Effective Natural Home Remedies for Hyperacidity

Hyperacidity is also known as acid indigestion, acid reflux, and acid dyspepsia. This disease can be explained so: our stomach contains gastric glands that produce gastric acid. This acid is vital for digestion because it breaks down the food in small pieces so that to be easily digested. If the amount of acid is very large we can talk about hyperacidity (acidity) or heartburn. Hyperacidity irritates the esophagus lining and as a consequence we experience pain in chest or in the low part of our stomach.

The symptoms of hyperacidity are various. The person who suffers a hyperacidity attack can experience very unpleasant and painful conditions: from nausea, restless, loss of appetite, abdominal pain to difficulty swallowing, flatulence, and sour taste in his mouth.

The main causes of this digestive problem are: stressful life, irregular meals, an unhealthy diet, the consumption of large amounts of tea, alcohol, coffee, too spicy food. Some medicines can lead to hyperacidity, too.

Fortunately hyperacidity can be treated with some very efficient natural remedies that have only advantages. Unlike medicines, natural remedies have no side effects and, what is more important they are able to help you to get rid of hyperacidity for ever.

A mixture prepared from thinned butter milk mixed with pepper powder is known as one of the fastest and the most efficient remedy for hyperacidity. Take this treatment on a regular basis.

Another natural cure consists in ginger juice and a teaspoon of honey. Drink this juice after every meal and the digestive problems will be under control.

Even if it is a short-term treatment, chilly milk helps you t get rid of hyperacidity. Drunk with little sips 2-3 times a day, this treatment helps you to feel an immediate relief.

Pineapple or sweet lemon juice has the property to reduce the amount of acid from your stomach and to heal hyperacidity.

Cumin seeds are also recommended as an efficient treatment for hyperacidity. Add 1 teaspoon of cumin seeds in 2 liters of water and boil them for 3-5 minutes. Strain the solution and drink it. Take this treatment several days consecutively.

Herbal teas are miraculous in treating this ailment. For example, cinnamon tea, green tea, chamomile tea and more others have unbelievable effects helping you to get rid of hyperacidity.

Chewing almonds or basil leaves is very helpful, too.

Fruits and vegetables as papaya, water melon, bananas, apples, cucumber, tomatoes, cabbage and potatoes can count among the best solution in hyperacidity treatment. From cabbage or potato you can prepare a fresh juice. Just a half a cup of this juice drunk on empty stomach every morning will heal you completely from hyperacidity. Fresh pineapple juice has the same effect. You can use sweet lemon juice as well.

Water is another exceptional remedy. Drink 3-4 glasses of water daily and the level of acid in your stomach will be kept in its normal limits.

Jaggery has proved to be a good remedy, too. Suck about 10 gm of jaggery and you can get rid of heartburn or acidity efficiently.

Gastritis-causes,symptoms and Prevention

Gastritis is an inflammation of the lining of the stomach. There are many possible causes of this disorder including an infection,an irritant, an autoimmune disorder, or a backup of bile into the stomach. The stomach lining may be “eaten away,” leading to sores (peptic ulcers) in the stomach or first part of the small intestine. Left untreated, these ulcers may bleed. Gastritis can occur suddenly (acute gastritis) or gradually (chronic gastritis). In most cases, gastritis does not permanently damage the stomach lining and sometimes no specific cause of the inflammation is identified.

Erosive Gastritis
Erosive gastritis is gastric mucosal erosion caused by damage to mucosal defenses. It is typically acute, presenting with bleeding,but may be subacute or chronic with few or no symptoms. Diagnosis is by endoscopy. Treatment is supportive, with removal of the inciting cause. Certain ICU patients (eg, ventilator-bound, head trauma, burn, multisystem trauma) benefit from prophylaxis with acid suppressants.

Causes of erosive gastritis include NSAIDs, alcohol, stress, and less commonly radiation, viral infection (eg, cytomegalovirus),vascular injury, and direct trauma (eg, nasogastric tubes).

Because gastritis is one of many common digestive problems with similar signs and symptoms, it’s easy to confuse with other conditions, including:
·    Gastroenteritis. Also called stomach flu, gastroenteritis usually results from a viral infection of your intestines. Signs and symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and nausea or vomiting, as well as indigestion. Symptoms of gastroenteritis often resolve within a day or two, whereas the discomfort of gastritis may be ongoing.

·    Heartburn. This painful, burning sensation behind your breastbone usually occurs after a meal. It develops when stomach acid backs up into your esophagus, the tube that connects your throat to your stomach. Heartburn can also lead to a sour taste and the sensation of partially digested food re-entering your mouth.

Immune Cells May Induce Gastritis During H. Pylori Infection
H. pylori is the causative agent of human chronic gastritis, a condition that often leads to gastrointestinal ulcers and cancer.
The gastric mucus found in the human stomach of a H. pylori infection-free adult or child is populated by very few macrophages,however previous research shows that macrophages increase in number in response to H. pylori infection.

Symptoms
The main symptoms of gastritis are loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, headache and dizziness. There is also pain and a feeling of
discomfort in the region of the stomach. In more chronic cases, there is a feeling of fullness in the abdomen especially after meals. The patients complains of heartburn. Prolonged illness often results in loss of weight, anaemia and occasional haemorrhage from the stomach. There may be an outpouring of mucus and a reduction in the secretion of hydrochloric acid during acute attacks and also in most cases of chronic gastritis.

Prevention
To help prevent gastritis:
·    Don’t smoke.
·    If you drink alcohol, do so in moderation. Most experts recommend that women limit alcohol use to no more than one drink a day and that men have no more than two drinks a day.
·    If you take an NSAID to treat a medical problem, and the medicine upsets your stomach, stop taking the medicine and speak with your doctor.

Coxsackie Virus – Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

Infection usually is spread by fecal-oral contamination, although occasionally the virus is spread by droplets expelled by infected individuals. Items like utensils, diaper-changing tables, and toys that come in contact with body fluids that contain the virus may also transmit them to other individuals. Although people of any age can get infected, the majority of patients identified with Coxsackie infection are children. Pregnant women can pass Coxsackie virus to their newborns, which may cause serious problems for the newborn, so pregnant women need to notify their obstetrician if they exhibit symptoms of the infection, especially if they are near their delivery date.

Symptoms
The coxsackie virus apparently produces few or no symptoms in most instances, but it can cause a commonly occurring intestinal disease, with abdominal distress and diarrhea. Even when symptomatic, the resulting disease is usually a relatively mild one, which might be referred to as “intestinal flu.” It most often occurs in late summer or early autumn and is consistent with what the Chinese call “summer heat syndrome,” which usually manifests as an intestinal disorder accompanied by muscle aches and/or headaches, and fever. Rarely, the coxsackie virus can cause a more severe disease.

Coxsackievirus can produce a wide variety of symptoms. About half of all kids infected with coxsackievirus have no symptoms. Others suddenly develop high fever, headache, and muscle aches, and some also develop a sore throat, abdominal discomfort, or nausea. A child with a coxsackievirus infection may simply feel hot but have no other symptoms. In most kids, the fever lasts about 3 days, and then disappears.

Causes

Mild viral infection caused by several enteroviruses, most of which are in the subgroup Coxsackie A, seen most commonly in young children. The most distinctive symptom is a rash on the mucous membranes inside the mouth. The lesions in the mouth are round macules (nonraised spots) about 2 mm (0.1 inch) in diameter, occurring predominantly on the soft palate and tonsils. Herpangina usually starts.

The Coxsackie viruses subsequently were found to cause a variety of infections, including epidemic pleurodynia (Bornholm disease), and were subdivided into groups A and B based on their pathology in newborn mice. (Coxsackie A virus causes paralysis and death of the mice, with extensive skeletal muscle necrosis; Coxsackie B causes less severe infection in the mice, but with damage to more organ systems, such as heart, brain, liver, pancreas, and skeletal muscles.)

The virus responsible is known as the Coxsackie Viruses, most notably Coxsackie Virus Type A16. They are part of a class known as Enteroviruses. It is usually spread by hand to hand contact or stool to saliva transmission.

Treatment

Unfortunately, there is no specific treatment other than treating the symptoms. This involves acetaminophen (Tylenol) for fevers. Mouth sores are probably the most problematic symptom, leading to children refusing to eat or drink due to the pain. Numbing ointments used for teething may temporarily ease the pain. Have your child drink cool drinks (such as milk), while avoiding citrus juices, which can sting them.

Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease usually resolve’s itself within a week. Most often it’s not needed for a child to see a doctor if symptoms are mild, as it rarely causes serious side effects. Uncontrolled fevers and signs of dehydration require prompt evaluation by a physician. Antibiotics will not help treat hand foot and mouth disease at all.

Cause Of Swollen Ankles

Many people suffer from swollen ankles – a painful condition that can make it hard to do many activities that require movement, such as walking, shopping, exercising, driving around, and even standing. In some cases, sufferers are sometimes even unable to wear shoes or socks thanks to how distended their feet and ankles can get. So sufferers need to find out the cause of swollen ankles to help them avoid getting them in the first place.

There are several potential causes of swollen ankles. They include the following.

Firstly, injuries like sprains, strains or broken bones can cause ankles to swell. Many of these injuries can be evident enough to be dealt with immediately, but some of them may be less obvious. Sufferers and their doctors alike should always consider the possibility of swelling caused by these injuries, particularly if the sufferer is into sports or is on his or her feet frequently.

Next, gout can also be a major cause of swollen ankles. Gout happens when uric acid crystals form within the fluid surrounding an ankle or ankles. This acid occurs normally within our bodies when we digest food and is used to help eliminate waste. However, gout sufferers accumulate it in the joints instead of expelling it properly, causing swelling and pain.

Arthritis can also bring about ankle swelling. It can result as the consequence of a pre-existing rheumatoid arthritic condition or also as the result of an injury to the area.

Ankle swelling can also result from blood flow problems or circulatory problems if the problems occur around the ankle. A blood clot is usually the most common cause of this problem.

Lastly, an edema may be at the root of ankle swelling. Edemas happen when there is an excess of water or fluid within the body or the specific area. Excess water or fluid is usually drained from the body via the lymphatic system. In an edema, this drainage does not take place and the fluid or water leaks into the blood from the tissues. As a result, the body itself (generalized edema) or certain parts (localized edema), such as the ankles, end up swelling. An edema in the area can happen when pressure is placed on the leg veins. Or it can also result due to pregnancy or other conditions.

Sufferers’ doctors and health professionals have to keep these possibilities in mind when they try to determine the cause of swollen ankles and work to remedy sufferers’ specific problems. They can diagnose sufferers’ conditions through conducting thorough physical examinations and a range of other such examinations such as X-rays, kidney function tests, ECGs or electrocardiograms, urine tests, blood tests, and so on and so forth.

Depending on their findings as to the
cause of swollen ankles, the cure for this condition may be quick and painless or slow and exacting. If the swelling is caused by a broken bone, then it may simply need to be set and the sufferer may only need to rest it and act accordingly. If however the cause is more serious, then a lifestyle change may be in order.

25 Patients Get New Life After Successful Mitral Valve Repair Surgery ( Mvr)

Mitral valve repair is a cardiac surgery procedure to treat mitral valve stenosis (narrowing) or regurgitation (leakage). The mitral valve is between the heart’s left atrium and left ventricle. The mitral valve has two flaps, or cusps. Blood after picking the oxygen from the lungs flows through the pulmonary veins, to the left atrium of the heart. Once the left atrium gets filled with blood, the mitral valve opens to allow blood to flow from the left atrium into the left ventricle. It then closes in order to keep blood from flowing back into the left atrium or lungs when the ventricle contracts (squeezes) to push blood out to the body.

Studies show that today 5-10 % of the world’s population suffers from Mitral valve Prolapse requiring surgery and 9 per 10,000/year die of it.

You can’t usually prevent mitral valve prolapse, but you can prevent certain complications.

In view of the same a Mitral repair training camp was held at the "Vien Tim"(Heart center of the Ho Chi Minh City between 14 to 20th of April 2008. Patients had flocked from Vietnam,Cambodia and Laos. Renowned Cardiac surgeons from Thailand , China and India participated in the camp.

“25 patients of rheumatic mitral regurgitation were selected and operated with no mortality and 100% success of repair(no replacements)” says Dr. Vivek Jawali ( Chief Cardiothorasic Surgeon at Wockhardt Hospital Group, India) one of the operating surgeon at the camp.

Dr. Vivek Jawali is the pioneer of minimally invasive cardiac surgery in India. He has performed India’s first minimally invasive bypass surgery in 1994 and has since been actively pioneering it in India. In 2000, he has performed India’s first awake bypass surgery on a fully conscious patient without general anaesthesia or ventilator using the technique of continuous high epidural analgesia. In the same year , he performed the world’s first awake open heart surgery , which involved a valve replacement with a triple bypass on a 74 year patient. ( Please check his detail profile on http://www.wockhardthospitals.net/online-doctors/dr_vivek_jawali.asp )

Heart is Wockhardt" is how Wockhardt Hospital and Heart Institute has come to be known as since the past 17 years. A center for excellence in interventional Cardiology and Cardiac Surgeries in the country, it has to its name a history of path-breaking procedures, be it the first-ever Conscious Off Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery and Awake Heart Surgery in India.

Wockhardt Hospital and Heart Institute, has been our first, single-specialty corporate heart hospital. This center has performed more than 15,000 heart operations and 40,000 interventional cardiology procedures since its inception and has become a renowned tertiary level heart care center. The Institute is now a preferred destination for cardiac patients not only in India but also from all over the US, UK, Canada, Middle East and Africas. It is also a teaching center for clinicians from the sub-continent.

Risk Factors of Ischemic Heart Disease

~heart attack (myocardial infarction)-when a part of heart muscle is permanently damaged or actually dies because there’s not enough oxygen.

~unstable angina-is an intermediary between myocardial infarction and stable angina.It’s manifestation is a severe chest pain that lasts more than stable angina and it doesn’t respond very well to medication.

~angina-is a chest discomfort which occurs when the coronary vessels receive an inadequate blood flow.

~atherosclerosis-occurs when fatty material deposite into the arteries walls. This can lead to a blockage of the arteries.

Other risk factors for ischemic heart disease are:

~hypertension (high blood pressure)- blood pressure can vary with activity and with age, but a healthy adult who is resting generally has a systolic pressure reading between 120 and 130 and a diastolic pressure reading between 80 and 90 (or below).

~diabetes-heart problems are the leading cause of death among people with diabetes, especially in the case of non-insulin-dependent diabetes also known as Type II diabetes.

~high blood cholesterol-cholesterol is a fat-like substance carried in your blood.It can be found in all of your body’s cells. The liver produces all of the cholesterol your body needs to form cell membranes and to make certain hormones. Extra cholesterol enters your body when you eat foods that come from animals (meats, eggs,and other similar products).

~obesity and overweight- extra weight leads to increased total cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, and an increased risk of coronary artery disease. Obesity increases your chances of developing other risk factors for heart disease, especially high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, and diabetes.

~smoking- It’s well known that smoking increases the risk of lung cancer, but few people know that it also increases the risk of heart disease and peripheral vascular disease (disease in the vessels that supply blood to the arms and legs). Smoking also raises blood pressure, which increases the risk of stroke in people who already have high blood pressure.

~birth control pills-At the beginning birth control pills contained high levels of estrogen and progestin, and taking these pills increased the chances of heart disease and stroke, especially in women older than 35 who smoked. In our days the dose of hormones contained in these pills has been lowered and they are considered safe for women younger than 35, who do not smoke or have high blood pressure.

~physical inactivity- people who exercise regularly have a lower risk of heart attack than people who are not active. Exercise burns calories, may lower blood pressure and helps to control cholesterol levels and diabetes. In addition to this exercise makes the arteries more flexible and strengthens the heart muscle.

~stress- Stressful situations raise your heart rate and blood pressure, increasing your heart’s need for oxygen. The need for oxygen can cause angina pectoris, or chest pain, in people who already have heart disease.

It’s advisable that your doctor checks your risk for heart disease at least once a year by checking your cholesterol and blood pressure levels and asking whether you smoke or have a family history of heart disease. Also he can check your urine for protein, because this represents another risk factor for heart disease.

What is a Heart Attack?

WHAT IS A HEART ATTACK?

The definition of heart attack is the slow or complete interruption of blood flow to the myocardium (cardiac muscle). A heart attack is technically known as myocardial infarction, or MI for short, (Myo means muscle; cardio means heart; infarction means death of the tissue).

Atherosclerosis

As described earlier, the cardiac muscle receives its nutrients and oxygen supply from two arteries, namely the left and right coronary arteries (see the chapter on anatomy). Each artery divides into several branches, and each branch supplies a specific area of the cardiac muscle. The main cause of myocardial infarction is atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries, which is responsible for about 95 percent of all heart attacks.

Atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis—this terminology is used interchangeably, but the following definitions are more accurate: arteriosclerosis (ahr teer ee o’ skle ro’sis): the term used for the process and damage of the arteries in general. Arterio means (artery); sclerosis means (hardening or scarring).

Atherosclerosis is pronounced (ath”ur o”skle ro’sis).Atherosclerosis is the specific process of cholesterol and fat deposits on the inner side or inner wall of the artery known as plaque deposits. It is by far the most common form of artery damage (Figure 1).

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Figure 1Schematicdiagram of atherosclerosis formation in the coronary artery

Arteries are blood vessels that transfer blood away from the heart. Tissues and organs receive their supply of oxygen from oxygenated blood through arteries. If for any reason an artery occludes, its share of blood to the organ it supplies stops or significantly diminishes. That organ will eventually die if that artery remains blocked or suffers extensive damage.

Since arteries travel long distances under a certain amount of pressure generated by the heart, their anatomy differs from veins. The muscular layer of the artery is much more developed to withstand the higher pressure. An artery is made of three layers (Figure 2):

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Figure 2 Schematic illustration of the three layers of an artery. The intima, media and adventitia, the endothelium is the cells layer

  1. Intima (inner surface and closest to blood)
  2. Media (middle layer)
  3. Adventitia (outer cover)

Intima

The intima is the innermost layer of an artery or a vein and is the closest to the blood. This layer of specialized cells, called the endothelium, serves as a protective cover to the innermost structures. It is a very fine, transparent, colorless structure that is highly elastic. These cells release a substance into the blood stream, preventing it from clotting.

Media

This is the middle layer of the arterial wall; it contains smooth muscle fibers and elastic tissue. These muscle fibers protect the artery and withstand the pressure generated by the heart. It also can constrict if the organ or tissue it supplies requires more blood. This layer lies between the intima on the inside and the adventitia (outer layer) on the outside. This layer can be distinguished by its color and its muscular layer. Unlike an artery, this middle layer in a vein has fibrous elements in excess, and the elastic or muscular fibers are in much smaller proportions.

Adventitia

This is the outermost layer of the artery; it contains nerve endings and minute arterioles that supply blood to the artery itself. This outer layer consists of collagen fibers that serve to anchor the blood vessel to the surrounding tissues giving it stability.

No one knows exactly how atherosclerosis begins, or what mechanism is responsible for triggering the process. However, researchers believe that if the blood is saturated with fats (e.g. due to excessive intake of cholesterol and triglycerides), these fats tear the specialized layer of cells (endothelium), causing the process of atherosclerosis to start.

Another possible source for damage to the endothelial cells is high blood pressure. The strain exerted on the arterial wall over a long period causes these cells to deteriorate and rupture.

Atherosclerosis is a two-step process:

  1. The damage of the specialized cells;
  2. The fats circulating in the blood infiltrate into the muscular layer of the artery, the muscle fibers become highly irritated, causing further damage.

When the arteries are damaged, this may lead to the damage of the tiny blood vessels that supply oxygen to the artery itself; this disruption may cause the blood cells to gather and stick together, reducing the oxygen supply. Like any other injury, swelling of the arterial wall occurs enhancing further the formation of plaque.

Once the specialized layer of cells (endothelium) are damaged, they are dislodged, exposing the tissue of the middle layer (media) to the blood stream. The tissue of this layer has the affinity to attract cells from the blood that are responsible in the process of clotting. These cells are called platelets (platelets normally collect at the site of a wound, to help stop bleeding).

Platelets are very sticky cells; therefore, they collect at the site of injury within the artery. This leads to the formation of a clot(s) that may block the artery entirely. A portion of that clot may also dislodge, travel with the bloodstream, and may end up in the brain, blocking a small artery and/or causing a stroke (Figure 3).

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Figure 3The arterial wall, A = damage to the endothelial cells, B = the exposed tissue attracts platelets from the blood, C = a large numbers of platelets, collect in the injured area, blood clots form, and may dislodge, and travel in the blood stream, eventually blocking smaller arteries causing a heart attack or a stroke, Pl = platelets, En = endothelial cells, D = site of damage, BC = blood clots

Like hypertension, atherosclerosis is also known as a silent killer. When it starts, you cannot stop it because you do not see it and you do not feel it. As you load your system with fats and triglycerides, you are causing more and more damage to the inner layers of the arteries. This destructive process continues all the time, throughout the circulation affecting the arterial system.

Angina Pectoris

The first sign of coronary arteries involvement by atherosclerosis is certain warning signals that manifest themselves in the form of chest pain known as angina pectoris. Angina is aching of the cardiac muscle itself due to lack of nutrients and oxygen. Angina pectoris happens when the coronary arteries are becoming narrower. Usually, angina starts during some sort of physical activity such as climbing stairs, or manual labor, as well as emotional excitement. Normally, the pain will subside shortly after the activity or excitement has stopped.

Anginal pain is usually a dull or pressing pain just beneath the sternum or breastbone. Some patients describe the pain as a “burning” or “squeezing” sensation, tightness, or crushing pain. It is very common to see that the sufferer of anginal pain clenches his fist against his chest while describing the pain. The location of angina cannot be pointed out with one finger because it is diffuse in nature and is never a localized pain (Figure 4).

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Figure 4 Sites of anginal pain, 1 = Dull diffuse pain in the upper chest, 2 = beneath the sternum, neck and mandible, 3 = beneath the sternum, left shoulder and arm, 4 = Epigastric, 5 = Neck and mandible, 6 = Left  shoulder and both arms

Anginal pain is not affected by body position nor by deep respiration; it is usually a dull ache, seldom sharp. It continues steadily with gradual changes. Anginal pain manifests itself in many different forms:

  1. A dull, diffuse pain presents itself in the upper chest region and may seem to remain within that area.
  2. A dull pain that is located just beneath the sternum. It radiates to the base of the neck and the lower border of the mandible.
  3. A dull pain just beneath the sternum, it radiates to the left shoulder and the inner area of the left arm down to the little finger.
  4. A dull sensation, or more likely, patients complain of an upset stomach.
  5. The feeling of a dull, uncomfortable pain at the base of the neck and the lower border of the mandible.
  6. A dull, diffuse pain in the left shoulder and the inner area of both arms.

Although the above six different sites of anginal pain are typical, a combination of these may very well happen. Some people describe to have pain in the back in between both shoulder blades as well.

Anginal pain usually disappears with rest, but is better relieved with medication such as nitroglycerine. However, if pain persists, and/or increase in intensity this might indicate that a heart attack might be eminent, and the individual should seek immediate medical help by going to the nearest emergency room. Certain people might be prone to angina in extreme hot or cold temperatures or after a heavy meal. If this is the case, try to cut down on your work or exercise, in winter, dress warmly, and reduce the portions of your meals.

In summer, engage in your activity in the early morning or late afternoon to avoid the heat of the day. Your physician might prescribe a mild exercise program, depending upon your condition. (Nutrition, rehabilitation, and exercise are discussed in separate chapters.)

Angina pectoris and myocardial infarction are two different conditions; however, both have the same underlying cause, atherosclerosis. Angina pectoris is the reduction of oxygen to the cardiac muscle causing pain. A myocardial infarction is the complete interruption of oxygen to the cardiac muscle. If this deficiency of oxygen is not reversed, the cardiac muscle will die (Figure 5).

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Figure 5 Schematic illustration of left coronary artery showing areas of narrowing, a complete interruption of oxygen may lead to a heart attack, 1 = partially occluded coronary arteries, 2 = totally occluded coronary artery, 3 = distal to a totally occluded artery 2 will slowlyfade away and eventually disappear

Depending upon the severity of the blockage, you will learn how to avoid those activities that bring about angina; bear in mind that it is how strenuously you do these activities rather than how long that causes angina. You might be able to walk a mile or more without any pain if you pace yourself but will have severe pain if you walked rapidly and vigorously for only half a block. If certain activity prompts anginal pains such as mowing the lawn, housework, or sexual intercourse, discuss the matter with your physician—he might prescribe or change the dosage of your medication.

Avoid emotional upsets such as outbursts of temper. Control your excitement or anxiety since they could trigger angina. Some kinds of recurring emotional problems can be very difficult to handle; seek professional advice and help. Long-standing tensions will aggravate your angina; discuss them with your physician or clergyman. Do not do things all by yourself; ask someone to help. Breathing exercises can relieve these tensions.

Angina pectoris may take one of three forms:

  1. Stable or chronic angina
  2. Unstable angina
  3. Variant angina

Stable or Chronic Angina

Stable angina is predictable; it occurs during some level of physical activity and/or emotional stress. It builds up gradually until it reaches maximum. Rest and nitroglycerine diminish the pain very effectively. 

The pain is a dull, crushing, tight, squeezing sensation just beneath the sternum and is not in one area. Shortness of breath, fainting, anxiety, and nausea may accompany the pain.

Diagnosing stable angina is easily achieved with the help of an electrocardiogram, physical examination, and diagnostic testing. Although an electrocardiogram is very effective in the diagnosis of anginal pain, a resting electrocardiogram may not reveal any changes. In these cases, a stress test (described later) may be important since it will reveal any underlying causes. Moreover, a Holter monitor (the electrocardiogram is recorded for twenty-four hours while the patient wears a special recorder) may prove to be very beneficial.

Unstable Angina

It is more severe in nature than stable angina and usually precedes a myocardial infarction (heart attack). It is also known as pre-infarction angina. Unstable angina is severe and prolonged; it occurs at rest and during minimal exertion. It is intense and may last thirty minutes or more. All attacks happen at night, and patients wake from their sleep. The first symptom is shortness of breath, accompanied by nausea and/or vomiting. Nitroglycerine may not be very effective

Variant Angina

Variant angina is also known as prinzmetal angina. It occurs at rest, and the cause is usually  coronary artery spasm. Variant angina is caused by spasm whereas the smooth muscular layer of the artery contracts or constricts. Therefore, a diminished amount of blood flow occurs causing severe chest pain. Most of the time spasm is the result of exertion or stress. By contrast to unstable angina, the pain is caused by an obstruction or a narrowing of the artery. If a spasm occurs in an area of obstruction or disease, the pain may be quite severe. The attacks usually occur always at the same time between midnight and the early-morning hours. The quality of pain resembles those of unstable angina, severe diffuse pain beneath the sternum with sensation of tightness and crushing discomfort.

Patients with variant angina may experience arrhythmia and conduction system abnormalities; the pain is quickly relieved with nitroglycerine. Nitroglycerine dilates the artery hence, allowing more blood to flow.

Myocardial Infarction

Myocardial infarction (heart attack or death of the cardiac muscle) is an injury to the myocardium (heart muscle) because of blood supply interruption to the heart. Myocardial infarction is the main cause that leads to death. Almost half of a myocardial infarction sufferers die within one hour after the onset of the symptoms. Those that seek treatment stand a good chance at overcoming death.

As described in chapter two, myocardial infarction (death of the cardiac muscle) starts by build-up of atherosclerosis. However, the cause is triggered by a condition in which the cardiac muscle suffers when the oxygen supply is interrupted; for example, in severe coronary spasm, or in coronary thrombosis (blood clot in the coronary artery) in which the myocardium suffers gradually leading to injury and infarction.

The left ventricle is mostly affected because of its thicker wall, its size, abundant blood circulation, and greater workload.

Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is another term that refers to a spectrum of clinical presentations ranging from those for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) to presentations found in non–ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) or in unstable angina. In terms of pathology, ACS is almost always associated with rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque and partial or complete clotting of that artery.

Myocardial infarction also triggers the release of the hormone epinephrine and norepinephrine that are secreted by the adrenal medulla (the innermost layers of the suprarenal glands) in response to the infarction. This is the most powerful vasopressor (an agent who contracts the muscular tissue of the arteries) substance known, increasing blood pressure, stimulating the cardiac muscle, accelerating the heart rate, and increasing the cardiac output.

Myocardial infarction affects both right and left ventricles but more often it happens in the left ventricle in four different locations (Figure 6):

  1. Subendocardial infarction is the inner most area of the myocardium and is closest to the cavity of the ventricle.
  2. Intramural infarction is an infarct that usually involves the middle area of the myocardium.
  3. Transmural infarctionthe infarct usually involves the entire thickness of the myocardium, known as anterior, inferior, posterior, or lateral wall infarction. Anterior wall myocardial infarction is the most severe; it affects large areas and may trigger arrhythmias.
  4. Subepicardial infarction—the infarct usually involves the outermost area of the myocardium.

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Figure 6 Different sites of myocardial infarct, 1 = subendocardial infarction, 2 = intramural infarction, 3 = transmural infarction, 4 = subepicardial infarction, MV = mitral valve, TV = tricuspid valve, LV = left ventricle, RV = right ventricle, S = septum, P = papillary muscle

Pathologic Changes

Myocardium changes do not appear until after six hours from the onset of the infarction. The changes that occur are as follows:

  1.  After the first six hours, swelling occurs in the injured area. It  becomes bluish pale in color.
  2. Within eighteen to thirty-six hours, the myocardium turns reddish purple.
  3. Two to three days after, the injured site turns grayish yellow  and covers the entire damaged region.
  4. Three to four weeks later, phagocyte cells (specialized cells that devour dead tissue) start cleaning the damaged site, reducing the thickness of the infarcted area.
  5.  Within four to six weeks, the infarct region becomes somewhat jellylike in consistency, grayish in color, and starts forming scar tissue.

Silent Ischemia

It has been documented that myocardial ischemia does not always make its presence known. Studies reveal that many patients are completely unaware of any indications of extensive coronary artery obstruction. It is only when routine electrocardiogram is required that evidence of an old infarct is revealed.

One should then ask why some individuals experience pain while others do not. Those that were asymptomatic may have a higher pain threshold or smaller ischemic area. Others may completely deny their symptoms.

Arrhythmias

Arrhythmia is defined as “an irregular heartbeat.” The heartbeat is controlled by a group of cells known as the pacemaker (turn to chapter one on anatomy of the heart). During a heart attack when part of the heart muscle is injured, some of the fibers that form the conduction system are also affected, causing a change in the normal rhythm. The heartbeat can become faster, slower, or irregular. Frequent electrocardiograms are important to determine whether any of the conduction system is severely affected.

Not all arrhythmias are caused by myocardial infarction. There are many conditions that trigger arrhythmias, it is not the intention of this book to discuss them, suffice to say that your physician can determine the exact reason and cause of an arrhythmia.

Because of the disruptive action of the cardiac muscle, certain manifestations occur in the form of symptoms:

  1. Palpitation
  2. Shortness of breath
  3. Weakness
  4. Chest pain
  5. Anxiety
  6. Syncope
  7. Fainting

Once arrhythmia is diagnosed, certain drugs are administered that would control these irregularities until the cardiacmuscle has healed from the myocardial infarction or from the trigger that caused it. If the damage to the fibers of the conduction system were permanent, it would become necessary to implant a pacemaker to regulate the contraction of the heart.

A pacemaker is an electronic device specifically designed and implanted in cardiac patients who suffer from various forms of arrhythmia. It is a device that senses the disturbance of the conduction system and, therefore, delivers an electric shock to the cardiac muscle. A complete pacemaker system has two basic components:

1)        The electrode is a specially designed catheter that has one or two electrodes at one end. The other end of the catheter is an occasions, two such electrodes are used.

2)        Pulse generator is the power source; it houses an intricate electronic circuitry that senses any changes to the cardiac rhythm. If the heart skips one or more contractions, the pulse    generator will immediately sense the disturbance in the rhythm; it will   generate an electric current that travels through the catheter electrode, which in turn stimulates or shocks the cardiac muscle to contract, therefore, maintaining a normal heart rate.

What to Expect after a Heart Attack

After a heart attack, the healing period may seem to pass very slowly because you are to cut down on a number of activities. Patients feel depressed, particularly if they are free of any symptoms, since they feel they can achieve a lot more. This process might take several months with regular trips to your doctor. Lifestyles of patients will totally change.

Once the healing process is completed, most people resume their normal activities very regularly, including returning to their jobs. Some patients may never have another heart attack, and this is the goal of a slow recovery period. Another very important aspect in recovering after a heart attack is rehabilitation (see chapter four).

At Home after a Heart Attack

  • If you develop angina, shortness of breath, arm or hand                                     discomfort, you should stop what you are doing immediately, take some of your prescribed nitroglycerin, and rest for a few minutes. When the symptoms disappear, resume your activity at a slower pace
  • You should notify your physician or go to the nearest  emergency facility

i) Heavy pressure or chest pain radiating to your shoulder, arm, neck, and jaw is   not being relieved with medication
ii) Increased shortness of breath
iii) Fainting

iv)  Slow or rapid heart rate

  • Space your activities to allow your heart to rest

i.     Plan your work, spread harder tasks, and alternate with easier ones
ii.     If you feel tired, stop and take a fifteen-to-twenty-minute rest. Do not push yourself
iii.     Do not do all of your activities at one time. Rest in between
v.     Plan to rest twenty to thirty minutes twice a day
vi.     You should get at least five to eight hours of sleep every night

  •  If you do housework, follow these suggestions:

i.     Eliminate unnecessary tasks, such as drying dishes
ii.     Clean one room at a time; take a rest before going to the next
iii.     Do not move any furniture or heavy appliances
iv.     Make one side of the bed completely before going to the other side to cut down on the number of times you have to walk around the bed
v.     Try to sit down when ironing or when preparing food; try to keep everything at your level rather than getting up often to reach for the items you need
vi.     Do not do anything that requires using your arms above your shoulder level
vii.     Avoid washing windows or cars

  • Avoid tensing your body

i.     Do not strain when you have a bowel movement; ask your physician for laxatives
ii.     Do not lift any heavy objects, children, groceries, or suitcases; do not do any pushing   or pulling
iii.     Do not strain in opening stuck objects, such as boxes, jars, etc.,

  •  Walk dailyas much as you were waking at the hospital before your discharge. You maywalk outside when the weather is nice. Walkon level grounds; avoid any steps and hills. Avoid walking against the wind or in extreme cold weather. These conditions make your heart work harder. Take your walks after a period of rest, and while walking, if you experience any chest pain or discomfort, you should immediately sit down and rest. Take your nitroglycerin until the pain is completely gone. When you start your walking or exercise program, always start moderately and increase as you go along.
  • When climbing stairs,like anything else, start slowly. If you have to climb stairs, climb them once a day and go slow. Avoid too many stairs at one time. Increase as you go along.
  • With cold or warm temperatures, during winter, avoid going out on windy days. If you must, cover your mouth and nose with a handkerchief; try to complete your exercise program indoors. In summertime, go out early or late in the day so you can avoid the heat. Do not stay out for long periods.
  •  Sex should be treated like any other exercise. Rest for a while before engaging in sex, and avoid sex if you:

i.     Are tired
ii.     Have just eaten a heavy meal
iii.     Have been drinking
iv.     Are angry with your mate
v.     Experience any chest pain or discomfort. When you experience pain or discomfort, stop and take your nitroglycerine. The next time, take your nitro before engaging in sexual relations since your heartbeat will be faster

  •  Long trips—check with your physician prior to taking a long trip, particularly if you will be driving. Stop every hour and do some walking. This will stimulate your circulation to avoid any clot formation in your lower legs.
  •  Check with your physician prior to going to the mountains or very hot places. Avoid argumentative situations. You should stay away from conversations that might become upsetting since your heart will have to work very hard.

i.     After a meal, you should take a rest for about an hour since your heart is already working harder to compensate for digestion
ii.     You should stop smoking
iii.     Pace yourself for your daily chores

Conclusion

After hospitalization from of a heart attack, patients often become depressed. They associateheart attack with some disabling disease and think they are becoming invalid. This particularly happens to those who had been very active prior to their heart attack. They become anxious about whether they will be able to resume full physical, social, professional, and sexual activities.

Usually, there should be no worry if, of course, the patient follows the prescribed protocol of treatment that is essential to full recovery. Like any other injury, it takes time for the healing process, and unless this period is followed carefully, recurrent heart attacks might follow. On the other hand, if the recovery period is followed normally, many patients never experience another heart attack again.

Learn more in my new book available for ordering. In addition, an eBook is available also as a download. Follow the link at;

http://www.tatepublishing.com/bookstore/book.php?w=9781613468449

What's Heart Disease?

The term heart disease could be a very broad term. Issues can arise inside the heart muscle, arteries supplying blood to the heart muscle, or the valves among the guts that pump blood in the proper direction. Understanding the variations between each disease of the guts can facilitate with the confusing applications of the term heart disease. Coronary artery disease or CAD is the most common sort of heart disease and the leading cause of death in each genders within the U.S. Coronary artery disease affects the arteries supplying blood to the center muscle. These coronary arteries harden and slender thanks to the buildup of a waxy cholesterol, fatty substance referred to as plaque. This plaque buildup is referred to as atherosclerosis. The rise in plaque buildup causes the coronary arteries to become narrower. This can cause blood flow to become restricted, decreasing the amount of oxygen delivered to the guts muscle. Decreasing the quantity of oxygen supplied to the guts muscle will cause angina (chest pain) and result in a heart attack. Coronary artery disease over time will weaken the center muscle contributing to heart failure and arrhythmias (abnormal heart rhythms). Coronary heart disease is another confusing sort of heart disease. Coronary heart disease isn’t the same issue as coronary artery disease. While coronary artery disease refers to the coronary arteries, coronary heart disease refers to the diseases of the coronary arteries and resulting complications. This includes such complications like chest pain, a heart attack, and also the scar tissue caused by the center attack. Understanding this delicate difference between the two might impress your cardiologist. Cardiomyopathy may be a disease affecting the muscle of the heart. Cardiomyopathy will be genetic or caused by a viral infection. Cardiomyopathy can be classified as primary or secondary. Primary cardiomyopathy is attributed to a particular cause (hypertension, congenital heart defects, heart valve disease). Secondary cardiomyopathy is attributed to specific causes (diseases affecting alternative organs). There are three main sorts of cardiomyopathy. Dilated cardiomyopathy is enlargement and stretching of the cardiac muscle. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy causes thickening of the center muscle. Restrictive cardiomyopathy causes the ventricles of the center to become excessively rigid causing blood flow to the ventricles to be difficult between heartbeats. Valvular heart disease could be a disease that affects the valves of the heart. Valves within the guts keep the blood flowing in the right direction. Harm to valves can be caused by a selection of conditions leading to regurgitation or insufficiency (leaking valve), prolapse (improper closing of the valve), or stenosis (narrowing of the valve). Valvular heart disease will be genetic. Valvular heart disease can conjointly be caused by bound infections like rheumatic fever, and sure medications or radiation treatments for cancer. The pericardium may be a sac that encompasses the heart. Pericardial disease is inflammation (pericarditis), stiffness (constrictive pericarditis), or fluid accumulation (pericardial effusion) of the pericardium. Pericardial disease will be caused by many things like occurring when a heart attack. Congenital heart disease may be a form of heart disease that develops before birth. Congenital heart disease is an extremely broad term. However, these diseases typically affect the formation of the center muscle, chambers, or valves. A few examples include coarctation or a narrowing of a piece of the aorta; atrial or ventricular septal defect is called holes in the heart. Congenital heart disease should be classified additional accurately as an inborn defect that occurs in around one% of births. Congenital heart disease could be inherited (heredity), or caused by bound infections such as German measles contracted while pregnant. But, researchers are currently learning factors that will cause congenital heart disease. Heart failure is another sort of heart disease characterized by the center’s inability to effectively pump enough blood to the body’s organs and tissues. When the body’s very important organs don’t receive enough blood flow sure signs and symptoms will occur like shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid retention. Congestive heart failure could be a kind of heart failure that leads to fluid buildup in the body. It is vital to notice that not all heart failure is congestive. Heart failure may result from different cardiovascular diseases like cardiomyopathy or coronary heart disease. Heart failure may return on suddenly or develop over several years. The month of February is the National Heart Disease awareness month. However, heart disease awareness should be every and every day. With staggering statistics, awareness begins with understanding the various varieties of heart disease. A diet and lifestyle that is conducive to heart health will mean the distinction between life and being a statistic.

Tuberculosis Treatment In India at Affordable Cost -Tuberculosis India

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Tuberculosis Treatment In India

Tuberculosis

TB is a common disease in developing countries, and is reappearing in developed countries as a result of AIDS and migration of population. This is amongst the ten leading causes of death and one of the commonest cause of death in the young. This scenario is not as bad in a case of abdominal TB and more so of colon….

Incidence

The incidence of abdominal TB is increasing globally with the spread of AIDS. Out of this exact incidence of colonic TB is difficult as there is mostly overlapping of all forms of abdominal TB. Incidence is high in Indian subcontinent….

Clinical Features

TB has an insidious onset and most patients have had symptoms for months or even years. In about one third of patients, this chronic course is interrupted by acute attacks,…

Usually there are two types of lesion in colon.

  1. Ulcero-hypertrophic
  2. Hypertrophic….

Investigations

  • Blood : – Haemogram and ESR
  • Imaging : – Includes X-ray chest, abdomen. Barium studies includes meal follow through, enteroclysis and double contrast enema. Radiological findings are suggestive but not definitive…

Differential Diagnosis

Most important DD in developing countries is from carcinoma and in developed countries from Crohn’s disease and carcinoma…

Management

Antitubercular therapy for abdominal or colonic tuberculosis is the same as that of pulmonary TB. Nowadays short course therapy of 6 to 9 months…

Prognosis

Over all prognosis has markedly improved as a result of advances in diagnostic methods,…

Tubercular Proctitis

This is nearly always associated with active pulmonary TB, and is often complicated by a tubercular fistula in ano, or tuberculous ulceration of the anus….

Tuberculous Fistula In Ano

If induration around a fistula is lacking, if the opening is ragged and flushed with surface, if surrounding skin is discoloured and the discharge is watery, it strongly suggests that the fistula is due to the tuberculous infection…

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We Care Core Values

We have a very simple business model that keeps you as the centre.

Having the industry’s most elaborate and exclusive Patient Care and Clinical Coordination teams stationed at each partner hospital, we provide you the smoothest and seamless care ever imagined. With a ratio of one Patient Care Manager to five patients our patient care standards are unmatched across the sub continent.

Treatment for Hereditary Hair Loss Problem

If hereditary hair loss (androgenetic alopecia) once in full swing, it is very difficult to stop or cause new growth. Therefore, early initiation of therapy is important. Hair loss has, in rare cases, an immediate connection with a medical disability. Treatment is therefore often medically necessary and appropriate only when the person with the appearance of problems.

In addition, a real causal treatment of hereditary hair loss is difficult. Although advertised again and again for the alleged miracle cure, a detectable effect may offer only a few preparations. As promising in recent years, agents Finasteride , Minoxidil and Alfatradiol said. Finasteride inhibits the conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone (DHT). DHT levels in the blood can thus reduce up to 70 percent. This treatment is only suitable for men and is well tolerated.Because the drug interferes with the metabolism of hormones together may experience side effects such as impotence. Reasons, children, youth and women should not take finasteride. Pregnant women should not handle broken tablets.

The mechanism of action Minoxidil considering hair growth remains largely unknown. It seems to continually increase and extend the hair follicles that have begun to decline. As a mechanism of action and to promote the supply of ships was adopted. However, as a side effect of hair in unwanted places (eg, face) to grow. Another drug that also inhibits the conversion of testosterone into the hair roots is dihydrotestosterone harmful Alfatradiol (17a-estradiol). Studies have shown that the drug increased the proportion of hairs in the growth phase; the proportion of hairs in the resting phase is reduced. This is an indication that Alfatradiol can slow the progression of hair loss. Alfatradiol The external application does not interfere with hormone metabolism and has few side effects.

Usually, successful treatment depends largely on the stage of hair loss. Atrophy due to hereditary hair loss, hair roots without treatment, it is almost impossible to revive growth, if it forms a bald head. This is where often only a hair transplant, wig or wig-old
Diet analysis of hair and hair mineral

Care of your body and your hair will take care of itself. Healthy hair is a reflection of a healthy body which, in turn, is largely a reflection of a healthy diet. Therefore, the food is healthy for the body will be good for hair.

There are numerous books that advise you on what you should and should not eat, how much to eat, how to prepare food to maintain the highest nutritional value, how frozen food compared to canned foods, dehydrated or fresh about the nutritional value, what effect the process in the food, how it affects the food storage, how the soil affects the food, and so on.

You should read these books because not discuss numerous aspects of nutrition in this text. We emphasize only that no mineral, vitamin, amino acid, carbohydrate or fat we should not include particular in our diet purely for the sake of our hair. Take care of your body and your hair will take care of itself. Hair Loss Diet and nutritional deficiencies have mentioned main cause diffuse hair loss. In these cases, deficiencies or excesses are the most common minerals, particularly low levels of iron, calcium, magnesium, chromium and zinc and high levels of copper. Blood tests for minerals can be misleading and, for many minerals, hair analysis is more accurate.

Brain Tumors Treatment In India At Low Cost- Brain Tumors Treatment

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Brain Tumors Treatment In India

Brain Tumors

A tumor is any mass caused by abnormal or uncontrolled growth of cells. Tumors in the brain are categorized according to several factors, including where they’re located, the type of cells involved, and how quickly they’re growing…..

Benign Tumor

Types of Brain Tumor

A  ]   Acoustic neurinoma : –

Benign tumor occurring in the 8th cranial nerve (the acoustic nerve) between the pons and the cerebellum…

B  ]   Astrocytomas : –

represent the most common type of glioma. They develop from the supporting cells of the brain, which are star-shaped glial cells called astrocytes….

C  ]   Oligodendroglioma : –

 These are tumours that are made up of cells known as oligodendrocytes, which produce the fatty covering of nerve cells…

D  ]   Ependymoma : –

Tumor arising from the ependymal cells found along the ventricles and central canal of the spinal cord……

E  ]   Brain stem glioma : —

the tumor occurs in the lowest part of the brain. Brain stem gliomas most often are diagnosed in young children and middle-aged adults….

F  ]   Craniopharyngioma : –

This is a benign, congenital tumor. It is cystic and occurs primarily in children and adolescents……

G  ]   Medulloblastoma : —

 This tumor usually arises in the cerebellum. It is the most common brain tumor in children. It is sometimes called a primitive neuroectodermal tumor…..

H  ]   Meningioma : –

Benign tumor arising from the meninges, the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. Meningiomas represent approximately 20% of all primary brain tumors and occur most commonly in middle-aged women……

I  ]   Germ cell tumor of the brain : —

The tumor arises from a germ cell. Most germ cell tumors that arise in the brain occur in people younger than 30……

J ]   The pineal gland is just below the area where the two cerebral hemispheres join. Tumours in this part of the brain are extremely rare. They can be made up of different types of cells…..

Primary Malignant Tumor

Tumors that begin in brain tissue are known as primary brain tumors. Although primary brain tumors often shed cancerous cells to other sites in the central nervous system (the brain or spine), they rarely spread to other parts of the body……

Secondary Malignant Tumor

When cancer cells spread to the brain from another organ (such as the lung or breast), is called as a secondary tumor or metastatic tumor. Secondary tumors in the brain are far more common than primary brain tumors……

Causes of Brain Tumors

The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. This is because they are rare, there are many types, and there are many possible risk factors that could play a role. Exposure to some types of radiation, head injuries, and hormone replacement therapy may be risk factors, as well as many others. The risk of using cell phones is hotly debated……

Symptoms of Brain Tumor

The most common symptoms include headaches, which can be most severe in the morning; nausea or vomiting, which can be most severe in the morning; seizures or convulsions…..

Diagnosis of Brain Tumors

A  ]   MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) is a scanning device that uses magnetic fields and computers to capture images of the brain on film…..

B  ]   CT Scan (Computed Tomography) combines sophisticated x-ray and computer technology. CT can show a combination of soft tissue, bone, and blood vessels…..

C  ]   PET SCAN: – The PET scan measures the brains activity and sends this information to a computer, which creates a live image…..

D  ]   Biopsy : –The removal of tissue to look for tumor cells is called a biopsy. A pathologist looks at the cells under a microscope to check for abnormal cells…..

The treatment options of Brain Tumor are : –

  • Tumor Surgery
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation Therapy………

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We Care Core Values

We have a very simple business model that keeps you as the centre.

Having the industry’s most elaborate and exclusive Patient Care and Clinical Coordination teams stationed at each partner hospital, we provide you the smoothest and seamless care ever imagined. With a ratio of one Patient Care Manager to five patients our patient care standards are unmatched across the sub continent.

Pneumonia And Its Symptoms

Pneumonia refers to lung inflammation. There are 50 such lung inflammatory ailments. During such situations, the lungs inevitably experience build up of fluids. Several micro-organisms cause pneumonia. Pneumonic inflammation of the lungs occurs due to collection of cellular wastes and blood cells within the air sacs within the lungs. Such pneumonic inflammation creates breathing problems.

Pneumonia can range from very mild to very severe, even fatal. The severity depends on the type of organism causing pneumonia as well as your age and underlying health.

Causes:

Aspiration pneumonia is caused by the inhalation of foreign materials: liquids, dust particles, chemical fumes and other irritants. This type of pneumonia mostly common affects small children, but adults are not immune to it, because they have inhaled either vomit or food. The symptoms of Aspiration pneumonia are not always intense and may disappear within a few days, but in rare cases the aspiration of either food or vomit can result in respiratory arrest and death.

The main symptoms of Aspiration pneumonia include: a dry cough, chest pain and soreness, wheezing during normal breathing, and difficulty in breathing. It is advisable to see your doctor if you experience any of these symptoms.

Walking pneumonia or Mycoplasma pneumonia can be hit anyone, as your health condition and age do not matter. This type of pneumonia is generally mild. It can produce symptoms of: a cough with mucus, some chest pain from excessive coughing, difficulty with your breathing, mild headache and fatigue. You may also experience a slight fever, the chills, nausea, abdominal discomfort and vomiting.

Symptoms Of Pneumonia:

There are quite a few symptoms that may show up with Pneumonia, the most common ones are: Cough with a yellow or greenish mucus or Phlegm, Fever often with chills and the shakes, Soreness or pain in the chest, worsened by breathing deeply or coughing, Shallow breathing, Shortness of breath, Bloody mucus or phlegm, Headache, Sweating and sometimes clammy skin, Fatigue and weakness, Decreased appetite.

Treatment:

Consume plenty of fluids, especially fresh juices, herbal teas, soups and quality water, to prevent dehydration and help flush out the body. To shorten the length of the flu, go on a liquid diet emphasizing hot herbal teas and hot broth for one of two days. Sleep and rest as much as possible. Do not take zinc at the same time you eat or drink citrus fruits or juices. It will diminish the effectiveness of the zinc. Do consume a lot of other types of fruit. Fenugreek breaks up phlegm and mucus, and slippery elm helps remove them from the body. If you are over sixty-five, see your health care provider.

Potent natural pneumonia treatment recommended by almost top naturopathic doctors is the self-administered oxygen therapy. They discovered that, microbes, harmful bacteria, and viruses such as pneumonia, cancer heart disease and even aids, do not cause the disease by themselves. They just thrive in their natural habitat the oxygen – deprived environment. The moment the environment in our body is deprived of oxygen it becomes acidic and normally all kinds of viruses and harmful bacteria thrive and reproduce dramatically.

Causes of Psoriasis

Psoriasis (pronounced /s??ra??s?s/) (suh-RI-uh-sus) is a disease which affects the skin and joints. It commonly causes red scaly patches to appear on the skin. The scaly patches caused by psoriasis, called psoriatic plaques, are areas of inflammation and excessive skin production. Skin rapidly accumulates at these sites and takes a silvery-white appearance. Plaques frequently occur on the skin of the elbows and knees, but can affect any area including the scalp and genitals. Psoriasis is hypothesized to be immune-mediated[1][2] and is not contagious.

Causes, incidence, and risk factors:

Pleurisy may develop when you have lung inflammation due to infections such as pneumonia or tuberculosis. It may also occur with rheumatic diseases, chest trauma, certain cancers, and asbestos-related disease.

Certain infections (upper respiratory infections like strep throat)

Various prescription drugs (lithium, propranolol, quinidine, and indomethacin)

Symptoms of Psoriasis

Chest pain when coughing,
Fever,
Rapid shallow breathing, and
Dscomfort when touching the affected area, even lightly.

If symptoms continue for more than a few days or you have breathing difficulties, you should see your GP.

You may also have other symptoms because of the disease or condition that is causing your pleurisy. For example, if it’s a common cold that is causing your pleurisy other symptoms could include headaches, a sore throat and coughing.

Sudden, sharp chest pain that gets worse when you breathe in deeply or cough
Shortness of breath

Psoriasis is most common on the knees, elbows and scalp, but can appear anywhere on the body.

Some people with psoriasis become withdrawn and don’t socialise or form relationships because of the way people react to the appearance of their skin.

Treatment of Psoriasis

There is no particular treatment for pleurisy because it is usually the result of an infection or other condition. However, ibuprofen or aspirin can ease the inflammation around the chest area and relieve pain and discomfort.

Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) — These drugs, such as aspirin and ibuprofen, may relieve muscle and joint pain as well as arthritis.

Munomodulating Drugs — These drugs, such as Imuran, Cellcept, Methotrexate and Cytoxan, suppress the immune system. They may allow a reduction in the dose of corticosteroids.

Pleurisy Treatment with Violet Flowers

Violet tea is very good to treat pleurisy as it has more vitamin A than any known plant. Chop 1 tablespoon of violet leaves, flowers, and stems. Pour 1 cup boiling water over the herb and allow steeping, covered, 10 minutes. Strain and sweeten with sugar. Drink as often as desired. Violets are also a great relaxant and this will help to keep the patient calm.

The Aircast Cryo/Cuff combines focal compression with cold to provide optimal control of swelling, edema, hematoma, hemarthrosis, and rib pain pleurisy. Simplicity of design and ease of operation makes it ideal for the ER, post-op, training room and home. Key Benefits Anatomic cuff design for complete coverage Easy to apply and remove Detachable cooler Portable Controlled cold; no known risk of tissue damage Durable and economical. Sizes: One-size-fits-all (14A). Indications: Chronic / acute rib pain pleurisy, Post-op.

Cold and Flu -causes, Symptoms, Treatment

What is Cold and Flu

Is it a cold or the flu? While a common cold, including chest cold and head cold, can be caused by more than 200 viruses, seasonal flu is caused by either influenza A or B viruses. Cold and flu remedies can usually ease symptoms. Antiviral medications like Relenza or Tamiflu are helpful if prescribed soon after flu symptoms start.Influenza (commonly known as the flu) and colds are among the most common infections of the respiratory system. People often confuse the two, calling a bad cold the “flu,” or vice versa.

Typically, the flu (also known as influenza) has symptoms that make a child feel worse than symptoms associated with a common cold, but it’s not always that easy to tell the difference between the two.

What are the causes of the flu?
Influenza viruses are divided into three types, designated A, B, and C. Influenza types A and B are responsible for epidemics of respiratory illness that occur almost every winter and are often associated with increased rates of hospitalization and death. Influenza type C differs from types A and B in some important ways.

The truth is, the flu and the common cold are caused by viruses. People get sick more often in the winter because they are exposed to each other more in the winter than in the summer. When it is cold outside, people tend to stay inside and are more likely to spread germs to one another.

The flu is caused by three types (strains) of viruses — influenza A, B and C. Type A is responsible for the deadly influenza pandemics (worldwide epidemics) that strike every 10 to 40 years. Type B can lead to smaller, more localized outbreaks. And either types A or B can cause the flu that circulates almost every winter. Type C has never been connected with a large epidemic.

Symptoms of Cold and Flu
Viral pharyngitis may develop gradually. It is often accompanied by the flu or a cold, and body aches. If a fever is present, it will generally be in the range of 101 degrees F or below.With cold symptoms, your nose teems with watery nasal secretions for the first few days. Later, these become thicker and darker. Dark mucus is natural and does not usually mean you have developed a bacterial infection, such as a sinus infection.

Recognizing the symptoms of the common cold is important for a few reasons. If you realize what symptoms are bothering you the most, you will know which medications will help relieve them.

Introduction to cold, flu, and allergy treatments
Every year, millions of people use over-the-counter (OTC) products to relieve nasal stuffiness and congestion, sneezing, runny noses, sore throat, and cough. The common causes of these symptoms include the viruses that cause the common cold, influenza virus, allergic rhinitis (hay fever), and sinus infections (sinusitis).

ince it is caused by a virus, antibiotics do not work against the common cold. These types of upper respiratory infections go away on their own and taking antibiotics will not help your child get better any faster and will likely not prevent secondary bacterial infections, such as an ear infection or sinus infection.

For thick phlegm, patients may try cough medications that contain guaifenesin (Robitussin, Scot-Tussin Expectorant), which loosens mucus. Patients should not suppress coughs that produce mucus and phlegm; it is important to expel this substance. To loosen phlegm, patients should drink plenty of fluids and use a humidifier or steamer.Take paracetamol to control fever, aches and pains (adults can use aspirin). Early use of antiviral medication may shorten the length and severity of illness. Consult a doctor to discuss treatment.

Pneumonia, Bronchitis, Asthma and Allergy

Pneumonia/ Bronchitis, Asthma/Allergy

Bronchitis is an infection/inflammation that can be viral, bacterial, mycoplasmic, rickettsiae, parasitic or allergic in origin that affects the big, main air carrying tube systems of the lungs.

Pneumonia is the infective, inflammatory or obstructive process of the filling with anything such as fluid of pus or mucus, bacteria, or pollen of the millions of tiny microscopic air baggies (sacs.) The sacs, alveoli, are located at the tips of these tapering small tubes of the respiratory tube system. These tubes are used to transport air and sacs are used for the diffusion of oxygen into the blood stream and the diffusion and transfer of carbon dioxide back into the sacs out of the bloodstream.

Asthma is an over sensitive airway disease. Asthma is a response of inflammation/swelling, muscular constriction of the air carrying bronchial tubes. This stops transfer of gases in the alveolar sacs into the bloodstream. Asthma is the closure of the inside opening of the tube from swelling and constriction bronchial tubes. Asthma is the closure of the inside opening of the tube from swelling and constriction of the muscle in the tube wall. Excessive, very thick mucus production from the inside lining of the tube causes partial occlusion with wheezing sounds or total occlusion of the breathing passage way systems of the lungs. Asthma is caused by inflammation. You must fix the chronic problem instead of treating the acute symptoms.

You can stay indoors and miss the sunshine and the tulips. However, in order to enjoy the world, you can take medications that are available to let you comfortably exist in the real world with pollen and food allergies. 

Allergy causes, development, and who can get them. Allergy profiles reveal many various types of seasonal allergies when and where they appear. Allergy can be sore throat, headache, fatigue, pneumonia and many other symptoms. A Mast Cell, Basophile and Eosinophil are the body’s natural responses to defend from the stimulus of allergen(s) or infection. These natural bodies produce chemical called histamine. When histamine is released it reacts like an acid to help fight infections and kill or defend the stimulus. Now in the 21st century with recent advantages with medical care you can do more of the things you need to do in your daily life. Enjoy living comfortable and mostly symptom free and ease of breathing.

Asthma is a 365-day serious and significantly increasing health problem. On flare up verses normal days, there is still more mucous production, constriction, and swelling of the bronchial tubes in the lungs that a normal person. You must learn what your triggers you asthma and how to avoid them. This is the best therapy. Prevention can involve anti-inflammatory medication and specific treatment of the problem and not just the apparent seen or felt symptoms. Eating oranges, fish, crab, shrimp, or exposure to grasses, and mold and animal dander can cause respiratory asthma/bronchitis symptoms.

A bronchodialator (inhaler) is a temporary medicine that works by relaxing the tubular muscle constriction and opens the air tubes or bronchioles. You feel better right now.  It does not get rid of the mucus in the lungs or the stimulus causing the constriction. It is for immediate relief only. This is a great medication when used correctly. Again, this is a temporary relief medication. This should not be a used as long-term treatment.  If you use your bronchodialator more than 10 times a day, it is a true sign of trouble. The Peak Flow Meter- this is your best at home indicator for you and your doctor to measure the air speed and flow from your lips. This tool is designed specifically to measure you’re respiratory/lung function. A spacer decreases the coordination necessary for medication delivery and effectiveness used for inhalers. It prevents the “wasting” of money and medicine at the back of your throat. It can avoid unnecessary side effects. The cold Freon effect often stops people inhaling the medicine; therefore, most of the medicine goes to the back of the throat. Eighty percent (80%) of the medication used from a regular inhaler are wasted.  A spacer increases the effectiveness and use of the medications and decreases costs by en times. Asthma is the excessive mucus, selling, mucus plugging and tightly constricted airways. More than fifty percent (50%) of people have poor inhaler technique and fifty percent (50%) regress in technique within one (1) month of starting the use of medications.

Corticosteriods that are used for asthma control are not the same as anabolic steroids used by athletes for abuse. Many months of steroids can cause weight gain, upset stomach, stomach ulcers, and the thinning of the bones. Too few steroids can cause hospitalization, death, and mood changes. Corticosteroid inhalers are the strongest daily prevention therapy. Steroids appropriately used are essential for exacerbations and must be carefully, consistently, and closely monitored by a physician.

Asthma is and excessive inflammation (over-reactive and over-sensitivity) of the lungs to something with the production thick mucus and mucus plugging. Specific anti-inflammatory medications are a treatment. If left untreated, this will lead to permanent lung function loss. If silently you lose 2% of your lung function a year for 10 years, you have lost approximately 1/3 of your lung function. Asthma anti-inflammatory choices are: inhaled corticosteroids, leukotreine blockers, cromolyn, and nedocromil among others. Side effects of these medications must be carefully and consistently balanced with view to permanent lung damage and disability. Routine checkups are essential. All allergy patients should be seen at least every 2-3 months and immediately if severe reaction or more than a minimal problem arises.

Triggers: There must be careful attention to triggers; infections sinus infections can and do often cause poor control of asthma. Cigarette smoke even passive/2nd hand smoke, dust mite feces (a typical mattress has more than 200,000 living dust mites!). Animal dander (keep pets out of the bedroom), pollen and mold (humidifiers can increase mold), cockroach parts and feces (when it dries it turns into a powder), aspirin and ibuprofen (10% of people with asthma are sensitive to aspirin and ibuprofen compounds), sulfates on food (preservatives for fruit, grapes, cherries, wine and beer), cold air and exercise. Each year, about 5,000 people die of asthma. The majority of these people did not have severe asthma.

Patients are very poor judges of their own wheezing, coughing, or shortness of breath. Patient’s monitoring daily their peak flow is essential. The elements of combination therapy, physician monitoring, and understanding are important to patient care, lung damage, and the quality of life.

Inhalers vs. Nebulizers: Inhalers- you exhale all the air in your lungs, use a spacer, inhale the medicine, hold your breath for 10 seconds, breath out, and repeat. The Nebulizer machine delivers therapy for five to ten minutes and is much more powerful (1000x) as an immediate rescue inhaler. Prevention of flu and pneumococcal vaccines are essential. Allergy testing and/or injections, antibiotics and antiviral are very important aids in the maintenance of these complex problems, potential complication and the quality of life.

John Drew Laurusonis

Doctors Medical Center