Shoulder Instability

The shoulder joint is made up of bones held in place by muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Tendons are tough cords of tissue that hold the shoulder muscles to bones, and help the muscles move the shoulder. Ligaments hold the three shoulder bones to each other and help make the shoulder joint stable.

Anyone can experience a shoulder problem – men, women, children, and people from all races and ethnic backgrounds, although shoulder issues are most commonly seen in people older than 60 years old. As you might suspect, shoulder problems also commonly occur in the athlete.

A shoulder issue that our physicians commonly see at Orthopedic Specialists of Seattle is shoulder instability, a condition where the structures that surround the glenohumeral (shoulder) joint do not work to secure the ball within its socket. If the joint is too loose, is may slide partially out of place, a condition called shoulder subluxation. If the joint comes completely out of place, it’s called a shoulder dislocation.

Athletes can be prone to weakened or injured shoulder ligaments. Shoulder instability may occur as a result of previous dislocations, but it can also occur from repetitive movements such as pitching, throwing or serving. Athletes can have such severe instability that they may routinely dislocate their shoulder throughout a sports season

Types of Instability

? Anterior Instability is the most common type of shoulder instability. In this case, the most vulnerable positions are rotating the hand and arm out and back, and away from the body.

? Posterior Instability is less common. Athletes or patients sustaining traumatic forces may experience posterior instability. However, the most common mechanism for posterior instability is dramatic involuntary muscle contraction by the shoulder (e.g. seizure).

? Multi-directional Instability most commonly occurs when the rotator cuff muscles are weak or not functioning properly. Athletes or those who perform repetitive overhead movements are prone to multi-directional instability.

How do you know if you’re experiencing shoulder instability?

Some situations are obvious, such as feeling pain after a shoulder injury, or experiencing a shoulder dislocation. If your shoulder joint is unstable, you might have a persistent sensation of the shoulder feeling lose. You may be able to actually feel that you’re about to dislocate your shoulder.


There is a wide range of treatment, depending on the nature and degree of instability. The age of the patient is also a factor, as younger patients are more likely to have chronic instability. Many patients can be treated with physical therapy, although some will require surgery.

Use of massage in fractures

A) Characteristics of a fracture:

1. Patient experiences pain over bone fractured and in surrounding area. Severity of pain depends upon extent of fracture and is usually unbearable.
2. There may be swelling around fracture area.
3. Complete loss of movement of part of body where bone is fractured. Forcible movement may lead to severe pain.
4. Hairline fractures usually do not present any of sign and symptoms mentioned above and are difficult to diagnose clinically.
5. Radiological investigation like X-ray makes diagnosis clear, even in a hairline fracture. Vertebral fracture can also be diagnosed with help of Ctscan/MRI.
6. Vertebral fracture due to severe trauma like accident usually result in severe pain and may present as medical emergency with loss of consciousness etc especially if neck region is involved.
7. Some patients may feel pain over fractured area/bone during cold or pain after heavy work involving fractured area etc, even after healing of fracture takes place.

B) Aims of massage:

1. Though massage can hardly play any role in a fracture due to severity of pain, role of massage is important once the pain subsides or is less in intensity and bearable. Massage is also important after the fracture has healed completely.
2. The most important aim of massage is to nourish the bone that has been fractured and aid the healing process, so that strength and stability is restored quickly after healing.
3. Massage will aid in qualitatively good healing of fracture and therefore will reduce chance of patient experiencing any type of pain over fractured bone in future.
4. Increased blood supply due t o massage will result in reduced swelling and also in regaining of movements due to increased flexibility and strength.

C) Process of massage:

1. Body area to be massaged: Though local massage over involved area is sufficient, full body massage is advisable to reduce stress over other body parts.
2. Direction of massage movements: Direction of massage movements should be opposite to direction in which fracture have occurred, so that even minute bone particles will also get properly aligned and heel fracture rapidly making bone strong as before.
3. Useful massage tips:
* Pressure during massage should be adjusted as per patients strength of bearing pain. Usually massage should be started with light pressure and gradually increase pressure. Avoid more friction.
* At least 25-30minutes of massage should be given over fractured area so that oil properly reaches up to bones and nourish them restoring their strength.
* Oil should be warm at the time of massage.

D) Use of different oils for massage:

1. Oil that will nourish bones in the body should be used for massage like sesame oil, coconut oil, almond oil etc.
2. Also, during preparation of oil, medicines like bark of Terminalia arjuna, or herbs like sida cordifolia, abutilon indicum linn. Etc as also milk, black sesame etc may be added to increase the potency of oil for nourishment of bones and increasing their strength and stability.

What are the Causes of Cerebral Palsy?

More than half a million Americans are affected by cerebral palsy and this is also among the most common cause of disability for most children. Cerebral palsy can totally impair movement and since this is a type of brain damage, this is also a major cause of mental retardation. According to statistics, for every one thousand births in the United States, at least to four babies are prone to this illness. The root cause of cerebral palsy is mostly attributed to congenital factors including injuries sustained during birth or a particular illness acquired during the first three years. Children affected with this condition may show signs of stiffness as well as some form of rigidity when moving. Other symptoms may also show abnormality in muscle tone, seizures, cognitive impairment, and problems with speech. According to experts, babies that are born to teen mothers have more risk of acquiring this condition as well as those born to mothers that are older than thirty five years old.

There are various pregnancy related problems that are seen as major risks for babies to acquire cerebral palsy and these include but not limited to:

1. Uterine Canal Infections

Obtaining infection in the uterine canal area before birth can cause inflammation to the placenta. When this happens, there is a big chance of damaging the brain of the fetus which in turn can lead to cerebral palsy.

2. Drugs and Alcohol

Taking drugs and alcohol especially during the trimester period of pregnancy are also one of the major causes for cerebral palsy. Other prescription drugs like methotrexate can also cause fetal brain damage that can lead to cerebral palsy especially when taken without consulting your physician. Using thyroid hormones as well as estrogen during the pregnancy period are also being linked to cerebral palsy in newborns.

3. Various Infections During Pregnancy

Acquiring various types of infections during pregnancy such as German measles and/or other herpes type viruses are also among the common causes for cerebral palsy.  Toxoplasmosis infection also have the risk for fetal brain damage if the mother of the unborn acquire an infection brought about by a parasite typically found in uncooked meat and cat feces.

If a mother encounters complications during birth, there is also a big risk of the unborn child to obtain cerebral palsy. Complications like difficulty in labor are a big risk for cerebral palsy. This happens because the trauma experienced during a prolonged birth as well as the deprivation for oxygen increases the risk of the fetus to have fetal brain damage which in turn can lead to cerebral palsy. On the other hand, the premature separation of the placenta to the uterine wall is also considered as among the reasons why fetus is deprived of oxygen which can result to fetal brain damage. Most patients affected with cerebral palsy are also experiencing spastic cerebral palsy. This can have an effect on the whole body or just on a specific body region which can cause muscle stiffness as well as an imbalanced posture.

Complete Information on Bell’s Palsy

Bell’s palsy is a kind of facial paralysis. It’s caused by injury to the 7th cranial heart, and is not lasting. It is the almost popular reason of facial paralysis. Viral infections such as herpes, mumps, or HIV, and bacterial infections such as Lyme disease or tuberculosis can induce inflammation and swelling of the facial heart that causes Bell’s palsy. A tumor, skull crack, or neurological circumstance caused by chronic disease can too head to Bell’s palsy. Stress, pregnancy, and diabetes are too risk factors of bell’s palsy. Diabetics are much than 4 times as possible to produce the disorder compared to the general population.

Bell’s palsy affects simply one of the paired facial nerves and one position of the cheek, however, in uncommon cases, it can impact both sides. Symptoms of Bell’s palsy normally start abruptly. Bell’s palsy hit their height within 48 hours. Symptoms drift in hardship from balmy failing to overall paralysis and may include twitching, failing, or paralysis, drooping lid or box of the lip, drooling, arid heart or lip, disability of preference, and undue tearing in the heart. Bell’s palsy frequently causes substantial facial aberration. A viral transmission such as viral meningitis or the popular cool tender virus herpes simplex causes the disorder.

When the facial heart swells and becomes aggravated in response to the transmission. For many folk, the best guessing would be a shot. But if your muscle failing or paralysis affects simply your cheek. A more possible reason is Bell’s palsy. About 40,000 folk in the United States produce Bell’s palsy each year. Bell’s palsy, a circumstance that occurs when the heart that controls the facial muscles becomes bloated or compressed. Bell’s palsy symptoms start to better within a few weeks with comprehensive recuperation within three to six months. Between 8 percentage and 10 percentage will have a recurrence of the signs and symptoms.

There is no cure or standard course of treatment for Bell’s palsy. Treatment may involved medications such as acyclovir used to fight viral infections combined with an anti-inflammatory drug such as the steroid prednisone used to reduce inflammation and swelling. Analgesics such as aspirin, acetaminophen, or ibuprofen may relieve pain, but because of possible drug interactions. Surgical procedures to decompress the facial nerve have been attempted, but have not been proven beneficial. In general, decompression surgery for Bell’s palsy to relieve pressure on the nerve is controversial and is seldom recommended.

Hernia Symptoms

Whenever an internal body part pushes through an opening and into an area where it does not belong, it is called a hernia. A hiatal hernia occurs when the upper portion of the stomach protrudes into the chest cavity through an opening of the diaphragm called the esophageal hiatus. Ordinarily this opening is only large enough to accommodate the esophagus.

If you have a hiatal hernia you may have read about painful surgery as treatment for your symptoms. You may have heard about natural remedies and programs that sound more like boot camp than anything else! But treatment for your hiatal hernia symptoms doesn’t have to be this scary or tough. Natural programs for curing hiatal hernia symptoms doesn’t have to mean hours slaving away in the gym, starving yourself or taking revolting concoctions.

There are two types of hiatal hernia. A sliding hiatal hernia is the most common and can often go unnoticed. This occurs when the lower part of the esophagus and part of the stomach slide up through the hiatus. The second type is called a paraesophageal hernia. A paraesophageal hernia happens when the esophagus stays in place and part of the stomach pushes up through the hiatus. This is more dangerous as strangulation or cutting off of the blood supply to the stomach can occur, which can obviously be quite serious.

Having a hiatal hernia often can result in the malfunction of the lower esophageal sphincter causing acid reflux and reflux of stomach contents. And while there may be some pain or discomfort from the hernia itself, it is normally the symptoms from this reflux of stomach acid and contents that cause the bulk of complaints. So before you decide on a treatment, it is wise to understand your symptoms. These symptoms generally manifest as heartburn, chest pain, regurgitation, hoarseness and sore throats.

Heartburn and chest pain are the most common symptoms and complaints of those with a hiatus hernia, although some patients may not even realize they have a hiatus hernia unless found by a doctor with an xray. Symptoms are caused by reflux of food and stomach acid and must be treated to avoid other health problems.

Most hernias, if monitored correctly, are relatively harmless, with the most severe symptoms being those of acid reflux and gerd, which you can easily manage with diet and lifestyle changes. But, if left untreated, or if you are unaware of your condition, you can put your health at risk, as the hernia literally strangles you from the inside.

Likely hiatus hernia symptoms feature a burning feeling in the chest ares as well as burping and a funny bitter taste in the mouth; all decidedly unpleasant. To add insult to injury the ailment is sometimes made worse by laying flat in bed. If this sounds like you, it could be you are having heartburn attacks brought on by a hiatus hernia. If this happens, stomach acid will come back into the gullet resulting in more problems such as soreness and a burning pain.

Fracture-Proof Your Bones. The Most Important Nutrient isn’t Calcium

More than 10 million Americans have the bone-weakening disease osteoporosis — approximately 15% of women and 4% of men over the age of 50. Another 34 million or so have osteopenia — bone density that is below normal and may lead to osteoporosis. And every year, two million people with osteoporosis have a so-called “osteoporotic fracture,” usually of the hip, spine or wrist.

New finding: Experts know that an osteoporotic hip fracture is disastrous — 12% to 40% of victims die within six months (partly because they tend to become depressed and more sedentary). But when Australian researchers studied more than 4,000 people age 60 and older for 18 years, they found that almost any kind of osteoporotic fracture increased the risk for death. Focusing on people over age 75, they found that breaking a wrist increased mortality risk by 40% in women and 80% in men… a spinal fracture doubled mortality risk in both sexes… and a hip fracture more than doubled mortality risk in women and tripled it in men.

Another recent finding: Bone mineral density (BMD) does not accurately reflect fracture risk. A dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) test measures the BMD in your hip, spine and wrist. A score of –1 to –2.5 indicates osteopenia… a score under –2.5 signals osteoporosis. But in one study, 82% of women who reported fractures of the wrist, forearm, hip, rib or spine in the year after a BMD test did not have scores indicating osteoporosis (scores of –2.5 or lower).

Overall, BMD predicts only 44% of fractures in elderly women and 21% of fractures in elderly men.

New thinking: The BMD test indicates the hardness of bone, imparted by the minerals calcium and magnesium. But flexibility is what helps bones resist fracture — the bone’s ability to bend a bit and not break.

Flexibility is created by the bone’s collagen, the protein-rich infrastructure. To build bone collagen, you need vitamin K.

The Secret Bone-Saver

Vitamin K (phylloquinone) is a fat-soluble nutrient (like vitamins A and D) found abundantly in leafy green vegetables. Vitamin K helps the liver manufacture proteins that control blood clotting. Vitamin K-2 (menaquinone) is formed in the body from vitamin K. Vitamin K-2 has many functions, including building collagen in bone — and preventing fractures.

New finding: Scientists at Harvard Medical School analyzed 10 years of health data on vitamin K intake and bone health in more than 70,000 women in the Nurses’ Health Study. Those with the highest intake of vitamin K had a 30% lower risk for hip fracture, compared with women who had the lowest intake. They also found that women who ate the most lettuce — the biggest source of vitamin K in most diets — had a 45% lower risk for hip fracture than those who ate the least.

What to do: The government’s recommendation for daily vitamin K ­intake is 90 micrograms (mcg) to 120 mcg. How do you maximize your intake? Eat your vegetables!

Top vegetables include kale (1,062 mcg per cup), spinach (889 mcg), turnip greens (851 mcg), collard greens (836 mcg), Swiss chard (299 mcg), broccoli (220 mcg), brussels sprouts (219 mcg), butterhead lettuce (167 mcg), cabbage (163 mcg) and asparagus (144 mcg). Among vegetable oils, soybean oil (3.4 mcg per tablespoon) and olive oil (8.1 mcg) score highest.

Don’t worry about cooking — it doesn’t destroy the vitamin.

If you want the greatest peace of mind about getting sufficient vitamin K to prevent bone fractures, you may want to take a daily supplement of the nutrient.

The Power of MK4

Doctors from England analyzed the data from 13 studies on osteoporosis and a form of vitamin K called MK4. They found vitamin MK4 decreased hip fractures by 73%, spinal fractures by 60% and nonspinal fractures by 81%. Compare those results to the average 19% decrease in fracture risk from taking supplements of calcium and vitamin D (which aids in the absorption of calcium).

To help my patients, I developed a supplement that contains the same amount and type of the nutrient (45 mg of MK4) used in the clinical trials. The supplement, called Osteo-K, also contains calcium, vitamin D, magnesium and boron (available at Osteo-K is available to Bottom Line/Personal readers at a special discount. Use promotional code BLP.)

If you’re taking corticosteroids: Medications called corticosteroids (cortisone, prednisone, hydrocortisone) are powerful anti-inflammatory agents. They are synthetic versions of cortisol, an adrenal hormone. They often are prescribed to help control the symptoms of chronic diseases with an inflammatory component, such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, lupus and severe asthma. Taken regularly for six months or more, corticosteroids can cause osteoporosis. Additionally, taking these medicines for more than six months increases the risk for vertebral fracture by up to 200%. Clinical trials have shown that taking 45 mg daily of MK4 decreases bone loss and fractures caused by corticosteroids.

Caution: If you are taking the anticoagulant warfarin (Coumadin), talk to your doctor before taking any type of supplemental vitamin K, which can block the action of the drug.

Do Drugs Work?

You might think that a vitamin K supplement would be a lightweight compared to the widely prescribed bisphosphonate drugs, such as alendronate (Fosamax), risedronate (Actonel) and zoledronic acid (Zometa).

But drugs are less effective at decreasing fracture risk than vitamin K. Example: Fosamax decreases vertebral fracture risk by 47%, compared with a reduction of up to 60% for vitamin K.

And the latest research shows that these bone-building drugs can hurt your health…

Esophageal cancer. In December 2008, the FDA said Fosamax and other bisphosphonates might increase the risk for esophageal cancer — and that no one with Barrett’s esophagus (an esophageal problem common among people with heartburn) should take these drugs.

Heart problems. People taking bisphosphonates are twice as likely to experience life-threatening heart irregularities called arrhythmias.

Increased fracture risk. New evidence shows that people who take bisphosphonates for several years may have an increased risk for sudden fractures during normal activity, such as standing or walking. Bisphosphonates improve bone quantity, not bone quality — and may affect bone growth in such a way as to eventually create weaker bones.

Osteonecrosis of the jaw. In this disease — also called “dead jaw” — sections of the tissue of the jawbone die after a major dental procedure, such as a tooth implant or extraction. People taking a bisphosphonate have a 4% risk for this side effect after a dental procedure — and top dental experts are warning that anyone about to have such a procedure should stop taking the drug at least one month before the procedure.

Bottom line: Talk to your doctor about whether a bisphosphonate is right for you. You could take another type of bone-building medication, such as parathyroid hormone, which decreases fracture risk by 65%. Or you could add vitamin K to your regimen.

John Neustadt, ND, medical director of Montana Integrative Medicine and the co-founder, with Steve Pieczenik, MD, PhD, of Nutritional Biochemistry, Incorporated (NBI) and NBI Testing and Consulting Corp (NBITC). The doctors created Osteo-K, a calcium supplement formulated by physicians from Harvard, Cornell, MIT and Bastyr that contains nutrients shown to decrease osteoporotic fractures by more than 80 percent. For more information on osteoporosis supplements, bone health and decreasing your risk for osteoporosis and fractures, visit

History Of Bmw Motorcycles

Motorcycle history

BMW’s opposed engine and transmission unit in an R 32.


BMW began as an aircraft engine manufacturer before World War I. With the Armistice, the Treaty of Versailles banned the German air force so the company turned to making air brakes, industrial engines, agricultural machinery, toolboxes and office furniture and then to motorcycles and cars.

The origin of the BMW roundel

The circular blue and white BMW logo or roundel is often alleged to portray the movement of an aircraft propeller, an interpretation that BMW adopted for convenience in 1929, which was actually twelve years after the roundel was created. In fact, the emblem evolved from the circular Rapp Motorenwerke company logo, from which the BMW company grew. The Rapp logo was combined with the blue and white colors of the flag of Bavaria to produce the BMW roundel so familiar today.


1939 BMW R 35

BMW Sahara, Poland 1944

In 1921, BMW began its long association with a 1886 German invention known to Germans as the boxermoter (see Karl Benz and flat engines). However, the first BMW motorcycle engine seems to have been copied by Max Friz, BMW’s famous chief designer, in four weeks from a British Douglas design.[citation needed] This 19211922 M2B15 boxer was manufactured by BMW for use as a portable industrial engine, but was largely used by motorcycle manufacturers, notably Victoria of Nuremberg, and in the Helios motorcycle made by Bayerische Flugzeugwerke. Friz was also working on car engines.[citation needed] The boxer design in a motorcycle is firmly linked to BMW, but has been used (not always in volume) by a number of other companies worldwide, including Honda in their Gold Wing from 1975 to the present.

BMW merged with Bayerische Flugzeugwerke in 1922, inheriting from them the Helios motorcycle and a small two-stroke motorized bicycle called the Flink. In 1923, BMW’s first “across the frame” version of the boxer engine was designed by Friz. The R32 had a 486 cc engine with 8.5 hp (6.3 kW) and a top speed of 95100 km/h (60 mph). The engine and gearbox formed a bolt-up single unit. At a time when many motorcycle manufacturers used total-loss oiling systems, the new BMW engine featured a recirculating wet sump oiling system with a drip feed to roller bearings. This system was used by BMW until 1969, when they adopted the “high-pressure oil” system based on shell bearings and tight clearances, still in use today.

The R32 became the foundation for all future boxer-powered BMW motorcycles. BMW oriented the boxer engine with the cylinder heads projecting out on each side for cooling as did the earlier British ABC. Other motorcycle manufacturers aligned the cylinders with the frame, one cylinder facing towards the front wheel and the other towards the back wheel. For example, Harley-Davidson introduced the Model W, a flat twin oriented fore and aft design, in 1919 and built them until 1923.

The R32 also incorporated shaft drive. BMW continued to use shaft drive in all of its motorcycles until the introduction of the F650 in 1994 and the F800 series in 2006, which featured either chain drive or a belt drive system.

In 1937, Ernst Henne rode a supercharged 500 cc overhead camshaft BMW 173.88 mph (279.83 km/h), setting a world record that stood for 14 years.

During World War II the Wehrmacht needed as many vehicles as it could get of all types and many other German companies were asked to build motorcycles. The BMW R75, a copy of a Zndapp KS750, performed particularly well in the harsh operating environment of the North African campaign. Motorcycles of every style had performed acceptably well in Europe, but in the desert the protruding cylinders of the flat-twin engine performed better than configurations which overheated in the sun, and shaft drives performed better than chain-drives which were damaged by desert grit.

So successful were the BMWs as war-machines that the U.S. Army asked Harley-Davidson, Indian and Delco to produce a motorcycle similar to the side-valve BMW R71. Harley copied the BMW engine and transmission simply converting metric measurements to inches and produced the shaft-drive 750 cc 1942 Harley-Davidson XA.


Tank roundel with Serif typeface

BMW R35, built in East Germany after World War II

The first postwar West German BMW, an original condition 1948 250 cc BMW R24

1954 500 cc BMW R51/3

1967 BMW R60/2 with 26 l (5.7 imp gal; 6.9 US gal) tank and large dual saddle

1969 R69US with telescopic forks

1964 250cc BMW R27, the last BMW shaft-driven single

1973 BMW R75/5 LWB

The end of World War II found BMW in ruins. Its plant outside of Munich was destroyed by Allied bombing. The Eisenach facility was not. It was dismantled by the Soviets as reparations and sent back to the Soviet Union where it was reassembled in Irbit to make IMZ-Ural motorcycles as is commonly alleged. The IMZ plant was supplied to the Soviets by BMW under license prior to the commencement of the Great Patriotic War. After the war the terms of Germany’s surrender forbade BMW from manufacturing motorcycles. Most of BMW’s brightest engineers were taken to the US and the Soviet Union to continue their work on jet engines which BMW produced during the war.

When the ban on the production of motorcycles was lifted in Allied controlled Western Germany, BMW had to start from scratch. There were no plans, blueprints, or schematic drawings because they were all in Eisenach. Company engineers had to use surviving pre-war motorcycles to copy the bikes. The first post-war BMW motorcycle in Western Germany, a 250 cc R24, was produced in 1948. The R24 was based on the pre-war R23, and was the only postwar West German BMW with no rear suspension. In 1949, BMW produced 9,200 units and by 1950 production surpassed 17,000 units.

BMW boxer twins manufactured from 1950 to 1956 included the 500 cc models R51/2 and 24 hp (18 kW) R51/3, the 600 cc models 26 hp (19 kW) R67, 28 hp (21 kW) R67/2, and R67/3, and the sporting 35 hp (26 kW) 600 cc model R68. All these models came with plunger rear suspensions, telescopic front forks, and chromed, exposed drive shafts. Except for the R68, all these twins came with “bell-bottom” front fenders and front stands.

The situation was very different in Soviet-controlled Eastern Germany where BMW’s sole motorcycle plant in Eisenach was producing R35 and a handful of R75 motorcycles for reparations. This resulted in one BMW motorcycle plant existing in Eisenach between 1945 and 1948 and two motorcycle companies existing between 1948 and 1952. One was a BMW in Munich in Western Germany (later the German Federal Republic) and the other in Soviet controlled Eisenach, Eastern Germany (later the German Democratic Republic), both using the BMW name. Eventually in 1952. after the Soviets ceded control of the plant to the East German Government, and following a trademark lawsuit, this plant was renamed EMW (Eisenacher Motoren Werke). Instead of BMW’s blue-and-white roundel, EMW used a very similar red-and-white roundel as its logo. No motorcycles made in East Germany after World War II were manufactured under the authority of BMW in Munich as there was no need for an occupying power to gain such authority. After the collapse of the Iron Curtain many EMW models have made their way to the USA. Sometimes it is found that owners of these EMW motorcycles have replaced EMW roundels with BMW roundels in an effort to pass them off as BMW models.[citation needed] It is possible to find find restored R35 motorcycles today parts of which are EMW and parts of which are BMW as many parts are interchangeable, making authentic identification quite difficult because all BMW R35 motorcycles were produced in Eisenach until 1952, when they became EMW.


As the 1950s progressed, motorcycle sales plummeted. In 1957, three of BMW’s major German competitors went out of business. In 1954, BMW produced 30,000 motorcycles. By 1957, that number was less than 5,500. However, by the late 1950s, BMW exported 85% of its boxer twin powered motorcycles to the United States.[citation needed] At that time, Butler & Smith, Inc. was the exclusive U.S. importer of BMW.

In 1955, BMW began introducing a new range of motorcycles with Earles forks and enclosed drive shafts. These were the 26 hp (19 kW) 500 cc R50, the 30 hp (22 kW) 600 cc R60, and the 35 hp (26 kW) sporting 600 cc R69.

On June 8, 1959, John Penton rode a BMW R69 from New York to Los Angeles in 53 hours and 11 minutes, slashing over 24 hours from the previous record of 77 hours and 53 minutes set by Earl Robinson on a 45 cubic inch (740 cc) Harley-Davidson.

Although U.S. sales of BMW motorcycles were strong, BMW was in financial trouble. Through the combination of selling off its aircraft engine division and obtaining financing with the help of Herbert Quandt, BMW was able to survive. The turnaround was thanks in part to the increasing success of BMW’s automotive division. Since the beginnings of its motorcycle manufacturing, BMW periodically introduced single-cylinder models. In 1967, BMW offered the last of these, the R27. Most of BMW’s offerings were still designed to be used with sidecars. By this time sidecars were no longer a consideration of most riders; people were interested in sportier motorcycles.

The 26 hp (19 kW) R50/2, 30 hp (22 kW) R60/2, and 42 hp (31 kW) R69S marked the end of sidecar-capable BMWs. Of this era, the R69S remains the most desirable example of the dubbed “/2” (“slash-two”) series because of significantly greater engine power than other models, among other features unique to this design.

For the 1968 and 1969 model years only, BMW exported into the United States three “US” models. These were the R50US, the R60US, and the R69US. On these motorcycles, there were no sidecar lugs attached to the frame and the front forks were telescopic forks, which were later used worldwide on the slash-5 series of 1970 through 1973. Earles-fork models were sold simultaneously in the United States as buyers had their choice of front suspensions.


In 1970, BMW introduced an entirely revamped product line of 500 cc, 600 cc and 750 cc displacement models, the R50/5, R60/5 and R75/5 respectively and came with the “US” telescopic forks noted above. The engines were a complete redesign from the older models, producing more power and including electric starting (although the kick-starting feature was still included). Part way through the 1973 model year, a long wheel base (LWB) was added to correct some earlier handling problems. These models are popularly called 1973 models. Most models were came with large 6-gallon tanks, but some came with 4-gallon tanks. These are called “toaster” models because of the tank’s resemblance to a kitchen toaster.

The “/5” models were short-lived, however, being replaced by another new product line in 1974. In that year the 500 cc model was deleted from the lineup and an even bigger 900 cc model was introduced, along with improvements to the electrical system and frame geometry. These models were the R60/6, R75/6 and the R90/6. In 1975, the kick starter was finally eliminated and a supersport model, the BMW R90S, was introduced. In addition to “/” or “slash” models, other Airhead models such as the G/S (later, GS) and ST also have dedicated followings within BMW circles, while others favor certain earlier models like /5 “toasters.” Each has its merits which owners will freely debate with enthusiasm. Later BMW model types such as K-bikes (1983 on) and oilheads (1993 on) included technical innovations that made them more complicated though many owners still elect to service them personally.

1994 BMW R100RT

In 1977, the product line moved on to the “/7” models. The R80/7 was added to the line. The R90 (898 cc) models, “/6” and R90S models had their displacement increased to 1,000 cc; replaced by the R100/7 and the R100S, respectively. These were the first liter size (1,000 cc) machines produced by BMW. 1977 was a banner year with the introduction of the first BMW production motorcycle featuring a full fairing, the R100RS. This sleek model, designed through wind-tunnel testing, produced 70 hp (51 kW) and had a top speed of 200 km/h (124 mph). In 1978, the R100RT was introduced into the lineup for the 1979 model year, as the first “full-dress” tourer, designed to compete in this market with the forthcoming Honda Gold Wing.

In 1979, the R60 was replaced with the 650 cc R65, an entry-level motorcycle with 48 hp (36 kW) that had its very own frame design. Due to its smaller size and better geometrics, front and rear 18-inch (460 mm) wheels and a very light flywheel, was an incredibly well-handling bike that could easily keep up and even run away from its larger brothers when in proper hands on sinuous roads. BMW added a variant in 1982: the R65LS, a “sportier” model with a one-fourth fairing, double front disc brakes, stiffer suspension and different carburettors that added 5 hp (4 kW). A short stroke version of the R65, the 450 cc R45 appeared in some markets.[citation needed]


1986 BMW K100RS

BMW R1200C cruiser

1993 BMW K1100RS with aftermarket Hagon rear shock

1996-2004 BMW K1200RS


In early 1983, BMW introduced a 1,000 cc, in-line four-cylinder, water-cooled engine to the European market, the K100. The K series comes with a simplified and distinctive rear suspension, a single-sided swingarm. (In 1985 the traditionally powered boxer R80RT touring bike received this monolever rear suspension system and in 1987 the R100RT got it).

In 1985, BMW came a 750 cc three-cylinder version, this one smoothed with another first, a counterbalance shaft.

In 1986, BMW introduced an electrically adjustable windshield on the K100LT.

In 1988, BMW introduced ABS on its motorcycles. ABS became standard on all BMW K models. In 1993 ABS was first introduced on BMW’s boxer line on the R1100RS. It has since become available as an option on the rest of BMW’s motorcycle range.

In 1989, BMW introduced its version of a full-fairing sport bike, the K1. It was based upon the K100 engine, but now with four valves per cylinder. Output was near 100 hp (75 kW).

In 1995, BMW ceased production of airhead 2-valve engines and moved its boxer engined line completely over to the 4-valve oilhead system first introduced in 1993.

During this period, BMW introduced a number of motorcycles including:

R Series (airheads) – R65GS, R80GS, R100GS,

R Series (oilheads) – R850R/GS/C, R1100R/RS/RT/GS/S, R1150R/RS/RT/GS/S, R1200C

F Series – F650 Funduro, F650ST Strada, F650GS, F650GS Dakar, F650CS Scarver

K Series – K1, K100, K100RS, K100RT, K75, K75C, K75S, K75RT, K1100RS, K1100LT, K1200RS, K1200LT, K1200GT.

The R1200C, produced from 1997 to 2004, was BMW Motorcycles only entry into the Cruiser market.

Since 2004

K series

On 25 September 2004, BMW globally launched a radically redesigned K Series motorcycle, the K1200S, containing an all new in-line four-cylinder, liquid-cooled engine featuring 123 kW (165 hp). The K1200S was primarily designed as a Super Sport motorcycle, albeit larger and heavier than the closest Japanese competitors. Shortly after the launch of the K1200S, problems were discovered with the new power plant leading to a recall until the beginning of 2005, when corrective changes were put in place. Recently, a K1200S set a land speed record for production bikes in its class at the Bonneville Salt Flats, exceeding 174 mph (280 km/h).

In the years after the launch of K1200S, BMW has also launched the K1200R naked roadster, and the K1200GT sport tourer, which started to appear in dealer showrooms in spring (March-June) 2006. All three new K-Series motorcycles are based on the new in-line four-cylinder engine, with slightly varying degrees of power. In 2007, BMW added the K1200R Sport, a semi-faired sport touring version of the K1200R.

In October 2008, BMW launched three new 1,300 cc K-series models: the K1300R, K1300S and K1300GT. The K1300 models feature increased in engine capacity of 136 cc, an increase in power to 175 hp (130 kW) and a new exhaust system.

Two BMW R1200GS

R series

In 2004, bikes with the opposed-twin cylinder “boxer” engine were also revamped. The new boxer displacement is just under 1,200 cc, and is affectionately referred to a “hexhead” because of the shape of the cylinder cover. The motor itself is more powerful, and all of the motorcycles that use it are lighter.

The first motorcycle to be launched with this updated engine was the R1200GS dual-purpose motorcycle. The R1200RT tourer and R1200ST sports tourer followed shortly behind. BMW then introduced the 175 kg (390 lb), 105 kW (141 hp) HP2 Enduro, and the 223 kg (490 lb), 100 hp (75 kW) R1200GS Adventure, each specifically targeting the off-road and adventure-touring motorcycle segment, respectively. In 2007, the HP2 Enduro was joined by the road-biased HP2 Megamoto fitted with smaller alloy wheels and street tyres.

In 2006, BMW launched the R1200S, which is rated at 90 kW (121 hp) @ 8,250 rpm.

F 800S

F series

BMW has also paid attention to the F Series in 2006. It lowered the price on the existing F650&GS; and F650GS Dakar, and eliminated the F650CS to make room in the lineup for the all-new F800 Series. The new motorcycles are powered by a parallel twin engine, built by Rotax. They feature either a belt drive system, similar to the belt drive found on the now defunct F650CS, or chain drive. Initially, BMW launched two models of the new F800 Series, the F800S sport bike and the F800ST sport tourer; these were followed by F650GS and F800GS dual-purpose motorcycles, both of which use the 798 cc engine despite the different names.

G650 Xchallenge enduro

G series

In October 2006, BMW announced the G series of offroad style motorcycles co-developed with Aprilia. These are equipped with an uprated single cylinder water cooled 652 cc fuel injected engine producing 53 hp (40 kW), similar to the one fitted to the single-cylinder F650GS, and are equipped with chain drive. There are three models in the series, all produced for BMW by Aprilia in their North Italian Scorz Plant, each focused on a slightly different market:

G650 Xchallenge hard enduro featuring 21 inch front and 18 inch rear spoked wheels

G650 Xcountry scrambler / adventure sports featuring 19 inch front and 17 inch rear spoked wheels

G650 Xmoto street moto / supermoto featuring 17 inch cast alloy wheels

In some markets the single cylinder F650GS has been rebranded as the G650GS.

HP2 Series

First was the the 175 kg (390 lb), 105 kW (141 hp) HP2 Enduro, followed by the road-biased HP2 Megamoto fitted with smaller alloy wheels and street tyres in 2007.

In April 2007, BMW announced its return to competitive road racing, entering a factory team with a “Sport Boxer” version of the R1200S to four 24-hour endurance races.. In 2008 they released this as the HP2 Sport.


Main article: BMW S1000RR

The S1000RR is a super bike launched to compete in the 2009 Superbike World Championship. It is powered by a 999 cc (61 cu in) inline-four engine producing 193 bhp (144 kW).

Husqvarna acquisition

In July 2007, it was announced that BMW had signed a contract to acquire Husqvarna Motorcycles, including its production facilities and staff, from Italian manufacturer MV Agusta.

Engine types

There are currently four lines of BMW motorcycles:

F & G series singles

F series twins

R series

K series

The series differ primarily in the class of engine that each uses.

F and G series singles

The F Series of single cylinder BMW motorcycles was first launched in 1994, as the F650, and was built by Aprilia around a carbureted 650 cc four-stroke, four valve, single piston engine, and chain drive. The mission for the F 650 was to provide an entry level BMW motorcycle. In 2000, the F650 was redesigned, now with fuel injection, and labeled the F650GS. An off-road focused F650 Dakar model was also launched that year. 2002 saw the addition of the F650CS ‘Scarver’ motorcycle to the line up. The Scarver was different from the F650GS variants in that it utilized a belt drive system opposed to a chain, had a much lower seat height, and was intended for on-road use. All F650 motorcycles produced from 2000 to 2007 used a 652 cc engine built in Austria by Rotax and were built by BMW in Berlin.

In late 2006, the G series of offroad biased bikes motorcycles was launched using the same 652 cc engine fitted to the F650GS, although that engine is no longer manufactured by Rotax.

In November 2007, the G450X sport enduro motorcycle was launched using a 450 cc single cylinder engine. The G450X contained several technological improvements over the Japanese off road racing motorcycles but the most unique and significant was the use of a single pivot point for the drive sprocket and the swing arm. This unusual configuration allowed for a very tense drive chain with no slop and eliminated acceleration squat. The former benefit saves on chain and sprocket wear and the later allows for a more consistent drive geometry and fully available rear suspension travel during heavy acceleration.

F series twins

In mid 2006, The F Series added two new motorcycles to the lineup, the F800S sports bike and F800ST sports tourer, both which use an 798 cc parallel-twin engine built by Rotax. Both motorcycles also feature a belt drive system similar to what was in use on the F650S. In 2007 the single cylinder F650GS was replaced with the twin cylinder F800GS and F650GS models. The latter uses a de-tuned version of the 798 cc engine fitted to the F800GS, marking a departure from BMW’s naming convention.

R series

Four different BMW valve covers.

1954 R68’s two-fin valve cover

The R series are built around a horizontally opposed flat-twin boxer engine. As the engine is mounted with a longitudinal crankshaft, the cylinder heads protrude well beyond the sides of the frame, making the R series motorcycles visually distinctive. Originally, R series bikes had air-cooled heads (“air heads”), but are now produced only with oil-cooled heads (“oilheads” and “hexheads”).

Photo of Four different BMW “heads”: How do you tell the different BMW valve covers (“heads”) since 1970 apart? The “airhead” cover on a 1973 R75/5 is upper left. The first “oilhead” cover, introduced in model year 1993 in Europe and 1994 in the US, is upper right. The “oilhead” cover on an R1150RT, with two spark plugs per cylinder, is lower left. The latest “hexhead” cover, with an optional valve cover protector, on an R1200RT, is lower right.

Photo of Pre-1970 valve cover: A common valve cover from 19521969 on models R50, R60, R50/2, R60/2, R51/3, R67, R67/2, R67/3 had six fins. The R50S, R68, R69, and R69S of this period had two-fin valve covers.

K series

The K series BMW’s have water cooled engines of three (K75) or four (K100, K1100, K1200, K1300) cylinders. Until 2005, although currently in use on the K1200LT, the engine was longitudinal, laid out on its left side with the cylinder heads on the left and the crankshaft on the right. It is called the “Flying Brick” because of the appearance of this layout. Sales did not meet BMW’s expectations, and production ceased with the 1993 model. By the end of the K series’ run, 6,921 units had been produced. In 2004, BMW introduced a new 4-cylinder water cooled engine that transverses the chasis and is tilted forward 55 degrees. The BMW K75, three-cylinder, models were produced from 1985 to 1996.

BMW K100 motorcycle engine circa 1986

BMW 2004 K 1200GT, style produced only two years

The first K-series production bike was the K100, which was introduced in the 1983. It was followed by the K100RS in 1983, the K100RT in 1984, and the K100LT in 1986. In 1987, the K100 (Mark II) was introduced with ABS brakes, the first ever on a motorcycle. In 1988 and until 1993, BMW produced the K1, a full faring version of the K 100 with the new paralever style rear suspension. It had the Bosch Motronic fuel injection system. Initially it cost 20,200 DM. Only 6,900 were produced.

In 1985, the K75, three cylinder, was introduced. The K75C was the first model with this new engine. It was followed by the K75S, the K75, and the touring version K75RT. The last year of production of the K75 motorcycles was 1996.

In 1991 BMW increased the displacement of the K 100 from 987 cc, and the model designation became the K1100 (1097 cc). The K1100LT was the first with the new engine displacement. In 1992, the K1100RS was introduced, ending the 8 year of production of the K100 models. In 1998 BMW increased the size again to 1170 cc. This upgraded flat four engine appeared in the K1200RS. In 2003, the fully-faired K1200GT, equipped with hard side cases and larger screen with electric height adjustment. The chasis of the K1200RS was extended and strengthened for BMW’s luxury touring model the K1200LT, which is still in production in 2009.

The later K1200 engine is a 1157 cc transverse inline four, announced in 2003 and first seen in the 2005 K1200S. The new engine generates a healthy 123 kW (165 hp) but the most striking detail, both visually, and on paper, is its 55 degree forward tilt and 43 cm (17 in) width, giving the bikes a very low center of mass without reducing maximum lean angles. The transverse K1200 engine is used in K1200S, R, R Sport and GT.

In October 2008, BMW announced the new K1300GT, K1300S and K1300R models, all of which feature a larger capacity 1293 cc engine producing up to 175 hp (130 kW). The new engine produces maximum power output 1,000 RPM lower than the previous engine, produces more torque due in part butterfly flap fitted in the exhaust.

Model designation

BMW motorcycles are named according to a three-part code made up of the engine type, approximate engine volume, and styling information (e.g., sport, sport touring, luxury touring, etc.). The three parts are separated by blanks.

Engine type

R – boxer engine, horizontally opposed flat twin cylinder

K – in-line 3 or 4 cylinder water-cooled engine

F & G – single or twin vertical cylinder water-cooled engine

Engine displacement in cc

Current models: 1300, 1200, 900, 800, 650 and 450. Previous models included 850, 1100, and 1150.

Older model BMWs divide the approximate engine displacement by ten for the model number. For example, K75 = approx 750 cc.

R1200RT-P police “motor”

Styling suffix designations:

C – Cruiser

CS – Classic Sport

G/S – Gelnde/Strasse Off-road/Street

GS – Gelnde Sport Off-road Sport (Enduro)

GT – Gran Turismo or Grand Touring

LT – Luxus Tourer (Luxury Tourer)

R – Road or Roadster – typically naked

RS – Reise Sport (Travel Sport)

RT – Reise Tourer (Travel Tourer)

S – Sport

ST – Strasse (Street) or Sport Tourer

T – Touring

Additionally, a bike may have the following modifiers in its name:


L – luxury

P – police

C – custom

PD – Paris Dakar

Examples: K1200S, R1200RT, F650GS, R1150RSL, K1200LT, K1200LT-C, R1200RT-P, R1200RSA.

Prior to the introduction of the K100 series and the R1100 series motorcycles, the letter prefix was always the same, and the numbers were either based on displacement, as mentioned above, or were just model numbers.


BMW is a world leader in successfully innovating motorcycle suspension technologies.

Single-sided rear suspension

The first BMW monolever suspensions appeared in 1980 on the then-new R80G/S range. It had a single universal joint immediately behind the engine/gear-box unit. This system was later included on updated versions of the K & R Series.


Paralever is a further advance in BMW’s single-sided rear suspension technology (photo right). It decouples torque reaction as the suspension compresses and extends, avoiding the tendency to squat under braking and reducing tyre chatter on the road surface. It was introduced in 1988 R80GS and R100GS motorcycles.

BMW’s revised, inverted Paralever on an R1200GS Adventure.

In 2005, along with the introduction of the “hexhead”, BMW inverted the Paralever and moved the torque arm from the bottom to the top of the drive shaft housing (photo right). This reduces underhang of components and tends to increase ground clearance in right lean.

It is believed[by whom?] that the term Paralever was developed due to the appearance of a parallelogram shape between the four items making up the rear suspension (rear drive, drive shaft, transmission, and lower or upper brace). Other motorcycle manufacturers have patented versions of this system, including Arturo Magni for MV Agusta and Moto Guzzi’s Compact Reactive Shaft Drive.

Telescopic front fork

In 1935, BMW became the first manufacturer to fit a hydraulically damped telescopic fork to its motorcycles.[citation needed] Nimbus of Denmark had been fitting telescopic forks since 1934, but its version was undamped until 1939.[citation needed] BMW still uses telescopic forks today on its F-series, G-series and HP motorcycles. The R-series and K-series use the Telelever and the Duolever front suspensions.

Earles front fork

Englishman Ernest Earles designed a unique triangulated fork that resists the side-forces introduced by sidecars (unlike telescopic forks). BMW fitted the Earles fork to all its models for 14 years from 1955. In the event, this was the year that use of sidecars peaked and quickly fell off in most European markets (eg the UK) but the Earles fork system was well-liked by solo riders too. It causes the front end of the motorcycle to rise under braking the reverse of the action of a telescopic fork. The mechanical strength of this design sometimes proved to be a weakness to the rest of the motorcycle, since it transfers impact pressure to the frame where damage is more difficult and expensive to correct.

Telelever front fork

BMW’s Telelever front suspension on a R1150R.

The Telelever system was developed by Saxon-Motodd in Britain in the early 1980s. The Telelever is a unique front fork, where the shock absorber is located between and behind the two primary tubes attached to a telelever arm.

This system both lowers unsprung weight as well as decouples wheel placement function of the forks from the shock absorption function – eliminating brake dive and providing superior traction during hard-braking situations. This system improves comfort and stability considerably while providing excellent and sporty handling.

In the photo to the left you can see the Telelever suspension unit. The two fork tubes provide no damping or suspension. The front of the light gray “A-arm” can be seen reaching forward from the side of the engine to the (hidden) cross brace between the fork tubes.


The top of the Duolever suspension

In 2004, BMW announced the K1200S, incorporating a new front suspension based upon a design by Norman Hossack. BMW recognised this fact but paid Hossack no royalties. BMW named its new front suspension the Duolever. As of 2009, the Duolever is on the K1300S, K1300R and K1300GT.

The official BMW Motorrad explanation of the duolever is:

The Duolever front wheel suspension is kinematically regarded as a square joint, in which two trailing links made of forged steel are attached via rolling bearings to the frame. These trailing links, which visually resemble a conventional fork, guide the extremely torsionally rigid wheel carrier made of aluminium permanent mold casting. A central strut, which adjusts the suspension and damping, is linked to the lower of the two trailing links, and rests against the frame.

A trapezoidal shear joint mounted to the control head and the wheel carrier is coupled with the handlebar. This shear joint transmits the steering movements. Thus, the Duolever design in contrast to the telefork does not need sliding and fixed tubes. At the same time, it decouples the steering as well as the damping more consistently than the proven telelever.

The advantage of this front wheel suspension on the motorcycle market at present is its torsional rigidity. The BMW Motorrad Duolever front wheel suspension is not influenced by negative forces in the same manner as a conventional telefork whose fixed and take-off tubes twist laterally as well as longitudinally during jounce/rebound and steering. Its two trailing links absorb the forces resulting from the jounce/rebound and keep the wheel carrier stable. Thus, any torsioning is excluded and the front wheel suspension is very precise. The steering commands of the rider are converted directly and the feedback from the front wheel is transparent in all driving conditions.

A kinematical anti-dive effect is additionally achieved, just as for the Telelever, due to the arrangement of the trailing link bearings. While a conventional telefork during strong braking manoeuvres jounces heavily or locks, the Duolever still has sufficient spring travel remaining in this situation and therefore the rider can still brake into the corner extremely late yet directionally stable.

The obstacle-avoidance manoeuvre of the front wheel when riding over uneven surfaces can be converted with the Duolever similar to the behaviour of a telefork. In connection with the low unsprung masses and the small breakaway forces of the system, this results in more sensitive and comfortable response characteristics.


This section does not cite any references or sources.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2009)

Admirers of vintage BMW motorcycles are growing rapidly in number. As time marches on, that which BMW enthusiasts consider “vintage” is amended. Pre-war BMWs are the most coveted, as demonstrated during the Gooding & Company auction in California in October 2006, when a 1925 BMW R32 sold for $77,000.[citation needed]

An R60/2 undergoing a frame-up concours restoration

A concours R50/2 goes on the stage at MidAmerica Auctions in Las Vegas in 2007

Plunger-frame models from the 1950s are the next most coveted, and then “Slash-2” variants from 1955 to 1969. In recent years, the “Slash-5” models from the 1970 to the 1973 model years have begun to join that exclusive club. Prices for historic BMW models have been rising quickly, fed in part by motorcycle auctions such as the massive Mid-America Auction held each January in Las Vegas, Nevada.

Opinions as to the treatment of vintage motorcycle varies according to their condition and their owners’ tastes. First preference tends to be for preserving the original machine if it is in reasonably good condition. Second preference is to do limited restoration, maintaining as much of the original fabric as possible. Third, when dealing with a machine in poor condition, is so-called frame-up restoration. In the latter case, the motorcycle is completely disassembled and each individual part is refurbished, and then the motorcycle is reassembled hewing as much as possible to the original design, but sometimes using modern replacement parts, such as stainless steel, or plating parts that were originally not plated. At the extreme end of restoration is the “concours” restoration in which only original parts are used and work is done with an obsession for originality in every minor detail. Unlike many other motorcycle brands, parts for vintage BMWs, though expensive, are obtainable from sources in Germany and the United States.

There are several professional BMW motorcycle restorers at work in North America and Europe. Two American membership organizations, Vintage BMW Motorcycle Owners and the BMW Veteran Motorcycle Club of America are dedicated to the preservation of vintage BMW motorcycles.

BMW C1 scooter

Main article: BMW C1

The BMW C1 is an enclosed scooter produced from 2000 to 2002, with a 124 cc or 176 cc engine.


^ “The Origin of the BMW Logo: Fact and Fiction” (PDF)

^ a b Norbye, Jan P. (1984). “The Origins of BMW: From Flying Machines to Driving Machines”. BMW – Bavaria’s Driving Machines. New York, NY, USA: Beekman House. pp. 1417. ISBN 0-517-42464-9. 

^ BM Bikes BMW R32 specifications

^ Harley XA, The Motorcycle Museum

^ BMW R51/3 boxer twin

^ EMW roundel

^ BMW Boxer Twins 1955-1969

^ BMW R69S

^ BM Bikes BMW R100RS Specifications

^ Sport Rider BMW K1200S specifications

^ K1200R Sport

^ “BMW Motorrad unveils new K-Series models – K Series celebrates 25th anniversary with 3 new models!”. BMW Motorrad UK. 7 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-22. 

^ a b Omorogbe, Jane (3 April 2008). “Ridden: BMW F800GS and F650GS”. MSN. Retrieved 11 November 2009. 

^ “G650GS 2009”. BMW Motorrad USA. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 

^ Scoop BMW press release

^ Carroll, Michael (2008-04-16). “BMW officially unveils World Superbike contender”. Motorcycle News. Retrieved 2008-04-17. 

^ “BMW buys Husqvarna”. Motorcycle News. 20 July 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-27. 

^ “BMW Motorrad acquires Husqvarna Motorcycles”. American Motorcyclist Association. 20 July 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-27. 

^ Richard Backus (May/June 2009). “1989-1993 BMW K1”. Motorcycle Classics. Retrieved 2009-08-04. 

^ BMW BMW technology site

^ BMW Motorrad Deutschland

^ BMW Motorcycles: Bikes: F 650 GS

^ BMW Motorrad International


Further reading

Holmstrom, Darwin; Nelson, Brian J. (June 2002). BMW Motorcycles. MotorBooks/MBI Publishing Company. ISBN 9780760310984. 

Ash, Kevin (May 2006). BMW Motorcycles: The Evolution of Excellence. Whitehorse Press. ISBN 9781884313578. 

Falloon, Ian (November 2003). The BMW story: production and racing motorcycles from 1923 to the present day. Sparkford, England: Haynes Publishing. ISBN 9781859608548. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: BMW motorcycles

BMW Motorrad worldwide homepage

BMW motorcycles at the Open Directory Project

v  d  e

BMW Motorcycles

F & G Series

F650 & F650GS (single)  F650CS  F650GS (twin) & F800GS  F800R  F800S

K Series

K1  K75  K100  K1200GT  K1200R  K1300R

R Series

R27  R32  R51/3  R60/2  R65  R69S  R75  R50/5, R60/5 & R75/5  R80G/S  R90S  R1100GS  R1150GS  R1200C   R1200GS  R1200R   R1200RT

Other Bikes

S1000RR  GS family  C1


247 engine  BMW Motorcycle Owners of America  History of BMW motorcycles  Husqvarna Motorcycles

Categories: BMWHidden categories: All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements from May 2009 | Articles with unsourced statements from January 2010 | Articles with unsourced statements from June 2009 | Articles with unsourced statements from April 2009 | All articles with specifically-marked weasel-worded phrases | Articles with specifically-marked weasel-worded phrases from March 2009 | Articles with unsourced statements from January 2008 | Articles needing additional references from May 2009 | All articles needing additional references

Shingles – Symptoms and Treatment

Generally, shingles heal well and problems are few. However, on occasion, the blisters can become infected with bacteria, causing cellulitis, a bacterial infection of the skin. If this occurs, the area will become reddened, warm, firm, and tender. You might notice red streaks forming around the wound. If you notice any of these symptoms, contact your health-care professional. Antibiotics can be used to treat these complications.

Shingles isn’t infectious in the same way as chickenpox, where the virus can be passed on to other people by coughs and sneezes. However, the virus can be passed on by direct contact with fluid from shingles blisters, until they dry up and crust over. This can cause chickenpox in people who aren’t already immune to it. People with shingles should avoid contact with people who have a lowered immunity, babies or pregnant women (see Who is most likely to get shingles?). If the rash is covered, the virus is less likely to be spread.

Shingles symptoms generally disappear within three to five weeks. However, treatment is recommended to help encourage shingles pain relief. Your health care provider can offer you oral antiviral medications, including acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir, in order to speed up the course of the shingles disease. You may also be prescribed pain relieving medications, such as ibuprofen and acetaminophen.

Shingles symptoms happen in stages. At first you may have a headache or be sensitive to light. You may also feel like you have the flu but not have a fever. Later, you may feel itching, tingling, or pain in a certain area. That’s where a band, strip, or small area of rash may occur a few days later. The rash turns into clusters of blisters. The blisters fill with fluid and then crust over. It takes 2 to 4 weeks for the blisters to heal, and they may leave scars. Some people only get a mild rash, and some do not get a rash at all.

Doctors can distinguish shingles from chickenpox (or dermatitis or poison ivy) by the way the spots are distributed. Since shingles occurs in an area of the skin that is supplied by sensory fibers of a single nerve–called a dermatome–the rash usually appears in a well-defined band on one side of the body, typically the torso; or on one side of the face, around the nose and eyes. (Shingles’ peculiar name derives from the Latin cingulum, which means girdle or belt.) If a diagnosis is in doubt, lab tests can confirm the presence of the virus.

The severity and duration of an attack of shingles can be significantly reduced by immediate treatment with antiviral drugs, which include acyclovir, valacyclovir, or famcyclovir. Antiviral drugs may also help stave off the painful aftereffects of shingles known as postherpetic neuralgia (see section entitled “What are the Complications of Shingles?). Doctors now recommend starting antiviral drugs within 72 hours of the first sign of the shingles rash. Early treatment is believed to reduce the risk of postherpetic neuralgia and may speed up the healing process.

A Pinched Median Nerve in the Wrist: Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Carpal tunnel syndrome is by far the most common and widely known of the “pinched nerve” conditions. This article addresses: What is it? Who is at risk for this condition? How is it diagnosed? What kinds of treatments work best?

Carpal tunnel syndrome refers to symptoms caused by entrapment of the median nerve in the carpal tunnel. “Carpal” itself means “wrist,” so a carpal tunnel is nothing more than a wrist tunnel. This particular tunnel can be a crowded place, as it contains not just the median nerve, but nine tendons as well. The “syndrome” consists of some combination of pain, numbness and weakness.

Pain, numbness, or both, are the usual earliest symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. Pain can affect the fingers, hand, wrist and forearm, but not usually the upper arm or shoulder. Numbness affects the palm side of the thumb and fingers, but usually spares the little finger because it’s connected to a different nerve.

When weakness is present, it usually indicates that the condition is already severe, and when muscles atrophy (wither) it means the condition is even worse. The affected muscles are those downstream from where the nerve is pinched, and can include those controlling any of three motions of the thumb. In addition, bending of the first knuckles of the index and middle fingers can be affected, as can straightening of the second knuckles of the same fingers. When muscle atrophy is present, it is most evident in the muscular ball at the base of the thumb.

Carpal tunnel syndrome occurs more frequently in women than in men. People who work with their hands a lot – for example to sew, operate hand-tools or perform assembly-line work – are at increased risk for developing this condition. Various medical conditions can also increase the risk of carpal tunnel syndrome, including injuries, arthritis, diabetes, low levels of thyroid hormone and pregnancy. In the case of pregnancy, carpal tunnel syndrome often appears in the third trimester and resolves after the woman delivers.

Optimum diagnosis of this condition combines the time-honored methods of a doctor’s history-taking and physical examination with tests of nerve function called nerve conduction studies. Nerve conduction studies are exquisitely sensitive in detecting impairment of the median nerve at the wrist, particularly when the median nerve is compared with a nearby healthy nerve in the same patient.

In nerve conduction studies, the nerve on one side of the carpal tunnel is activated by a small shock to the skin. An oscilloscope measures how long it takes for the resulting nerve-impulse to arrive on the other side of the carpal tunnel. When the median nerve is pinched, the nerve-impulse is delayed or blocked. Nerve conduction studies are so sensitive that sometimes they show problems that aren’t even causing symptoms. That’s why nerve conduction studies don’t stand alone in diagnosing carpal tunnel syndrome. The examining physician needs to decide if the results make sense for the particular patient in question.

Nerve conduction studies not only show whether or not the median nerve is impaired at the wrist, but also provide precise data concerning how bad the impairment is. In addition, these studies survey the function of other nerves in the arm and hand. Occasionally, a nerve in an adjacent tunnel (the ulnar nerve in Guyon’s canal) can also be pinched. In other cases, nerve conduction studies show that the problem is not one of single nerve-pinches, but rather a more diffuse pattern of nerve-impairment called polyneuropathy. Of course, sometimes the studies are completely normal and suggest that the symptoms are due to something else.

To treat carpal tunnel syndrome, starting with “conservative” treatment makes sense in most cases, especially when the symptoms are still in the mild-to-moderate range. Conservative treatment usually includes a wrist-splint that holds the wrist in a neutral position. In a study published in 2005 researchers at the University of Michigan investigated the effectiveness of wrist-splinting for carpal tunnel syndrome in workers at a Midwestern auto plant. In a randomized, controlled trial –  the gold standard method for judging treatments – about half the workers received customized wrist-splints that they wore at night for six weeks. The remaining workers received education about safe workplace procedures, but no splints. After treatment the workers with splints had less pain than those without, and the difference in outcome was still evident after one year.

Conservative treatment might additionally include use of anti-inflammatory medications like aspirin or naproxen, or even steroid drugs. A more intrusive, though still non-surgical, treatment consists of injecting steroid medication into the carpal tunnel itself. This might benefit selected patients, but in a 2005 randomized, controlled study of patients with mild-to-moderate symptoms, researchers at Mersin University in Turkey showed that patients receiving splints did better than those who received steroid injections.

Surgeons can relieve pressure on a pinched median nerve by cutting a constricting, overlying band of tissue. A 2002 study at Vrije University in Amsterdam compared surgical treatment to six weeks of wrist-splinting. After 18 months 90% of the operated patients had a successful outcome compared with 75% in the splinted group.

In some cases it can be reasonable to try conservative treatments without first confirming the diagnosis with nerve conduction studies. However, in the author’s opinion, this risk-free form of testing should be performed prior to any carpal tunnel surgery. (Full disclosure: The author performs nerve conduction studies!)

(C) 2005 by Gary Cordingley

Pediatric Surgery In India At Affordable Low Cost – Pediatric India

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Pediatric Surgery In India

Children aren’t simply miniature people who suffer the same diseases adults do, but on a smaller scale. Rather, they have their own specific afflictions and abnormalities.

Diagnosing and treating children’s heart diseases requires specialized knowledge and a dedicated approach to care…..

Variety of Surgical Procedures

A  ]    Trauma

The Pediatric Surgery service is consulted immediately for any pediatric trauma victim with serious and/or multiple injuries. The service will coordinate the trauma work-up, consult the appropriate subspecialty services, perform any necessary general surgical procedures, and coordinate care in the hospital. The service maintains a constant presence and therefore, an easily recognizable source of information for families and caretakers……

B ]    Tumors/Oncology

The Pediatric Surgery service is intimately involved with the management and performs surgery for surgical childhood malignancies. These include Wilms’ tumor, neuroblastoma, hepatoblastoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, teratomas, adrenal tumors, ovarian tumors, and testicular tumors. In addition, the service is involved in performing biopsies….

C  ]    Transplantation

The Pediatric Surgery service, in conjunction with Pediatric Urology, performs kidney transplants and participates in the comprehensive care of these pediatric patients. The service provides necessary vascular access for children requiring bone marrow transplantation…..

D  ]    Airway

The Pediatric Surgery service utilizes laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy, and appropriate surgical techniques to evaluate and treat a variety of congenital and acquired airway disorders. These include stridor, laryngomalacia, tracheomalacia, subglottic stenosis, tracheal stenosis, laryngeal or tracheal clefts, and aspirated foreign bodies…..

E  ]    Head and Neck

The Pediatric Surgery service addresses a variety of conditions in the head and neck including branchial cleft anomalies and remnants, thyroglossal duct cysts, cystic hygroma/lymphangioma, abnormal/enlarged lymph nodes, neck masses, dermoid and sebaceous cysts, torticollis, disorders of the thyroid and parathyroid glands, and “tongue-tie”……

F  ]    Lymph Node

The Pediatric Surgery service evaluates and surgically treats enlarged and infected lymph nodes when appropriate from a variety of conditions which include infections (cat scratch, atypical mycobacteria, tuberculosis, staphylococcus, streptococcus, and a variety of other bacteria) , tumors (Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, metastases from other primary tumors), and idiopathic enlargement…..

G  ]    Endocrine

The Pediatric Surgery service evaluates and treats disorders of the thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands (adrenal tumors, hyperfunctioning and hypofunctioning gland, pheochromacytoma), pancreas (cysts and pseudocysts, hyperinsulinism, islet cell adenoma, tumors)…..

H  ]    Breast

The Pediatric Surgery service evaluates and treats benign lesions of the breast in males (gynecomastia, breast enlargement, infection, congenital anomalies) and females (fibroadenoma, infection, inflammation, cysts, congenital anomalies). Endocrine evaluation is obtained when needed……

I  ]    Chest Wall

The Pediatric Surgery service evaluates and treats disorders of the chest wall including pectus excavatum, pectus carinatum, sternal defects, Poland’s syndrome, and other congenital and acquired deformities. Cardiac and pulmonary evaluation is obtained when appropriate…..

J  ]    Thoracic

The Pediatric Surgery service evaluates and treats a variety of congenital and acquired thoracic disorders. These include congenital diaphragmatic hernia, diaphragmatic eventration, mediastinal cysts and tumors, bronchogenic cysts, enlarged lymph nodes, pulmonary sequestration, cystic adenomatoid malformation……

K  ]    Abdominal Wall

The Pediatric Surgery service evaluates and treats a variety of congenital abdominal wall defects including gastroschisis, omphalocele, and Prune Belly syndrome……

L  ]    Hernias

The Pediatric Surgery service evaluates and treats a variety of hernias including inguinal, umbilical, epigastric, ventral, and epiploceles…..

M  ]    Gastrointestinal

The Pediatric Surgery service evaluates and treats a wide variety of congenital and acquired gastrointestinal disorders. Conditions include pyloric stenosis, esophageal reflux, peptic ulcer, congenital duodenal obstruction (duodenal atresia, stenosis, web, annular pancreas), atresia and stenosis of small and large intestine, meconium ileus, Meckel diverticulum, intussusception, malrotation, intestinal obstruction…..

N  ]    Liver and Biliary Tract

The Pediatric Surgery service evaluates and treats conditions of the biliary tract including jaundice of the newborn, biliary atresia, choledochal cyst, diseases of the gallbladder (gallstones, cholecystitis), common bile duct obstruction, liver cysts and tumors, liver hemangioma, portal hypertension…..

O  ]    Pancreas

The Pediatric Surgery service evaluates and treats conditions of the pancreas including cysts, pseudocysts, pancreatitis, neoplasms, hyperinsulinemia, islet cell adenoma…..

P  ]    Spleen

The Pediatric Surgery service evaluates and treats conditions of the spleen including splenomegaly and hypersplenism from a variety of hematologic disorders (sickle cell anemia, hereditary spherocytosis, Gaucher’s disease, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), thalessemias, autoimmune hemolytic anemias), cysts, tumors, and abscesses….

Q ]    Genitourinary

The Pediatric Surgery service evaluates and treats undescended testicles, testicular torsion, epididymitis, phimosis, cloacal extrophy, cloacal anomalies, labial fusion, clitoral hypertrophy, ambiguous genitalia, Prune Belly syndrome. The service regularly performs circumcision procedures as well…..

R  ]    Soft Tissue

The Pediatric Surgery service treats and evaluates congenital and acquired defects of the skin and soft tissue including cysts, nodules, pigmented lesions/nevi, hemangioma, lymphangioma/cystic hygroma…..

S  ]    Vascular

The Pediatric Surgery service treats and evaluates congenital and acquired vascular anomalies. These include vascular rings and slings, and vascular injuries. The service also regularly provides vascular access for nutrition, chemotherapy….

T  ]    Minimally Invasive Surgery (Laparoscopy, Thoracoscopy, Endoscopy)

The Pediatric Surgery regularly uses a variety of endoscopic techniques to evaluate and treat conditions of the airway (laryngoscopy, bronchoscopy), the chest (thoracoscopy), abdomen (laparoscopy) and urinary tract (cystoscopy)…..

We at We Care Health Services, India have a different approach towards medical tourism as opposed to our counterparts abroad. Our medical tourism process starts with suggesting, brokering and referring the patient to the selected hospital and doctor but does not end there. We have direct first name relationship with all the major doctors and surgeons in our partner hospitals in India. We actually service the patients while they are in India for the surgery / treatment. Our team of Clinical Coordinators and Patient Care Managers meet the patient daily, coordinate clinically and non clinically with the hospital doctors and staff to ensure smooth and trouble less care to the patients and their attendants…..

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We have a very simple business model that keeps you as the centre.

Having the industry’s most elaborate and exclusive Patient Care and Clinical Coordination teams stationed at each partner hospital, we provide you the smoothest and seamless care ever imagined. With a ratio of one Patient Care Manager to five patients our patient care standards are unmatched across the sub continent.

Information on Strep Throat

Sore throat is a painful inflammation of the pharynx. The pharynx (pronounced FAAR-ingks) is the part of the throat that lies between the mouth and the larynx (pronounced LAAR-ingks), or voice box. It is associated most commonly with the common cold (see common cold entry) or influenza (the flu; see influenza entry). While most sore throats heal without complications, in some cases, they develop into a serious illness.

How is Strep Throat Transmitted?

Strep Throat is transmitted directly from person to person by coughing, sneezing, and close contact. Very occasionally strep throat is passed through food, when a food handler infected with strep throat accidentally contaminates food by coughing or sneezing.

Signs and Symptoms of Strep Throat

The signs and symptoms of strep throat are red, sore throat with white patches on tonsils, swollen lymph nodes in neck, fever, and headache. Nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain are more common in children. The patient will usually not have a cough, unlike in a viral infection.

More often than not, a sore throat is usually caused by allergies or a viral infection that will usually go away on its own. But some sore throats are the result of the bacteria streptococcus and are more serious.

Strep throat is highly contagious: you and your child may catch it at school, kinder garden, work, from your family members or any group of people. It usually affects people in early spring, winter or the last days of the fall, but it may also occur in other months of the year. You can have this bacterial infection at any age, but most at risk are teenagers and kids.

In addition, allergies (allergic rhinitis) can cause a sore throat. Usually, treatment will be delayed until the culture results are known. Doctors will often begin treatment of a sore throat immediately if there is a family history of rheumatic fever, if the patient has scarlet fever, or if rheumatic fever is commonly occurring in the community at the time. Otherwise, antibiotics should NOT be given without a positive strep test (culture or rapid strep test).

Strep throat is a contagious disease caused by infection with streptococcal bacteria. Strep throat symptoms include fever, pain, redness, and swelling of the throat and tonsils. Strep throat may produce mild or severe symptoms.

Sore throat (pharyngitis) is a painful inflammation of the pharynx, which is the part of the throat that lies between the mouth and the larynx (voice box). Sore throat is often a symptom of various illnesses such as colds and flu, glandular fever, respiratory tract infections, tonsillitis, and chickenpox. While most sore throats heal without complications, in some cases, they develop into a serious illness.

Although strep throat is most common in school-aged children and teens, adults may also get this disease. Strep throat is more widespread during the school year when a large number of students are present in an enclosed space, laughing, yelling, sneezing, and coughing.The bacteria are present in the nose and throat, so normal activities such as sneezing, coughing, or shaking hands can spread the infection to other people.

The infection can also be acquired by touching objects such as books, tables, or other hard surfaces that were handled by an infected person.

Tonsillolith or Tonsil Stone – a Smelly Lump Coughed Up From Your Tonsils?

A tonsillolith, also commonly known as a tonsil stone or tonsil rocks is a whitish/yellow lump, which forms within the tonsil crypts and eventually works its way out where it is either coughed up or swallowed. They can be an unpleasant annoyance at times giving the sensation of a foreign body stuck in the back of the throat and are often associated with bad breath issues and a dry metallic taste in the mouth.

If you squash a tonsil stone between your fingers they give off an awful smell a bit like rotten eggs or vomit. This is because they contain quantities of sulfur-producing bacteria that are found at the back of the tongue, which is often the cause of many bad breath problems. The stones vary in size from tiny up to around the size of a pea, but can be even larger and very uncomfortable in extreme cases.

What exactly is a tonsillolith and why do they form? They are generally made up of bits of food, dead skin cells, dead white blood cells, saliva and sulfur-producing bacteria that collect in crevices found in the tonsils. Over time they gradually get larger until they finally dislodge and fall out. There are some who try to squeeze them out using a moistened cotton bud but this tends to make you gag and can lead to soreness of the tonsils if you are not careful.

Tonsil stones are more common in adults than in children and tend to turn into more of a noticeable problem during later teenage years. They only normally materialize in individuals who still have their tonsils but this does not mean you should take drastic action to have your tonsils removed. It is estimated that around a quarter of all adults who still have their tonsils suffer from this condition at sometime during their lives. Symptoms can be a dry metallic taste in the mouth, sore throat, repeatedly coughing to clear the throat, referred ear pain or itching within the ear, bad breath and of course coughing up the tonsilloliths.

It does not make any difference if you have good dental hygiene, this in itself will not get rid of tonsil stones. At best, toothpaste, mouthwash or mints may mask any bad odours for a couple of hours but will do nothing to combat and eliminate your problem for good. The only way is to fight back and use a quality tonsil stones treatment plan. You need to get hold of the best cure available and give it a go. 

The main problem more often than not is people are naturally lazy and put off doing something positive about their disorder for another day. This day never comes and they carry on through life just complaining rather than doing. If you have a problem with a tonsillolith or tonsil stone and don’t want to waste any more time, then do something positive now, don’t be one of those who leave it for another day. There is a solution to your problem and it’s worth giving it a try.

Antidepressants for the Treatment of Binge Eating

Binge eating is considered an eating disorder when you can’t stop yourself from eating a large amount of food in a short amount of time, even when you aren’t hungry.

Most people who have this problem feel very unhappy with themselves after a binging episode, and many binge eaters also suffer from depression.

Compulsive overeating is usually considered a psychological problem, so it’s fairly common for antidepressants to be prescribed. This eating disorder is thought to be caused by a combination of genetics, social and family interaction and psychological factors.

Oddly enough, nutrition and diet is not usually considered when binge eating is being treated, but perhaps it should be.

Here’s why:

A number of chronic illnesses are clustered together under the term “metabolic syndrome”, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, sleep apnea, and depression.

According to a scholarly paper published in the September 2006 issue of the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, the metabolic syndrome “was associated with a current diagnosis of major depression and overeating.”

So, what is the metabolic syndrome all about? A syndrome is defined as a A set of symptoms that often occur together, and which are believed to stem from the same cause.

In the case of the metabolic syndrome, the basic cause is thought to be a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism.

In the past the connection between heart disease, obesity, and diabetes, among other illnesses, was called “saccharine disease”, “insulin resistance syndrome”, and “Syndrome X”, but they’re all talking about the same problem.

In the past, all these illnesses were called “diseases of civilization”, because they begin to appear in a population when Western-style refined foods become available.

Before white sugar and white flour could be cheaply produced, diabetes, heart disease and depression were almost completely unknown.

It could be said that these illnesses are caused by a change in the environment. One thing that has been recently discovered is that some people are more likely than others to developing insulin resistance when they eat refined carbohydrates, such as sugar, flour and high-fructose corn syrup.

These folks, gain weight much faster on a diet based on refined foods than people whose genetic makeup makes them relatively immune to insulin resistance.

This is why some people talk about a genetic tendency to become obese. This is really a tendency to develop insulin resistance, which never happens to people who don’t eat refined carbohydrate foods.

Unfortunately, the people who are most likely to have a sweet tooth, and who tend to have cravings for sugar, candies, cakes, breads and pastas, are the same people who are most likely to develop insulin resistance, the underlying cause of the metabolic syndrome.

These cravings can often take the form of uncontrollable binge eating. The underlying cause of this compulsive need to eat, even when you aren’t hungry, may be an underlying metabolic disorder that locks up many of the most important vitamins, minerals and fuel sources in the fat cells.

When this happens, the other cells in the body are starved of nutrients. Starvation causes food cravings and obsessions, even when a person is carrying excess fat on their body. People who overeat often have the same psychological symptoms as people on a low-calorie diet, which can include food obsessions, binge eating, and mood swings.

When you continue eating long after you’re full, even when you don’t want to, the natural psychological response is to blame yourself for a lack of control, and this self-blaming response is even more probable since depression is one of the illnesses associated with the metabolic syndrome.

Although these illnesses often occur together, they are usually treated separately by medical professionals and counselors who are not trained in nutrition. This is especially true of the illnesses that are usually thought to be “psychological” in nature – including depression and binge eating.

However, more and more patients are taking steps to learn more about their own illnesses, and one of the most important steps is to improve their diets in order to reverse the damage done by refined carbohydrates and the resulting insulin resistance.

It would never be advisable to stop taking medication without consulting with your doctor, but eating a more nutritious and less dangerous diet could help improve your overall health, and may even reduce your food cravings.

Eating a healthy diet that is based on natural, unrefined foods can stop the metabolic damage caused by refined carbohydrates. Many people have found that their symptoms of high blood pressure, depression, diabetes and even some kinds of arthritis are greatly reduced on a natural diet. And eating disorders, like binge eating, either go away entirely or are much easier to control.

Diabetics and Wounds

Most of the diabetics face problems in taking care of their wounds. The reason is that wounds of diabetics heal at a slower rate and they demand special care. If you are also facing certain problems in taking care of the wounds and injuries, read on.

The skin care is an important aspect in the everyday diabetes maintenance. If proper precautions are not taken care of, the minor injuries and cuts can turn into serious problem. Most of the time diabetics have a slower healing rate. The reason behind this is the reduced flow of blood to the affected area. Diabetics may also have some problem in noticing the injuries because of neuropathy.

Here are the guiding steps to follow for the care and prevention of wound for diabetics.

  1. The diabetics must apply on the infections which are not infected some antibiotic ointments to prevent the risk of infection. If still some symptoms of infection appear like pain, redness or inflammation. It would be better to seek the advice of the doctor.
  2. Ulcers and wounds must be cleaned daily with warm water and mild soap and afterwards covered with bandages and dressings. The wounds have the best healing speed when they are covered and moist. Furthermore the moist dressings reduce the pain of the patient.
  3. For serious and infected wounds, it is better to consult immediately the doctor. The skin infections in diabetics most of the time requires prescriptive ointments or oral medications that are specifically designed for diabetics.
  4. While taking care of the skin in routine the diabetics should refrain from using any instrument that harms the skin. Like corn removers or pumice stones and callus. As these products have the potential of damaging the delicate skin.
  5. Diabetics should keep their skin hydrated with the help of moisturizing lotions. This will prevent the skin from cracking which may lead to different infections.
  6. The diabetics should monitor the glucose sugar levels regularly. As better glucose control helps in healing the wounds.
  7. The more prevalent wounds in diabetics are wounds of feet. The diabetics should refrain from walking barefoot in order to prevent injuries. To support the healing of ulcers or wounds diabetics should try to lessen the pressure on the area around wound. If some diabetic is suffering from foot infection he should wear therapeutic socks and shoes specifically designed for diabetics.

Better care and attempts to prevent wounds helps the diabetics to stay away from diabetic complications. The diabetics must inspect their whole body especially feet regularly to check the symptoms of injuries and cuts and to treat the problems at the spot.

How to Control Obesity

Obesity has increased alarmingly in the past 20 years, reaching epidemic proportions in the United States. Being obese is not only uncomfortable and embarrassing, it increases the risk of an alarming array of diseases and health conditions, including certain types of cancer, type-2 diabetes, heart disease, respiratory problems, and hypertension.

The obesity epidemic is not something that happened suddenly. Obesity is a disease, a chronic condition, caused by a wide assortment of factors. Because there are so many factors involved, it is complicated and difficult to treat the disease. For instance, genetics can increase the risk but behavior and environment also influence the risk.

To blame heredity for obesity is an easy excuse, but it is the choices a person makes that increases or decreases their risk. Is it possible for us to learn how to control obesity? All of us choose our own behaviors. The choice to be physically inactive and practice unhealthy eating habits rest with each of us, as does the choice to start living a healthier lifestyle.


Why is obesity spinning out of control in the United States? There are three key causes. The first is the dramatic increase in food options that are available today. Grocery stores and supermarkets now offer a shocking number of choices that were not present ten years ago. Unfortunately, many of those choices are not healthy.

Most foods available today are pre-packaged and processed, high in fat, sugar and calories, with no nutritional value at all. Even foods that are labeled as healthy or low-fat may contain more calories and unhealthy chemicals and additives than the high-fat food they are supposed to replace. Always read food labels for nutritional information.

The second cause of obesity is the change in our eating habits. Fast-food restaurants (where portion size has increased dramatically) and pre-packaged foods are convenient, but they are not healthy. Yet when given a choice, we will eat what is quick and simple.

The third cause of obesity is our lifestyle. Technology has created many wonderful labor-saving inventions that reduce the amount of time and energy we use in our daily lives. Instead of walking or riding a bicycle to work or school, we drive. Instead of our children playing outside, they are watching television or playing video games.


There ARE ways to decrease the risk of obesity. The two essential building blocks for creating a healthy body are promoting regular physical activity and following a nutritious diet. You must create an environment around you that supports this way of life. How do you start? The first step is to increase your fitness level.

Adding physical activity to your daily regimen is not difficult. Remember, whatever activity you take part in does not have to be exhausting. It can be as simple as taking a 15-minute walk around your neighborhood, taking the stairs at work, riding your bike to work, or parking your car in the farthest parking space.

Small changes such as these will significantly benefit your body, physically and mentally. Physical activity reduces your risk for diabetes, some types of cancer, heart disease, and high blood pressure. It keeps you at a healthy weight, relieves depression symptoms and alleviates the pain of arthritis.

The second step is to learn about healthy nutrition. Following a nutritious diet, like adding physical activity, significantly lowers the risk for obesity, diabetes, some types of cancer and heart disease.  What is a healthy diet plan? A diet high in vegetables, fruit, whole grains, nuts, seeds, and lean protein builds a healthy, fit body.

Even though most people know that they should follow a healthy diet, it is difficult for most to change their poor eating habits. Poor eating habits begin during childhood and are very difficult to change as adults. We are raising a generation of children who eat too much fat and do not get enough exercise, who will grow into obese, unhealthy adults.

The foundation for a healthy body is simple; a nutritious diet and regular physical activity. Most people fail at diet and exercise plans because they try to make too many changes too quickly. The key to success is to make small changes slowly. This will teach your body to accept these changes and make it possible to defeat obesity.