Why Is The Thyroid Gland So Important In Rheumatoid Arthritis?

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most common inflammatory form of arthritis, affecting more than 2 million Americans. It is a chronic, systemic, progressive autoimmune process for which there is no cure, currently. However, there are medications available that can put this disease into remission.

Prior to treating rheumatoid arthritis, it is important than any patient suspected of having the disease undergo a thorough and complete examination. This will include an in-depth history, careful physical examination, laboratory testing, and imaging procedures such as x-ray, diagnostic ultrasound, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

While rheumatoid arthritis can affect many internal organ systems such as the eyes, lungs, and heart, its symptoms can be magnified by other conditions.

That is why it is so important that thorough laboratory testing be done. Many of the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis such as generalized aches and pains in the joints and muscles, fatigue, listlessness, and low grade fever can be due to other conditions.

Anemia, which is frequent in patients with active RA, is a common cause of fatigue.

For instance, it is not uncommon for patients to have an overlap of their rheumatoid arthritis with systemic lupus erythematosus. This condition is referred to as “rupus.”

Also, inflammatory muscle diseases such as polymyositis can often present with joint inflammation along with weakness.

Another organ system dysfunction that is often neglected or overlooked is thyroid disease.

There is an increased incidence of autoimmune thyroid disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. When thyroid inflammation occurs, the end result can be hypothyroidism- an underactive thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is responsible for many metabolic functions in the body. When it fails to work properly, symptoms such as cold intolerance, fatigue, lethargy, weight gain, muscle and joint aches and pains can often occur.

Hypothyroidism is significantly more common in female patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) than in women in general due to the increased association of these two conditions.

A recent study has demonstrated that this coexistence further aggravates the known increased risk for cardiovascular disease occurring in rheumatoid arthritis patients. (Ann Rheum Dis 2008;67:229-232)

Dutch researchers at the VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam studied 358 RA patients, 236 of whom were women. All were taking part in an ongoing cardiovascular study.

Clinical hypothyroidism was seen in none of the men and 16 of the studied women (6.8%) compared to 2.7% in the general Dutch population. Six of the women had subclinical- meaning unapparent on physical examination- hypothyroidism as did 4 of the men.

The women with clinical hypothyroidism also had significantly more cardiovascular disease than did RA patients with normal thyroid function (37.5% versus 13.0%).

After adjustment for other factors, the odds ratio- the increased risk- was 4.6. In other words, women with RA and hypothyroidism were 4.6 times more likely to have significant cardiovascular disease than women with RA who didn’t have hypothyroidism.

The authors concluded that “clinical hypothyroidism accelerates the already enhanced cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis and that physicians should consider screening for thyroid disorders in rheumatoid arthritis patients.”

Author’s note: In our clinic, we routinely screen arthritis patients for coexistent thyroid disease. We have found that all too often, unsuspected hypo- or hyperthyroidism is present and once this condition is treated, many of the other symptoms improve as well.

Edema, Diet, Coldness and Traditional Chinese Medicine

Edema is the accumulation of fluid in the soft tissues and can occur anywhere in the body: head, arms, legs, etc. It is generally a cold condition caused by poor diet and corrected by proper diet (includes herbs). Edema is more common in women than in men.

The body builds up (anabolism) and breaks down (catabolism) largely according to food, nutrients, to which there are only two: building (hot, yang) and cleansing (cold, cleansing). Building nutrients (protein and fat) build, fuel, heat, etc. Cleansing nutrients (water, minerals, sugar, etc.) reduce, cleanse, cool and moisten.

Digestion (acid, enzymes) is a fiery process that not only transforms food, nutrients into blood but also burns excess food (nutrients) and fluids. It is the ultimate fat burner and diuretic. Protein and fat build and fuel digestion. Water, minerals, sugar, fruits and vegetables dilute and weaken.  

Too little, low protein and fat, in the extreme tends to weaken digestion. Too many fruits, vegetables and juices, cold drinks, etc. in the extreme, tend to dilute and weaken digestion, acid and enzymes, reducing nutrient absorption, blood, while increasing waste product: liquid and solid. Whatever food, nutrients not digested, absorbed become waste (solid and liquid) that is stored and eventually eliminated.

Weak digestion tends to cause excess water: urine, loose stools, edema, cellulite, etc. Digestive fire (acid, enzymes) burns and dries all excess fluids via urination and perspiration. Weak digestion burns, metabolizes less water, fat, sugar, etc. More accumulates.

Low protein, low fat (milk, yogurt, beans, nuts and seeds) and high carbohydrate (pasta, bread, salads, tropical fruits, juices, cold drinks, etc.) diets, in the extreme, tend to weaken digestion and elimination while increasing water: mucous, edema, urination, etc.

Edema is generally a cold, damp disease. It tends to attack women more than men, as many women tend to eat low protein, low fat and high carbohydrate diets. Menstruation is also a temporary cause, as monthly blood loss tends to weaken all function, including digestion. Men are the opposite. They tend to eat high protein, high fat diets. They also have testosterone, a very hot, building hormone, giving them an extra metabolic, energy boost.

The middle diet, meal plan (1/3 protein and fat, 1/3 grain, 1/3 vegetables (3- 5, cooked, raw), spices, fruit(1), tea and or soup, 2- 3 times per day, preferably breakfast and lunch), adjusted accordingly is recommended. Spices (cardamom, cumin, fennel, ginger, cayenne, etc.) used in cooking strengthen digestion helping drain excess dampness, moisture. Avoid, reduce potatoes, tomatoes, eggplant, raw vegetables, salads; tropical and semi tropical fruit, juices, smoothies, cold drinks, bitter herbs (laxatives), etc.

Mitral Valve Repair is on the Rise!

More mitral valve repair and replacement surgeries are performed worldwide than any other type of heart valve surgery, and that number is certainly likely to rise significantly given that some seventy six million of America’s Baby Boomers are now or will be facing heart valve disease.

Mitral valve prolapse, also referred to as MVP, is by far the most common heart valve condition. It has been reported than one in twenty Americans have this valvular disorder. The four valves of the heart, tricuspid, mitral, arotic, and pulmonary, when functioning properly, move blood in one direction.

The mitral valve specifically moves blood from the left atrium down to the left ventricle. Like any of the other heart valves, when the valve fails to function as it was meant to do, its two leaflets do not seal properly and heart valve leakage occurs, or to be more precise the valve regurgitates blood backwards into the left atrium.

According to the Mayo Clinic, leaking heart valves can cause the heart to work overtime re-pumping the blood through the heart and body, sometimes resulting in heart arrhythmias, thickening of the heart, and even infection.

When your Doctor listens to your heart, if you have valve prolapse, a clicking or whooshing sound may be heard. Your Doctor or cardiologist will sometimes describe this sound to you as a heart murmur.

Mitral valve prolapse, interestingly enough, occurs more frequently in women than in men. In fact, studies show that six percent of all women have this common heart valve malfunctioning disorder.

To be sure, most people with valve prolapse are not even aware of their condition because their valve regurgitation is not severe enough to warrant any treatment, much less mitral valve repair or replacement surgery.

However, if you’ve been diagnosed with a severe valve regurgitation condition, you will more than likely be facing some form of heart valve surgery whether it be a minimally invasive procedure, or a full-blown open heart surgery. Your cardiologist will help you decide which treatment is best suited to remedy your condition.

Here are some of common symptoms of mitral valve prolapse:

  • Feeling like your heart is skipping beats or racing
  • Heart Palpitations
  • Intermittent chest pain
  • Anxiety
  • Dizziness
  • Shortness of breath
  • Unexplained exhaustion

Your Doctor or cardiologist can order an echocardiogram, also referred to as a heart echo, to help determine if you need a mitral valve repair or replacement surgery.

Bleeding in the Brain: The Dangers of Intracerebral Hemorrhage

All strokes damage the brain by disrupting circulation, but strokes come in multiple varieties. Because different parts of the brain are specialized to perform specific functions, symptoms produced by strokes vary according to what part of the brain was injured. In one patient the symptom might be weakness on one side of the body. In another it might be a partial loss of vision. In still another, a loss of speech. And symptoms can vary in intensity from mild to severe according to how large the area of damage is and whether it occurred in a pivotal location.

Strokes can also vary according to another fundamental difference — whether they involve a blocked blood vessel or a hemorrhage. Most strokes are due to the former in which brain-tissue damaged by lack of circulation is called an infarction. But 10-15% of strokes involve bleeding from ruptured blood vessels within the brain tissue, and while it’s bad enough to have an infarction, hemorrhagic strokes (intracerebral hemorrhages) can be even more devastating.

One prominent figure with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage is Ariel Sharon, whose hemorrhagic stroke occurred while he was still prime minister of Israel. Although some patients with intracerebral hemorrhage recover to a point of being able to enjoy other people and regain some independence in functioning, Sharon’s poor clinical outcome is all too common in patients with this disease.

The additional problem with hemorrhagic strokes is that the new deposit of blood occupies space — sometimes a lot of it — and there is only so much space within the skull (braincase) to go around. The fresh hemorrhage crowds and distorts the brain-tissue next to it, and additionally subjects the rest of the brain to increased pressure that can itself be damaging. Because of these distortions and pressure-changes, a patient with intracerebral hemorrhage often shows a decreased level of consciousness or even coma.

Another kind of spontaneous bleed within the braincase is subarachnoid hemorrhage, often caused by ruptured aneurysms outside the brain but inside the braincase. While this, too, is a very serious condition, it is not the focus of this particular essay, and spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages are not caused by aneurysms of this kind. Yet another kind of bleed that can be confused with (primary) intracerebral hemorrhage is secondary hemorrhage. This occurs in some patients who started out with infarctions of the brain but who had subsequent bleeding from fragile blood-vessels around the infarction’s edges. This kind of bleed is not quite as serious as that which occurs when the bleed is primary (the initial event).

How are intracerebral hemorrhages diagnosed? Since the 1970s when computed tomographic (CT) scans were introduced, this imaging technique has been the most effective and sensitive tool. A fresh hemorrhage within brain tissue is dramatically evident on CT scans. And unlike infarctions that can take a day or two to show up on CT scans, hemorrhages are already visible at the earliest moment a scan can be made.

Although surgical removal of blood-clots from the surface of the brain  — called subdural and epidural hematomas — can be life-saving and function-sparing, surgery for a bleed (hematoma or blood-clot) within the brain tissue itself is another story. Some studies comparing outcome between operated and unoperated patients with intracerebral hemorrhage showed improved outcome, on average, for operated patients, while still others showed worsened outcome. Operated or unoperated, patients had high rates of death and disability.

Because of the limited prospects for meaningful improvement, surgery for intracerebral hemorrhage is often an act of desperation. One crusty old clinician was blunt about the direness of the situation, saying, “Show me a patient with intracerebral hemorrhage whose life was saved by surgery, and I’ll show you a patient you wish you hadn’t operated on.” His point was that survivors of this operation usually show severe impairments.

However, one form of hemorrhage within brain tissue is probably a special case, and that is hemorrhage within the cerebellum, located within the bony braincase just above the nape of the neck. Surgical extraction of blood clots occurring within the cerebellum prevents excessive pressure on the nearby brainstem that handles a lot of basic and necessary functions, like breathing.

Administration of cortisol-type steroids is a nonsurgical treatment that has been studied in a scientific way, comparing treated patients to untreated patients with the same condition. The steroids didn’t help. Decreasing the patients’ blood pressures by administering medication has likewise been studied, but with the same outcome — no benefit. However, in a preliminary study one nonsurgical treatment showed promise. Intravenous administration of activated factor VII (a natural component of the blood-clotting system) reduced expansion of the intracerebral blood-clot, death and disability when given within four hours of the initial hemorrhage. A larger study is underway to see if this benefit holds up under further analysis.

Otherwise, what can be done acutely for this condition? Individualizing treatment seems rational, even if unproved. For example, if the patient had a bleed while taking a blood-thinner (as was the case with Ariel Sharon) then it makes sense to stop the blood-thinner or reverse its effects. Supportive management, like administering intravenous fluids to prevent dehydration, monitoring for irregular heartbeats and protecting the patient’s airway also make sense. If the patient can’t consume food in the usual way, feeding through tubes or intravenous lines can be considered, though this decision can be postponed until the patient’s prospects are more apparent.

Who is at risk for intracerebral hemorrhage? Neurologists at Malmo University Hospital in Malmo, Sweden, compared 147 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage with 1029 similar but stroke-free patients in order to determine risk factors. They found that hypertension (high blood pressure), diabetes, elevated triglyceride levels in the bloodstream, history of psychiatric problems, smoking and (surprisingly) short stature were more frequent in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.

However, when it comes to modifiable risk-factors (those that one can do something about) a variety of studies indicate that hypertension is the single most important factor. Thus, treatment of hypertension, when present, is probably the single most effective thing that one can do in order to prevent this disease.

(C) 2006 by Gary Cordingley

Heart Attack: Causes, and Treatment

A heart attack occurs when blood flow to a section of heart muscle becomes blocked. If the flow of blood isn’t restored quickly, the section of heart muscle becomes damaged from lack of oxygen and begins to die. Coronary arteries are blood vessels that supply the heart muscle with blood and oxygen. Blockage of a coronary artery deprives the heart muscle of blood and oxygen, causing injury to the heart muscle. Injury to the heart muscle causes chest pain and pressure. If blood flow is not restored within 20 to 40 minutes, irreversible death of the heart muscle will begin to occur. A heart attack often causes severe and crushing pain in the middle of the chest. This pain may then travel from the chest to the neck, jaw, ears, arms, and wrists. The person may also be cold and clammy, and their skin may appear pale and grey in color.

Causes of Heart Attack

High Blood Pressure, or hypertension, is a condition in which blood pressure levels are above the normal range. Blood pressures of 120-139 mm Hg and/or 80-89 mm Hg are considered prehypertension. Blood pressure is considered high if it is 140 mm Hg and/or 90 mm Hg or higher. High blood pressure increases the risk for heart attack, angina, stroke, kidney failure and peripheral artery disease (PAD). High blood pressure may also increase the risk of developing fatty deposit in arteries (atherosclerosis). The risk of heart failure also increases due to the increased workload that high blood pressure places on the heart.

Abnormal heart valves-Heart valve problems can result from disease, infection or a defect present at birth. When the valves don’t open or close completely during each heartbeat, the heart muscle has to pump harder to keep the blood moving. If the workload becomes too great, heart failure results.

Block of arteries-A heart attack is caused by a block of the arteries which minimize the flow of blood with oxygen. Due to little amount of oxygen transported to the brain the stops and the person dies which we call it heart attack. The block of the arteries is a result of blood clot, cholesterol accumulation and fats. That is why doctors advise to eat healthy food with less fat to prevent heart attacks.

Heredity.-People whose parents have coronary artery disease are more likely to develop it. African Americans are also at increased risk, due to their higher rate of severe hypertension than whites.

Treatment

Lower the cholesterol level in your blood. Lowering your cholesterol, especially the level of “bad” LDL cholesterol, keeps plaques from building up in the coronary arteries. The total cholesterol level should be kept below 200 mg/dL, and the LDL cholesterol level below 130 mg/dL (under 100 mg/dL in those with known heart disease or diabetes). Some people are able to control their cholesterol level by changing what they eat, lose weight, and exercise more; others require medication.

Control blood pressure. Uncontrolled high blood pressure is one of the most common causes of heart disease.

Coronary artery bypass grafting is a type of open-heart surgery (the chest is opened). It is sometimes carried out if angioplasty is unsuccessful. It involves rerouting the blood around the affected coronary artery, using a replacement section of a blood vessel – the graft – which is usually taken from a leg vein. This helps people with dangerously narrow coronary arteries, especially if the left side of the heart is not pumping well. For more information, please see the BUPA separate fact sheet

Heart Diseases Q&a

More Heart Diseases questions please visit : DiseasesFAQ.com

Am I Ok or not I enjoy no opinion if I am?
I checked my blood pressure and it was 102/75, pulse rate was 59. Is that too low? I thought normal be 120/70. Any input? I will greatly appreciate. – If you are a runner, bike rider or any athletic cardiovascular work out person, your vitals are perfect. …

Am i on correct Cholestrol tablets?
I would like to have a second opinion on cholesterol reducing drug call “Simvastatin”. I am 34 yrs old and my recent blood test shows cholesterol level as 6.1mmol/L . My GP prescribed Simvastatin 40mg tablet, one at darkness for 56 days. One of my friend who has cholesterol level of 6.8mmol/L for which his…

Am I on the channel to a stroke or heart disease?
I’m seeing the doctor tomorrow, but I can’t seem to get some sleep because of my symptoms. other day, I experienced prominent chest torment, as though I was having a panic attack. It be actually painful (but still somewhat bearable). It subsided after a few hours. Last night I experienced…

Am i qualified for heart transplant?
i have 5 stents, 2 patches to fix cardiac ruptures, 4 heart attacks, 3 corony bypass grafts and a enlarged heart. – Ask your doctor. You’re about as bad off as ex VP Cheney and he hasn’t gotten a heart transplant. – depends also on your and and general well one. right your surgeon…

Am I seriously faint every daytime?
I get these weird things about 5-7 times a time. They’re getting more frequent: I’m sitting down I’d laying down or even just standing then when I move around my fantasy goes black, I get extreemly dizzy and dioriented and sometimes fall down. My doctor said it’s regular because the test results were normal. I’ve…

Am i straining my heart by making it turn up to 200bpm?
17 year old skinny/muscular male – It depends on how often you do exercise, what exercise you do, and how long you are keeping this heart rate. If you do regular exercise, your heart should be extra strong comparing to your peers, and your heart rate should be…

Am i..have a heart attack?..?
make sure someone is with you to watch you within case you are!! if you are alone, call 000 and describe your symptoms, ask what they think o the doctors/GP or the heart diseases helplines Think roughly what you are eatingg – mayb coz of thtt Start eating healthyy food . Drink lots…

Amlodipine and its side effects?
Was having very high blood pressure 170s over 120s and be getting really bad headaches and dizzy spells been put on amplodipine and in a minute feel worse very bad headache within left eye and temple very tired and dizzy plus sick. Also feel for a while shaky and strange but my blood pressure has come…

Among which doctors is the great rate of suicide?
Anesthetists. – I have always heard that it is the Psychiatrist, sit and listen to negative, depressing stuff all time long, It is bound to effect you sooner or later. – It’s the “U.S. white male dentists”. “PERCENTAGE OF DEATHS DUE TO SUICIDE white male…

An Aaurvedic doctor told after reserch “verbs Mobile use is a mojor create of sudden Heart Attack is correct?
effect of mobile on health – lol if there was any Evidence to this im shore the rest of the world would of none by now and i for one hold not heard a dicky bird about this . so i…

An ECG come rear near the following results:?
-Incomplete right bundle branch block sible right ventricular hypertrophy does this mean I have a heart condition? The doctors just told me to linger until they get back in contact beside me after they’ve been over my echo cardiogram. Been searching articles on the network but not much links these 3 together…

An irregular heart lick?
Today, I was just joking around near my friend and took our blood pressure while waiting for her father to finish up buy things around the drugstore. I thought it was weird at first, when I got my printed sheet it said I enjoy a heartbeat of 96. I didn’t think it was bad though? Normal heartbeats…

Anatomy homework! Please assist! cardiovascular system?
Fill in the blanks. thank you so much! – 1 right ventricle 2 pulmonic 3 arteries ulmonary veins 6 disappeared atria 7 mitral apillaries 12 inferior vena cava 13 superior vena cava The numbering in your quiz missed 8 and 9 – make it clear please –

And what compassionate of heart arrhythmia does THIS resemble?
About 100 beats per minute on avg. 1.2.3.4.5 (skip) 6.(skip) 1.2.3.4.5 (Skip) 6.(Skip). 1.2.3.4.5 (skip) 6.(skip) noticeable when lying down. Most common when Im on my adderall, Goes away during excercize. – it is probably sinus arrhythmia. it is majority and nothing you should worry about. sinus arrhythmis…

Aneasthetic and heart Mumur?
My 3 yr old son has been diagnosed near a mild heart mumer today. He went for his physical as he’s getting dental surgey done at the end of the month. He’s going to have aneasthetic to be put out. My dr said it be fine but I have been reading online about race talking antibiotics before…

Anemia, and blood pressure?
i thought i had low blood pressure but, i took my recording and it was just just low but mainly normal. even though when i stand up, i loose my verbs for a few seconds when i get out the bath and things like peas in a pod and a instant dizziness and headache, i’ve always thought…

Anemic diets, low blood pressure?
I have low blood pressure and am anemic. Is there anything other than vitamin D and spinich? – yes a litttle salt and red meat and eggs. also plenty of river Source(s): moi – Depending on the reason for your low blood pressure, you may be able to pocket certain steps to help reduce or…

Aneurysms ?r=1246619002?
An aneurysm is a cardiovascular disease characterized by a sac like widening of an artery resulting from weakening of the artery or cardiac wall. Source(s): GP for more years than I guardianship to remember – An aneurysm is a localized, blood-filled dilation (balloon-like bulge) of a blood vessel caused by disease or weakening of the vessel…

Angina (a) 18 – Is it POSSIBLE? HELP?
Lately, I’m experiencing chest pain. It starts from my shoulder to my chest. It feels as if something is sucking muscle from the inside, and the middle of my chest feels so big. I don’t know what it is. I already went to the cardiologist and she said it’s NOT angina, but I…

Angina and other heart problems contained by 16 year infirm?
I’m 16 years old and have been experiencing some chest anguish on the left side which it pretty worrying as that’s the side the heart is on. Also my left hand ache, which is a common sign of angina. My nan has angina but I’ve been told it’s not heritable. I…

Angina: at college im doing an accomplishment plan and I call for something thats to do next to Angina that my chosen…?
person can have short, mid-term and long term goal to achieve – I am really hoping you are not in College studying to be nurse. Because you are doing your research on ASK and not by…

Angiogram results ? Please relief?
I got ‘ t wave inversion’ in ECG, ST change in Treadmill Test. Dr suggested angiogram. Is there any possibility that angiogram resulting in ‘no blocks’? Please guide – these changes suggest reduced blood to the heart x everything will b fine – Yes there is a possibility but a lot smaller amount than…

Angioplasty ask?
Is there any advantage/disadvantage during an angioplasty when they go in thru the leg as anti the arm?? – There is route of artery from leg to heart that’s way angioplasty is done from leg a bit than hand – cardiologists prefer the groin entry.the elbow entry cause much more pain after angioplasty Source(s): i have 9…

Angziety attacks and depression?
after the prozack 10mg gets into my system qill i feel my self again? – Hopefully. It takes 2 weeks in the past some people notice a slight difference and 6 to 8 weeks to get the full effects from the Prozac. luck and God bless. Remember also that antidepressants are a trial and error…

Heat Palpatations are they a sign or something serious?
Recently I’ve been getting what I think is heart palatations, i kind of feel like my heart is wobbling. It also feels like if I cough at hand was some flegm in my lungs but I’m pretty sure it’s my heart. I was a short time ago wondering if stress can induce…

Treatment for Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis is a brutal illness. A tiny microorganism called tubercle bacillus causes it,hence it named tuberculosis. This germ enters into body through the nose mouth, and the windpipe, and stay down in tile lungs. It increases by millions and produces small raised spots called tubercles.

Tuberculosis symptoms:Loss of power, color and weight:

   Tuberculosis may take place anywhere in the body but, more usually, it affects the lungs, intestines, bones, and glands. Pulmonary tuberculosis (tuberculosis of the lungs) is by far the most ordinary type of tuberculosis. It has a tendency to consume the body and the patient loses force, color, and weight.

Temperature rise, persistent cough, breathing troubles and body pain:

Other symptoms are a rise in temperature, particularly in the evening, a constant cough and hoarseness, obscurity in breathing, pain in the shoulders, heartburn, chest pain, and blood in the sputum.

Tuberculosis causes:

Lowered resistance of the body:Poorer resistance of the body system is the main cause of this disease. Lowered resistance can result from intake of improper and insufficient foods or diets, and living in ill-ventilated houses.

Inappropriate lifestyle, Smoking, drinking and stress:

Other causes include exposure to cold, loss of sleep, adulterated air, a sedentary life, overwork, use of tobacco, liquor and other unsafe drinks. These factors made the ground for the development of germs of various kinds, including tubercle bacillus. These germs may be present in the body but are quite safe for those who are endowed with vitality and natural resistance.

Home Remedies for Tuberculosis:

Tuberculosis treatment with Milk Diet:

The chief healing agent needed for the treatment of tuberculosis is calcium. Milk is only the richest food base for the supply of natural calcium to the body and should be taken liberally. In fact an exclusive milk diet is measured valuable in tuberculosis. However, a preliminary fast for three days, comprising of raw juices, if possible, orange juice, is important before the milk diet is begun. The method is to take half a glass of orange juice diluted with an identical amount of water every two hours from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. For the full milk diet, the patient must take a glass of milk every two hours from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. on the first day, followed by a glass and a half each hour on the nextday. Thereafter, the amount can be gradually enlarged until the patient takes a glass every half an hour. Normally, six litres of milk should be taken daily. In the case of women, five litres should be enough. Raw milk, that is, milk, which has not been pasteurised, creates the best results, offers it is clean and pure. Milk must be reserved cool and away from dust, flies, odors, and sunlight. It should be softly stimulated before use to guarantee an even sharing of cream. It should be sipped very slowly so as to be thoroughly mixed with saliva which dilutes it and, to a great extent, supports itsdigestion. Nearly eight to six weeks of a full milk diet is essential for the victory of the treatment. A substantial amount of rest is essential with a milk diet and the patient should lie down for about two hours twice a day.

Tuberculosis treatment with Custard Apple:

Custard apple is considered as one of the most precious remedies for tuberculosis. It is said to have the qualities of rejuvenating drugs. Ayurvedic practitioners made fermented liquor called sitaphalasava from this fruit, when in season, for use as a remedy in the treatment of this disease. The pulp of two custard apples and twenty-five seedless raisins should be simmered in water on a slow fire. When about one-third of the water is left, it should be filtered, and then mixed with two teaspoons of crushed sugar candy, and a quarter teaspoon each of the powder of cardamom, cinnamon, and certain other condiments.

Tuberculosis treatment with Indian Gooseberry:

The Indian gooseberry is precious remedy for tuberculosis. A tablespoon each of fresh amla juice and honey, mixed jointly, should be taken every morning in treating this disease.Its normal use will support vigour and vitality in the body within a few days

Tuberculosis treatment with Pineapple:

Pineapple juice is helpful in the treatment of tuberculosis. It has been found to be useful in dissolving mucus and aiding revival. This juice was used often in the past in treating this disease when it was more ordinary than it is at present. One glass of pineapple juice is advisable daily

Tuberculosis treatment with Banana:

Bananas are measured helpful in tuberculosis. The juice of the plantain or the normal cooking bananas works miracles in tile treat of tuberculosis. It assert to have cured patients in a higher stage of this disease with frequent cough, plentiful expectoration and high fever in two months, by this treatment

Tuberculosis treatment with Orange:

Oranges are helpful in the treatment of tuberculosis. A glass of orange juice must be mixed with a pinch of salt and a tablespoon of honey and taken every day by the patient. Due to its salty action in the lungs, it eases expectoration and defends the body from minor infections.

Diet for Tuberculosis:

Keep away from devitalizing foods and strong tea, coffee etc.The patient must avoid all devitalizing foodstuff such as white bread, white sugar, and refined cereals; puddings and pies; tinned and sealed foods.

Other Tuberculosis treatment:

Take total rest and avoid stress:

The patient should totally rest his mind and body. Any sort of stress will delay healing.

Exposure to fresh air and sunlight:

Fresh air is always significant in curing the disease, and the patient should pay out most of the time in the open air and sleep in a well-ventilated room. Sunshine is also necessary as tubercle bacilli are killed quickly by exposure to the sun’s rays

Avoid strain and have mental distraction:

Other helpful steps towards curing the disease are avoidance of strain, slow massage, deep breathing, and a light occupation to make sure of mental distraction.

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Hair Loss & Hair Regrowth Remedies

Home Hair Remedy For Hair Loss 1: This home hair remedy is an excellent maceration to stop hair loss and stimulate new growth.20 grams Boxwood leaves20 grams Rosemary leaves50 grams Burdock roots50 grams Nasturtium seeds50 grams zesty Nettle leaves50 grams Thyme leavesPut five tablespoons of the above mix in a non-metallic, heat-resistant pot.

Pour three glasses of water on top.Bring to boil and simmer for fifteen minutes.Cover and rest.Massage the scalp twice a day with half a glass of the filtered mixture.Home Hair Remedy For Hair Loss 2:This home hair remedy is an excellent maceration to stop hair loss and stimulate new growth.1 cup lavender leaves and/or flowers2 Tablespoons grated ginger1 cup rosemary leavesPut five tablespoons of the above mix in a non-metallic, heat-resistant pot.

Pour three glasses of water on top.Bring to boil and simmer for fifteen minutes.Cover and rest.Massage the scalp twice a day with half a glass of the filtered mixture.Diet & Your Skin & Hair: Add flaxseed into your diet, add cod liver oil into your diet (vitamin supplement) add vitamin E into your diet (vitamin supplement) drink lots of reverse osmosis water, use baby shampoo (gentle, less chemicals), and baby conditioner.

Add approx one tablespoon of lelaleuca & olive oil into your conditioner. Wheat germ oil is also safe to add into your diet, about a teaspoon per 50 lbs of body weight. You can also use it as an additive to your conditioner. If you add the oil to the conditioner, Just about a tablespoon per 16 oz. you do not need to add too much, then it will leave the hair too oily.Use cool not hot water to rinse your hair.

Additionally your water may have lots of chlorine and or heavy minerals. For shampooing and rinsing your hair add a small amount (a teaspoon of baking soda or a squirt of lemon juice) to the water, use a pitcher made of plastic, not metal. To soften it add just enough baking soda for the water to feel slippery between your fingers.Avoid soft drinks and junk food, Eat lean meats/fish and lots of fresh fruits, nuts and veggies. Get plenty of rest. Your skin and hair will look fantastic!

Brain Tumors in Dogs and Cats

Though relatively uncommon, a brain tumor has always made a grim prognosis for any unfortunate animal that is diagnosed with one. Traditionally they were often assumed but seldom confirmed, but since MRI and CT scanning has become more mainstream they can be diagnosed correctly. Here we discuss the different types of brain tumor that affect dogs and cats, the clinical investigations that can be performed, the treatments available and the likely outcomes.

Brain tumors seem to be more common in dogs than cats, and certain breeds are over represented such as Boxers, Golden Retrievers, Dobermans, Scottish Terriers and Old English Sheepdogs.

Primary vs Secondary

Brain tumors can be primary or secondary (metastasis from other sites). Primary brain tumors are usually solitary, the most common ones in the dog being gliomas and meningiomas. In cats, the most common type are meningiomas and these can occur at multiple locations.

Secondary tumors in dogs include extension of a nasal tumor, metastases from breast, lung or prostate cancer, hemangiosarcoma or extension of a pituitary gland tumor. Nerve sheath tumors and skull tumors have also been reported.

Secondary tumors in cats include pituitary gland tumors, metastatic carcinomas, local extension of nasal tumors, skull tumors and middle ear cavity tumors.

What causes a brain tumor?

The cause of brain tumors is not known. Diet, environment, chemical, genetic, viral, immunologic and trauma have all been considered. In cats with meningiomas, because they often occur in very young animals, a genetic element is suspected.

Benign vs Malignant

The terms benign and malignant must be used with care when referring to brain tumors. Normally these terms apply to various characteristics on a cellular level, but on a biological level, even benign brain tumors can kill the animal due to the secondary effects like increased intracranial pressure or cerebral edema. In short, any brain tumor can kill.

What are the symptoms?

There can be huge variety here. Many animals will present with vague signs, such as one or several of the following:

1. Loss of trained habits
2. Decreased levels of activity
3. Decreased frequency of purring in cats
4. Disorientation
5. Confusion

More specific symptoms are dependent upon where exactly the tumor is located within the brain, the size of the tumor and how quickly it is growing. As a tumor enlarges, symptoms tend to become more severe. These can include:

6. Seizures (often indicate a tumor in the cerebral cortex)
7. Facial paralysis (may indicate a brainstem tumor)
8. Tremors (may indicate a tumor in the cerebellum)
9. Wobbliness (may indicate a tumor in the cerebellum)
10. Full or partial blindness (may indicate tumor in hypothalamus or optic nerve)
11. Loss of smell (may indicate tumor of olfactory system)

The physical presence of the tumor can cause knock on effects due to inflammation and edema of the surrounding area. This can cause symptoms such as:

12. Changes in behaviour or temperament (irritability, lethargy)
13. Compulsive walking
14. Circling
15. Pressing head against a wall or hard surface

Animals can sometimes carry brain tumors for several years before presenting to a veterinary clinic, if the tumor is slow growing. In these cases the symptoms develop gradually, and the owner tends to get used to them so that by the time the animal is examined, the tumor has reached a considerable size.

How is a brain tumor diagnosed?

History and Clinical Examination

The first step for a veterinarian is to take a thorough history of all of the clinical signs, and when they developed. This is followed by a full general clinical examination and a full neurological examination.

Bloods

After that, blood should be taken for routine haematology and biochemistry profiles. This is to look for any disease outside the brain. Results will be normal for brain tumors, with the possible exception of some pituitary gland tumors.

Radiography

Plain skull radiographs (xrays) under general anesthetic have little value in detecting a brain tumor, but they can be useful if there is a tumor in the nasal cavities or the middle ear which could extend into the skull. On rare occasions, they can identify bony changes in the skull which can accompany a brain tumor, or mineralization within the tumor itself. Radiographs and ultrasound of the chest and abdomen are useful to look for a tumor elsewhere in the body, in cases where the brain tumor is a secondary metastasis.

MRI and CT Scans

Confirmation of a brain tumor can is usually only achieved using the advanced imaging techniques, CT scans or MRI. Both of these have pros and cons when compared to one another. CT is better for bony changes, while MRI is better for soft tissue definition, for the detection of many of the knock on effects of brain tumors such as edema, cysts and bleeding. MRI is the preferred option for diagnosing primary brain tumors.

Biopsy

This is the only way to definitively diagnose a brain tumor. The advanced imaging techniques above offer much information, but they can occasionally confuse a tumor with a non cancerous mass or a cyst, and they also do not tell us the exact type of tumor present, and therefore the appropriate treatment and prognosis. The best type of biopsy is the CT guided stereotactic brain biopsy system, which is rapid, accurate and quite safe.

Since exploratory surgery is high risk, it is not usually attempted unless there is a reasonable chance of removing the whole tumor with minimal collateral damage. Many brain tumors in cats and dogs are not categorized on a cellular level until post mortem.

Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Analysis

CSF analysis is useful for ruling out inflammatory causes of the symptoms, but tumor cells are rarely identified here. Increased levels of white blood cells and increased protein levels may be present in the CSF with many brain tumors, though this is not diagnostic. This test can be high risk when intracranial pressure is increased, as brain herniation can occur.

Treatment

Treatment is aimed at being either curative or palliative. Curative treatment eradicates the tumor or reduces its size, whilst palliative therapy reduces the surrounding cerebral edema and slows down the growth of the tumor. Palliative therapy also involves administering antiepileptic drugs, if seizures are occurring as a result of the tumor.

Surgery

Whether this is an option depends on the general health of the animal, and the precise location, size, extent, invasiveness and nature of the tumor. Tumors such as meningiomas in cats can be removed successfully by surgery. However, surgery to remove tumors in certain locations such as the brainstem can be extremely dangerous, possibly resulting in death. Even partial removal can benefit the animal though, particularly if the tumor is slow growing.

Radiotherapy

This is probably the most widely used form of treatment for brain tumors. Radiation therapy can be used alone or in combination with other treatments. It is also useful in the treatment of secondary brain tumors. The aim is to destroy the tumor without harming the normal tissue too much.

Chemotherapy

The main problem with chemotherapy for brain tumors is that many drugs do not cross the blood brain barrier. In addition, the tumor may only be sensitive to high doses, doses which are toxic to normal brain tissue and therefore unsuitable for use. However, several drugs have been used for this purpose that can cross the blood brain barrier with reported success, including cytosine arabinoside, lomustine and carmustine.

Probable Outcome

Studies of animals that receive palliative treatment (corticosteroids) for brain tumors show a survival range post diagnosis of 64 to 307 days. This demonstrates the inability to accurately predict life expectancy in these cases. What is certain is that the survival times significantly increase with surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Radiation therapy seems to offer the best results, alone or in combination with other treatments. Generally, the more severe the symptoms, the shorter the life expectancy.

Pneumonia: Easy Steps to Control Lung Inflammation & Aids

KNOWING PNEUMONIA

Pneumonia refers to lung inflammation. There are 50 such lung inflammatory ailments. During such situations, the lungs inevitably experience build up of fluids. Several micro-organisms cause pneumonia. Pneumonic inflammation of the lungs occurs due to collection of cellular wastes and blood cells within the air sacs within the lungs. Such pneumonic inflammation creates breathing problems.

PNEUMONIA CAUSES

Pneumonia is caused by infections. The culprits responsible for causing such pneumonic infections are protozoa or fungi, mycoplasma, rickettsia, and bacteria. Respiratory infections caused by rhinoviruses, adenoviruses, and influenza virus can also lead to pneumonia. Most of the viral pneumonia cases are mild. They also resolve within a week’s time with or without any particular treatment.

HOW DANGEROUS CAN PNEUMONIA BE

Every year, 90,000 deaths are reported to be because of pneumonia in the United States. What is more, approximately five million pneumonia cases are registered in that country.

PNEUMONIA CAN BE LIFE THREATENING

If detected early, a person with a good constitution and proper treatment can recover quickly from an influenza bout. However, acute pneumonia attacks can be life threatening as well. More often than not, pneumonia can prove to be fatal to patients having weak immune systems. Even healthy persons can have complicacies if pneumonia is not detected early. There can be serious consequences if pneumonia patients fail to get effective and prompt treatment.

LOBAR PNEUMONIA

Lobar pneumonia is an acute form of infection. It is caused by the Pneumococcus bacterium. The generic name of this bacterium is Streptococcus pneumoniae. Lobar pneumonia usually follows an extreme form of viral respiratory infection, particularly of the upper respiratory tract. The symptoms of lobar pneumonia are chest pain during breathing, or cough and fever accompanied by chill and shaking. The patient’s body temperature hovers around 104° F (roughly 40° C). The sputum is blood streaked.
Notably, most of the deaths before the invention of antibiotics were due to lobar pneumonia. Lobar pneumonia generally attacks a lung lobe or a portion of it. At times, lobar pneumonia strikes both the lungs; then it is known as double pneumonia.

DIFFERENT TYPES OF BACTERIAL PNEUMONIAS

Besides the Streptococcus pneumoniae, the other bacterial pneumonias fall in the bronchopneumonias category. Bronchopneumonias fever is lower compared to the one experienced in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Moreover, bronchopneumonias symptoms appear slower than the Streptococcus pneumoniae signs. The bronchopneumonias primarily target the bronchial tubes known as the bronchioles. Since these small tubes are located nearest the lungs, they may become rather dangerous. The bacteria that can cause bronchopneumonias are streptococci, different types of staphylococci, Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and pneumococcus besides the bacterium causing the Legionnaires’ disease, namely Legionella pneumophilia.

PNEUMONIA FORMS

There are basically three forms of pneumonia. They are atypical pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a mono cell organism lacking nucleus; the pneumonia caused by the harmless protozoan Pneumocystis carinii; and Chlamydia pneumoniae.

Atypical pneumonia: This is a common type of pneumonia. Outbreaks of such forms of pneumonia are generally witnessed among students in educational institutions and also among soldiers. Normally, atypical pneumonia resolves by itself. However, antibiotics can also bring about relief. It is caused by a minute prokaryotic organism known as Mycoplasma pneumoniae. This single-celled micro organism is neither a virus nor a bacterium.

Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia: This form of pneumonia is caused by the protozoan Pneumocystis carinii. This micro organism is usually harmless. Such pneumonic incidences are common among people suffering from impaired immune syndromes or also among many leukemia patients. This form of pneumonia has been the primary cause of deaths among people suffering from AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

Chlamydia pneumoniae: Chlamydia pneumoniae is a contagious ailment caused by the Chlamydia set of bacteria. Chlamydia pneumoniae affects the upper respiratory tract. Chlamydia pneumoniae infections can also strike the bronchitis, pneumonitis, and the pharyngitis. Chlamydia pneumoniae can also lead to heart attacks and coronary heart diseases. Besides Chlamydia pneumoniae, the other two species of Chlamydia bacteria are Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia trachomatis.

THE SECOND MAIN CAUSE OF DEATH IN USA

Chlamydia pneumoniae has been identified as the second main cause of pneumonia in US. Anybody between the ages of five to 35 can be affected by Chlamydia pneumoniae. The Chlamydia pneumoniae bouts are usually mild in nature. The Chlamydia pneumoniae symptoms are fever and cough. At times, there can be more sputum production. Sputum is a mixture of various mucus and saliva. It arises from the respiratory tracts.

CHLAMYDIA PNEUMONIAE SYMPTOMS

The Chlamydia pneumoniae symptoms may not be very visible initially. Or, at times, the Chlamydia pneumoniae signs may also point to the other forms of Chlamydia dysfunctions. One type is the chlamydia type of illnesses caused by various strains of the trachomatis species. Another severe type of chlamydia disease is caused by a strain of the fly-borne Chlamydia trachomatis.

DIAGNOSING CHLAMYDIA PNEUMONIAE

To diagnose Chlamydia pneumoniae infections, patients generally have to undergo various tests. These include cell cultures that exclude other illnesses with similar symptoms. The other ailments having similar symptoms are candidiasis, trichomoniasis, herpes, and gonorrhea. The modern method of diagnosing Chlamydia infections are immunoassays blood tests. These examinations pinpoint the specific antibody that may have been constituted by the patient’s immune system against chlamydia infection.
In 1939, major advances were made in pneumonia therapy. Their wider application lowered pneumonia from the third to the fifth leading cause of death in the USA.

TREATING PNEUMONIA

More often than not, antibiotics effectively deal with the majority forms of bacterial pneumonia. For patients above 50 years, and for those suffering from the most acute types of pneumococcus, physicians generally recommend a vaccine. It also grants the people immunity against these virulent pneumonia states. The vaccine is further given as an immunity measure to patients who have chronic liver, lung or heart ailments.

Infection of the Pleura: What is a Drainage Kit?

Infection of the pleura can sometimes lead to an excess of fluid or air build-up in the pleural cavity. A chest tube/drainage kit is used to remove the build up from the body and promote healing.  In order to understand how a drainage kit works, it helps to have a mind’s-eye picture of the pleura and its purpose and of the pleural cavity in general.

The lungs are covered with a thin membrane known as the pleura. This transparent membrane also lines the insides of the chest walls.  The pleura is actually two layers of one sheath which folds over on itself.  The layers of the pleura have a very thin space between them.  The space is filled with pleural fluid.  The pleura protects the lungs and the chest cavity from harmful viruses and bacteria and thus are a barrier to illness.

The problem is that sometimes the pleura itself becomes irritated by bacteria or viruses.  When this happens, it can result it pleural effusion, or a condition known as pleurisy.  Pleurisy most often results from some type of lung infection, though it can also ensue in cases of lung cancer and other lung problems or as the result of inhaling certain contaminants/pollutants.

Pleurisy causes an abnormal build-up of either air or fluid in the pleural cavity.  The pleural cavity refers to the area that is inside the chest cavity (rib cage) and surrounds the lungs.  Because the lung’s pain sensors are located in the pleura, an inflammation of the membranes can lead to mild to extreme pain, which is usually exacerbated by coughing or sneezing.

When the pleural cavity becomes filled with fluid or air bubbles, the air or liquid must be released in order to keep the lungs from collapsing.  A drainage kit (the Pleurx Drainage Kit is one example) is used to help get this excess fluid or air out of the body and protect the lungs.

A drainage kit consists of a long tube (the chest tube, also known as a tube thoracostomy.)  The tube is typically made of a type of flexible plastic.  The tube is inserted through the skin through a surgical procedure known as thoracotomy. The end of the tube rests inside the pleural cavity.  A probe and/or camera is sometimes inserted through the tube during surgery to ensure that the end of the tube has been placed correctly so that drainage will be effective.

The tube is then sutured to the surrounding skin surface to keep the tube from shifting.  The entire area is covered with a sterile dressing to protect the incision from infection.

The drainage kit also contains a vacuum bottle.  The other end of the chest tube is inserted into the vacuum bottle.  This bottle is used to aspirate, vacuum or “suck out” the excess fluid.  The contents of the bottle are then disposed of as medical waste.

Drainage kits may come with vacuum bottles in varying sizes.  (For example, the Pleurx Drainage Kit bottle has a 1000 ml. capacity.)  Drainage kits usually come with items like sterile dressings, gauze and alcohol swabs.  Some, like the Pleurx Drainage Kit, include gloves and clamps. 

What is Bronchial Pneumonia and what are its Causes and Symptoms?

Pneumonia is the condition that causes inflammation in lungs. It causes the inflammation in the alveoli when the lungs are filled with the fluid. Alveoli are the small microscopic air sacs present in the lungs responsible for air exchange. When these sacs are filled with the liquid, it causes inflammation in the lungs. This condition is called as pneumonia. There are many different causes of pneumonia. It can be caused by infection of bacteria, fungi, viruses, or some parasites. Pneumonia is also caused by the physical or chemical injury to lungs. The symptoms of pneumonia may vary depending on the type of cause of pneumonia.

The typical symptoms of pneumonia are fever, cough, cold, chest pain, and difficulty in breathing. It is diagnosed by examining the sputum by X-rays. The treatment of pneumonia depends on how the pneumonia was caused. The general bacterial pneumonia is treated by antibiotics.

Types of Pneumonia

Depending on the type of causes of pneumonia, it is classified as

  • Bacterial pneumonia
  • Viral Pneumonia
  • Fungal Pneumonia
  • Bronchial Pneumonia
  • Mycoplasma Pneumonia
  • Aspiration Pneumonia
  • Hospital Acquired Pneumonia

Bronchial Pneumonia

The bronchial pneumonia or bronchopneumonia is the type of pneumonia that causes acute inflammation on the walls of bronchioles. It affects one or more pulmonary lobules.

The cells present in the body depend on the oxygen for survival. This air required is taken from the atmosphere, travels through the nose and the respiratory tract within the lungs through the bronchi. Pneumonia causes swelling and pus formation in the lungs that causes patches in the lungs. These patches interfere with the transmission of oxygen. This type of pneumonia is called bronchial pneumonia.

The bronchial pneumonia can also be caused due to swallowing of small objects. These objects may cause patches in the bronchioles resulting in the inflammation and in turn bronchopneumonia. It may also be caused due to inhalation of harmful gases, dust particles, liquids or foreign bodies.

Infants, children and elder adults commonly suffer from bronchial pneumonia. The common symptoms observed in this type of pneumonia are

  • Headache
  • Fever
  • Sweats
  • Weakness
  • Dizziness
  • Cough with or without mucus
  • Chest pain
  • Rapid and short breathing
  • Finger nails have blue tint
  • Yellow green Phlegm

The symptoms of bronchial pneumonia begin slowly and the patient experiences this condition with the infection in the upper respiratory tract. Patient feels rigidity in the chest and spit out the yellowish or greenish sputum. In some cases, the patient may feel pain in the body along with the fever which may later add up to headache and sweating. The symptoms and severity of bronchial pneumonia may depend on certain factors like health of the person.

The bronchial pneumonia affects the person with weak immune system. The infection of influenza or infection of upper respiratory tract can lead to bronchial pneumonia. The bronchial pneumonia caused by flu or cold is called walking pneumonia.

The physical examination of bronchial pneumonia includes checking the rashes on skin or cyanosis, and checking of heart rate, blood pressure and respiration rate. The abnormal sounds like wheezing, crackles are also observed to detect this disease. The diagnostic tests may include test of sputum samples and blood sample.

Treatment:

Bronchoscopy is the common treatment for bronchial pneumonia. The flexible tubes are inserted through the mouth of the patient into the lungs to take the samples of the secretion for testing. The antibiotics like erythromycin work best on bronchial pneumonia.

How Long Is Bronchitis Contagious?

Bronchitis is as a result of inflammation of the medium sized airways by pathogens.  Another cause of bronchitis is inhaling dangerous fumes and smoking.  Bronchitis caused by inhaling harmful substances and smoking is not contagious.  Bronchitis is as a result of pathogens is very contagious.  This is especially viral bronchitis infection.  How long bronchitis is contagious is usually a question that many find hard to answer. 

This is as a result of the many myths and beliefs about bronchitis.  Most are not true though.   Since bronchitis is carried by pathogens, direct contact with these pathogens is the only sure way of one contracting the disease.  Proper information on the disease will help you answer the question, how long is bronchitis contagious?   The symptoms of bronchitis are wheezing, coughing, fever, fatigue, shortness of breath and headaches. 

The most common way of contracting the is disease is through contact with a sick person. The pathogens can be spread through contact with a sick person.  |The pathogens can spread through mucous or phlegm of an infected person.  These pathogens can be found in the air around the patient or on the utensils and clothing of the infected person.  When a healthy person uses these things without washing them properly, chances of getting the disease are quite high. 

A preventative vaccine can be taken to make one immune from the disease.  This is an oral vaccine developed in 1985 by Professor Robert Clancy of the University of Newcastle Australia.  This vaccine was commercialized four years later.  When you have this information, answering the question, how long is bronchitis contagious becomes easy.  Handling is also easy.

Shoulder Pain, Injury and Treatment

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports shoulder pain afflicts nearly 1 in 10 people. Shoulders have a range of motion greater than any other human joint. It is no wonder they are frequently injured!

Shoulder Injuries: As a personal injury attorney, I represent clients who have suffered serious shoulder injuries and broken bones as the result of being in an accident. Injury to the shoulder may occur when a bicyclist is hit by a car in a crosswalk, in a grocery store fall when someone slips and falls on a spill on the floor or falls in a pothole or other tripping hazard as well as in pedestrian/car collisions.

Shoulder Anatomy: Shoulders are the most commonly dislocated joint. The shoulder is not put together as snugly as our body’s other ball and socket joints. Shoulder sockets are shallower, flatter, and the balls (the upper end of the top arm bones) have to be held in position by a lot of soft tissue.

Shoulder Problems: Aside from wear and tear,shoulders are susceptible to many other injuries.Problems more often occur in the ligaments and tendons of the shoulder rather than in the bones. Doctors may diagnose the precise location of shoulder pain by performing an examination, or through x-rays or an MRI.

Types of Shoulder Injuries: Dislocation: When the ball-shape top of the upper arm (humerus) becomes pulled out of its socket (glenoid) the surrounding soft tissue is stretched and often torn, causing a lot of swelling and pain in the shoulder. As a result, the supporting ligaments in the front of the shoulder may become damaged. Dislocation of the shoulder can cause excruciating pain. A doctor can usually maneuver the arm back into place, although sometimes shoulder surgery is indicated.

A dislocated shoulder injury is frequently the result of a slip and fall accident or pedestrian or bicycle accident.The nature of the injury makes it more vulnerable to future dislocation. When this occurs in an older adult, the damage may be more severe, due to soft tissue becoming weaker with age.

Treatment for a Dislocated Shoulder: Treatment generally includes rest, cold packs, pain medicine, muscle relaxants, and physical therapy. Separation: A separated shoulder happens not in the ball-and-socket joint but closer to the neck, at the point where the top of the shoulder blade (scapula) meets the collarbone called the clavicle. The ligaments holding the two bones together are stretched or torn.

Treatment for Separated Shoulder: Treatment for a separated shoulder joint injury usually involves rest, ice, pain relievers, and physical therapy.

Rotator Cuff Injury: The rotator cuff is the structure that holds the ball of the shoulder in its socket and comprises four muscles and several tendons that are attached to the ball, beneath the deltoid and pectoralis muscles. A rotator cuff injury can progress from inflammation to partial tears, small tears, and larger tears. One of the tendons in an injured rotator cuff may begin to detach from the arm bone. Symptoms include pain in the shoulder and upper arm which becomes worse with time and when the arm is lifted overhead or lowered.

Treatment for rotator cuff tears: If caught early, they may be treated with rest, ice and an anti-inflammatory, and physical therapy. Ultrasound, along with a steroid cream, can reduce inflammation and increase blood flow, which speeds up healing. Tendons may be reattached using arthroscopic surgery, in more serious shoulder rotator cuff tears.

Frozen Shoulder: Some people, who have an injured shoulder requiring immobilization as part of their treatment plan, suffer what is called, frozen shoulder. This is caused when the shoulder is immobile and scar tissue forms locking the shoulder joint into place.

Treatment for Frozen Shoulder: Frozen shoulder can be quite painful and is sometimes treated with an anti-inflammatory, heat and stretching. More serious cases require the injection of steroids into the shoulder joint or electrical stimulation. When frozen shoulder does not respond to conservative care, doctors perform a forced manipulation under anesthesia to actually free the joint from the scar tissue.

How To Care For Your Dog’S Luxated Patella (Slipped Kneecap)

The condition referred to as a “luxated patella” in simplest terms is a slipped kneecap. This discomforting malady is hereditary and causes the kneecap to move out of its normal position (dislocates), typically shifting towards the inside of the animal’s leg. Additionally, it normally occurs in both of the back legs but to a more severe degree in one than the other. When the dogs kneecap is positioned normally, it sits within a deep “groove” where it slides down and up in a controlled manner.

Even though the condition sounds like it warrants emergency care, it oftentimes doesn’t. However, this should not preclude having your dog tested, especially if it is a smaller breed which is more prone to the condition. Typically, the “miniature” and “toy” breeds should be tested when they are about 6 to 8 weeks old. The more reputable dog breeders are acutely aware of these things and will have the puppy tested before the puppy is allowed to go to its new home.

There are certain things to watch for such as carrying the leg, limping, and skipping as the dog runs or walks and physical testing may be the proper course of action if you notice that your pet is exhibiting any of these symptoms. Additionally, x-rays of the animal’s knee and thigh bone are usually taken. Keep in mind that a Grade I luxated patella does not usually require any type of treatment, if this is the diagnosis, but the dog’s behavior should be monitored continually to see if the condition worsens.

On the other hand, Grades II, III, and IV oftentimes require surgery to correct the condition and will normally be performed by an orthopedic surgeon. Depending on the condition’s severity, costs of the operation will range between $1,500 and $3,000. Despite the fact that the condition is not considered dire, as the condition worsens, your dog becomes increasingly more uncomfortable.

Once your dog’s surgery is done, and it is time to take the animal home, your vet will recommend anti-inflammatory and pain medications to be taken for a period of 7-10 days. Additionally, it is imperative that your dog get plenty of rest and be restricted to only minimal activity. Typical rehabilitative care after surgery involves the following:

• commence physical therapy seven days after the surgery
• keep the dog on a leash when allowing them to go outside
• keep your dog from exercising, jumping, and running around as this will put pressure on the knee
• keep your pet in a small and comfortable room

You should never wait until the last minute – not if you love your pet and care about its well-being. If you allow your dog’s condition to progressively worsen, the knee capsule itself is injured and the dog appears to be bowlegged. Not addressing the issue immediately will result in torn ligaments or more severe damage to the knee. In older canines, neglecting the condition has been known to lead to diseases of the bones and the joints and may lead to the onset of arthritis.