A Brief Explanation About Duodenal Ulcers

A person gets a duodenal ulcer when the the duodenum in the stomach is affected by the H. pylori bacteria. One of the ways to get treatment is by taking a course approximately 1-2 months in duration that provides you with certain medications or other methods to lower the production of acid in your stomach. An additional week may be necessary during which the patient will take medication along with antibiotics in order to lower acid levels. Doing so will rid of the H. pylori bacteria from the duodenum. This treatment is also issued so that the ulcers do not return.

What Are The Causes?

Knowing about duodenal ulcers and their causes is important. Acid is produced by the stomach to assist with food digestion and bacterial removal. However, this acid can also destroy the stomach lining and the duodenum if an excess amount is produced. Once this lining is damaged, it forms a duodenal ulcer.

Another cause that is much more uncommon is the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome. Once again, stomach acid is produced in excess but other factors such as alcohol abuse, smoking, and stress contribute toward the development of these ulcers.

Symptoms

The symptoms are often associated with upper abdominal pain and pain under the breastbone. This pain only appears periodically. You may even feel pain before eating or perhaps when you become hungry. One way of getting rid of the pain is to eat, while another is to take antacids.

Vomiting, bloating, and nausea are additional symptoms. In some cases, food consumption leads to pain. What you should also know is that serious complications can arise from a duodenal ulcer such as bleeding ulcers. The duodenum wall can also suffer from perforation, causing severe pain that requires patient to get medical attention immediately.

Treatment

Surgery was often used as a means of treating these ulcers. However, once it was found that H. pylori bacteria was causing this condition most of the time, acid-suppressing medications suddenly have been the preferred treatment.

The number of people getting diagnosed with ulcers is steadily growing. Implementing the right duodenal ulcer diet is one manner of slowing down the condition while also helping the medication you are taking to be more effective. Any beverages or foods that raise the amount of acid in the stomach are to be avoided when planning such a diet.

Could Your Candida Be Celiac Disease?

Everyone has candida. It’s a bacteria that lives naturally in all human bodies, mostly in the small intestine and the mucous membranes. It doesn’t do anything harmful, and our bodies don’t notice it. When it is allowed to flourish, though, it becomes problematic. The condition of system-wide candida symptoms is called candida dysbiosis.

The symptoms of candida dysbiosis are fatigue, headaches, weakness, the feeling of being “hungover,” diarrhea, nausea, and memory loss, among others. Yet it’s vital to note that another condition — celiac disease — has many of the same indications. Could your candida actually be celiac disease instead?

First, let’s consider the causes. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder of the small bowel that is caused by an abnormal reaction to gluten, a protein found in wheat, and similar proteins found in barley and rye. Candida can be caused by taking antibiotics or hormones, or by alcohol, stress, or a poor diet. Candida and celiac disease have entirely different causes, in other words, even though some of their symptoms are the same.

Celiac disease and candida often share these symptoms: chronic fatigue, weakness, headaches, general flu-like achiness, joint pains, chronic sinus problems, allergies, irritability, abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, and gas.

On the other hand, these symptoms are common in candida but NOT in celiac disease: dizziness, cold sweats, sore throat, low-grade fever, chronic athlete’s foot, heart pains. If your symptoms include any of those, celiac disease is probably not what’s ailing you.

If you suspect you have celiac disease, it’s imperative that you get diagnosed properly as soon as possible. The condition is often misdiagnosed. Many of its symptoms suggest not just candida but irritable bowel syndrome and several other ailments. To accurately diagnose celiac disease, a blood test is needed. Other tests, such as an endoscopy, may also be necessary.

It’s important that if you think you have celiac disease, you don’t stop eating gluten products on your own before getting tested. Doing so may decrease the symptoms, but it will also make it harder to detect the disease when you do get tested. Instead, continue on with your regular diet until your doctor confirms you have celiac disease.

Once the diagnosis has been made, you’ll have to make some changes. There is no “cure” for celiac disease; the only way to deal with it is to stop eating foods with gluten in them, and to continue on that diet for the rest of your life. Fortunately, many food manufacturers are making gluten-free versions of their products, and some health insurance providers even reimburse patients for the cost of these special foods.

After undertaking a gluten-free diet, your intestines will be able to heal themselves. In the vast majority of cases, all the celiac-related symptoms go away. Occasionally, a celiac patient will find that even with a gluten-free diet, the symptoms remain, sometimes because the disease persisted for so long that the damage to the intestines was irreparable. In these rare cases, steroids may be used to combat the symptoms.

Menstruation Disorders – Amenorrhea Caused By Kidney Yang Deficiency In TCM Perspective

In traditional Chinese medicine is defined as a organ in charge of storing kidney essence, will, determination, and power of memory, water distribution, bone marrow, spinal and brain marrow, graping qi and bladder as well as hearing , and 2 private parts. Imbalance of kidney sometime can be caused by kidney yang deficiency due to intake of raw and cold foods, rigid exercise, frequent ejaculation, etc., leading to dampness accumulation that can manifest to damp heat, leading to phlegm.

I. Symptoms
1. Low sexual desire
2. Lower back and knee pain
3. Diarrhea
4. Frequent urination
5. Clear and profuse urination
6. Difficulty urinating, and
7. Edema
8. Sexual dysfunction
9.
10. Infertility
11. Clear vaginal discharge
12. No ovulation for some women
13. Etc.

II. Causes
1. Colding effect
Eating cold foods for a prolonged period of time will cause kidney yang deficiency. Cold foods are yin in nature, after entering the stomach, our body needs to provide more yang to digest it that depletes the yang qi.

2. Frequent sexual activity
Frequent sexual activity may not affect the young men and women, because kidney essence is abundant, but you reach a certain age, kidney essence slowly deplete, leading to yang qi deficiency causing low sexual desire and distorting the normal menstrual cycle including amenorrhea.

3. Occupation
Working in a cold environment for a prolonged period of time will cause yang deficiency, as our body need to balance the normal body temperature by constantly producing heat to counter the cold.

4. Etc.
III. Treatments
A. With Herbs
1. Bu Gu Zhi
Bu gu zhi is also known as psoralea fruit and used in traditional Chinese medicine in treating blockage of meridian kidney-Spleen. It tonifies the yang qi by increasing the kidney function in assisting the function of lung qi and the function of spleen in qi distribution.

2. Lu rong
Lu rong is also known as deer antler, deer antler velvet, it is a great herb that helps to reduce the blockage of the meridian liver and kidney. Since yang qi deficiency is also caused blood deficiency, improving the body yang by strengthening the liver’s function in blood formation and kidney’s function in fluid distribution, it reduces the yang deficiency in the body.

3. Du Zhong
It is also known ecommia bark, it is one the most used herb to enhance the function of meridian kidney-liver by promoting the qi and blood formation. Since the liver is a organ in charge of blood storing and blood formation and kidney is in charge of fluid regulation, it increases blood flow to the entire body and reduces fluid accumulated in the body, thus enhancing yang.

4. Etc.

B. With acupuncture
Suggested acupuncture points
1. UB23 (Shenshu)
2. GV4 (Mingmen)
3. CV4(Guanyang)
4. CV6 (Qihai)
5. KD3 (taixi)
6. KD7 (Fuliu)
7. UB52 (Zhishi)
8.Etc.

C. With Foods
1. Radish
2. Squash
3. Turnip
4. Cherry,
5. Lychi
6. Peach
7. Strawberry
8. Pistachio nuts

9. Etc.

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Nasal Polyps

Doctors do not know with absolute certainty what causes nasal polyps to form, but most tend to agree that chronic inflammation in the nasal cavity is what spurs these growths to form resulting in sinus passage blocking and infections. There is also some evidence that intolerance to aspirin increases the chances of developing them and that men over the age of 40 are more likely to get them than any other non asthmatic group. Allergies are not thought to be a main cause of polyps since they can occur at the same rate in people who do not have nasal allergies then those who do.

Many physicians point to asthma as one of the preconditions for the development of nasal polyps. In his book “The Sinusitis Help Book” Dr. M. Lee Williams writes: “It is often surprising how many asthmatics with sinusitis already have, or eventually go on to develop, nasal or sinus polyps, and how much improvement in their asthma may sometimes result from removing the polyps and clearing up their obstructive sinus disease.” He continues: “Unfortunately, even after polyps have been removed, more than one-third of the patients with nasal polyps will have a recurrence of them, and this is especially true for those with superimposed allergy, frequent sinus infections, repeated colds, asthma, cystic fibrosis, or aspirin intolerance.”

Unlike a tumor, a polyp is not a separate growth, and consists of the same type of tissue as its surrounding area. The polyp may even contain cilia and secrete mucous for a while before the tissue hardens and flattens and the cilia become lost due to chronic infection or irritation caused by its constant exposure to the nasal air stream.

Nasal polyps generally look like a rounded grape like growth that obstructs the nasal cavity blocking drainage passageways which results in bacteria growth and infection. While polyp found elsewhere on the body may turn cancerous, nasal polyps generally do not and doctors will not normally seek a biopsy when treating a patient for polyps in the nasal and sinus cavities.

There are some medications out there can help a person control nasal polyp flare-ups. Corticosteroid medications such as prednisone or steroid sprays have been used with success. If medication does not work, then surgery might be necessary. The trouble with polyps is that they have the tendency to return after being surgically removed. A doctor might opt not to perform surgery if the polyp is not causing a serious amount of blockage.

Nasal irrigation is not a procedure that is generally recommended for people with nasal polyps since the fluid stream of saline solution from the procedure could push against the sensitive polyp tissue causing traumatic pain.

As it is with other obstructions in the nasal cavities such as swollen turbinates or cysts, the blockage resulting from nasal polyps can lead to chronic sinus infections. People who are chronic sinus sufferers should consult their doctor to determine if they have nasal or sinus polyps. Thankfully, many nasal polyps respond well to medications and surgery is generally not necessary.

Surgical treatment of uterine fibroids

Mainly used in surgical treatment of large uterine fibroids, the symptoms can cause significant secondary anemia, with poor results after conservative treatment.

First, myomectomy (treatment of uterine fibroids)

1. Abdominal myomectomy for 40 years of age, unmarried or fertility, although no growth requirements, but do not want a hysterectomy were asked to retain the uterus. The advantage is to retain the uterus does not affect ovarian function; to have the chance of pregnancy as required by birth; to maintain the integrity of the female endocrine axis. Recurrence rate of 25% to 35%, possibly due to a minor surgery when fibroids are missing, after growing up, patients with fibroids Furthermore, risk factors, occurrence of new fibroids, multiple myoma recurrence rate is higher than solitary fibroids.

2. Vaginal myomectomy for pedunculated generally submucosal fibroids, surgery is simple, safe, no need to cut the uterus.

Second, after abdominal hysterectomy

1. Hysterectomy: requirements for non-reproductive, uterine> 3 months of pregnancy uterine size, fibroids, but symptoms were not large, the bladder or rectum compression symptoms, conservative treatment failure or recurrence after myomectomy, fibroids fast-growing malignant can not be excluded. The advantage is a hysterectomy and cervix removal at the same time, can avoid the future occurrence of cervical stump cancer threat.

2. Subtotal hysterectomy: 40 years of age for voluntary retention of the cervix, patients generally need to win time to rescue critical, serious medical complications can not tolerate a long surgery, severe pelvic adhesion removal of the cervix have difficulty. The advantage is the small bladder and sexual function; simple operation, short time, less surgical injury and complications.

3. Fascial hysterectomy: retained subtotal hysterectomy on bladder and sexual function in the small advantages of eliminating the retention of cervical cancer occurring in the future the threat of cervical stump; reduce the hysterectomy surgical injury and concurrent disease.

Third, endoscopic surgery of uterine fibroids

1. Laparoscopic myomectomy can be done it can also be done in the microscope, hysterectomy, abdominal surgery indication and the same, the advantage of trauma and rapid recovery. However, the high cost of its requirements of high technology, hospitals are not yet popular at the grassroots level.

2. Hysteroscopy for submucous myoma, uterine intramural fibroids the uterine cavity, some sudden, cervical fibroids, the advantage is less invasive, it can keep the uterus, and rapid recovery.

In addition, the pregnancy with the incidence of uterine fibroids fibroids account for 0.5% of patients with 1%, accounting for 0.7% of pregnancy 7.2%, during pregnancy, does not require treatment if asymptomatic, regular inspection, if the occurrence of red degeneration of fibroids, subserosal leiomyoma torsion, can be treated conservatively, if conservative treatment fails, or incarcerated in the pelvic fibroids affect pregnancy to continue, or fibroids compress the adjacent organs, severe symptoms, surgical treatment should be.

Cysts – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

A cyst is a closed sac having a distinct membrane and division on the nearby tissue. They may contain air, fluids, or semi-solid material. A collection of pus is called an abscess, not a cyst. Once formed, the cyst could go away by itself or will have to be removed using surgery.

Symptoms of Cysts

Sometimes you can feel a cyst yourself when you feel an abnormal “lump.” For example, cysts of the skin or tissues beneath the skin are usually noticeable. Cysts in the mammary glands (breasts) also may be palpable (meaning that you can feel them when you examine the area with your fingers). Cysts of internal organs such as the kidneys or liver may not produce any symptoms or may not be detected by the affected individual.

Cause of Cysts

A ganglion cyst contains a thick, clear, mucus-like fluid similar to the fluid found in the joint. No one knows what triggers the formation of a ganglion. Women are more likely to be affected than men. Ganglia are common among gymnasts, who repeatedly apply stress to the wrist.

Corpus luteum cyst. When LH does surge and your egg is released, the ruptured follicle begins producing large quantities of estrogen and progesterone in preparation for conception. This changed follicle is now called the corpus luteum. Sometimes, however, the escape opening of the egg seals off and fluid accumulates inside the follicle, causing the corpus luteum to expand into a cyst.

These cysts are usually found on the face, neck, and trunk. They are usually slow- growing, painless, freely movable lumps beneath the skin. Occasionally, however, a cyst will become inflamed and tender.

How are cysts diagnosed ?

Cysts are usually easily diagnosed by their appearance to the trained eye. In some cases, a biopsy may be necessary to rule out other conditions with a similar appearance.

Treatment of Cysts

Cysts usually do not cause pain unless they rupture or become infected or inflamed. Some cysts disappear on their own without treatment. Other cysts may need to be drained. That involves piercing the cyst with a sharp object and draining it. Some inflamed cysts can be treated with an injection of cortisone medication to cause it to shrink. Cysts that do not respond to other treatments or reoccur can be removed surgically.

However, it’s important to treat the underlying cause of the problem, such as arthritis, to prevent further development of the cyst. Doing this often helps to relieve any swelling and discomfort caused by the cyst.

If the cyst is large or causing pain, drawing off the fluid with a needle can help, but the cyst will often recur following this procedure.

For functional cysts a “watch and wait” approach is taken. Functional cysts tend to dissolve over time and treatment is not needed. The doctors do, however, require the woman to return after two menstrual cycles to get a pelvic exam and/or ultrasound again.

Thrush And Breastfeeding: How To Cure Breastfeeding Thrush

Thrush and breastfeeding: all too often the two go hand in hand for breastfeeding moms and their babies. With the rampant use of antibiotics during child labor (for Strep B bacteria and C-sections) more breastfeeding moms and babies are dealing with thrush than ever before.

If you are breastfeeding and suspect you and/or your baby have thrush, here are some of the symptoms you need to look out for.

Breastfeeding Thrush Symptoms:

*Red, cracked or painful nipples
*Pain while breastfeeding that’s persistent (doesn’t go away after a few minutes of nursing)
*Deep, shooting pains in breast
*Itchy, red or flaky nipples

Infant Thrush Symptoms:

*White patches on tongue, gums or inside cheeks
*Unusually fussy
*Loss of appetite
*Difficulty nursing or reluctant to nurse

Thrush and breastfeeding a baby can make life harder than it needs to be for both you and your baby. Let’s look at some of the most common treatment options.

The first option is prescription anti-fungal drugs. However, these carry the risk of serious side effects and do not cure the underlying imbalance that allowed the thrush to grow out of control in the first place. This means that you and your baby will remain vulnerable to chronic yeast, either as thrush or unseen in the digestive tract.

The other option is natural and home remedies. With 15 years of experience in the natural health industry, I’m a big supporter of alternative medicine but I’ve also learned you need to apply a discerning eye – especially when it comes to babies and children. For example, gentian violet, one of the most commonly recommended home remedies for thrush, carries the risk of increased chance for oral cancer later in life.

However, with the right approach, natural medicine is the best method to truly cure breastfeeding thrush and infant thrush quickly and naturally.

Hepatitis- Symptoms of Disease

Hepatitis is the Latin word for liver inflammation. It is characterised by the destruction of a number of liver cells and the presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue.

Hepatitis can be caused by diseases that primarily attack the liver cells. It can also arise as a result of a disease such as mononucleosis. Hepatitis can be divided into two subgroups according to its duration:

# acute hepatitis – lasting less than six months

# chronic hepatitis – lasting longer than six months.

What are the symptoms?

After you have been exposed to the virus, it can take from 2 to 7 weeks before you see any signs of it. Symptoms usually last for about 2 months.

Common symptoms are:

* Feeling very tired.
* Feeling sick to your stomach.
* Not feeling hungry.
* Losing weight without trying.
* Pain on the right side of the belly, under the rib cage (where your liver is).
* A fever.
* Sore muscles.

How is type A hepatitis diagnosed?

The doctor will ask whether the patient have eaten shellfish recently or traveled to a foreign country with poor sanitation. He or she will ask about personal hygiene habits and whether the patient have been near someone who has hepatitis A. The doctor will check for swelling and tenderness near the liver, and for a yellowish color of skin and the whites of eyes. The patient will have to have blood tests to confirm the diagnosis and to see whether your liver has been damaged. The diagnosis of acute HAV infection is based on serologic testing for IgM antibody to HAV. Test results for anti-HAV IgM are positive at the time of onset of symptoms and usually accompany the first rise in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level. IgM antibodies disappear during recovery, but those known as IgG antibodies persist, and their presence can be used to indicate a previous infection.

blood tests to confirm the diagnosis and to see whether your liver has been damaged. The diagnosis of acute HAV infection is based on serologic testing for IgM antibody to HAV. Test results for anti-HAV IgM are positive at the time of onset of symptoms and usually accompany the first rise in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level. IgM antibodies disappear during recovery, but those known as IgG antibodies persist, and their presence can be used to indicate a previous infection.

The only way the disease can be positively identified is by conducting a hepatitis B blood panel. This is a simple three-step test and is not usually included in the routine blood tests of a physical examination. However, the results of each individual test can be difficult to interpret for both health care professionals and patients. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that written results of all three standard tests be reviewed before a diagnosis is made. Patients should also receive copies of their test results for future reference

End Stage Liver Disease Treatment India- End Stage Liver Treatment

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End Stage Liver Disease (ESLD) – Stem Cell Therapy in India

Overview

End stage liver disease (ESLD) is an irreversible condition that leads to the imminent complete failure of the liver. It is often a consequence of chronic liver diseases, and is one of the most extended causes of death in the western hemisphere…

Causes Of End Stage Liver Disease

End stage liver disease may be the final stage of many liver diseases. Cirrhosis, viral hepatitis, genetic disorders, metastasic cancer in the liver, autoimmune disorders, obesity and toxins and drugs can be factors that cause end stage liver disease and liver failure.

Alcohol abuse is the major cause of ESLD in the USA and most western countries. Like viral, it can lead to scarring and inflammation of the liver, which is known as cirrhosis…

Diagnosis Of End Stage Liver Disease

When a chronic condition that may lead to end-stage liver disease is diagnosed, treatment is applied. Eventually, however, liver failure will happen.

The diagnosis of a patient who enters the final stage of hit liver disease is made by observation of the status of the liver through imaging techniques such as CT scanning. Laboratory tests are also used to detect end stage liver disease, by observing the amount of certain enzymes and toxins present in the blood…

Liver Transplant Process

The liver is a fascinating organ, essential to life and with the unique ability of regenerating itself from a single portion. A liver transplant is a surgical procedure that consists in the replacement of a diseased liver with a healthy liver from another person. There are three types of liver transplantation methods: orthotopic transplantation, heterotopic transplantation and reduced-size transplantation..

Because stem cells are so versatile, they could potentially be used to repair and replace damaged human tissue. The purpose of experimental stem cell therapy is to offer potential benefits of stem cells, which may be : –

  • To slow down or stop further deterioration caused by the disease
  • To see if stem cells can reverse the effects of the disease

This procedure is considered experimental as it is being tested in clinical research studies, and is not yet available as a standard medical treatment…

The prevalence of end stage liver disease has increased alarmingly over the last few years. It is rapidly fatal and the current treatment involves a complicated process of liver transplantation. The usage of stem cell therapy is successfully being tried all over the world in end stage liver disease.

The idea behind the therapy is that the cells would home into the damaged/degenerated liver and stop the disease process. Subsequently we can hope to see the injected cells regenerate / differentiate into new functional liver cells thereby reviving metabolically the most important organ in the body needed for survival…

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RENAL CALCULI (PATHRI) and Unani Management

hey are called Pathri in Unani Medicine because of their shape and their sharp edges. They usually occur in the kidney or urinary bladder. Mostly found in persons who have improper digestion. Decreased consumption of water, excessive intake of non-vegetarian food and alcohol are risk factors. Those accustomed to a sedentary life and bedridden patients are also prone to renal calculi.

Pain is the most prominent symptom which aggravates on movement, especially climbing, horse-riding, running etc. It originates from the back and radiates downwards and towards the front. If the stone injures the kidney, ureters, bladder or the urethra, it will result in bleeding which will show up in the urine.

The pain can become very severe if the stone gets impacted in the urinary tract. There will be difficulty.

INVESTIGATIONS AND TREATMENT :

Thanks to the development in imaging techniques it has now become easy to diagnose renal calculi through x-ray or ultra sonography.

  • Regular use of Ajwayin leaves (Trachyspermum ammi,Linn) prevents stone formation.
  • 50 ml. of juice of Raihan(Ocimum sanctum,Linn) mixed with 5 ml. of honey taken regularly for 3 months helps in dissolving the stone and cleaning the passage.
  • Zeera safaid (Cuminum cyminum,Linn) 1 gm, kaknaj (Physalis alkekengi,Linn) 1 gm, misri (sugar candy) 3 gm are to be finely powdered and taken three times a day. It helps in dissolving the stone and clearing the passage.
  • Sange saremahi 1 gm. (well known to herb dealers), jawakhar (potassium carbonate) 500 gm, Rewand chini (Rheum emodi, wall) 250 gm.

All the above ingredients are to be finely powdered and taken three times a day for a period of 30 to 45 days..

Vomiting Blood while Pregnant

Every month you need to increase your healthy food intake for your benefit and the baby as well. Considering the fact that it is not easy for you to keep tract of the changes of your preferences during the entire pregnancy; but what is essential is for you to eat the best nutritious foods while waiting for the day for giving birth.

Your limitations will change as you go from trimester to trimester and it is very important that you stick within your realm of limitations. As a normal amount of weight gain is healthy, it is best to up your caloric intake by 300 – 500 calories per day.

Bleeding – it is not unusual to have small amount of spotting or bleeding early in your pregnancy. It is normally more pink in color and does not last very long. Talk to your doctor and let him know about this, but don’t be concerned unless the bleeding is heavy and lasts a long time. You may also get a bit of cramping early in pregnancy. Changes in Appetite – The smell of some foods may cause nausea during early pregnancy, or you may have a craving for some foods that you have never liked before. All of this is normal.

One thing that you should do to help ease the symptoms is to try and maintain a stable blood sugar level. Thus, eating consistently throughout the day is a great idea. This includes having a snack before bedtime and upon getting up in the morning. It is not a good idea to eat fast as your body needs time to absorb the food, so chew slowly and your nausea should not be near as bad. Protein and whole grain foods are a lot less likely to upset your stomach and will help with morning sickness relief.

Right after becoming pregnant, your body is transforming drastically, releasing many different hormones. Like any drug, hormones have side effects, and one is morning sickness. One hormone that is released is believed to be a big reason for morning sickness. The hormone is called human chronic gonadotropin (HCG).

More popularly known as morning sickness, more than 50 percent of pregnant women experience attacks of nausea followed by a series of vomiting in the morning, noon, afternoon, and night time (basically anytime during the day). Nausea attacks at nights usually disable pregnant women from having uninterrupted sleep.

Acupressure: This has proven to be very effective for travel induces nausea, and seems to work equally well for morning sickness. There is a specific location on the wrist where pressure can help reduce nausea. You physician can show you where.

Bronchitis during pregnancy can cause a lot of distress to the patient. Self medication should be avoided at this time. A proper doctor’s diagnosis should be sought for. This will establish the true nature of the condition and the pathogens at play. The pathogens need different treatment plans. You should realize that whatever action you take, it can adversely affect the health of the baby. A doctor’s consultation will guide you on the best way to handle the disease.

Severe or sharp upper- to mid-abdominal pain, with or without nausea or vomiting can signify severe indigestion, a tummy bug, food poisoning or pre-eclampsia which is a serious condition that requires immediate medical attention.

Preeclampsia is more common with first pregnancies, teenage mothers, women over 40 and carrying multiple fetuses, but any pregnant woman can develop it. It usually develops late in the pregnancy (after 37 weeks) but can occur any time from 20 weeks to two weeks after delivery. Delivery of the baby is usually the best choice to prevent any complications, but if the mother is diagnosed with mild preeclampsia prior to 37 weeks, her doctor may choose not to induce and put her on bed rest with blood pressure medications to bring it down.

Food Safety and Food Poisoning

What is food poisoning? It is an acute illness, usually sudden, brought about by eating contaminated or poisonous food. The symptoms of food poisoning are:

  1. nausea – a queasy feeling as if you were about to be sick
  2. sickness – vomiting
  3. Pains in the bowl – gripping pains in the area of the stomach
  4. Diarrhoea
  5. Fever

The main causes of food poisoning are:

  1. Bacteria – the commonest
  2. Viruses – which are smaller than bacteria, are normally found in water
  3. Chemicals – Insecticides and weed-killers
  4. Metals – lead pipes, copper pans
  5. Poisonous plants – toadstools, red kidney beans (insufficiently cooked)

Bacteria is the most common form of food poisoning and so it is important that we know more about them. Bacteria are tiny bugs that live in the air, in water, in soil, on and in people, in and on food.  Some bacteria causes illness.  They are called PATHOGENIC bacteria.  Some bacteria cause food to rot and decay, they are called SPOILAGE bacteria.  There are four things that bacteria need in order to grow.  These are:

Warmth. They love body temperature of 73 degrees but can happily grow at 15 degrees..  They grow most readily between 5°c and 63°c.  This is known as the DANGER ZONE

Time.  Each bacteria grows by splitting in half.  This takes time, on average every 20 minutes.  This is known as BINARY FISSION.  Imagine, one single bacterium by splitting in half every ten minutes can become more than a million in 3 and a half hours.

Food. They like high protein foods for example, poultry, cooked meat, dairy produce, shellfish, cooked rice, stews and gravies.

Moisture. They need water and most foods have enough water or moisture to let the bacteria thrive.

Some bacteria can form a hard protective case around themselves, this is called a SPORE.  This happens when the ‘going gets tough’, when it gets too hot or too dry. So they are able to survive very hot or cold temperatures and can even be present in dried foods.  Once the right conditions (5° – 63°c) return, the spore comes out of its protective casing and becomes a growing, food poisoning bacteria again.

Bacteria and food poisoning

We have established that the presence of bacteria is one of the most common causes of food poisoning – the presence of poisonous chemicals can also cause food poisoning.  There are a number of potentially toxic chemicals present in food. For example, potatoes which have turned green contain the toxic substance, Solanine, which is only dangerous when eaten in excess.
Rhubarb contains Oxalic Acid – the amounts present in the stems which are normally cooked are relatively harmless to humans, but the higher concentration in the leaves makes them very dangerous to eat.

A toxin is a poisonous substance that may be produced by the metabolism of a plant or animal, especially certain bacteria.  Toxic food poisoning is mainly caused by Staphylococci in the UK and more rarely in this country, Clostridium Botulinum.

Foods most commonly affected by Staphylococci are:

  • Meat pies
  • Sliced meats
  • Pies with gravy
  • Synthetic cream
  • Ice-cream

50-60% of people carry Staphylococci in their noses and throats and are present in nasal secretions following a cold. Staphylococci are also present in skin wounds and infections and find their way into foods via the the hands of an infected food handler.  Hence the importance of keeping all wounds and skin conditions covered. Although staphylococci are themselves readily destroyed by thorough cooking or re-heating, the toxin which they produce is often much more heat-resistant and may need a higher temperature or longer cooking time for its complete destruction.

Botulism

Food poisoning from Clostridium botulinum – known as botulism – is extremely serious.  This produces a life-threatening toxin which is the most virulent poison known. Foods most commonly affected by clostridium botulinum are:

  • Inadequately processed canned meat, vegetables and fish.

During the commercial canning process, every care is taken to ensure that each part of the food is heated to a high enough temperature to ensure complete destruction of any clostridium botulinum spores that may be present.

YEASTS & MOULDS – microscopic organisms some of which are desirable in food and contribute to its characteristics. For example, ripening of cheese, bread fermentation etc. They are simple plants which appear like whiskers on food.  To grow they require warmth, moisture and air.  They are killed by heat and sunlight.  Moulds can grow where there is too little moisture for yeasts and bacteria to grow.  Yeasts are single celled plants or organisms larger than bacterial, that grow on foods containing moisture and sugar.  Foods containing a small percentage of sugar and a large amount of liquid such as fruit juices and syrups are liable to ferment because of yeasts. Yeasts are destroyed by heat.

VIRUS – microscopic particles transmitted by food which may cause illness.  For example, Hepatitis A (jaundice).  Unlike bacteria, viruses cannot multiply or grow in food.

PROTOZOA – single celled organisms which live in water and are responsible for serious diseases such as malaria, usually spread by infected mosquitoes and dysentery.  These food-borne infections are mostly caught abroad.

ESCHERICHIA COLI – E Coli is a normal part of the intestines of man and animals. It is found in human excreta and raw meat. E Coli causes abdominal pain, fever, diarrhoea and vomiting.  High standards of hygiene and through cooking of foods must be applied. Raw and cooked meat must be stored at correct temperature and cross contamination must be avoided.

SALMONELLA – is present in the intestines of animals and human beings.  Foods affected include poultry, meat, eggs and shellfish. Prevention should include:

  • good standards of personal hygiene
  • elimination of insects and rodents.
  • washing hands and equipment and surfaces after handling raw poultry
  • not allowing carriers of the disease to handle food.

Control of Bacteria

There are three methods of controlling bacteria:

  1. Protect food from bacteria in the air by keeping foods covered. To prevent cross contamination, use separate boards and knives for cooked and uncooked foods Use different coloured boards for particular foods. For example, red for meat, blue for fish, yellow for poultry etc. Store cooked and uncooked foods separately. Wash your hands frequently.
  2. Do not keep foods in the danger zone of between 5°c and 63°c for longer than absolutely necessary.
  3. To kill bacteria, subject bacteria to a temperature of 77°c for 30 seconds or a higher temperature for less time.  Certain bacteria develop into spores and can withstand higher temperatures for longer periods of time. Certain chemicals also kill bacteria and can be used for cleaning equipment and utensils.

The main food hygiene regulations of importance to the caterer are: Food Safety (General Food Hygiene) Regulations 1995 and Food Safety (Temperature Control) Regulations 1995.  These implemented the EC Food Hygiene directive (93/43 EEC). They replaced a number of different regulations including the Food Safety (General) Regulations of 1970.  The 1995 Regulations are similar in many respects to earlier regulations.  However, as with the Health & Safety legislation, these regulations place a strong emphasis on owners and managers to identify the safety risks, to design and implement appropriate systems to prevent contamination, these systems and procedures are covered by Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) and/or Assured Safe Catering.  The regulations place two general requirements on owners of food businesses:

  • To ensure that all food handling operations are carried out hygienically and according to the ‘Rules of Hygiene’.
  • To identify and control all potential food safety hazards, using a systems approach either HACCP or Assured Safe Catering.
  • In addition, there is an obligation on any food handler who may be suffering from or carrying a disease which could be transmitted through food to report this to the employer who may be obliged to prevent the person concerned from handling food.  Catering establishments have a general obligation to supervise and instruct and provide training in food safety & hygiene commensurate with their employees’ responsibilities.  Details with regard to how much training is required, are not specified in the regulations. However, HMSO Industry Guide to Catering provides guidance on training which can be taken as a general standard to comply with legislation.

Prevention of food poisoning

Almost all food poisoning can be prevented by:

  • complying with the rules of hygiene
    taking care and thinking head
  • ensuring that high standards of cleanliness are applied to premises and equipment
  • preventing accidents
  • high standards of personal hygiene
  • physical fitness
  • maintaining good working conditions
  • maintaining equipment in good repair and clean condition
  • using separate equipment and knives for cooked and uncooked foods
  • ample provision of cleaning facilities and equipment
  • storing foods at the right temperature
  • safe reheating of foods
  • quick cooling of foods prior to storage
  • protection of foods from vermin and insects;
  • ygienic washing-up procedures;
  • Knowing how food poison is caused
  • carrying out procedures to prevent food poisoning.

This has been just a brief overview of food safety.  If you are in the catering trade or are planning do become a cook or chef, it is essential that you learn all there is to know about the subject.  The following links should help to fill the gaps.

Essentially, you need to know the Food Regulations appertaining to your own country.  Its pointless following the Food Safety Regulations of the UK if you live or work in Australia, Spain or New Zealand.

For more information on food safety visit http://www.billandsheilascookbook.com/barbecuesafety.html

Mouth Ulcers – Causes and Treatment of Mouth Ulcer

A mouth ulcer is the loss or erosion of part of the delicate tissue that lines the inside of the mouth (mucous membrane). Some of the causes include certain drugs, chemicals and infectious diseases such as herpes or thrush. The most common cause is mechanical injury, such as accidentally biting your cheek. In most cases, mouth ulcers are harmless and resolve by themselves in a few days without the need for medical treatment. Aphthous ulcers are recurring ulcers with no known cause that affect around 20 per cent of the population.

Mouth ulcers generally start off with a burning feeling at a specific spot in the mouth. A blister eventually appears at the same spot and turn into a reddish spot or a slight buildup with it’s top broken off. It then slowly turns into an open ulcer, that looks like a white oval with a red border (that’s the inflammation). The white or yellow color inside is the result of layers of fibrin that form around the ulcer. Sometimes a white circle can also be seen around the lesion (called halo by some people).

Mouth ulcers are very common. Mouth ulcers are painful, annoying and sometimes embarrassing. They are red breaks in the lining of your mouth. The pain is caused by the nerves just below the surface of the lining of the mouth becoming exposed. Luckily most mouth ulcers are easy to treat.
Causes of mouth ulcers
There are many processes which can lead to ulceration of the oral tissues. In some cases they are caused by an overreaction by the body’s own immune system.

The tongue, gums or mouth lining can be affected. Crops of these tiny off-white ulcers tend to sprout during times of emotional stress or the menstrual period.
Most common in teens stress related mouth ulcers will heal within a couple of weeks. Prevention is by resolving stress related problems or using stress busting relaxation strategies.
Changes in hormone levels. Some women find that mouth ulcers occur just before their period. In some women, the ulcers only develop after the menopause.

It is not yet fully understood what causes mouth ulcers. They do not appear to be caused by bacteria or viruses and are not infectious or contagious. Genetic studies have shown that a susceptibility to them can be inherited, therefore family members sometimes share the condition.

Treatment of mouth ulcers

The goal of treatment is relief of symptoms. The cause, if known, should be treated. Gentle, thorough oral hygiene may relieve some of the symptoms. Topical (rubbed on) antihistamines, antacids, corticosteroids, or other soothing preparations may be recommended for applying on top of the ulcer. Avoid hot or spicy foods, which often increase the pain of mouth ulcers.

Some people benefit from using the over-the-counter topical gel Bonjela, which contains choline salicylate — choline salicylate is a local analgesic that helps to reduce the pain and inflammation associated with oral ulcers.

Steroid lozenges may also reduce the pain, and may help ulcers to heal more quickly. By using your tongue you can keep a lozenge in contact with an ulcer until the lozenge dissolves. A steroid lozenge works best the sooner it is started once an ulcer erupts. If used early, it may ‘nip it in the bud’, and prevent an ulcer from fully erupting.

Rinsing with antiseptic mouthwash or warm salt water may ease the pain. Similarly, take care not to eat anything with sharp edges, such as crisps, as they may scrape against the ulcers causing discomfort and pain.

How Ayurvedic Medicine Helps Acidity Patients?

Are you experiencing upper abdominal pain and acute burning in the stomach region? This uncomfortable situation of the stomach may be because of acidity or hyperacidity. When the gastric cells do not carry out optimum functioning as required by them, it leads to excessive product of hydrochloric acid in the body, leading to a medical condition called acidity or hyperacidity. The stomach works hard to produce acids by carrying out digestion. These digestive acids help in digesting food and if these are produced in excess quantities than the amount needed, it leads to hyperacidity or acidity symptoms.

The extra hydrochloric acid lying in the stomach region leaves the person very agitated and uncomfortable. The chest region burns and there may be a feeling of reflux or sour eructation. The heart burn leaves the person squirming in discomfort and can be very painful if it is left untreated. Spicy or fried foods may be a main reason for causing this heart burn, nausea feeling, gas, bad breath and stomach bloating.

People who show a predisposition towards acidity and hyperacidity should follow very stringent food timings and should also be very particular about their diet. They need be stay away from “chilli-laden” foods which are rich in oil content. You may have to compromise on the taste, but light food will help the stomach to perform to its best and the acid production stay under control.

You may have to exert a control over your taste buds and resist popping in your favorite food inside your mouth at anytime as this may cause severe hyperacidity. Stomach flatulence can happen to new born babies or grown up people. Acid reflux can be reduced if there are some simple alterations made to your lifestyle. Sipping on water slowly, or taking ginger, cinnamon, garlic, apple cider vinegar, buttermilk, cumin seeds, or fennel seeds can help a person at this time. The markets have plenty of medicines that help provide symptomatic relief from this condition but you need to treat it from deep within.

Baba Ramdev after an extensive research of ayurvedic scriptures has formulated certain health packages for the benefit of people. For hyperacidity and acidity he has developed Package for Acidity and Hyperacidity. There are various herbal remedies that are included in this package and one of them is Divya Avipattikara Churna that helps keep the acid reflux under control very effectively. This is a very good ayurvedic medicine for acidity and the moment one takes it, you can feel the acidity improve.

Baba Ramdev’s package has Divya Mukta Sukti Bhasm that is an amalgamation of traditional medicinal herbs that have been used for reducing stomach acid since ages. The digestive maladies can be reduced to a great extent if one takes this herbal remedy regularly. The Divya Moti Pisti created by Baba Ramdev’s Divya Pharmacy has shown a lot of promise in people suffering from acid reflux since years and years. Chronic sufferers of acidity and hyperacidity can avail benefit from this remedy prepared by Baba ji.

Home Remedies for Gastritis, Gastritis Causes and Symptoms

Gastritis means “inflammation of the stomach.” In most cases the lining of the stomach, suffer erosion and perforations, sometimes even bleeding. The most common causes of gastritis are alcohol and most pain killers. From aspirin, Advil, Motrin, Nuprin, to Aleve, and many others cause irritation of the gastrointestinal tract and this leads to gastritis and ulcers. 

Gastritis can result from any of a number of causes, each of which produces slightly different symptoms and intensity. Several types of medications, including aspirin and anti-inflammatory drugs, can bring on a case of gastritis. Severe emotional or physical stress can also induce gastritis. Other causes of the condition include vitamin B12deficiency, excessive smoking or alcohol consumption, and a microorganism called Helicobacter pylori.

The symptoms of gastritis depend on how acute it is and how long it has been present. Symptoms of gastritis including is nausea or recurrent upset stomach ,abdominal bloating ,abdominal pain ,vomiting ,indigestion ,burning or gnawing feeling in the stomach between meals or at night, vomiting blood or coffee ground-like material and black, tarry stools.

Home Remedies

This herb is recommended as an effective home remedy, and has been used so from very ancient time. This gives fast relief to gastritis patient. Take 1-2 tablespoon of this herb or its extract 2-3 times a day. Other herbs used for the treatment of gastritis are meadowsweet, chamomile, etc.

Cabbage juice remedy for gastritis – Blend a few leaves of cabbage in half a cup of water and take it on an empty stomach.
Papaya and banana smoothie – In a blender, put a few pieces of papaya and a few pieces of banana. Add one cup of milk. Blend and drink.

Gastritis treatment using Rice Rice gruel is another excellent remedy for acute cases of gastritis. One cup of rice gruel is recommended twice daily. In chronic cases where the flow of gastric juice is meagre, such foods as require prolonged vigorous mastication are beneficial as they induce a greater flow of gastric juice.

Potato juice contains the necessary nutrients to relieve the pain associated to gastritis. Just take one-half cup of potato juice three times in a day, more preferably thirty minutes before mealtime. That should keep your gastritis at bay every time you eat.

Application of Hot Compress – Application of heat with a hot compress or hot water bottle, twice a daily, either on an empty stomach or two hours after meals, will give relief to the patient and also help to cure the disease fast.

Use 1 teaspoon of chamomiledried leaves per cup of boiling water and drink this tea daily.  Chamomile contains apigenin that inhibits