAW V Rod:
1.It has a length of 94.4 inches
2.Seat height in the laden is 26 inches and unladen is 27.1 inches.
3.It has a ground clearance of 5 inches.
4.There is a wheel base of 67.2 inches
5.The fuel and oil capacity are 5 gal and 4.5 qt.

Power train:
1.It has a liquid cooled engine with 60 degrees v twin revolution.
2.The displacement accounts for around 76.3 inches.
3.The torque for the engine is 84 ft. lbs. for 7000 rpm.
4.There is a 11.5:1 ratio of compression.

Wheels and tyres:
1.The front and rear wheels are either brushed or machined type with laced or cast aluminium.

Special features:
1.It has silver and charcoal power train with chrome covers and it is two toned.
2.The seat height is very low which accounts only 26 inches.
3.It has frame made up of steel with aluminium coat.
4.The tire is 240mm wide.
5.The foot controls are mounted in the forward direction.

VRSCD Night Rod:
Dimensions:
1.It has a length of 94.4 inches
2.Seat height in the laden is 26 inches and unladen is 27.1 inches.
3.It has a ground clearance of 5 inches.
4.There is a wheel base of 67.2 inches
5.The fuel and oil capacity are 5 gal and 4.5 qt.

Power train:
1.It has a liquid cooled engine with 60 degrees v twin revolution.
2.The displacement accounts for around 76.3 inches.
3.The torque for the engine is 85 ft. lbs. for 7000 rpm.
4.There is a 11.5:1 ratio of compression.

Wheels and tyres:
1.The front and rear wheels are 5 spoked with black and laced or cast aluminium.

Special features:
1.It has special pegs to run on high ways.
2.The seat height is very low which accounts only 26 inches.
3.The tire is 180mm in the rear end.
4.The foot controls are mounted in the mid level.
5.The headlamps are matched with the color.

VRSCDX Night Rod Special:
Dimensions:
1.It has a length of 94.4 inches
2.Seat height in the laden is 25.2 inches and unladen is 26.3 inches.
3.It has a ground clearance of 4.2 inches.
4.There is a wheel base of 67.2 inches
5.The fuel and oil capacity are 5 gal and 4.5 qt.

Power train:
1.It has a liquid cooled engine with 60 degrees v twin revolution.
2.The displacement accounts for around 76.3 inches.
3.The torque for the engine is 85 ft. lbs. for 7000 rpm.
4.There is a 11.5:1 ratio of compression.

Wheels and tyres:
1.The front and rear wheels are black along with a slotted type of disc.

Special features:
1.The seat height is very low which accounts only 25.2 inches.
2.The tire is 240 mm in the rear end.
3.The foot controls are mounted in the forward level.
4.The handle bar has a short drag style.
5.There are black exhaust caps.

Thus the Harley Davidson VRSC motorcycles are specialized in their own way and gain support worldwide.

Neuralgia: The Symptoms, Causes and Risk Factors

Neuralgia is defined as a condition of a sudden and heavy attacks of pain that follows the path of a nerve or nerves as a result of a change in neurological structure or function due to irritation or damage to the nerves without stimulating pain receptor (nociceptor) cells. the disease affects about 2%–3% of the population.

I. Symptoms
1. In the study to evaluate the symptoms of neuralgia effect on the patient with postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), scientists at Policy Analysis Inc, showed that only about one half had taken prescription medication for shingles pain during the prior week; dosages were typically low. Mean average, worst, least, and current pain caused by shingles (0- to 10-point scale) was 4.6 (+/-2.1), 6.0 (+/-2.4), 2.9 (+/-2.3), and 4.0 (+/-2.7), respectively. Mean pain interference with general activity, mood, relations with other people, sleep, and enjoyment of life (0- to 10-point scale) was 3.7 (+/-3.1), 4.3 (+/-2.9), 3.0 (+/-2.8), 3.8 (+/-2.9), and 4.5 (+/-3.1), respectively. The mean EQ-5D health index score was 0.61; respondents rated their overall health as 65.7 (+/-21.1) on a 100-point scale. PHN causes substantial pain, dysfunction, and poor health-related quality of life in older persons, many of whom might be suboptimally treated(a).

2. Mechanical allodynia and cold hyperalgesia(13)

II. Causes and Risk factors
A. Causes
1. Smoke, smell, dust and cold air
Dr. Moritsch E and  Mitschke H. in the study of Surgical elimination of endonasal triggerpoints of a trigeminal neuralgia caused by cauterization showed that a severe injury by fluid Ammonia of the nasal mucosa resulted with a strong irritation of the 1. and 2. branch of the trigeminus nerve with sudden and heavy attacks of pain. The region below the head of the right inferior nasal concha was detected as a trigger zone for smoke, smell, dust and cold air. Local anaesthesia stopped the attacks(1)

2. Chronic renal insufficiency
Chronic renal insufficiency, the slow loss of kidney function over time, are often accompanied by neuralgia. Peripheral nerve disorders distort or interrupt the messages between the brain and the rest of the body as a result of kidney damage of that can led neuralgia, as a result of waste accumulation in the blood.

3. Infection
Certain infections can lead to neuralgia
a. Facial herpes zoster infection
Occipital neuralgia is a pain syndrome which may usually be induced by spasms of the cervical muscles or trauma to the greater or lesser occipital nerves. Scientist(s) at the Kyoto University in the study of a 74-year-old male experienced sudden-onset severe headache in the occipital area showed that the pain was localized to the distribution of the right side of the greater occipital nerve, and palpation of the right greater occipital nerve reproduces the pain. He was diagnosed with occipital neuralgia according to ICHD-II criteria. A few days later, the occipital pain was followed by reddening of the skin and the appearance, of varying size, of vesicles on the right side of his face (the maxillary nerve and the mandibular nerve region). This was diagnosed as herpes zoster.(2)

b. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
Dr. Louis E and the team at the Hôpital Sainte-Anne, in the study of Bilateral amyotrophic neuralgia (Parsonage Turner syndrome) with HIV seroconversion reported that a unusual case of neuralgic amyotrophy (NA) occurring during the seroconversion stage of an HIV infection. Combined with previously published cases, our observation suggests that NA associated with HIV could belong to the group of early multiplex mononeuritis. Neurologists should be aware of HIV infection when managing a patient with NA(3).

c. Lyme disease
In the report of a 55-year-old woman developed severe unilateral headaches, periocular numbness, and Horner syndrome after presenting with symptoms consistent with Lyme disease was constituted a diagnosis of Raeder paratrigeminal neuralgia(4)

d. Etc.

4. Diabetes
Diabetes are associated with  femoral neuralgia, as a result of excessive sugar levels in the blood stream. Dr. Simmat G. and the team in the study of A retrospective study allowed us to work out an original method for an essentially clinical approach of the correlation between femoral neuropathy and diabetes mellitus.(5)

5. Surgery
Certain surgery such as herniorrhaphy, appendectomy, nephrectomy, gynecological surgery, removal of bone from the inner table of the iliac crest, may increase the risk of neuralagia. In the frequent cases attributable to previous surgery the retroperitoneal resection of the nerves is advocated instead of a local revision, which is usually unsuccessful due to the impossibility of finding and restoring the fine nerves in a dense scar.(6)

6. Hypothyroidism
In the study of Painful neuropathy in subclinical hypothyroidism, Dr. Penza P, and the team at National Neurological Institute Carlo Besta showed that Subclinical hypothyroidism is a possible cause of sensory neuropathy and hormone replacement therapy can prompt nerve regeneration(7).

7. Multiple sclerosis 
Many patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are siad to be associated with trigeminal neuralgia (TN). researchers at Università La Sapienza found that the most likely cause of MS-related TN is a pontine plaque damaging the primary afferents. Nevertheless, in some patients a neurovascular contact may act as a concurring mechanism. The other sensory disturbances, including ongoing pain and dysaesthesia, may arise from damage to the second-order neurons in the spinal trigeminal complex.(8)

8. Porphyria
Porphyrias represent a group of inherited or acquired disorders that involve enzymes that participate in heme synthesis. Acute manifestations affect the nervous system resulting in abdominal pain, vomiting, acute neuropathy, seizures, and mental disorders(9)

9. Brian and spiral tumors
In a report of Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is often secondary to an underlying structural cause, frequently compression of the fifth nerve root by an ectatic artery. This unusual set of circumstances is an example of “action at a distance” in the nervous system, and reminds clinicians to think broadly about the various pathophysiologic mechanisms that can potentially underlie common disorders(10). Other researchers suggested Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is occasionally caused by cerebellopontine angle (CPA) tumors. Among 243 patients presenting with TN who had been operated on in our institute, 25 (10.3%) were caused by CPA tumors, which consisted of 11 epidermoid, 9 acoustic tumors, and 5 meningiomas. Cases with TN caused by tumors were clinically investigated in comparison with those of idiopathic TN.(11)

10. Hypertension
In the study of A total of 138,492 persons with at least 2 ambulatory visits with the principal diagnosis of hypertension in 2001 were enrolled in the hypertension group. The nonhypertension group consisted of 276,984 age- and sex-matched, randomly sampled subjects without hypertension, showed that a significantly increased risk of developing TN after hypertension. Further studies are needed to elucidate the underlying mechanism of the association between hypertension and TN(12). 

11. Other causes
Neuropathic pain refers to pain that originates from pathology of the nervous system. Common causes of neuropathic pain are diabetes mellitus, reactivation of herpes zoster, nerve compression or radiculopathy, alcohol, chemotherapy or abuse of some drugs, and trigeminal neuralgia(13).

12. Etc.

B. Risk factors
1. Age, sex and migraine
In the study conducted by  University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry showed that Univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that older age, female sex, presence of a prodrome, greater rash severity, and greater acute pain severity made independent contributions to identifying which patients developed PHN. Patients with subacute herpetic neuralgia who did not develop PHN were significantly younger and had less severe acute pain than postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) patients but were significantly more likely to have severe and widespread rash than patients without persisting pain.(14). Other indicated that indicate that patients with migraine(M) should also be screened for symptoms of occipital neuralgia (ON), as there may be similarities in presentation. The clinical implications of distinguishing ON + M and isolated ON include differences in treatment regimen, avoidance of inappropriate use of medical resources, and differences in long-term outcomes.(15)

2. Immunity
In a report of 821 cases of herpes zoster that met all eligibility criteria, indicated that the prevalence of postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) more than 30 days after onset of zoster was 8.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.3%-10.1%) and 4.5% (95% CI, 3.2%-6.2%) after 60 days. Compared with patients younger than 50 years, individuals aged 50 years or older had a 14.7-fold higher prevalence (95% CI, 6.8-32.0) 30 days and a 27.4-fold higher prevalence (95% CI, 8.8-85.4) 60 days after developing zoster. Prodromal sensory symptoms and certain conditions associated with compromised immunity were also associated with PHN. Systemic corticosteroids before zoster and treatment of zoster with acyclovir or corticosteroids did not significantly affect the prevalence of PHN.(16)

3. Nutrient deficiency
In the study to compare the nutritional status of PHN patients with that of healthy controls, and then to identify risk factors for PHN using multivariate multiple logistic regressions, conducted by Chi Mei Medical Center,, Dr. Chen JY and the medical team showed that lower concentrations of circulating nutrients, namely vitamin C, ionised Ca or Zn, are probably a risk factor in Taiwanese patients with PHN.(17)

4. Etc.

For the series of Neuralgia, visit http://diseases-researches.blogspot.ca/p/encephalitis.html

Sources can be found at http://medicaladvisorjournals.blogspot.ca/2012/07/neuralgia-symptoms-and-causes-and-risk.html

Trapped Nerve – Signs, Symptoms And Treatment

A trapped nerve originating from the spine can cause referred pain to areas such as your arms, hand, legs and feet. For instance, sciatica can be a result of a pinched nerve due to a disc herniation in your spine. In other instances, a trapped nerve along the sacral plexus (group of nerve fibers that exit the sacral bone) can also cause sciatic pain. Occasionally, some people will have sciatica due to a pinched nerve within the piriformis muscle (muscle in the buttocks). As you can see, there can be many factors which can cause a nerve to be trapped. The way to accurately diagnose the cause of your pain is through examining your signs and symptoms.

Trapped nerve signs and symptoms include:

1. Any numbness (lack of sensation), tingling, or weakness along the body part where the nerve runs through. 
2. Sensations of “pins and needles” in the affected area. 
3. Sharp or burning pain sensation

Here is a list of common causes for a trapped nerve:

1. Accident, Injury, Trauma 
2. Degenerative Disc Disease (DDD) 
3. Tumor 
4. Canal Stenosis 
5. Disc Herniation 
6. Overuse Injuries/Repetitive Stress Injuries 
7. Poor Posture 
8. Obesity 
9. Osteoarthritis 
10. Osteoporotic fractures

Generally, there is no permanent damage if a nerve is trapped for a short duration. However, if the trapped nerve is untreated and the pressure continues, the result can be chronic pain and possible permanent nerve damage. Many people will recover from the effects of a pinched nerve within days or weeks with proper rest and conservative treatment. Stopping any activities that can cause or aggravate the nerve compression is essential to a full recovery. In some instances, it may be necessary to wear a brace or splint to immobilize the area, such as in carpal tunnel syndrome.

There are some preventative measures that can you can take. For example, maintain a healthy body weight, limit activities that are repetitive in work and maintain good posture. There are also stretches and rehabilitation exercises that are specifically designed to alleviate the pain from a trapped nerve. Your doctor may prescribe pain medication or use a corticosteroid injection to minimize the pain and inflammation. For those who want a more natural approach to treating the trapped nerve, there are also alternatives such as acupuncture, chiropractic and physical therapy that have provided some people with relief.

In general, if a trapped nerve shows no signs of improvement or progressively becomes worse after three months of conservative treatment, surgery may be required. The type of surgery would depend on the location of the pinched nerve. For instance, the different kinds of surgery can involve removal of portions of a herniated disc, nerve release, removing ligament structures or taking out bone spurs. Each trapped nerve case requires a specific surgical procedure.

When Does Your Baby Really Need Craniosynostosis Surgery?

One of the causes of a misshapen can develop in your baby after birth. The primary cause for this condition is when there are outside forces applying constant pressure on one part of his head. The first 6 – 8 weeks of your baby’s life are the most crucial time to avoid a flattened head, mainly because the bones in a newborn baby’s head at this time are thin and flexible and their head is soft and easy to mold. Seeking professional help early is essential if you see that your baby’s head is becoming flattened in areas or their head/neck favors facing a certain direction. (which could mean that your baby has Torticollis)

Sometimes when movement in the uterus is restricted there are chances of developing positional plagiocephaly. It can develop if the mother has a multiple pregnancy or it can happen with breech babies who get wedged under their mother’s ribs. When babies are born and spend time in a position that puts pressure on one part of their skull, there is risk of typically developing this condition known as positional plagiocephaly.

When this condition is present during the time of birth or becomes much more noticeable after birth, the baby may have a birth defect known as craniosynostosis. Craniosynostosis is when the joints between the bones of the baby’s skull close too early, experts recommend Craniosynostosis Surgery for this condition, as it helps the brain grow properly.

There are different surgical options for craniosynostosis such as

  • Traditional surgery, also called calvarial vault remodeling
  • Minimally invasive endoscopic surgery

Coronal Synostosis is a condition that affects the side of the skull where the forehead and the frontal lobe grow and expand forward. When this suture closes too early, the condition is known as anterior plagiocephaly where the forehead is recessed and flattened, and the eye socket is elevated and tilted. The baby with Coronal Synostosis will have a nose that deviates to the side. Babies often want to tilt their head to the side in order to prevent seeing double. This may also cause torticollis.

In Sagittal craniosynostosis the suture is located at the midline, on top of the skull and extends from the soft spot towards the back of the head. It is the most common type of single suture synostosis. At the resourceful website of Cappskids.org you can explore everything about the condition and how to find help. Cappskids.org is a Specialist Directory and Condition Specific Telehealth Provider.

Guilin Food , Cuisine & Local Specialties

Besides being one of the most picturesque cities in China, Guilin’s local cuisine is quite special. Being located on the beautiful Li River, fish is a large part of people’s diets. The rice noodles are famous throughout China. A visit to Guilin just isn’t complete without sampling some of the local food.

Guilin Rice Noodles:
The noodles of Guilin are famous throughout China and can be found in places such as Shanghai and Hong Kong. Of course for the most authentic Guilin Rice Noodles, visitors must eat them in their home town, Guilin.

The rice noodles are made from oil and rice flower. The noodles are cooked in broth and served in a bowl of soup made from pork, beef, garlic, peanuts, peppers, and radishes. The peppers are added by the diner, so visitors who do not like spicy food can simply not add it.

It is a staple of Guilin people’s diet and is a wonderful and cheap dish. During meal times the many small rice noodle restaurants are always packed with diners.

Yangshuo Beer Fish:
Yangshuo Beer Fish is Yangshuo’s most famous dish. It is made from fresh caught Li River carp. The fresh fish is fried in a wok along with beer, hot and green peppers, garlic, onions, celery, tomatoes, soy, and sugar. Visitors are amazed at how delicious the fish’s skin is and how fresh and tender the meat is. Eating Yangshuo’s beer fish will be an unforgettable culinary experience.

Yangshuo’s famous West Street has many restaurants serving this delicious dish. The Tao’s Authentic Beer Fish, and The Older Sister of Peng’s Beer Fish come highly recommended.

Guilin rice noodle
Guilin rice noodle

Yangshuo beer fish
Beer fish

Griddle Cooked Beef Steak:
Girdle Cooked Beef Steak (Niupai ganguo) is one of Guilin’s most well known local dishes. This kind of beef steak is cooked with different seasonings, such as chili, cassia bark, and fennel. It is similar to eating hot pot, except no broth is used in the wok. Diners can control the heat to cook the meat to their specifications.

The griddle cooked beef steak tastes spicy, and its flavor is unique. It is very different from that of a Western steak. If desired, diners can add some beer to the wok to make the steak even tastier. After the steak is finished, vegetables, bean curd, pickled cabbage, noodles and a bowl of broth can be added to the wok and cooked in the steak’s juices.

This delicious dish can be found at most hot pot restaurants in Guilin and Yangshuo.


Zongzi(traditional Chinese rice-pudding):

A dumpling made of glutinous rice wrapped in bamboo leaves, Zongzi has a history of over 2,000 years. It is most famous for its connection to China’s Dragon Boat Festival. This festival honors the great poet Qu Yuan who lived in the Warring States Period (403-221 BC), who being unhappy with the political situation committed suicide by drowning himself. The local people fearing that Qu Yuan’s body would be consumed by fish threw Zongzi into the river to feed the fish.

Zongzi, can be filled with a variety of fillings. There are bean Zongzi, chestnut Zongzi, pork Zongzi, and lotus seed paste Zongzi, just to name a few. In China different areas have different styled fillings. Guilin, for example, has traditionally made Zongzi stuffed with taro, pork, preserved pork, and chestnuts. The best part about this traditional Chinese food is that it can be refrigerated and when wanted, just heated in a microwave.

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Griddle Cooked Beef Steak

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Zongzi(traditional Chinese rice-pudding)

Luohanguo:
Fructus momordicae, called Luohanguo in Chinese, is primarily grown in southern China’s Guangxi Province, with the majority coming from the mountains of Guilin. In China, traditional Chinese doctors have used Luohanguo as an expectorant, to fight heat stroke, acute or chronic throat inflammation, aphonia, and chronic cough for centuries.

The sweet compounds from Luohanguo is about 250 times sweeter than cane sugar and is extremely low in calories, so that it is a good natural sweetener for patients who suffer from diseases that forbidden ingesting sugar, such as diabetes, adiposity, high blood pressure, and cardiopathy.

It has been reported that the residents who live near in Yongfu and Lingui Counties (of Guilin), are recognized as having an unusually high number of residents living to an age 100 years or more. Some people attribute this to the consumption of Luohanguo.

The dried fruit may be bought in almost all the Guilin markets. The outer surface of the dried fruit is round and smooth, dusty yellow-brown or dusty green-brown. It is covered with fine, soft hair. The fruit is covered by a hard but thin skin. The entire fruit, including the seeds, have a nice sweet flavor. Luohanguo is best steeped in tea.

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Fructus momordicae(Luohanguo)

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Lipu Taro Looped Meat

Lipu Taro Looped Meat:
Lipu Taro Looped Meat is a famous traditional dish served in the traditional Guilin banquets. It is always found during festivals or important events. This dish is made of taro from Lipu County (104 km south of Guilin) combined with streaky pork, red pepper, garlic spread, Guilin fermented bean curd, wine, honey and many other seasonings.

Before the streaky pork and taro are steamed in bamboo steamers, they must be deep-fried in vegetable oil. The finished dish is golden in color and aromatic. The taro’s flavor and the pork’s freshness blend perfectly to create a wonderful dish.

In addition, this dish has certain health benefits, such as eliminating heat and purging fire, as well as softening the complexion. This famous dish is available at almost every restaurant in Guilin.

Ask a tavel consultant to arrange a tour including taste the Famous Cuisine and Local Food in Guilin & Yangshuo

Here is an itineraly maybe useful for your trip to Guilin:
http://www.chinaodysseytours.com/guilin-tour/guilin-spring-tour.html

Home Remedies for Sore Throat and Sore Throat Causes

A sore throat, also known as pharyngitis, is inflammation or redness of the tissues, sometimes with yellowish/white pus on the tonsils. It is a common problem that each one of us faces in our lifetime. Sore throats are mainly caused by bacteria or viruses, affecting mostly children and young adults. Sore throat can continue for more than 48 hours. Sore throats can also be caused by allergic reactions or allergies and tobacco smoke.But if the condition is severe then contact your doctor immediately, do not waste time on internet, and remember always Health is wealth

Symptoms for Sore Throat:

If there’s pain in the throat, it may be due to occurrence of sore throat.

In the sore throat symptom, pain sometimes extends to the ears.

Problem in opening the mouth

You will have a difficulty in swallowing the food

Home Remedies Sore Throat

Below are some of the commonly used home remedies for sore throat. The ingredients used in these home remedies are completely natural and herbal and can be easily found in your kitchen cabinet or garden.

1. Gargling with alum (phitkari) is an effective home remedies for sore throat. Mix two grams alum in half a glass of warm water. Gargle with this water. This relieves swelling and throat pain.

2. Boil ten grams of bishop’s weed (ajwain) in 500 grams of water for 15 minutes. Allow it to cool, then add two pinches of salt and gargle two times a day. This expels excessive mucous. This is another effective sore throat remedies.

3. Grind and mix dry fruits of Indian gooseberry (amla) and liquorice (mulethi) in equal quantities. Take this mixture one teaspoonful twice a day, in the morning and evening for two weeks. You can also take six grams of this mixture along with an equivalent amount of sugar candy with250 grams of milk. This is beneficial in relieving sore throat.

4. To get relief from throat pain and irritation, mix dry coriander (dhaniya) and sugar in equal quantities and chew one teaspoonful of it twice or thrice a day.

5. Pineapple juice is another useful home remedy for sore throat, but consume in small amounts at frequent intervals.

Sage is another effectual cure. Half a liter of boiling water should be poured on a handful of sage leaves. When fairly cool, a little vinegar and honey should be added as per taste. This mixture should be used as a gargle. A tablespoon of this mixture call also be taken internally at the same time. and more information on http://www.getallabout.com/natural-home-remedies/sore-throat-home-remedies.htm .

Tonsillitis causes, symptoms and treatments

Tonsillitis is mostly caused by a virus and is often preceded by a cold (a runny nose, cough and sore eyes). Fewer cases (about one in seven) are caused by bacteria. Streptococcus is the most common type of bacteria involved (also known as‘strep’ throat). The tonsils are areas of lymphoid tissue on either side of the throat. Most commonly, the term “tonsils” refers to the palatine tonsils that can be seen in the back of the throat.

There are 2 main types of it: Acute can either be viral or bacterial in origin. Actinomyces bacterium causes subacute. Chronic if not treated can last for long periods, is mostly caused by bacterial infection. They may become so overwhelmed by bacterial or viral infection that they become inflamed, and swell causing tonsillitis. The infection may be present in the throat and also the surrounding areas causing pharynx inflammation. The pharynx is between the tonsils and the voice box (larynx) in the back of the throat.

Symptoms of it include a severe sore throat (which may be experienced as referred pain to the ears), painful swallowing, coughing, headache, myalgia (muscle aches), fever and chills. It is characterized by signs of swollen, red tonsils which may have a purulent exudative coating of white patches (i.e. pus). Swelling of the eyes, neck, and face may occur.

Under normal circumstances, as viruses and bacteria enter the body through the mouth and nose, they are filtered in the tonsils. The tonsils surround them with white blood cells which cause the body to develop a fever that can become extremely high in children. If the infection becomes serious, the tonsils will become painful and inflame. The infection may also be present in the throat and surrounding areas, causing pharynx inflammation.

Treatments of it consist of pain management medications and lozenges. If it is caused by bacteria, then antibiotics are prescribed, with most commonly used penicillin. For patients allergic to penicillin erythromycin and clarithromycin are used.

In many cases of tonsillitis, the pain caused by the inflamed tonsils warrants the prescription of topical anesthetics for temporary relief. Viscous lidocaine solutions and anaesthetic throat lozonges containing benzocaine, benzydamine, lignocaine, and flubiprofen are widely available without prescription.

Ibuprofen or other analgesics such as aspirin or paracetamol can help to decrease the edema and inflammation, which will ease the pain and hence allow the patient to swallow liquids sooner. Gargling with a solution of warm water and salt may reduce swelling and pain. If you are suffering from tonsilloliths (Tonsil stones) try to avoid dairy products like ice cream, yogurt, milk, etc.

Acromegaly Causes Symptoms Information With Treatment

Acromegaly is a chronic metabolic disorder caused by the presence of too much growth hormone. When this happens, your bones increase in size, including those of your hands, feet and face. Acromegaly affects mostly middle-aged adults. Overproduction of growth hormone is almost always caused by a noncancerous (benign) pituitary tumor (adenoma). This causes abnormal enlargement of bone, cartilage, muscle, organs, and other tissues. Other symptoms of acromegaly include thick, coarse, oily skin; skin tags; enlarged lips, nose and tongue; deepening of the voice due to enlarged sinuses and vocal cords; snoring due to upper airway obstruction; excessive sweating and skin odor; fatigue and weakness; headaches; impaired vision; abnormalities of the menstrual cycle and sometimes breast discharge in women; and impotence in men. The most serious health consequences of acromegaly are diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Patients with acromegaly are also at increased risk for polyps of the colon that can develop into cancer. Acromegaly most commonly affects middle-aged adults and can result in serious illness and premature death. Because of its insidious onset and slow progression, the disease is hard to diagnose in the early stages and is frequently missed for many years.

Causes of Acromegaly

The common Causes of Acromegaly :

Acromegaly is caused by prolonged overproduction of GH by the pituitary gland.

In about 90% of Acromegaly patients, the overproduction of GH is caused by a benign tumor of the pituitary gland called an adenoma.

In a few patients, Acromegaly is caused by tumors of the pancreas, lungs, and adrenal glands.

Symptoms of Acromegaly

Some Symptoms of Acromegaly :

Arthritis and carpal tunnel syndrome.

Diabetes mellitus.

Hypertension.

Macroglossia [enlarged tongue] .

Enlarging hands.

Brow and lower jaw protrusion.

Enlarging feet.

Heart failure.

Treatment of Acromegaly

Radiation therapy has been used both as a primary treatment and combined with surgery or drugs. It is usually reserved for patients who have remnants of the tumor even after surgery. Radiation therapy is given in divided doses over four to six weeks. This treatment lowers GH levels by about 50 percent over 2 to 5 years, but it causes a gradual loss of production of other pituitary hormones. Other rare complications associated with radiation therapy are loss of vision and brain injury.

Somatostatin and dopamine analogues and GH receptor antagonists are the mainstays of medical treatment and are generally used after failure of primary surgery to induce complete remission.

Treatment may include removal of the tumor, radiation therapy, and injection of a growth hormone blocking drug.

Tumors that co-secrete prolactin have a better response rate to dopamine agonists. The response to these agents is often detected by a trial of the drug in suitable patients.

The goal of treatment is to restore the pituitary gland to normal function, producing normal levels of growth hormone.

Microsurgery to remove the pituitary tumor causing this condition corrects the abnormal growth hormone secretion in most patients. This surgery may not be available to patients in isolated geographic locations, so travel to a larger metropolitan area may be necessary for treatment.

ISAGENIX® AND DIABETES

Isagenix ProductsIsagenix®  Diabetes-Friendly Pak Suitable for Diabetic Lifestyle.

Isagenix® is committed to answering the health needs of its customers, so, based on guidelines published by the American Heart Association and the American Diabetes Association, our Research and Development team has selected a suite of our existing products that, when used as directed by the pak instructions included, is suitable for the diabetic lifestyle. Tune in as Isagenix Scientific Advisory Board Chair Dr. Dennis Harper shares more details about the incredible Isagenix Diabetes-Friendly Pak and how to use it.

What is diabetes? What causes diabetes?

Diabetes (diabetes mellitus) is classed as a metabolism disorder. Metabolism refers to the way our bodies use digested food for energy and growth. Most of what we eat is broken down into glucose. Glucose is a form of sugar in the blood – it is the principal source of fuel for our bodies.

When our food is digested the glucose makes its way into our bloodstream. Our cells use the glucose for energy and growth. However, glucose cannot enter our cells without insulin being present – insulin makes it possible for our cells to take in the glucose.

Insulin is a hormone that is produced by the pancreas. After eating, the pancreas automatically releases an adequate quantity of insulin to move the glucose present in our blood into the cells, and lowers the blood sugar level.

A person with diabetes has a condition in which the quantity of glucose in the blood is too elevated (hyperglycemia). This is because the body either does not produce enough insulin, produces no insulin, or has cells that do not respond properly to the insulin the pancreas produces. This results in too much glucose building up in the blood. This excess blood glucose eventually passes out of the body in urine. So, even though the blood has plenty of glucose, the cells are not getting it for their essential energy and growth requirements.

There are three main types of diabetes:

Diabetes Type 1 – You produce no insulin at all.
Diabetes Type 2 – You don’t produce enough insulin, or your insulin is not working properly.
Gestational Diabetes – You develop diabetes just during your pregnancy.

(World Health Organization)

Diabetes Types 1 & 2 are chronic medical conditions – this means that they are persistent and perpetual. Gestational Diabetes usually resolves itself after the birth of the child.

Treatment is effective and important

All types of diabetes are treatable, but Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes last a lifetime; there is no known cure. The patient receives regular insulin, which became medically available in 1921. The treatment for a patient with Type 1 is mainly injected insulin, plus some dietary and exercise adherence.

Patients with Type 2 are usually treated with tablets, exercise and a special diet, but sometimes insulin injections are also required.

If diabetes is not adequately controlled the patient has a significantly higher risk of developing complications, such as hypoglycemia, ketoacidosis, and nonketotic hypersosmolar coma. Longer term complications could be cardiovascular disease, retinal damage, chronic kidney failure, nerve damage, poor healing of wounds, gangrene on the feet which may lead to amputation, and erectile dysfunction.

Isagenix®  Diabetes-Friendly Pak Suitable for Diabetic Lifestyle. Isagenix® product line is truly amazing. When you consider the range of products we offer – from meal replacements to vitamins and minerals to the incredible Isagenix® skin care line – the sheer number of products is incredible.

To learn more about the Isagenix® Diabetes Friendly Pak or to Order Isagenix Products, follow links.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. Isagenix® programs and products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.