Hepatitis C – Symptoms and Causes of Hepatitis C

The hepatitis C virus is usually detectable in the blood within one to three weeks after infection, and antibodies to the virus are generally detectable within 3 to 12 weeks. Approximately 15-40% of persons infected with HCV clear the virus from their bodies during the acute phase as shown by normalization in liver function tests (LFTs) such as alanine transaminase (ALT) & aspartate transaminase (AST) normalization, as well as plasma HCV-RNA clearance (this is known as spontaneous viral clearance). The remaining 60-85% of patients infected with HCV develops chronic hepatitis C, i.e., infection lasting more than 6 months.

Hepatitis C is one of five currently identified viruses–hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E–all of which can attack and damage the liver. Widely viewed as one of the most serious of the five, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) is spread primarily through contact with infected blood and can cause cirrhosis (irreversible and potentially fatal liver scarring), liver cancer, or liver failure. Hepatitis C is the major reason for liver transplants in the United States, accounting for 1,000 of the procedures annually. The disease is responsible for between 8,000 and 10,000 deaths yearly.

Symptoms of Hepatitis C

At the beginning of an hepatitis C virus infection, only about 25% of patients exhibit the characteristic symptoms of acute (rapid onset) hepatitis. These symptoms include fatigue, muscular aches, poor appetite, and low-grade fever. Rarely, yellowing of the skin and/or eyes (jaundice) also occurs. However, most patients (about 75%) experience minimal or no symptoms at the onset of hepatitis C virus.

Most patients with hepatitis C do not experience symptoms. If they appear at all, symptoms develop about 1 – 2 months after a person is infected. Symptoms of progressive chronic viral hepatitis may be very subtle. In some patients, itchy skin is the first symptom. Overall, fatigue is the most common symptom. Many patients do not experience any symptoms at all.

A minority of people have symptoms during the early acute phase of the infection. These symptoms typically develop 5-12 weeks after exposure to HCV. Some people describe the symptoms as being flulike. The symptoms may last a few weeks or months.

If the infection has been present for many years, the liver may be permanently scarred — a condition called cirrhosis. In many cases, there may be no symptoms of the disease until cirrhosis has developed.

Causes of Hepatitis C

A small number of babies born to mothers with hepatitis C acquire the infection during childbirth. Mother-to-infant transmission rates are higher among women infected with both hepatitis C and HIV. Talk with your doctor about these risks before becoming pregnant.

Hepatitis C can cause damage to your liver, even if you don’t have symptoms. You’re also able to pass the virus to others without having any symptoms yourself. That’s why it’s important to be tested if you think

IV drug use appears to be the most common mode of HCV transmission, accounting for 50 percent or more of infections. Sharing drug needles or having received a tattoo from an unclean needle are also risk factors. Sexual transmission is less common than with hepatitis B. Maternal transmission of HCV infection has been demonstrated, but the incidence appears to be low (about 2-5 percent).

Transfusion with infected blood or blood products, hemodialysis, or transplantation of organs from infected donors was once a common mode of transmission but is now rare.

Cirrhosis of the Liver Information and Treatment

Cirrhosis is a complication of many liver diseases that is characterized by abnormal structure and function of the liver. Cirrhosis is the eleventh superior cause of death by disease in the United States. Almost one-half of these are alcohol related. About 25,000 people die from cirrhosis each year. There also is a great toll in terms of human suffering, hospital costs, and the loss of work by people with cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is the twelfth leading cause of death by disease, killing about 26,000 people each year. Common symptoms of cirrhosis is feel tired or weak , lose your appetite , feel sick to your stomach and lose weight.

There are many causes of cirrhosis including alcohol abuse ,chronic viral hepatitis , autoimmune hepatitis, which is damage of liver cells by the body’s immune system , nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, which is fat deposits and inflammation in the liver. some drugs, toxins, and infections also leading causes of cirrhosis. Treatment of cirrhosis is aimed to stop the development of scar tissue in the liver and prevent complications. Treatment for hepatitis related cirrhosis includes medications used to treat the dissimilar form of hepatitis, such as interferon for viral hepatitis and corticosteroids for autoimmune hepatitis.

Medications may be given to help reduced mental functioning. Antibiotics will be prescribed for infections, and various medications can help with itching. Cortisone medicine helps treat autoimmune hepatitis and cirrhosis. Laxatives (usually a syrupy solution called lactulose) to prevent constipation and to reduce the chances of the poisonous substances from the bowel bypassing the liver and reaching the brain, causing drowsiness, confusion and coma (hepatic encephalopathy). Liver transplantation may be considered in patients with end-stage cirrhosis.

Liver transplantation has progressed to the stage where it can now be regarded as standard treatment for selected patients. About 80 to 90 percent of patients survive liver transplantation. Perhaps 90 percent of cirrhosis is caused by excessive alcohol consumption or hepatitis viruses. So, alcohol can be avoided. Avoid adding salt to meals. Salt may be used in little amounts in cooking. Stay away from illegal drugs, which can increase your chances of getting hepatitis B or hepatitis C. There are many home remedies for cirrhosis of the liver useful this condition such as, trailing eclipta, picrorhiza, black seeds of papaya and juice of carrots etc.

Home Remedies for Kidney Stones or Renal Calculi

It’s been said the pain of kidney stones is like giving birth. But, whilst childbirth is a welcome and predicable event, the sudden, excruciating pain of a kidney stone strikes without warning. Such is the shock and the agony of this, it’s hardly surprising you’ll readily agree to surgery. Yet a little research will uncover some very effective home remedies for kidney stones, which can avoid painful, invasive surgery in the majority of cases.

Nettle leaf: This leaf is known for its urination promotion abilities. Drinking up to 2 to 3 cups of nettle leaf tea daily may prevent the formation of kidney stones. Nettle leaf works by constantly keeping water flowing through the body’s kidneys and bladder; it also helps to wash away bacteria. Nettle leaf tea can be prepared by simply mixing 1 or 2 tablespoons of dried nettle leaf with a cup of hot water and leave to infuse for 10 to 15 minutes.

Increase your intake of bran and oats – bran and oats naturally contain a lot of fiber. Fiber helps get rid of excess calcium and other oxalates or the organic acids that come from the food we eat. Oxalates are useful as in the case of vitamin C. However, oxalates and other excessive mineral substances have the tendency to merge into spiky crystals.

If you are suffering from kidney stones or you have had them in the past, one of the most important things to do is to make sure you drink plenty of water. It is important to increase your intake of fluids. It is a good idea to drink 8 oz of water a day, or even more if you can. You can drink it alone or with a herbal infusion or cordial. Drinks containing caffeine such as tea, coffee and cola and alcohol aren’t counted in this 8oz but you can also drink fruit juices and other drinks.

Like your doctor mentioned, drink water throughout the day. At least 12 cups a day.

Another form of treatment involves inserting a probe up the urethra and up into the urinary tract. This does give direct contact with the stone, which then requires a less powerful shockwave to shatter it, so meaning less residual pain. Alternatively a laser may be used on the end of the probe to fragment the stone.

Physician and Nutrition Expert Dr. McDougal stated, “Today over prescribing and overuse of mind-altering drugs are doing far more harm than good in our society.” Many times, only a few simple lifestyle changes are needed and not an over-priced pill with dangerous side-effects. Unfortunately, most of the time doctors do not tell us about the simple lifestyle changes, but don’t think twice about prescribing us one to two medications.

Dizziness and Nausea

Dizziness is lightheadedness, feeling like you might faint, being unsteady, loss of balance, or vertigo. Dry heaves when it is at its worst. The nausea is worse in the morning and is aggravated by moving and somewhat alleviated by eating. More serious conditions that can lead to lightheadedness include heart problems (such as abnormal heart rhythm or heart attack), stroke, and severe drop in blood pressure (shock). Common symptoms of dizziness associated with aging include lightheadedness, a spinning sensation, giddiness, wooziness, or unsteadiness. Dizziness may be just mildly annoying or caused by something possibly life threatening. Lightheadedness is a feeling that you are about to faint or “pass out. Nausea is the body’s way of reacting to an infection or condition.

Always carry a “sipper” cup filled with your favorite drinks. Dizziness and vertigo caused by a vestibular migraine may be triggered by turning your head quickly.
Brain causes. Stroke, tumor, headaches, migraines, hyperventilation. Fainting (syncope) – A loss of blood supply to the brain causing loss of consciousness, typically after loss of blood output by your heart. Dementia or senility – Any illness causing confusion or changed state of mind, such as medications, drugs, or alcohol.
Many things may trigger this infamous “common faint”—emotions, rapidly assuming an upright position, even urination. Promptly treat ear infections, colds, flus, sinus congestion, and other respiratory infections. This may help prevent labyrinthitis and Meniere’s disease.

Nausea and vomiting can occur in both children and adults. Nausea is often indicative of an underlying condition elsewhere in the body. Nausea is also an adverse effect of many drugs. Nausea may also be an effect of a large intake of sugary foods. Nausea is the sensation that there is a need to vomit. Nausea can be acute and short-lived, or it can be prolonged. Nausea and vomiting can sometimes be symptoms of more serious diseases such as heart attacks, kidney or liver disorders, central nervous system disorders, brain tumors, and some forms of cancer. It is estimated that 50 to 90 percent of pregnant women experience nausea, while 25 to 55 percent experience vomiting. It often occurs with or precedes vomiting, but both nausea-without-vomiting and vomiting-without-nausea are possible.

Nausea Treatment Tips

1. Several antiemetics, and researchers continue to look for more effective treatments.

2. Doxylamine is the drug of choice in pregnancy-related nausea.

3. Non-invasive (often untested) mechanical devices used to suppress nausea due to motion sickness.

4. Avoid solid foods until there has been no vomiting for six hours, and then work slowly back to a normal diet.

5. Spice ginger is also used for centuries as a folk remedy to treat nausea.

Food Poisoning Cured With Homeopathy

Not the best way to spend a few days. Food poisoning can be a memorable event in someone’s life because it is so overwhelming and relentless. Homeopathy is at the ready to help. What would take many hours, and sometimes even days, to recover, homeopathy can transform to a short version and then leave the sufferer in a better state than it found him to start.

When we decide to use homeopathy for this malady, the remedy must be chosen based on symptoms and the cause. In other words, the symptoms point the way. This is reason enough to not use conventional meds to cover up what the body wants us to know. The benefits of having symptoms outweigh the short amount of relief. What ever remedy is chosen, take it every hour if the symptoms are extreme and every 4-5 hours if less intense. As soon as there is relief, stop taking the remedy.

The first remedy we think of when we have been poisoned by bad meat is Arsenicum album. A person requiring this has a sudden attack of nausea, vomiting, great weakness and a dry mouth. There is usually anxiety and restlessness and even a fear of death. This is accompanied by an unusual thirst for small sips of warm water and burning at some area, most often rectally. There may be straining. It can often be traced back to the ingestion of ice cream or bad meat.

Another powerhouse remedy to consider is Bryonia. Food poisoning requiring this remedy most likely comes on from over eating. There is pain that is extreme and although there is thirst, no sooner does the sufferer drink the desired cold water, but he vomits it. Where the Arsenicum patient wants to move around, the Bryonia patient craves stillness. In fact, movement only serves to cause further nausea and retching. Even moving his head or eyes can make matters worse. He is comforted with applications to the abdomen and is often curled into a ball on the floor or bed. The cause can sometimes be found to point squarely to a meal of cabbage, ice cream, old cheese or simply food that is too rich.

Pulsatilla is a remedy that often responds to someone who craves ice cream, but simply can’t tolerate it. It can also be brought on by eating bad fish, pork, fatty and creamy foods like peanut butter, cream and cheese. There is bloating and belching up food that tastes tainted. Often the mouth is dry, but there is rarely thirst and a desire for fresh air or a cool light breeze upon him. While the symptoms are not severe, the person is comforted by walking outside in the air.

There are more remedies to consider. Should you be interested, follow up with the next article entitled “Food Poisoning Again”.

What You Should Know About Colon Ulcers

A colon ulcer is a sore that appears inside the lining of a person’s colon. Often people who have a colon ulcer will suffer from bleeding and infection and as a result of this inflammation the cells within the colon begin to deteriorate. Unfortunately a colon ulcer may be the first signs of a much more serious condition known as Ulcerative Colitis or Colon Cancer or even Crohn’s Disease (an inflammatory bowel disease).

So if you have at some time suffered from at least one colon ulcer and are now starting to experience unusually severe abdominal pain, constant fevers, loss of weight, loss of appetite and fatigue then it would be wise to make an appointment to see your doctor. Although these are common symptoms of a colon ulcer they could also lead to the diagnosis of Ulcerative Colitis. As yet it can not be proven what actually causes this condition, but doctors have certainly found that the immune system is affected. For many people suffering from colon ulcers they can be treated with drugs which puts the condition into remission or for the more severe cases then surgery may be the best course of action.

A very small percentage of people who are diagnosed with Ulcerative Colitis are at risk of developing colon cancer in the future even if pre-cancerous cell are not found that the time of them being tested for a possible colon ulcer. Also it will depend on how severe the damage is to your colon and the more severe the damage then the chances of developing colon cancer is increased. However, a doctor can carry out a colonoscopy which can determine at any time if you have any pre-cancerous cells present in your colon. So the earlier that this cancer can be diagnosed then it will make it easier for it to be treated effectively.

Now we are going to look at Crohn’s Disease which is an inflammation of the bowel and is very much like Ulcerative Colitis but can cause a lifetime of discomfort and complications to the person affected. As yet there has been no definitive evidence as to what causes this disease, but in most cases where people have been diagnosed with this disease it has been found that someone in the family also suffers from an inflammatory bowel disease as well. Yet again this form of disease can be treated with either drug therapy, surgery or them having a more restrictive diet.

So for anyone who is diagnosed with a colon ulcer it is advisable that they get a thorough examination carried out by their doctor in order to check to make sure that there aren’t any more serious conditions involved. Also by diagnosing the condition of a colon ulcer earlier on then you will find that recovery from such an ulcer will be much easier.

Chronic Cough Could Be Acid Reflux Cough

More than 1/3 of people who visit their doctor with complaints of chronic cough are diagnosed with acid reflux. Even people with no other signs of acid reflux, like heartburn, can experience acid reflux cough. Many people aren’t even aware this is possible so it often goes untreated.

Fluids are produced in the stomach to digest the foods you eat. Sometimes these fluids can back up into your esophagus. When this happens, you are experiencing acid reflux. Typically acid reflux will cause symptoms like heartburn or regurgitation. Acid reflux cough is also a common symptom of acid reflux, although most people don’t recognize it as such. Acid reflux cough usually happens when the fluids back up so far into the esophagus that they spill over into the lungs. This does not even have to be enough fluid to cause heartburn, but it will cause you to cough. Actually, many people experience acid reflux cough with no heartburn or other symptoms of acid reflux at all.

Many people with chronic cough don’t understand why cough syrup isn’t helping them. This is because a cough syrup is not the right kind of medication for acid reflux cough. A better source of help might be an antacid to keep the reflux from happening. However, too much antacid is likely to have a negative effect on acid reflux symptoms because once the antacid neutralizes the acids, it will cause the stomach to make more fluids for digestion.

Some medications can cause acid reflux cough, as well as some health problems. Heart medications that include nitrates have been found to cause acid reflux cough, as have beta blockers that are prescribed for heart conditions. Certain complications from asthma can cause acid reflux cough, and many people who suffer from asthma don’t think to attribute their chronic cough to acid reflux. They assume it is from their asthma condition. If you have asthma and a chronic cough, and your inhaler doesn’t help it, get tested for acid reflux. You may be surprised to find that you have both acid reflux cough and asthma. Diabetes has been linked to acid reflux as well. This could have something to do with digestive complications in people with diabetes. Once again, if you are diabetic and have chronic cough, chances are you will also test positive for acid reflux.

There are many tests that can be performed to detect if your chronic cough is an acid reflux cough. Most tests must be performed in your doctor’s office, but there are some new tests on the market that can be done from home by simply breathing into a tube. Ask your doctor about the effectiveness of these home tests, though, because they are somewhat new. Your doctor may suggest you try the home test first and if the results are inconclusive then pay him a visit for more comprehensive testing.

Your chronic cough may be an acid reflux cough. Talk to your doctor about getting tested to see if this is the case. You can’t take care of it if you don’t get the facts about acid reflux.

Gastritis Digestive System and How it Works


Gastritis is an inflammation, irritation or erosion of the lining of the stomach. It can occur suddenly (acute) or gradually (chronic).

Human Digestive System

The human digestive system is a complex series of organs and glands that processes food. In order to use the food we eat, our body has to break the food down into smaller molecules that it can process; it also has to excrete waste.

Gastritis Causes and symptoms

Gastritis can be caused by drinking too much alcohol, prolonged use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin or ibuprofen, or infection with bacteria such as Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Sometimes gastritis develops after major surgery, traumatic injury, burns, or severe infections.

Acute gastritis occurs suddenly and is more likely to cause nausea and burning pain or discomfort in your upper abdomen. Chronic gastritis develops gradually and is more likely to cause a dull pain and a feeling of fullness or loss of appetite after a few bites of food.

Your Digestive System and How It Works

Organs that make up the digestive tract are the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine—also called the colon—rectum, and anus. Inside these hollow organs is a lining called the mucosa. In the mouth, stomach, and small intestine, the mucosa contains tiny glands that produce juices to help digest food.

The Mouth Starts Everything Moving

Even before you eat, when you smell a tasty food, see it, or think about it, digestion begins. Saliva (say: suh-lye-vuh), or spit, begins to form in your mouth. When you do eat, the saliva breaks down the chemicals in the food a bit, which helps make the food mushy and easy to swallow.

Digestive Diseases and Medications

Digestion is the complex process of turning the food you eat into the energy you need to survive. The digestion process also involves creating waste to be eliminated.

Food passes down the throat, down through a muscular tube called the esophagus, and into the stomach, where food continues to be broken down. The partially digested food passes into a short tube called the duodenum (first part of the small intestine).

Celiac disease is an immune reaction to gluten, a protein found in wheat, rye, and barley. An estimated 1 percent of all Americans suffer from celiac disease, though many have never been diagnosed and are not receiving treatment.

Dietary Treatments for Gastritis

Vitamin C has the capacity to help in the absorption of iron and calcium salts in the body. This eases the digestive process. Therefore, the diet must be rich in vitamin C. Foods that contain vitamin C to a commendable quantity are amlas, oranges, etc.

Ayurvedic Treatment for Gastritis

There is a list of other Ayurvedic preparations that are useful in the treatment of gastritis. Some of these are Dhaatri loha, Sukumara ghrita, Sootashekhara rasa, Kaamadudha rasa, Leela Vilas rasa, Chandrakala rasa and Amalapittantaka rasa.

All-fruit diet

After the acute symptoms subside, the patient should adopt an all-fruit diet for the next three days and take juicy fruits such as apples, pears, grapes, grapefruit, oranges, pineapple, peaches, and melons.

The stomach is the most acidic part of the body, setting the
stage both for ulcer development and infection. Three types of
cells pump out the ingredients of gastric juice: mucous-secreting
cells, chief cells that release digestive enzymes, and parietal
cells that produce hydrochloric acid.

Online Medical Doctor -angiosarcoma Sarcoma – a Rare Tumour of the Heart

Treatment options for a rare medical condition

A 41 year old female was diagnosed with a rare condition – a malignant tumor of the heart. Confused as to how to proceed with treatment of her condition, she received recommendations for medication and further tests from a Medical-Opinion online medical specialist.

The patient is a 41 year-old female diagnosed with cardiac angiosarcoma. She has no significant medical history, except for a slightly enlarged heart (cardiomegaly) since birth, periodically controlled and without pathological matching.

The patient had been experiencing pain in the pericardial region which was investigated but with no definite diagnosis. The patient scheduled an appointment at an outpatient hospital for further investigation and medical treatment.

In the meantime, the patient was hospitalized for suspected pericarditis, subsequent to the appearance of fever.

The performed CAT scan confirmed a neoformation affecting the right atrium. She then underwent a cardiac biopsy which diagnosed a cardiac angiosarcoma.

The patient was subsequently subject to an operation for the removal of the right endoatrial mass and for the reconstruction of the wall with autologous pericardium.

The histological slides were sent to a cancer institute, which confirmed the diagnosis of an Angiosarcoma of the epithelioid type.

The Pet, the bone scintigraphy and the MRI imaging performed afterwards have provided contrasting results with regard to eventual bone and hepatic metastasis.

Online Doctor Consultation – Medical Questions: The patient has asked for an online doctor consultation regarding an eventual treatment and/or further examinations to be performed.

Expert Report and Opinion

Summary: 41 year old woman in good health with pains in the left chest. Hospitalized with fever and the diagnosis of pericarditis. CT chest abdomen pelvis showed an abnormality in the right atrium. Transthorasic ECHO showed a right atrial mass measuring 4.4×3.4 cm and contiguous to the side wall. She had a biopsy of the atrial mass by catheterization, and the pathology revealed angiosarcoma. She then had resection of the right endoatrail mass with reconstruction with autologous pericardium, and she did well post op. The pathology was confirmed as Angiosarcoma, epithelial type at a cancer institute. PET CT showed increased uptake in the residual right side of the heart (which could reflect the recent surgery or be residual sarcoma), with increased uptake in D4, and in the pelvis near the right acetabulum thought to represent bone involvement, and a circumscribed area of increased activity in the rear margin of the second hepatic segment. The CT of the chest abdomen and pelvis had no abnormalities aside from the mass in the atium. I did not see a report of a bone scan or of an MRI of the spine in the records, or images on the accompanying CD. The margins were not noted on the path report.


Angiosarcoma arising in the right atrium, grossly resected, which by morphologic description appears to be high grade. Staging showed possible metastatic involvement by PET in D4 and the right acetabulum area, and possibly one small focus in the liver(with the CT c/a/p not revealing any obvious mets), with uptake in the right side of the heart (likely physiologic post-op).

Treatment options

Sarcoma of the heart including angiosarcoma of the heart is a very rare tumor. Gross resection may be possible but there is a high likelihood of distant dissemination hematogenously. There is no standard treatment approach because of the small number of cases. Our approach has been to treat adjuvantly with chemotherapy in patients with no obvious distant disease. We have used Adriamycin and Ifosphamide for 6 cycles if the ejection fraction is adequate. We have not used radiation to the heart. If the ejection fraction is poor, then the choice of drugs changes to Ifosphamide and VP-16. Angiosarcomas may have a good response to Taxol and treating with Taxol is reasonable. We have used Taxol given weekly to treat angiosarcomas which are metastatic with good success, but have not had a cardiac sarcoma that was of the angiosarcoma subtype.

If the patient has widespread disease then the prognosis is very grave, and the treatment would be palliative but would include the same drugs: Taxol; adriamycin and Ifosphamide; Ifosphamide and VP-16. Other possibilities which may have some activity are Gemzar with Taxotere; and ET-743 which is still experimental in the US, but is available on a compassionate basis. If not done, a bone scan and an MRI of the dorsal spine and the pelvis may help to determine if the patient has distant disease, but this could still remain equivocal. Treatment for 3 cycles followed by restaging may be helpful to determine the extent of disease.

Fatty Liver Disease Causes Symptoms Information With Treatment

Fatty liver disease covers a range of conditions where there is a build-up of fat in the liver cells. It may be caused by various diseases, such as in chronic alcoholism and obesity . Simple fatty liver usually does not damage the liver, but is a condition that can be identified by taking a sample of liver tissue (liver biopsy) and examining it under a microscope. All of the stages of NAFLD have in common the accumulation of fat (fatty infiltration) in the liver cells (hepatocytes). Yet, in many respects, the histological picture of NAFLD (when we look at a biopsy piece of liver under the microscope) is similar to what can be seen in liver disease that is due to excessive intake of alcohol. As we shall see, however, the clinical circumstances in NAFLD and NASH are very different from those in alcoholic liver disease (ALD).

Causes of Fatty Liver Disease

The common Causes of Fatty Liver Disease :

Several risk factors may be cofactors required for the development of advanced ALD.

Minimum amounts of alcohol intake associated with an increased risk for developing ALD range from 40-80 g/d for 10-12 years.

Obesity and dietary habits have been implicated in individual susceptibility to ALD.

Several studies demonstrate a high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody in patients with ALD, as well as iron overload.

Symptoms of Fatty Liver Disease

Some Symptoms of Fatty Liver Disease :

Loss of appetite.



Mental confusion.

Dry mouth.



Swelling of your legs and feet from retained fluid (edema).

Abdominal pain and tenderness.

Treatment of Fatty Liver Disease

Strict management of diabetes with diet, medications or insulin lowers blood sugar, which may prevent further liver damage. It also may reduce the amount of accumulated fat in your liver.

Controlling elevated levels of cholesterol and triglycerides with diet, exercise and cholesterol-lowering medications may help stabilize or reverse nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

If you have nonalcoholic fatty liver disease especially nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) don’t drink alcohol. Also avoid medications and other substances that can cause liver damage. Talk to your doctor about which ones to avoid.

Researchers are studying the effects of several medications on insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in people with and without diabetes. These include metformin (Glucophage, Glucophage XR), pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia) and betaine (Cystadane).

Hyaluronic Acid Benefits

Hyaluronan also known as acid hyaluronic. The acid one of Hyaluronic is a component of the synovial liquid, and is found in the mood vitreous of the eye, the synovia of the junctions, and in the fabric subcutaneous where it functions is as an agent cementing. Hyaluronan is one of the lead components of the matrix to extracellular. It contributes notably to proliferation and the migration of the stack, and can also be involved in the progression of some tumors malignant. Hyaluronan is a component important of cartilage to articulate, where it is present as an covering around each stack (chondrocyte).

The acid of Hyaluronic is a glycos amino glycan with the properties anti-inflammatory drugs and anti-of the oedema. Hyaluronic acid abnormalities are a common flax in combinative tissue disorders. Appealing, they are also common biochemical anomalies in most of the personal features of connective tissue disorders such as mitral valve prolapse, osteoarthritis, and keratoconus. Hyaluronic acid is present in each tissue of the body, and it performs many important functions. It helps deliver nutrients to and convey toxins from cells that do not have a blood supply, such as those found in cartilage.

Without competent amounts of Hyaluronic acid, the joints will get brittle and degenerate. It is too establish in big concentrations in the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is the fluid-filled place between cells. Hyaluronic acid locks moisture into the ECM, retaining collagen and elastin moist. Hyaluronic acid is gaining popularity in the esthetic and medical industries. Hyaluronic acidic oral supplements are promoted for arthritis and many new conditions including rind health. Cosmetic products containing hyaluronic acidic demand to hydrate the rind, allowing it to seem smoother and more bright.

Hyaluronic acid too helps wounds mend more rapidly, and can cut the show of both older and original scars. Injectible hyaluronic acid fillers, such as Restylane, are being to diminish the show of lines, sagging and depressions in the rind caused by acne scars or wound. HA finally breaks downward and is absorbed in the system, then both esthetic and medical applications are not lasting. Hyaluronic acid is accessible by injection, but you can too discover many oral supplements at health nutrient stores, pharmacies, and online distributorships. Hyaluronic acidic therapy is appropriate for patients hypersensitive to bovine collagen.


After a myocardial infarction the prognosis of the patientis dependent on the success of treatment of the complicationsdescribed above, the likelihood of recurrence orextension of the infarct, and the extent of eventual impairmentof cardiac function. Despite modern advances inmedicine, some 40% of myocardial infarction victims diewithout reaching the hospital. In the prethrombolytic era the introduction of coronary care units resulted in an approximate halving of hospital mortality rates from about30% to about 15%, and the predominant cause of deathchanged from fatal arrhythmias to heart failure.After surviving an acute myocardial infarction, theprognosis is dependent on:

1. The extent of ventricular impairment

2. The propensity to life-threatening arrhythmia

3. The possibility of further infarction.

The extent of left ventricular dysfunction is dependent on:

• The state of left ventricular function prior to theinfarction

• The size and nature of the infarction

• The subsequent repair and remodelling processes

• The amount of viable myocardium still in jeopardyfrom ischaemia (inadequate blood supply and cardiacmyocytes functioning in energy deficit), stunning (reasonableblood supply but myocyte contraction impaired)or hibernation (reduced blood supply but myocytesdownregulated so as not to be in energy deficit).Thus, patients with diminished starting numbers of cardiacmyocytes (due to either previous myocardial infarctionsor old age

– secondary to natural attrition of myocytes,which averages about 35% from the age of 18 to 90 years,or previous cardiomyopathy) or pre-existing ventriculardysfunction from any cause (e.g. valvular or hypertensiveheart disease) would not tolerate the same myocardialinfarction as well as those with normal or athletic hearts.Obviously, patients incurring a larger myocardial infarctionare likely to have a worse prognosis than those with asmaller infarction. T

he repair processes post infarctionmay be impaired (e.g. by concomitant therapy with corticosteroidsor NSAIDs), leading to a greater likelihood ofinfarct expansion and ventricular aneurysm formation,resulting in a ventricle that functions less well than onewith normal scar tissue formation.The most important long-term prognostic indicator isleft ventricular dysfunction. The clinical diagnosis of heartfailure is a good indicator of dysfunction; patients withheart failure post infarction have 2-4 times greater mortalityrates than those without.

The simplest measurementsof dysfunction are left ventricular ejection fraction or endsystolicvolume, the depression of which has been found tocorrelate with mortality. These patients deserve a moreaggressive approach to treatment, in terms of risk factorreduction, ACE inhibition and, if indicated, revascularization(see below).The presence of arrhythmias at rest or during exertionis an adverse prognostic indicator after myocardial infarction.

Arrhythmias can be identified by Holter monitoring,exercise tests or direct electrophysiological studies. Frequentventricular ectopics or inducible ventricular tachycardiaare predictive of sudden death. Late potentials inaveraged ECGs and reduced heart variability are alsopredictive of life-threatening arrhythmias. High-grade AV block and bundle branch block resulting from myocardialinfaction are associated with a poor outcome.

Residual myocardial ischaemia, as manifested by postinfarctionangina or positive exercise tests, is an importantpredictor of reinfarction and mortality. High-grade stenosisor occlusion of the infarcted related artery supplying alarge portion of the left ventricle is an independent prognosticindicator.

Much prognostic information can be obtained from clinicaldata and non-invasive investigations (e.g. ECG, chestX-ray, exercise tests, echocardiography) and, if indicatedby these, more sophisticated or invasive investigationsmay then be performed. It is important to point out that,although various parameters may be predictive of prognosis,this does not imply that therapeutic attemptsto improve these parameters necessarily lead to benefits topatients or improved outcome. A rational approach tomanagement is required.

Reducing The Risk Of Heart Attacks In Women

When you feel like your beginning to breathe very rapidly and complain that your heart is jumping around in your chest, you may be experiencing panic attack.  Such rapid pulse and shortness of breath of a panic attack can feel like a heart attack, and may signal a brewing heart trouble, a study of more than 3,000 older women reveals. Episodes of panic attack are frightening and may occur at random or after a person is exposed to various events that may trigger the condition.  

Based on the study, women who reported at least one full-blown panic attack during a six-month period were three times more likely to have a heart attack or stroke over the next five years than women who didn’t report a panic attack.  After taking into account other risk factors such as smoking, high blood pressure, inactivity and depression, researchers have also found out that emotional and mental health issues chracterized by fear, hostility, and anxiety which have been linked to previous research on heart problems, said study co-author Dr. Jordan Smoller of Boston’s Massachusetts General Hospital.
“Postmenopausal women who are experiencing panic attacks may be a subgroup with elevated risk,” Smoller said.  She added that monitoring the health condition of postmenopausal women is critical to the reduction of the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Monday’s Archives of General Psychiatry published the study which wasn’t designed to explain the link but speculated that a panic attack may trigger heart rhythm problems or that stress hormones released during an attack may harm the heart.

Susie Rissler, 51, of Terre Haute, Indiana, wasn’t a bit surprised by the study.  She’s been a panic attack sufferer since childhood who had already experienced three mini-strokes. “You feel like the whole world is caving in,” Rissler said of her panic attacks, which can include symptoms like racing heartbeat and chest pains. “I’ve had shaking, sweating, curling up in a ball totally afraid to even look around. Panic attacks can really destroy a person in a lot of different ways,” she said.

According to Smoller, some of the reported panic symptoms such as racing heart, chest pain or shortness of breath, experienced as a panic attack, may have been heart problems in disguise and may have been caused by an undiagnosed heart problem. “One study doesn’t settle a question,” he cautioned. Smoller said that the number of events seen in this sample was still relatively small.

From 1997-2000, the study enrolled 3,243 women and followed them for five years. Forty-one in the analysis had a heart attack or death from a heart problem. An additional 40 had strokes.  According to Dr. Joann Manson of Harvard’s Brigham and Women’s Hospital who is not part of the team, though the weakness of the study may be its reliance on the women’s memories, rather than doctors’ diagnoses, it’s more likely that the findings point to a real connection between panic and heart problems.

“It does tie together very well with what we know about the biology and physiology of the stress hormones,” Manson said. “I think it does suggest that this is something to discuss with your doctor, ” Manson said.

Heart Disease: Treatment and Prevention

Heart disease is the number one cause of death in America. Over 600,000 Americans die from heart disease each year – and about 34 percent of heart attacks will prove fatal.  With improved medical technology and heart health awareness, it’s possible to decrease one’s risk of heart disease – and reduce the risk of a heart attack.

The term “heart disease” refers to the long-term buildup of plaque – a thick substance consisting mostly of cholesterol that collects in the arteries, causing them to narrow and restricting blood flow to the heart.  Without proper blood flow, and oxygenation, the heart is unable to continue pumping blood around the body.  This rapid onset of abnormal functioning – referred to as a myocardial infarction or heart attack – presents with symptoms like chest pain, shooting pains in the left arm, shortness of breath, and fainting.

While heart attacks are often treatable and a full recovery is possible, preventative measures are the most effective way to treat heart disease.  A diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains will provide abundant nutrients like vitamin A, vitamin B, niacin, and flavinoids to improve cardiac function.  The soluble fiber found in these foods also helps reduce cholesterol levels by acting as a “sponge” for excess cholesterol in the digestive tract – as the liver releases a cholesterol-rich digestive enzyme called bile, soluble fiber from fruits and whole grain oats absorbs the excess and is flushed out as waste.  It’s even more important to decrease one’s intake of fatty and cholesterol-rich foods like red meat, full-fat dairy products, and deep-fried foods.

Exercise, as well, is a proven method of preventing heart disease. The American Heart Association recommends 30 minutes of continuous, strenuous physical activity per day to improve heart health and reduce one’s long-term risk of a heart attack.

In cases where it is simply too late to treat heart disease with preventative measures, Florida residents have a multitude of medical treatment options at their disposal.  When in search of a cardiologist Miami heart care center Mount Sinai Heart Institute provides a range of innovative surgical treatment options – many with minimal pain and minimal recovery time.  With minimally invasive cardiac surgery, patients can avoid the discomfort and fear surrounding open heart surgery and enjoy a faster recover and shorter hospital stay.  Patients with non-heart-disease-related cardiac conditions, like mitral valve defects or heart murmurs, can also benefit from top treatments – such as pacemaker insertion or heart valve replacement surgery.  The benefits of good heart care are invaluable – but surgical options make heart disease more treatable than ever.

Recent Cases of Tuberculosis

According to scientific studies, three million people die from Tuberculosis every year. A number of around eight million new discovered Tuberculosis conditions appear per year and 95% is estimated to be in developing areas. Countries like those in South America, Africa or Asia have the highest susceptibility to Tuberculosis due to the low living standards and the bad economic and social conditions.

Although the risk of Tuberculosis infection has decreased in the 1980′, in the 1990′ it already began to arise because of the high rate of immigration from countries with increased number of cases. Immigrant communities all difficult to observe, control or treat, because of the many differences between different races and cultures.

Immunity plays a tremendous role in prevention and treatment of Tuberculosis. A healthy immune system lowers the risk of catching Tuberculosis to 1 in 10 cases per year and only seldom an infected healthy organism gets to develop the active condition. HIV+ patients have a suppressed and weaken immune system and are mostly incapable to fight Mycobacterium. 1 in 10 patients with AIDS will surely suffer from active tuberculin infection, and from those with a positive skin test 1 in 2 will develop Tuberculosis. Epidemiological implications are very concerning as HIV cases tend to increase very rapidly.

One worrying issue of the TBC condition is the development of resistance to antibiotics due to fast bacterial mutations. The resistance phenomenon increases the risk of reoccurrence and makes recurrent cases more dangerous. Administering one single drug in the treatment of Tuberculosis tends to be dangerous as one single mutant bacillus in enough to trigger antibiotic-resistant Tuberculosis. Nowadays doctors prescribe the standard medication for this condition: Rifampicin, Isoniazide, Pyrazinamide and Ethambutol. Also Streptomycin is efficient in treating active Tuberculosis. This medication schedule will prevent the multiplication of all strains of Mycobacterium bacteria.

In our times Tuberculosis is well kept under control by good organized care systems in the civilized world. But slow developing countries are at high risk of an epidemic because of the low possibilities to prevent, supervise and treat Tuberculosis cases. Further laboratory studies are necessary to establish an efficient anti-Tuberculosis vaccine that might reduce the risk of catching the bacillus. The medical world must improve the diagnose methods as well as the available medication in order to face the hard battle with Tuberculosis. If no urgent measures are taken, the world’s population risks a new wave of uncontrollable Tuberculosis.

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