Oral Candidiasis (Thrush) Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Want to know what causes oral candidiasis (thrush), what it looks like and the treatments available? Oral candidiasis, also known as thrush, is a fungal infection that can affect men, women and babies. Here, you’ll discover the risk groups, as well as the causes, symptoms and treatment options.

First, let’s go over the symptoms of oral candidiasis (thrush). The usual signs are creamy / white thick coatings on tongue and mucous membranes, slightly raised inflamed spots, difficulty swallowing, and a slight burning sensation in mouth. And, although many adults use the term “thrush”, it is most usually used to describe oral candidiasis in babies.

The cause of candidiasis in general is the yeast-like fungus called Candida Albicans. This resides in our bodies quite naturally, but is usually held in check by your body’s beneficial bacteria. But when the numbers of your good bacteria reduce enough, the Candida fungus can overgrow, causing a candidiasis infection, also called candida or yeast infection.

A yeast infection can occur almost anywhere, but the most common places are the vagina, penis and mouth, because they present the perfect conditions for the fungus to thrive, i.e. dark, warm and moist. Here, we are only concerned with oral candidiasis (thrush).

There are certain things that can ‘trigger’ the conditions that allow the fungus to overcome your good bacteria. In terms of oral candidiasis, the following are the “at risk” groups; smokers, diabetics, folks on antibiotics or steroids, denture wearers, women on oral contraceptives or are pregnant (hormonal changes), folks with immune defficiency (e.g. HIV/AIDS, chemotherapy) and breast-feeding babies.

Now let’s look at the treatment. Your normal mainstream treatment largely consists of drug-based liquid suspensions that you swish around your mouth and then swallow (“swish and swallow”). You can get these on prescription or over-the-counter. Typical drugs are nystatin, miconazole and amphotericin B. This approach can work quite effectively over time.

But many sufferers are finding that their symptoms keep reappearing after they’ve finished the course. This recurring candidiasis could be due to the medication just addressing the symptoms but not the root cause, and, the fungus becoming drug-resistant.

This is why so many sufferers with oral candidiasis are successfully turning to totally natural home remedies that are way cheaper than expensive drug-based medications and without their negative downsides.

Typical of these are raw garlic, plain yogurt and raw apple cider vinegar, but there are literally tons out there that you need to search out and try. You also need to address things like dietary and lifestyle changes.

Alternatively, go straight here http://how-to-get-rid-of-a-yeast-infection.blogspot.com where you’ll get the facts on how to eliminate your oral candidiasis (thrush) fast (in as little as 12 hours?) and permanently, without expensive drugs.

Hepatitis a – How You Get it and What it Does to Your Body

Definition of Hepatitis

Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver, which is caused by viruses, medications and toxic agents. Currently, at least five (5) forms of viral hepatitis are recognized which in this article we will learn about Hepatitis A, how it spreads and how to prevent infection.

How hepatitis spreads

Hepatitis A (HAV) is spread primarily by oral contact with feces of an infected person (oral-fecal contact), including contaminated food or water sources, and any sexual contact, especially oral-anal sex.

Hepatitis A easily spreads among young children in kindergartens and day cares as many cannot wash their own hands and are in diapers and since children normally have no symptoms, no one may know that they might be infected.

On rare occasions hepatitis A has been spread through blood transfusion, using blood products or sharing personal tools and equipments specially sharing needles or other injecting equipment which is contaminated with hepatitis A infected blood.

Transmission by blood rarely happens because the virus cannot stay present for long. As it enters the blood onset of infection occurs.

Symptoms of Hepatitis

Since hepatitis A is an acute disease, it produces an initial acute phase with few symptoms. If any symptom is realized, they tend to be similar to flu like symptoms:- muscle or joint aches
– mild fever
– vomiting
– nausea
– slight abdominal pain
– loss of appetite
– fatigue
– diarrhea

The acute phases and their symptoms are rarely serious or fatal, but occasionally a rapidly progressing form may lead to death.

Gradually the conditions worsen and theses symptoms are experienced:

– jaundice (yellowed skin, mucous membranes and eye-whites)
– light colored stools that may contain pus
– dark urine
– itching
– hives

The types of hepatitis are then distinguished by the course of the hepatitis and the varied outcome after the acute phase.Prevention of Hepatitis

To prevent hepatitis A, always remember to the following:

Sexual Prevention:

– do not get involved in a sexual intercourse.
– commit to mutual monogamy (having sex with only one uninfected partner).
– Cut up non lubricated latex condoms or use of any moisture barriers, for example household plastic wrap or dams (square piece of latex) can help reduce the risk of transmitting Hepatitis A virus during oral-anal sex.

Non-Sexual Prevention:

– Avoid sharing drug-injection equipment especially drug needles.
– Avoid contaminated water or food sources. Only eat freshly prepared foods. drink commercially bottled or well boiled water, that too in places where water supply and sanitation are healthy and don’t eat non-peeled raw vegetables or fruits unless cleaned properly.
– Do practice good personal hygiene, especially washing hands after using the toilet or changing any diapers or sanitary pads.
– To inactivate hepatitis A virus, heat the food at temperatures above 85 degrees Celsius for 1 minute or disinfect the surfaces with a 1:100 dilution of bleach in tap water (1 part bleach for every 100 parts of water).
– It is very important for you to take a ‘hepatitis A vaccination’ before you travel to areas like Eastern Europe, Mexico, and other developing countries.

To Your Health!

What To Expect During The Final Stages Of Cirrhosis Of The Liver

A person who is in the final stages of cirrhosis of the liver will go through many complex bodily changes. Here are some of the changes that may be encountered:

Acites is the build up of fluid in the abdominal area. The liver usually makes a protein called Albumin, which keeps the fluid inside our vessels, but during the final stages of cirrhosis of the liver, it no longer does this accurately. The fluid seeps out and collects in the abdomen. The good news is that the fluid can be drained out to make the person more comfortable, but keep in mind that the fluid will return due to the loss of this important protein.

Edema is the retaining of fluid and swelling in the legs and feet. People in the final stages of cirrhosis of the liver tend to retain lots of sodium. Their doctor will put them on a lower sodium diet and give them diuretics to try to flush out the sodium. Sitting in a reclining chair and elevating the feet and legs above heart level may give a person relief from the pressure.

Loss of appetite People with liver disease tend to experience nausea and lose their appetites. They can take some vitamins and other supplements to help with malnutrition.

Encephalopathy affects the memory. When the toxins that the liver can no longer handle go into the blood, they can end up in the brain. This leads to confusion, memory loss and other various mental changes. The prescription drug Lactalose can help remove this toxin.

Even after liver failure, a person can continue surviving and thriving. In fact, there are many safe, effective, natural treatments and techniques that can help reverse symptoms of liver cirrhosis. Just because you have been told that you’re in the final stages of cirrhosis of the liver, doesn’t mean you need to give up on life. It can be turned around with a good diet, stress-reducing techniques and natural supplements. You can get your life back starting today.

Kidney Stone Treatments

Kidney shingled form when there is a decline in urine mass or overkill of deseed-forming substances in the urine. The most familiar form of kidney gemstone contains calcium in combination with the oxalate or phosphate. Other compound compounds that can form gravel in the urinary area restrict uric acid and the amino acid cystine.

Kidney gravel, also known as renal calculi, astound like structures produced in the kidney. The shingle was made out of certain substances that are found in the urine and can deter the stream of urine and root bladder inflammation. The kidney smoothed can surface in the kidney and the ureters and begin throbbing during urination. It is probable to shrink the kidney sand by drinking masses of water.

Drinking more fluids. You hardship to gulp enough water to keep your urine release, about 8 to 10 glasses a day. Try to mouthful 2 glasses of water every 2 hours while you are conscious. If you have kidney, kindness, or liver disease and are on fluid restrictions, hearsay with your surgeon before increasing your fluid intake.

The formation of gravel in the kidneys or urinary strip is not an uncommon disorder. The sand was shaped from the chemicals mostly found in the urine such as uric acid, phosphorus, calcium, and oxalic acid. They may adjust in consistency from shingle, sand, and gravel-like obstructions the size of a bird’s egg. Stones may form and grow because the concentration of a particular substance in the urine exceeds its solubility. The kidney sand are composed either of calcium oxalate or phosphate, the second being most usual in the poise of infection. About ninety percent of all pebbles surround calcium as the chief constituent. More than half of these are mixtures of calcium, ammonium and magnesium, phosphates and carbonates, while the remainder contains oxalate.

Keep a cap on your calcium. “Of all the sand we see, 92 percent are made of calcium or calcium products,” says Dr. Fugelso. If your surgeon says your last rock was calcium-based, you should be concerned about your intake of calcium. If your winning supplements, the first thing to do invoice with your surgeon to see if they are genuinely vital. The next thing to do rein the total of calcium-splendid foods-milk, cheese, butter, and other dairy foods-you eat on a daily source. The idea is to restrict-not eliminate-calcium-vivid food in your diet.

Chief among these is acids swiftly to disperse those jagged edges and therefore moderate that painful hurting. Don’t be alarmed at the vision of drinking acid, because many of the beneficial foods we eat contain acid. For example, that newly squeezed Florida carroty juice — a great way to start your breakfast — contains citric acid. And cranberries, prunes and plums are among some of the best fitness-giving foods, yet are resonant in benzoic acid. Even that old beloved for keeping the surgeon at bay: the apple has high levels of malic acid, which give the fruit its dust, critical tang.

Your physician may ask you to notice the kidney pebble by departing your urine through filter paper or a tea strainer. The stone could then be analysed to find out what mode it is to help piloting your dealing.

Why Does Baby Vomit Milk and How to Solve the Problem?

Currently, many fresh parents find their babies vomit milk, but they do not know why and have no effective methods to avoid it. After seen a breastfeeding by fresh mother, I found out the crux of baby vomiting milk, which was caused by the improper breast-feeding way.

I pointed out that during the whole feeding process, there are at least 3 points which do not meet the requirements:

First, mother should change baby diaper first and then feed the baby. As soon as mother saw baby crying, she knew that baby was hungry and cannot wait to pick up baby and breastfeed him. After baby was full, mother changed the diapers for baby. Baby was turned over from left to right in bed, and when mother started to wear diaper for baby, the legs and buttocks of baby were lifted. The stomach of newborn baby was in a horizontal position and the capacity of the stomach is small, its cardiac sphincter was flabby too, and together with the disruption when changing diapers, it is not strange that infant vomiting milk!

The right way to feed baby is that mother should change diaper for baby first, and then wash her hands and breastfeed baby.

Secondly, when breastfeeding baby, mother should stuff her entire nipple and the most of areola into the mouth of baby, rather than just stuff the nipple in. If mother uses feeding-bottle to feed baby, the rubber nipple should be full of milk to assure no air contained.

If mother only stuffs her nipple in but without areola, or the rubber nipple is with half milk and half of the air, when baby sucking milk, the air can be easily inhaled at the same time. If too much air was inhaled and mixed with milk in the stomach, the gas would rise, belch would bring together with the milk, the baby would vomit milk.

Thirdly, after feeding milk, mother cannot let baby sleep immediately on the bed, but should pick up the baby and put his head on the shoulder of mother, pats his back gently at the same time to make the stomach gas expel from the stomach. After baby eructs several belches, put it on the bed and let him lie on his right side. It is not suitable to let baby lie horizontal because if baby vomits milk, the milk will easily be inhaled into cavity or even trachea. The light one will cause pneumonia, and the serious one will cause respiratory tract asphyxia and death.

Actually, infant vomiting milk is not always caused by the wrong feeding methods. Some of the pathological factors can also lead to sick up milk, such as stomach esophagus back-streaming, pyloric spasm, congenital hypertrophic pyloric, digestive tract obstruction, infectious disease, brain hemorrhage and so on.

As a result, if infant vomiting milk is not caused by the improper feeding methods, parents should bring baby to hospital in time to find out the reason, so that baby can receive targeted treatment as soon as possible.

The Dominican Republic and food poisoning

The Dominican Republic has earned an unenviable reputation as being one of the ´food poisoning holiday hotspots´.

holiday illness claim

Standards of hygiene and food have generally improved over the past five years in the Dominican Republic, but tourists continue to suffer outbreaks of holiday illness and food poisoning at the Caribbean destination.

It has been reported that nearly 40% of visitors to the Dominican Republic become ill while on holiday there, and that one in five tourists on package deals become ill after eating all-inclusive food at hotels.

Earlier this year, the BBC programme, Secret Tourist secretly filmed hotel restaurants, rooms and public areas, to reveal shocking standards of hygiene and poor food preparation, which could lead to food poisoning.

Hotels in Turkey and the Dominican Republic were highlighted, and experts tested food and water at the Fun Royale Tropicale Hotel in the Dominican Republic and at the 4-star Club Armar Hotel in Marmaris, Turkey.

Food at the all-inclusive Fun Royale Tropicale Hotel buffet was seen to be left out in warm conditions, uncovered and often re-served the following day. Swabs were also taken from the restaurant tables and chairs, where bird droppings could be clearly seen. Results showed Campylobacter contamination, which causes symptoms of vomiting and diarrhoea.

Holidaymakers who had stayed at the Fun Royale Tropicale Hotel had complained of suffering symptoms which included diarrhoea, vomiting, fever and stomach cramps.

At the Armar Hotel in Marmaris, Turkey, holidaymakers had previously complained of sickness and diarrhoea, re-heated food and a dirty swimming pools. Guests reported that the same food was served every day, and left out, uncovered at room temperature. Many guests had complained of suspected food poisoning before the BBC team went to investigate.

E.coli was found in the swimming pool, which was linked to faecal contamination, which causes serious gastric illness. E.coli was also found in the ice cubes, being served in drinks.

Campylobacter infection can also prove serious. Campylobacter is a bacteria that causes food poisoning, and most people who become ill with it suffer symptoms of diarrhoea, cramping, abdominal pain and fever within 2 to 5 days. Diarrhoea may contain blood, and you may suffer from nausea and vomiting. The illness typically lasts a week, although you can carry the  bacteria without suffering any symptoms at all. In people with weakened immune systems, Campylobacter can spread to the bloodstream and causes a serious life-threatening infection.

Holiday illness is no joke, and if you are struck down with symptoms of sickness, vomiting, nausea, fever or stomach cramps, in a holiday hotel which is part of a package tour, and you suspect standards of hygiene or food preparation are to blame, you can claim substantial compensation for loss of enjoyment of your holiday, pain and suffering and medical expenses.

If you have stayed at a holiday package hotel in Egypt, Turkey, the Dominican Republic, Spain, Tunisia, or any other destination, and you have suffered food poisoning or holiday illness due to poor food preparation or bad hygiene standards, you can claim compensation when you return to the UK. Contact a personal injury solicitor who works on a no win, no fee basis, and one who is experienced in dealing with holiday illness compensation claims. Tour operators have a responsibility to ensure you are not exposed to holiday food poisoning, and if you suffer illness which ruins your holiday, you are well within your rights to make a claim for holiday illness compensation.

What is Peptic Ulcer?

The damage of your stomach or of the part of your digestive system which is nest after the stomach, the duodenum is called a peptic ulcer. This particular type of ulcer can have indigestion as a symptom. Another way to detect an ulcer is severe pain in the stomach area. Peptic ulcer is not a life threatening condition and with proper medication ulcer can be cured. However, if peptic ulcer is left untreated it can lead to serious complications.

The ulcer that one has in his/ her stomach is called, in medical terms gastric ulcer and if it is in your duodenum it is also known as duodenal ulcer. The peptic ulcer that we are talking about means that you only have patches that are one or two centimeters in diameter. This ulcer can be viewed by your doctor with the help of a gastroscope. Almost one out of ten people, esspecialy the young, can are affected by duodenal ulcer. Men are more at risk to develop this type of ulcer than women. The gastric ulcer is a less common type of ulcer and it usually affects the middle age people. Elderly people are also the most common target of the stomach ulcer.

Like almost all illnesses, the peptic ulcer can be of two kinds: acute or chronic ulcer. In acute ulcer the symptoms appear quickly, but they improve the same way. The chronic ulcer can last for a long time. There are cases when acute ulcers can take place at the same time, thus no symptoms may appear. If treated, acute ulcers heals very quickly and has no consequences. On the other hand, the chronic ulcer causes symptoms and heals in more time. Chronic ulcer also leaves scars after it has healed.

Peptic ulcer is the result of a problem in your stomach. Either the acid that the digestive system produces is in bigger quantities than normal, or the mucus that protects you from the acid is insufficient. There are many factors that can result in a peptic ulcer risk. Some of them are:
– infection with a bacteria- this condition is found in many people that suffer from ulcer;
– using certain drugs, like aspirin on a regular basis is another risk factor of ulcer;
– smoking is highly related with ulcer;
– drinking alcohol in large quantities;

Peptic ulcer does not cause symptoms in many people, but there are cases when somebody can feel pain in the abdomen area because of an ulcer.

For more resources about Ulcer or especially about Peptic Ulcer please click this link http://www.ulcer-center.com/Peptic-Ulcer.htm

A New Way of Looking at Stomach Aches

In evaluating stomach upsets, the physician should not only focus on hyperacidity.

New developments in research have changed the way gastric distress is diagnosed. Physicians must consider not only the possibility of hyperacidity but he or she should also examine how healthy is the patient’s gastrointestinal motility.

The doctor must look into these possibilities: is stomach upset due to excess acid or a motility disorder in the esophagus, stomach and small intestine? Is there a malfunction in the way food is stored, processed and moved along the digestive tract?

So the next time you run to a doctor complaining of stomach ache that won’t go away with simple medication, make sure you are checked for motility problems along with other suspected abnormalities in the digestive tract.

In dyspepsia or stomach distress, especially in the absence of any underlying disease, ulcer-like symptoms could easily suggest hyperacidity. But that is not always the case.

Dr. Olaf Nyren of the University Hospital in Uppsala, Sweden, one of a group of experts that has exhaustively studied dyspepsia, found that although functional cases (those without underlying diseases) may have ulcer-like symptoms, these may not be due to the excessive secretion of stomach juices.

The truth is, only a handful of patients with functional dyspepsia actually have hyper secretion (high gastric acid output). The majority have normal secretions.

The idea that functional dyspepsia differs from one caused by too much stomach acid has been proven in two ways by Nyren.

He did this by showing that factors other than gastric acid are responsible for the pain in functional dyspepsia. In fact, the more severe the problem is in functional dyspepsia, the lower the acid output. Thus, a reduction of acid secretion is not always effective in relieving the condition.

With this in mind, patients complaining about stomach upsets should not always be treated for hyperacidity. To the dismay of Nyren, however, many physicians, particularly general practitioners, are not aware of this and still treat patients with acid-reducing drugs.

Dr. J. R. Malagelada of the Mayo Clinic, another dyspepsia expert, added that approximately 50 percent of patients with functional dyspepsia have some type of motility disorder – the most common of which is reduced gastric emptying caused by slow contractions in the antral region of the stomach and increased resistance to the flow of food into the small intestine.

Although studies of gastrointestinal motility disorders have not fully told us what causes the symptoms of dyspepsia, they have helped focus attention away from abnormalities in gastric juice secretion and organic lesions as the primary causes of stomach upsets.

The bottom line? Doctors should discard the time-worn practice of prescribing antacids for every case of stomach upset. The right thing to do if you have a stomach ache is to have your gut motility checked. This will save you a lot of money and distress.

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Gastritis Treatment urdu

Gastritis is one of the most common conditions among the general public and it is everywhere. If you are suffering from gastritis, you may know the gravity of the condition. Therefore, let’s explore some of the gastritis treatments in order to control and cure the condition.

When it comes to gastritis treatment, there are three types of treatments; home remedies for non-acute gastritis, gastritis dieting, and other types of gastritis treatments.

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Most of the times we have non-acute gastritis. We have missed a few meals or we are undergoing some medication, so it has caused some level of gastritis in us. For such conditions, the best way to handle gastritis is to treat it at home. When it comes to treating gastritis at home, there are many ways to do that. Have you ever tested coconut water? If you have, you may know what I’m talking about. Coconut water is one of the best remedies for gastritis as it has the ‘cooling’ power to heal conditions such as gastritis. The coconut water has necessary vitamins and minerals and it let’s the stomach to rest. If you have got gastritis all of sudden, drinking coconut water will greatly help your condition if you do it within the first 24 hours of getting gastritis.

If you are suffering from an acute form of gastritis, rice gruel is one of the best answers that you can have right at home. Taking one cup of rice gruel twice a day is the best gastritis treatment when the condition is acute. Even when there is a condition where gastritis juice is flowing in the stomach, rise gruel is one of the best home gastritis treatments before taking the patient to the doctors.

If you have gastritis for a long time and if you want to systematically cure it, consumption of potato juice is one of the best gastritis treatments available today. Use a blender to get gastritis juice and have a half a cup of juice two or three times a day. This needs to be taken about half an hour before the meals. This helps the stomach in many ways and works as a shield between the oils in the foods and the tissues of the inner stomach.

Going on gastritis diets can be considered as one of good gastritis treatment available today. This way, you basically control your diet in order to cure gastritis. There are so many foods that you can consume in order to take the right care of your condition at home.

What are the Harmful Effects of Throat Abscess

What is this Condition?

A throat abscess is a localized accumulation of pus that may occur around the tonsils or in the back of the pharynx. With treatment, the prognosis for a person with throat abscess is good.

What Causes it?

Abscess around the tonsils is a complication of acute tonsillitis, usually after streptococcal or staphylococcal infection. It occurs more often in adolescents and young adults than in children.

Acute abscess in the back of the pharynx is caused by infection in the lymph glands, which may follow an upper respiratory bacterial infection. Because these lymph glands, present at birth, start to become smaller after age 2, this condition most commonly affects infants and children under age 2.

Chronic abscesses in the back of the throat may result from tuberculosis of the cervical spine and may occur at any age.

What are its Symptoms?

The person with an abscess around the tonsils will have severe throat pain, occasional ear pain on the same side as the abscess, and tenderness of the submandibular gland. Difficulty swallowing causes drooling. Tightening of the jaw muscles may occur as a result of swelling and spreading of the infection. Other symptoms include fever, chills, malaise, rancid breath, nausea, muffled speech, and dehydration.

The person with an abscess in the back of the pharynx will have pain, difficulty swallowing, and fever. When the abscess is located in the upper pharynx, the person may develop nasal obstruction. When the abscess is located in the lower pharynx, the person may develop difficult and noisy breathing. Children may experience drooling and muffled crying. A very large abscess may press on the larynx, causing swelling, or may erode into major vessels, causing sudden death from asphyxia or aspiration.

How is it Diagnosed?

The doctor bases the diagnosis on the person’s health history and on a throat exam. A person with an abscess around the tonsils commonly has a history of bacterial pharyngitis. A lab culture may reveal streptococcal or staphylococcal infection.

A person with an abscess in the back of the pharynx commonly has a history of nasopharyngitis or pharyngitis. The doctor will also take X-rays of the larynx and may order culture and sensitivity tests to isolate the causative organism and determine the appropriate antibiotic treatment.

How is it Treated?

If an abscess around the tonsils is caught early, treatment consists of large doses of penicillin or another antibiotic. For late-stage abscess, primary treatment is usually incision and drainage under local anesthesia, followed by antibiotic therapy for 7 to 10 days. Tonsillectomy, scheduled no sooner than 1 month after healing, prevents recurrence but is recommended only after several episodes.

If a person has an acute abscess in the back of the pharynx, the doctor will make an incision to drain the abscess through the pharyngeal wall. In chronic conditions, drainage is performed through an external incision behind the adjacent neck muscles. Postoperative drug therapy includes antibiotics (usually penicillin) and analgesics.

What can a person with a throat abscess do?

After incision and drainage, the doctor may prescribe antibiotics, pain relievers, and fever-reducing medications. Be sure to complete the full course of prescribed antibiotic therapy. To promote healing, use warm salt water gargles or throat irrigations for 24 to 36 hours. Get adequate rest

Pulmonary Edema

What is this Condition?

In pulmonary edema, fluid builds up in the spaces outside the lung’s blood vessels (called extravascular spaces). In one form of this disorder, cardiogenic pulmonary edema, this accumulation is caused by rising pressure in the respiratory veins and tiny blood vessels called capillaries. A common complication of heart disorders, pulmonary edema can become a chronic condition, or it can develop quickly and rapidly become fatal. What Causes it?

Pulmonary edema usually is caused by failure of the left ventricle, the heart’s main chamber, due to various types of heart disease. In these diseases, the damaged left ventricle requires increased filling pressures to pump enough blood to all the parts of the body. The increased pressures are transmitted to the heart’s other chambers and to veins and capillaries in the lungs. Eventually, fluid in the blood vessels enters the spaces between the tissues of the lungs. This makes it harder for the lungs to expand and impedes the exchange of air and gases between the lungs and blood moving through lung capillaries.

Besides heart disease, other conditions that can predispose a person to pulmonary edema include:

• excessive amounts of intravenous fluids

• certain kidney diseases, extensive burns, liver disease, and nutritional deficiencies

• impaired lymphatic drainage of the lungs, as occurs in Hodgkin’s disease

• impaired emptying of the heart’s left upper chamber, as occurs in narrowing of the heart’s mitral valve

• conditions that cause blockage of the respiratory veins. What are its Symptoms?

Early symptoms of pulmonary edema reflect poor lung expansion and extravascular fluid buildup. They include:

• shortness of breath on exertion

• sudden attacks of respiratory distress after several hours of sleep

• difficulty breathing except when in an upright position

• coughing.

On examination, the doctor may discover a rapid pulse, rapid breathing, an abnormal breath sound called crackles, an enlarged neck vein, and abnormal heart sounds.

With severe pulmonary edema, early symptoms may worsen as air sacs in the lungs and small respiratory airways fill with fluid. Breathing becomes labored and rapid, and coughing produces frothy, bloody sputum. The pulse quickens and the heart rhythm may become disturbed. The skin is cold, clammy, sweaty, and bluish. As the heart pumps less and less blood, the blood pressure drops and the pulse becomes thready. How is it Diagnosed?

The doctor makes a working diagnosis based on the persons symptoms and physical exam results and orders measurements of arterial blood gases, which usually show decreased oxygen with a variable carbon dioxide level. These measurements may also reveal a metabolic disturbance, such as respiratory alkalosis, respiratory acidosis, or metabolic acidosis. Chest X-rays typically reveal diffuse haziness in the lungs and, often, an enlarged heart and abnormal fluid buildup in the lungs.

The person may undergo a diagnostic procedure called pulmonary artery catheterization to help confirm failure of the left ventricle and rule out adult respiratory distress syndrome, which causes similar symptoms. How is it Treated?

Treatment of pulmonary edema aims to reduce the amount of extra­vascular lung fluid, to improve gas exchange and heart function and, if possible, to correct underlying disease.

Usually, the person receives high concentrations of oxygen. If an acceptable arterial blood oxygen level still can’t be maintained, the person receives mechanical ventilation to improve oxygen delivery to the tissues and to treat acid-base disturbances.

The individual also may receive diuretics (for example, Lasix) to promote fluid elimination through urination, which in turn helps to reduce extravascular fluid.

To treat heart dysfunction, the person may receive a digitalis glycoside or other drugs that improve heart contraction. Some people also receive drugs that dilate the arteries such as Nipride. Morphine may be given to reduce anxiety, ease breathing, and improve blood flow from the pulmonary circulation to the arms and legs.

When Does a Leaking Heart Valve Mean Heart Valve Surgery?

A leaking heart valve fortunately, does not always mean valve surgery. And, heart valve surgery, if it becomes necessary, does not always have to mean that you’ll need an open-heart surgery.

In fact, most people with a leaking valve disorder, are totally unaware of their valvular disease. Their mildly leaking valve condition goes undetected because it just never progresses to the point of needing treatment.

Symptoms which might indicate that your leaking heart valve also called valve regurgitation is worsening to the point of needing some form of treatment are: unexplained fatigue, shortness-of-breath especially when you exert yourself, heart palpitations, an awareness of your heart beat, fluttery or irregular heart beat, chest pain also referred to as angina, dizziness or fainting, and swollen ankles or feet.

The heart valves are made to move your blood through your heart in one direction. When there is valve leakage, the valve leaflets fail to close properly, and some of the blood is regurgitated backwards in the wrong direction.

In severe heart valve leakage or regurgitation, the heart has to work much harder to re-pump the blood back through your heart and into your body. This “over-work” causes enlargement of the heart.

If you begin to notice that your normal everyday activities are tiring you out, and you’re experiencing one or more of the symptoms we’ve already mentioned, it may be time for you to visit your Doctor or cardiologist.

For example, do you notice that walking up your drive to the mail box is exhausting, or maybe just bending over to take clothes from the dryer causes chest pain, or do you experience breathlessness just from being outdoors the heat? These could all be signs of heart valve disease.

Your GP can listen to your heart with a stethoscope. Often, just listening to your heart can tell your Doctor if you have a heart murmur. Depending upon the severity of the murmur he or she hears, your GP may refer you to a cardiologist.

The cardiologist’s diagnosis will probably include one or more of the following tests:

– an electrocardiogram (ECG), a test that measures the electrical activity of your heart to see how well it is working
– an echocardiogram, an ultrasound scan that produces a picture of the inside of your heart
– a chest X-ray
– a heart cath, a small tube (catheter) is threaded up to your heart through an artery – usually in your groin. A dye that shows up on X-rays is injected into your blood stream and X-rays are taken to produce an image of the blood flowing through your heart
– a cardiac CT scan that uses X-rays to make a three-dimensional image of your heart.

If these tests show that your have a severely leaking heart valve, then, you will probably require some form of heart surgery. When possible, heart valve repair surgery is always preferable to valve replacement surgery because your own heart tissue is being used to make the repair; however, if you need a valve replacement, the artificial and pig valves are overwhelmingly successful.

As of this writing, the only approved option for treating severely leaking heart valves is open-heart surgery with heart-lung bypass. But, if your problem is a leaking mitral valve, you just might be in luck, some 30 hospitals across North America are now participating in an FDA-approved clinical study of an experimental device for repairing a leaking mitral valve, which does NOT require open-heart surgery.

This is truly exciting news! Amazingly, this minimally invasive procedure can repair a leaking mitral heart valve while the heart is still beating. In this FDA-approved clinical study, an experimental device and procedure use a catheter inserted into a vein in the groin.

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Heart Attack Management

Heart disease is the number one cause of death both men and women in the United States. But fortunately, today there are superior treatments for heart attack that can rescue lives and forbid disabilities. Treatment is almost efficient when started within 1 minute of the start of symptoms. Many more people could recover from heart attacks if they got help faster. Of the people who die from heart attacks, about half die within an hour of the first symptoms and before they reach the hospital.

A heart attack occurs when the blood supply to part of the heart muscle itself – the myocardium – is severely reduced or stopped. The reduction or stoppage happens when one or more of the coronary arteries supplying blood to the heart muscle is blocked. This is usually caused by the buildup of plaque (deposits of fat-like substances), a process called atherosclerosis. The plaque can eventually burst, tear or rupture, creating a “snag” where a blood clot forms and blocks the artery. This leads to a heart attack.

If the blood supply is cut off for more than a few minutes, muscle cells suffer permanent injury and die. This can kill or disable someone, depending on how much heart muscle is damaged. The medical term for heart attack is myocardial infarction. A heart attack is also sometimes called a coronary thrombosis or coronary occlusion.

If you or someone that you’re with is having a heart attack:

1. Call 9-1-1 within a few minutes.

2. Only take an ambulance to the hospital. Going in a private car can delay treatment.

3. Take a nitroglycerin pill if your doctor has prescribed this type of medicine.

4. Put an aspirin under your tongue. Aspirin reduces blood clotting and can help keep a heart attack from getting worse. But don’t delay calling 9-1-1 to take an aspirin.

10 Myths About Heart Attacks Debunked!

myths surrounding heart attacksThere are a number of myths about heart care and more specifically about heart attacks. We obviously want to stay clear of heart ailments so we carry with us a number of beliefs about things that we consider will either keep us safe from or make us more prone to heart attacks.  But many of these may be misguiding or downright wrong. So let us do away with the unnecessary fears and learn what will actually help our hearts.

Below are some common misconceptions that we try to clear for you:

If you are fit you are not prone to heart attacks

Most of our doctors, health magazines and elders stress on the fact that those who are overweight, eat out a lot, or do not exercise are morebeing thin does not mean you are safe from heart attacks susceptible to heart attacks. While they are not wrong, those who are thin, do regular exercise and eat proper are not safe from heart attacks either.  This is because cholesterol depositions which are the most common cause of clogging of arteries can be present in thin people too.  Physical appearance can many times mask an underlying health problem.

Moreover heart problems and heart attacks are also genetic. So if you have a history of heart issues in your family you are likely to get it too. There are also factors like diabetes, high cholesterol or high blood pressure that put you at a risk, no matter your weight. Gender and age also matter. So in spite of how healthy you look or feel, get a check up to ascertain your heart’s health!

It’s easy to recognize the symptoms of a heart attack

While we are pretty used to watching men, in the typical Bollywood movies, clutching their chests and falling down from what is apparently a heart attack, it needn’t come so obviously. The classic symptoms of a heart attack include a heavy feeling in the chest that may be painful. But the heaviness or pain may spread to the left arm, neck, or jaw.

Symptoms include:

  • Chest pain
  • Pressure, heaviness or tightness in the chest
  • Pain or pressure in the neck or jaw
  • Pain or pressure in one or both arms (especially the left)
  • Shortness of breath
  • Sweating
  • Nausea
  • Pain or throbbing between the shoulder blades

Many people suffer from heart attacks but assume it is only a heartburn or fatigue. When it comes to your heart, it’s important to consult a doctor rather than to self diagnose!

No chest pain means no heart attacknot having a chest pain does not mean you are not having a heart attack

Most of us believe that if we were having a heart attack, it would involve having a chest pain. But as mentioned above recognizing a heart attack isn’t that easy. The classic signs include chest pain but it needn’t really cause chest pain. According to CNN, 40 to 60 percent of all heart attacks are unrecognized by their victims. If you’re having some sort of unusual discomfort in your back, chest or upper arms, whether or not it is in the middle of your back or the middle of your chest, don’t wait until your heart stops; go to a hospital and get a check up done.

Women do not suffer from heart attacks

Since womenin movies do not clutch at their hearts and collapse to the floor it is assumed that women do not suffer from heart attacks. True, women are less prone to heart attacks before menopause due to the presence of estrogen, which protects them from heart attacks, but post menopause women are just as prone to heart attacks as men are.  In fact, probably more.

According to statistics: [courtesy Women’s Heart Foundation]

  • Worldwide, 8.6 million women die from heart diseases each year (including heart attacks), accounting for a third of all deaths in women.
  • Women are twice as likely as men to die within the first few weeks after suffering a heart attack.
  • 38% of women and 25% of men die within one year of a first recognized heart attack.

Women have the same symptoms as men have for a heart attack

symptoms for heart attacks in women are different from menWomen do not usually experience the commonly expected chest pain as men do when they suffer from heart attacks. 71% of women experience early warning signs of heart attack with sudden onset of extreme weakness that feels like the flu – often with no chest pain at all. Nearly two-thirds of the deaths from heart attacks in women occur among those who have no history of chest pain at all. Even if they do experience mild chest discomfort they simply do not perceive it to be a heart attack like men do. So they must get any abnormal pain checked up.

Here are some of the symptoms of female heart attack:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Weakness
  • Unusual fatigue
  • Nausea
  • Dizziness
  • Abdominal discomfort that may seem like indigestion

Medical professionals are challenged to respond to women’s milder symptoms, due to insufficient information.

If you have chest pain wait and see if it goes away

If you have a pain in your chest, you definitely must not sit around and wait to see if it goes away. If you’re having significant chest discomfort, shortness of breath, or any other symptoms that suggest a heart attack, call a hospital or any clinic’s emergency number. If you delay treatment when you are having a heart attack you could cause irreparable damage to your heart and it could also prove to be fatal.

You cannot die simply out of fear or severe emotions panic attacks, terror or any other severe emotion can cause heart attacks

It is possible to die of fright, or for that matter grief, anger, joy, or just about any other intense emotion. Though usually victims are older and likely to be in unstable health conditions, even younger people could be so affected. It is possible for a terrifying event to trigger a fatal heart attack.

Multiple scientific studies show that important mind and body connections exist for health in general and cardiovascular health in particular. Your levels of stress and wellbeing are extremely important for your cardiovascular health. Higher stress levels or negative emotions like anger or depression could burden your heart pumping due to release of certain hormones in our blood stream like adrenalin. You should therefore look for ways and means to reduce stress and negative emotions in your lives.

If you are young you will have no heart problems

people as young as 20 can have heart attacksThough predominantly those who are older are more prone to having a heart attack, it is possible to start developing coronary artery disease as a teenager. People in their 20s and 30s have suffered from heart attacks. A heart-healthy lifestyle needs to begin in the childhood, so that kids don’t develop bad habits that they carry to adulthood. Parents should encourage their kids to exercise, limit time spent in front of the television or computer screen, and partake healthy, well-balanced meals.

Children, who are obese, have high blood pressure or a family history of heart disease are at a higher risk. Also, although rare, some children (usually due to genetic differences) can have unusually high cholesterol and thus an increased risk for heart disease.

Another problem today is the kind of lifestyle that we live. Especially the young working population today lives an unbalanced life with no exercise, a lot of junk food and high stress levels. Not to mention overexposure to technology implements that is proving to harm our lives. For this populatonis it especially necessary to have regular checkups and a conscious effort to maintain a well balanced life. To know more about 10 Myths About Heart Attacks Debunked!

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Inflammatory Heart Disease – Types – Precautions and Treatment

An inflammatory heart disease involves inflammation of the heart muscle or the tissue surrounding it. There are several types of heart diseases such as hypertension, alvular heart disease, ischaemic heart disease, etc. They are classified into myocarditis, pericarditis or endocarditis depending on the layer of tissue where the inflammation has occurred. When there is an infection in the body, automatically antibodies are produced to fight them. But in some cases the antibiotics start attacking the tissue within the body, for example the heart, this leads to an inflammation. If not treated on time, it may result in complications and permanent damage to the heart. In certain rare cases even death.

The following are the types of inflammatory heart disease –

1. Enocarditis – is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart or the heart valves
2. Pericarditis – is an inflammation of the pericardium which is the sac surrounding the heart.
3. Myocarditis – is an inflammation of the muscular part of the heart.

Causes –

The major causes of heart diseases are smoking, excessive drinking, obesity, less or no physical activities and excessive stress. Inflammation of the heart is also a common occurrence in rheumatic fever and Kawasaki disease.

Symptoms –

Here are some of the common symptoms of this disease –

1. The primary symptoms include chest pain and discomfort in the chest area.
2. Other symptoms include dizziness, difficulty breathing, nausea, swelling of feel and fatigue.

If you have any of these symptoms individually or together, it is best if you go to a doctor and get yourself fully checked. It is also important to have all the tests done to determine exactly what kind of a heart related condition you have, and how to get it treated. As seen above the symptoms are not always clear but should be kept in mind always.

Precautions –

It is good to have regular check ups if anyone in your family has heart related problems. If you are diagnosed with a heart condition the doctor will advice you to have a healthy diet, exercise regularly and quit smoking and drinking.

Treatment –

Inflammation of the heart can be treated with the help of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory medications. All kinds of treatment methods need to be discussed with the doctor physician. If the medication does not show the needed changes, and if the condition has become severe, surgery is also performed. With the advanced technology surgeries today are minimally invasive and require a short recovery period.

An inflammatory heart disease involves inflammation of the heart muscle or the tissue surrounding it. There are several types of heart diseases such as hypertension, alvular heart disease, ischaemic heart disease, etc.