The Widowmaker Heart Attack – All there is to know

The widowmaker heart attack is nothing more than a nickname that is used to call a stenotic left coronary artery or a proximal left anterior descending coronary artery.

It is a very serious condition. If the artery gets occluded completely and all at once then you’ll be having a massive heart attack which is very likely to lead to a case of sudden death.

The Widowmaker Heart Attack Causes

The blockage that occurs in the artery is due to a great number of platelets that move to a place where a cholesterol plaque has been ruptured. The problem is that even when we’re talking about a really small number of plaque that gets to this area can cause sudden death. It’s still a topic that’s pretty much under investigation and the causes for the rupture are still rather unknown.

Even though preventing the heart attack won’t be possible, what it’s possible is to bypass the blockages (or in some cases, using angioplasty, open those blockages up) and that will allow

The Widowmaker Heart Attack and Survival

Starting from the moment that the widowmaker heart attack first hits you, the time one can survive can go anywhere from just some minutes to several hours depending on the severity of the condition. The symptoms will start to appear and become unbearable really fast allow for you to know that something is wrong and that you need immediate emergency medical attention.

These symptoms are the same that you would be able to find in a case of regular heart attack (the symptoms are due to the lack of the blood flow, not because of anything more specific than than) and will include nausea, jaw pain, tightness in chest, very irregular heart beat (the heart will try to pump the blood as it should even in these conditions), pain in the heart and others. You can read some more about the symptoms in the Heart Attack Symptoms article we have up. However, unlike the regular heart attack (from other conditions), this time it’s a lot easier to determine that it’s a widowmaker heart attack due to the progress of the symptoms. Even if at first it could seem like food poisoning or flu, the symptoms will rapidly intensify and alert you.

One misconception is that the death is instantaneous. As we’ve mentioned before, it can take anywhere from minutes to hours for the symptoms to start affecting you and will only induce cardiac arrest when there’s been anywhere from 10 to 20 minutes with no circulation at all.

If the treatment is fast enough, it’s possible for the victim to survive for a while with just the oxygen that is still in the blood. This is a very small window of opportunity so the treatment needs to be done as fast as possible. The widowmaker heart attack needs to be treated even faster than a regular heart attack, so make sure you detect the symptoms as fast as possible and get medical help.

Heart Disease Symptoms

The purpose of this article is to bring to the reader various heart disease symptoms. Each set of symptoms is related to the condition being suffered.

Heart disease can produce a number of different symptoms depending on which kind of heart disease a person is afflicted by. As well, the severity of your heart condition plays a role as well. It is important to be aware of what the symptoms of heart disease are and to take action as soon as you recognize them in yourself or another person.

The most commonly noted coronary heart disease symptoms include angina (an uncomfortable, feeling of pressure or squeezing in the heart), shortness of breath, a quickening heartbeat, palpitations, dizziness or weakness, sweating and nauseas.

The symptoms of a heart attack (otherwise known as myocardial infarction or simply MI) include pain in the chest area or the arm or the area below the breastbone, or else a feeling of discomfort, heaviness or pressure; discomfort that is in the back and continues up into the jaw area, throat or arm; a feeling of fullness, or choking that might mimic heartburn; dizziness, vomiting, sweating and/or a feeling of nausea; shortness of breath accompanied by a strong sense of weakness; and rapid or irregular beats of the heart.

The most common symptoms of arrhythmias include fatigue or weakness; shortness of breath; discomfort in the chest area; fainting; dizziness or a feeling of being lightheaded; a feeling of your heart pounding in your chest and palpitations (or skipped heartbeats). One form of arrhythmia is atrial fibrillation (AF) and the most noted symptoms of this heart condition include a lack of energy or feeling of extreme fatigue; feeling faint; discomfort, pain or pressure in the chest area; heart palpitations and shortness of breath.

The most common symptoms of heart valve disease include dizziness; shortness of breath; pressure or discomfort in the chest area; and palpitations. If heart valve disease is left untreated and leads to heart failure then the ankles, abdomen or feet may swell and the person might notice a rapid weight gain (sometimes as much as one to two pounds per day).

When it comes to heart failure, the symptoms include shortness of breath when a person is being active or in some cases, when their body is at rest; rapid weight gain; dizziness; weakness or excessive tiredness; a cough that produces white mucus; swelling in the areas of the belly, ankles or legs; nausea; pain and pressure in the chest area; heart palpitations; and finally either a rapid or an irregular heartbeat.

The symptoms of congenital heart disease when diagnosed in babies and children include fast breathing; poor feeding; an inability to put on weight; constant infections of the lungs; cyanosis (which is a bluish tint that appears on the lips, fingernails and skin) and the inability to exercise for any length of time. When this disease is diagnosed in childhood or adulthood it may show some or all of the below symptoms or in some case, no symptoms at all. These symptoms include a shortness of breath, a limited ability to engage in physical activity and the symptoms of heart failure or heart valve disease.

The symptoms of cardiomyopathy include pain or pressure in the chest; swelling in the legs, ankles or feet, fainting, extreme fatigue, palpitations and the symptoms of heart failure. Pericarditis will show the symptoms of pain in the chest, a quickening heart rate and a low-grade fever.

Tuberculosis Signs and Symptoms

Tuberculosis (TB) is a very common infection in India that is also very contagious. When an infected person sneezes or coughs, air particles containing the TB bacteria can easily spread and each infected person can further infect up to another 10 people each year.

According to WHO, India accounts for about 20% of the global TB cases. Each year, about 2 million people in India develop TB, and over 300,000 die because of it.

Find out more about the TB bacteria and how it spreads here.

Who is at risk of contracting TB?

Anyone can contract TB, especially if they are in a closed space with the affected person. The unaffected person inhales droplets with bacteria and these bacteria reach the lungs. Here, the immune system puts up a fight against the bacteria. If successful, the bacteria will remain in the lungs but in a “latent” form. If the immune system is unsuccessful in containing the bacteria, then an active case of TB can develop. Once the bacteria invade the body and overwhelm the immune response of the body, they can also find their way to various organs through the blood stream.

Signs and Symptoms of TB

People with a latent TB infection don’t have any symptoms, don’t feel sick and cannot infect others. They do, however, test positive to the Mantoux Skin Test. Treating latent TB is important since it can get activated, especially if the immune system is weakened for any reason, including nutritional deficiencies or infection with HIV.

In the case of an active infection, signs and symptoms vary according to the organ that is affected.

In case the lungs are affected, the symptoms are:

  • A cough persisting for 2 to 3 weeks and beyond, which is usually worse in the mornings
  • Chest pain
  • Blood in the sputum (the mucus and saliva produced when coughing or clearing throat)
  • Breathlessness

Back pain may be caused by tuberculosis of the spine, and blood in the urine may be caused by tuberculosis in your kidneys.

TB in the brain can cause headaches, a stiff neck, confusion, vomiting, an altered mental state, seizures and other signs and symptoms related to the nerves.

In general, a person with active TB in any organ may have these signs and symptoms:

  • Weight loss
  • Loss of appetite
  • Chills
  • Fever
  • Sweating in the night time while sleeping, even if the weather is cold

If TB is suspected, what should you do?

If you or someone you know is experiencing any of these symptoms, or has reason to think they have been exposed to TB then they should seek consultation from a healthcare worker and the public health authorities. These healthcare workers will perform one of two tests: a test on the skin and one of the sputum (mucus produced when coughing). Those who have had the BCG vaccine against TB, which is mandatory at birth in India, may have a “positive” skin test despite not being infected with TB.

The skin test will need to be re-examined two days after it is given. If a sputum sample is provided, the results may take longer as they need to be sent for laboratory work.

Find out about tuberculosis treatment here

Wound Healing: A New Strategy for Hair Growth

In the hair transplant world, scientists are constantly looking for more advanced and efficient ways to treat hair loss.

In the latest issue of the Journal of Internal Medicine, a new research study was published: “A Rare Complication: New Hair Growth Around Healing Wounds.” This study is related to Dr. Mohebi’s personal research at Johns Hopkins Medical Institute on gene therapy techniques and wound healing and how it affected the growth of rats’ hair.

The journal study was about a man who had hair growth surrounding a healing wound at Guangxi Medical University in Nanning, China.

The doctors involved in the study mention an incident in which hair growth occurred around a wound during the process of wound healing. Hair growth after wound healing is an uncommon occurrence. This is the first time such an event had ever been recorded in scientific literature.

The doctors concluded that the wounds damaged the hair follicles and epidermis, but that it was possible for both to repair themselves if there was a suitable physical and chemical micro-environment. The doctors say that this new hypothesis may lead to new methods of managing hair loss, tissue engineering, and the regeneration of other organs.

At the laboratory of Johns Hopkins Medical Institute, and as part of my overall research, I did a major investigative study on hair growth as a byproduct of wound healing. On a few mice, after witnessing wound healing, to my delight, I found that some gene therapy techniques stimulated the hair growth.

My attention was on hair growth only and, coincidentally, our results matched other hair growth-wound healing studies, during 2005 to 2006. At the University of Pennsylvania, Dr. Cotsarelis, along with his contemporaries, first made public a study on the relationship between wound healing and hair growth through activation of the molecular pathway WNT.

Other similar studies have called attention to the fact that hair restoration through tissue engineering, hair multiplication, and gene therapy might one day happen and that we just may have a breakthrough a lot sooner than we expected all these years.

It’s important to note rather recent breakthroughs in other cosmetic surgery fields, such as Dysport for wrinkles. For an online medical discussion about topics such as wound healing and hairgrowth and anti-aging solutions, try doing a Web search for more information.

Parsa Mohebi, M.D.

Medical Director

US Hair Restoration

Fibroids: 5 Things You Need To Know About Your Fibroid Infection

Fibroids are usually tissue like substances which are found on the inner wall of the uterus of a woman. Fibroids are a mixture of the muscle tissue and other thread like substances from connective tissues which usually disappear after menopause. Fibroids also stop developing after puberty. In case you have a fibroid, it would not give rise to another if you have crossed puberty or you have undergone menopause. Uterine Fibroids are also a part of your fibroid infection. Les us now discuss a few facts about this disease.

Fibroids Are Common Amongst Women

A fibroid is fairly common and 3 out of every 10 women are said to be infected by uterine fibroids. The most common age of contracting this infection is when you fall in the age group of 30 to 50 years. Although there have been cases wherein women in their early twenties have also been known to contract this disease. There can be various fibroids in a woman’s ovary and it is more likely that their number is more than one. Most women have several uterine fibroids and some can even have as many as a hundred. The size of a uterine fibroid can be as small as a ball point and as large as a basketball.

The Main Causes Of Fibroids

Fibroid tumors are a result of a sudden multiplication in the cell. The drastic cell growth, which initially was limited to a single muscle cell, takes the shape of multiple cells and this gives rise to a fibroid tumor. Although there is no known cause behind the growth of fibroid tumors, they may have been caused owing to a genetic defect. Medical researchers believe that ovarian fibroids may have been caused owing to programmed cell development since the birth of a female child. After puberty, when the females produce more estrogen, the chances of the development of a fibroid tumor are greatly increased.

The Main Symptoms

Fibroid tumor can be recognized through the means of a medical examination. It can also be detected by the patient at home. Heavy menstrual periods, which last for more than seven days, can be a clear symptom of this disease. Moreover, when a women has an urge to urinate very frequently or when she feels full after eating small amounts of food, or has frequent constipation, it could be possible that the ovarian fibroids are pressing against your internal organs. At the same time, if you complain of constant pain in your pelvic region, you may be suffering from a fibroid infection.

They Seldom Lead To Cancer

Most women start to unnecessarily worry when they are diagnosed with fibroids. The main reason behind their worry is the possibility of a cancerous development. Fibroid treatment does not include the need to visit a cancer institute as they seldom lead to cancer. But at the same time, 1 in every 1000 women may develop cancer, which is also called leiomyosarcoma. The main symptoms of such cancerous tumors include heavy vaginal bleeding even after reaching menopause and a rapid growth of the tumor in the uterus.

They Seldom Cause Problems In Pregnancy

Fibroid pregnancy is often looked on as a cause for concern by women who are about to give birth or are in the process of doing so. Well, you need not worry because tumors rarely cause infertility and their percentage is limited to 2% to 3% of the total number of cases. The only known problem during fibroid pregnancy is the lack of comfort factor for both the child as well as the mother. Fibroids may block the child from coming through, often leading to a cesarean operation. In certain cases it may also lead to placental abruption and postpartum hemorrhage as well.

Pneumonia in Children

Pneumonia is a contagious disease that mostly affects children and people who have a weakened immune system like: HIV, organ transplanted people, cancer, and chemotherapy. Smoking, drinking alcohol, working in cold places are also factors of risk.

If left untreated it can cause serious complications like lung edemas, encephalitis and even death within 3 or 4 days.

Generally pneumonia travels by air. If a child lives in a place where other infected people live, he can get infected. Not vaccinating the children against whooping cough and measles could lead to pneumonia. Playing in dirty places, in dusty or smoky areas, where it is spit on the ground is a risk of getting affected.

The World Health Organization has created a health program to teach mothers how to protect their infants. They must breast feed them until the age of six months, dress them according to the weather, and teach them to cover their mouth and nose when they sneeze or cough. A healthy nutrition consisting in milk, cereals, fish, meat, egg, vegetable and fruit should be applied to them. Also, programs for grown ups were developed and applied in health centers.

Some of the symptoms that a child affected of pneumonia has, are: coughing with translucent or yellow or greenish sputum, fever, breathing not properly, fatigue, muscle aches, blueness of the skin, vomiting and runny nose.

Pneumonia can be caused by a lot of germs: viruses, bacteria, and fungi, which give different symptoms.

Among the symptoms the doctor can diagnose the pneumonia using a thoracic Rx. The doctor will also perform a test of your sputum to see which germ causes the pneumonia and to what drug does it response better.

Pneumonia caused by Legionella gives symptoms of abdominal pain and diarrhea. If pneumonia is caused by tuberculosis it could only give night sweats and loss of weight. In elders, a state of confusion might develop.

The treatment chosen for pneumonia differs from country to country due to the multiple drug resistance that the germs have developed in the last few years. In Great Britain, doctors use amoxicillin, while in US they use azithromycin, clarithromycin and fluoroquinolones. If the pneumonia is caused by a virus they use antiviral drugs.
The patient must be hospitalized and rest in bed for at least five days after their fever disappeared. Sometimes if the patient does not develop a severe form of illness, and it is coopering with doctors it can follow the treatment at home, using oral antibiotics or antiviral drugs.

Great resources can be found regarding walking pneumonia, walking pneumonia symptoms and many moreby visiting

Pleural Mesothelioma – Symptoms, Diagnosis, And Treatment-Basic Facts You Need to Know

Pleural mesothelioma is the commonest type of mesothelioma. Mesothelioma is a rare form of cancer that attacks the mesothelial cells in the mesothelium, the tissue that forms the membranous lining of the body’s major internal organs and cavities.

Pleural mesothelioma develops when the cancer affects the pleura {the membranous lining of the lungs}.This form of cancer is commonest in the UK, followed by South Africa, then Australia, then USA, then Eastern Europe.

The pleura has two layers which gives support and protection to the lungs and chest cavity:

-The outer layer, or parietal layer, lines the entire chest cavity and the diaphragm.

-The inner layer or the visceral layer which applies directly over the lungs.

Pleural mesothelioma can start from any of these two layers then spread to the other layer. Exposure to asbestos has been strongly linked to the development of this type of cancer. The toxic fibers get trapped in the spaces between the mesothelial cells of the pleura.


The asbestos fibers trapped in the body cause cancerous cells to multiply and divide haphazardly without control. These results in the thickening of the pleural membrane and mesothelial cells, leading to fluid build up in the pleura {pleural effusion}. This accumulated fluid will gradually start pressing on the lungs and the respiratory system leading abnormal and difficult breathing.

These developments eventually form the basis of most of the symptoms of pleural mesothelioma. These symptoms include:

A} Persistent dry or raspy cough

B} Haemoptysis, the coughing up of blood in the sputum

C} Difficulty in swallowing {dysphagia}

D} Difficulty in breathing, laboured breathing known as dyspnoea

E} Pleurisy, pain in the chest during breathing

F} Development of lumps under the skin of the chest wall

G} Night sweats or fever

H} Unexplained weight loss

I} Fatigue


Just like in other forms of mesothelioma, the symptoms of pleural mesothelioma show up many years after the initial exposure to asbestos and these symptoms are not specific to pleural mesothelioma, they also occur in some other less serious lung diseases like pneumonia and influenza.

All these factors make the diagnosis of pleura mesothelioma very difficult.

Once there is a strong clinical suspicion of pleural mesothelioma, diagnosis is then confirmed by imaging tests such as x-rays, CT scan, to confirm the location of the cancer. The patient is also subjected to fluid and tissue analysis known as biopsy to confirm the type of cancer involved.


Newly developed drugs and detection techniques have improved the outlook for patients with pleural mesothelioma.

In general there are three main modes of treatment: a} Surgery b} Chemotherapy c} Radiotherapy. Most patients receive a combination of two or more of the different modes of treatment.

The earlier the cancer is detected, the better the prognosis and the wider the range of treatment options. When the tumor is detected early, curative surgery is done to remove the cancer, this is followed by chemotherapy or and radiotherapy to kill off any remnant cancerous cells. Curative surgeries is only carried out in patients that have good general state of health and whose cancers have not spread beyond localized sections of the lungs.

The level of progression of the tumor is classified in terms of the stage of the cancer. The stages range from stage 1 to stage 4 depending on the level of spread of the tumor.

Stage 1 and Stage 2 pleural mesothelioma have better prognosis and better treatment options.

The latter stages of the cancer, namely stage 3 and stage 4 are mostly limited to palliative modes of treatment to improve the quality of life and not their prognosis. These palliative treatments include the draining of excessive fluids in the pleural spaces and surgical removal of tumors to relieve pressure on the lungs.

According to current studies, approximately 10% of all pleural mesothelioma patients will survive for three to five years after diagnosis and 5% will survive for 5 years and above.

High Death Toll From Pneumonia

Pneumonia kills over 60,000 Americans every year and it remains a leading cause of death of children worldwide. This is tragic considering the fact that the disease can be cured with early detection and treatment.

Pneumonia is the inflammation of the lung in which the air spaces are filled with mucus and fluid, making breathing difficult. The disease has many causes and can be fatal in very young and very old patients.

Bacterial pneumonia, which is the more dangerous type of the disease, can be caused by infection with pneumococci, staphylococci and other forms of bacte¬ria. This is usually confined to just one area of the lung and is called lobar pneumonia.

“Among children 12 and under, the most frequent cause of pneumonia is the bacteria pneumococcus. Among adolescents and young adults, the most frequent infective agent is a bacteria like microbe called Mycoplasma pneumoniae; symptoms at first are like those of a chest cold, with a dry cough and then a sputum producing cough,” explained Dr. Harold C. Neu, professor of medicine and head of Infectious Dis¬eases in “The Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons Complete Home Medical Guide.”

“Bacterial pneumonia can also be a complication of influenza A. Often the symptoms of flu have disappeared, then suddenly the patient is worse with fever, cough, and shortness of breath. The recuperating victim this time has a full-fledged case of bacterial pneumonia and all its distressing symptoms. These secondary infections are most often caused by the pneumoccos, Haemophilus, or worst of all the staphylococcus. This microbe can be so deadly so doctors usually prescribe antibiotics that can destroy all three of the possible microorganisms,” Neu added.

Another type of bacterial pneumonia is caused by streptococci (Diplococcus pneumoniae) and usually follows an upper respiratory tract infection. It is characterized by the sudden onset of chills and high fever.

The risk of acquiring the disease increases in those who have AIDS, heart disease, and diabetes, those who smoke and drink a lot, exposure to certain chemicals or pollutants, and in those who are hospitalized or have had surgery. Treatment depends on the severity of symptoms and the type of pneumonia you have.

“To diagnose pneumonia, the physician will first listen to the chest, checking for fine, crackling noises, and then tap it, being alert for characteristic dull thuds. A certain diagnosis cannot be made, however, without chest x-rays, which will show patches in the lungs where air sacs are filled with fluid and debris instead of air. To determine the particular infective agent, lab tests can be done on blood and sputum samples, but the results are not 100 percent accurate,” Neu said.

“How serious pneumonia is for you depends on your overall health and the type and extent of pneumonia you have. If you’re young and healthy, your pneumonia can usually be treated successfully. But if you have heart failure or lung ailments, especially from smoking, or if you’re older, your pneumonia may be harder to cure. You’re also more likely to develop complications, some of which can be life-threatening,” warned the Mayo Clinic.

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Bronchitis medicine over the counter – is bronchitis curable

Bronchitis is curable with bronchitis medicines available over the counter. Ampicillin is one of the medicines that help to cure bronchitis effectively. It is a beta-lactam antibiotic that is effective against gram-positive organisms like staphylococci or streptococci and also against gram-negative organisms such as H. influenzae, coliforms and proteus spp due to its ability of penetrating gram-positive and some gram-negative bacteria. It is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as bronchitis, pneumonia, sinuses, stomach and intestines, kidney, ear infections, lung, skin, and urinary tract infections (UTI). Apart from this it is also indicated for treating uncomplicated gonorrhea, meningitis, and endocarditis.

Ampicillin comes under the class of antibiotics called penicillin and it is a part of the aminopenicillin family. Thus it differs from penicillin only by the presence of amino group. It is due to this amino group that helps it to penetrate the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. Ampicillin acts by inhibiting the transpeptidase enzyme that is required for cross-linking peptidoglycanlayers or to make their cell walls. It inhibits the third and final stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis in binary fission, which ultimately leads to cell lysis. Ampicillin, like other β-lactam antibiotics, not only blocks the division of bacteria, but also the division of chloroplasts of the Glaucophytes (called cyanelles) and chloroplasts of the moss Physcomitrella patens, a bryophyte.

Bronchitis is an inflammation of the air passages between the nose and the lungs, including the windpipe or trachea and the larger air tubes of the lung that bring in the air from the trachea. Bronchitis can either be of acute (short-lived duration) or a chronic (severe and long lasting or lenthy inflammation). Whereas acute bronchitis can occur either by a viral infection or a bacterial infection, and many a times it can be healed without complications. If it is neglected it can turn to chronic. On the other hand, chronic bronchitis is a serious lung disease that can be controlled but cannot be cured completely.

Whether acute or chronic, both are inflammations of the air passages, having different causes and require different treatments. Acute bronchitis is common during winter and it usually resolves within two weeks. It begins with the symptoms of a cold, runny nose, sneezing, dry cough or even the flu, It can be accompanied by a secondary bacterial infection. Deep and painful cough results in greenish yellow phlegm. Wheezing after coughing is common. It may be accompanied by a fever. In uncomplicated acute bronchitis, the fever and most other symptoms, except the cough, disappear after three to five days. However, if it continues for several weeks it becomes complicated in which case the fever and a general feeling of illness persist that needs to be treated with bronchitis medicines. If it is caused by a bacterial infection, it should be treated with antibiotics. Acute bronchitis can also increase the possibility of developing pneumonia. It can become serious if it progresses to pneumonia, and thus, antibiotics are of utmost important. Smokers and patients with heart disease or other lung diseases are at higher risk of developing acute bronchitis. Chemical fumes or air pollution is the other cause.

Chronic bronchitis on the other hand is a major cause of disability and death. Chronic bronchitis is also an inflammation of airways giving rise to coughing and spitting of phlegm. In chronic bronchitis, symptoms exist for three months or more. It is generally caused by inhaling cigarette, smoke, air pollution, chemical contacts and so on… The treatment of chronic bronchitis is complex as it depends on the stage it has gone through and other health problems present in patients. Quitting smoking and avoiding secondhand smoke or polluted air is essential. Also exercising on regular basis is an important part for an individual.

Complications of COPD are many and often require hospitalization in the latter stages of the disease. Smokers are ten times more likely to die of COPD than non-smokers. Smokers who quit smoking, show improvement in lung function. Also avoiding chemical and environmental irritants like air pollution; and maintaining health is important.

Knee Pain Relief : Patellar Subluxation – a Knee Brace Can Help

There are a number of problems that can strike the knee, but few are as painful as patellar subluxation. Read on for information regarding this painful knee issue and how to help treat it.

The trochlea is a groove on the thigh bone (femur) that is essential for knee movement. The kneecap moves along this grove, which allows for your knee to bend in a proper manner. Unfortunately, sometimes the kneecap does not move properly in the groove, which can lead to problems. In some cases, the knee leaves the groove altogether, which results in knee dislocation. In others it just slides improperly, which can cause pain or discomfort for the patient.

Although patellar subluxations can affect anyone of us, adolescents and young children usually are the ones to suffer. There are a number of reasons why someone may get patellar subluxation, including being born with a groove that is too shallow, a wide pelvis or abnormalities in ones gait.

A doctor will typically take X-rays of the knee to assess the damage. If the knee cap has deviated from the grove, the knee will have to be realigned. If the knee is still within the groove, there are a number of other treatment options available.


Physical therapy is commonly used to treat patellar subluxation. Strengthening the hip abductors and hip flexors is crucial to controlling the motion of the kneecap. This is accomplished using a range of pelvic stabilization exercises, which help to strengthen the muscles and support your knee.

Your Shoes

Take a look at your footwear. Improper shoes can promote an abnormal gait. Making sure that you have decent footwear can both help control your gait, and lessen the tension on your knee.

Using A Knee Brace

Using a knee brace can help provide knee support and to lessen the pain. There are knee braces that help control the knee cap, so it does not deviate from its course along the trochlea. The knee supports can be very helpful in reducing knee pain as well.


In some cases, the above treatment options may not work in the long term, and surgery may be required. In most cases surgery is not needed, but if your knee constantly gets dislocated or you are in severe pain a lot of the time, there may be no other option.

Patellar subluxation can cause other problems with the knee to occur. For instance, osteoarthritis can be caused by patellar subluxation, which is why consulting your physician is a wise decision if you are experiencing knee pain.

Hip Dysplasia In Golden Retrievers

Are you suffering in silence for the having the hip dysplasia? The pain could be dreadful and unbearable! Get this treated or at least the minimize the pain that comes with it. Be informative and understand on how this dreadful disease is having a big impact on your golden retriever.

If we get to know all information regarding from the health, diet, training about your golden retriever, it is going to be helpful to the development and growth for the well being for your pet. While these resources are important, it is essential to find out if your pet golden retriever is prone to or already suffering from any hip dysplasia from the early lineage.

Hip dysplasia, is common form and growing abnormality in the development of the hip joints area which is affecting at one or both sides of the body. This occurrence mostly impacted those between the medium and larger breeds of dogs. While most research have found out that, the common signs that lead to this includes decreasing endurance for exercise, with impairment in the hind legs, with strong resistance to climbing while causing prolong pain during the hip movement.

Hip dysplasia is caused by a partial dislocation in the hip joint. This ailment is deeply causing seriously impact on your dog, with much pain and hardships on the joints development. Physical activity is going to be major roadblocks for your golden. The cases of such abnormality usually develop in the affected puppy after birth, and this lead to weakening of the tissues around the hip joint area. The amount of abnormal wear and tear on the joint result arthritis and the punishing pain begins. The entire process of how the disease forms is pretty clear; however the real controversy begins when we try to determine what really subject these animals to attain such disease.

While the case for hip dysplasia is normally strongly linked its parentage, which commonly most dog owners are unaware off. Therefore planning to keep a golden retriever required much information and studying of the parents. Occurrence of such ailments in golden’s parents normally increased the likely hood on the receiving end for the young.

Owners need to careful on the golden retriever breeding process as the impact can turn for the worse. If owners are not careful and proceed with the breeding process, usually end up with Golden retriever to endure more suffering. While those who suffer from hip dysplasia that are not used for breeding, they will probably able to sustain a longer and healthy life.

From medical research so far, there has been no associating factors that link directly to the abnormality development. Hip dysplasia is primarily an inherited condition while the growth rate of such occurrence usually comes together in a combination of factors such as diet, exercise, hereditary that can influence the outcome of the disease. There are no miracle pills that can prevent its development, however with medical advancement, more new drugs are developed that can help to contain such disease by maintaining the diet and weight. With a proper dog weight management program, proper diet, exercise, and supplements. As much as possible, the aim is to help to relieve off the pain on your golden retriever.

Surgical treatments have been used with variable success, therefore it is still not the most cost effective method for deployment yet. Meanwhile, the next alternative and realistic option is to go for medical management for the dog owners.

Fractures Treatment Homeopathic Approach

Fracture is defined as loss of continuity of bone

Symbol of fracture [#]


The classification is based on many factors

1. According to plane of fracture surface

Transverse # :the plane of fracture is perpendicular to long axis of bone

Spiral #: the fracture is spiral and it is mainly due to horizontal stress

Comminuted #: the fracture bone is decreased either length wise or bredth wise. Results from compression force.

2. In relation to external environment:

Simple or closed #: the fracture surface does not communicate with exterior through skin and mucous memberanes

Open or compound #: communicate with exterior through skin and mucous memberanes. This occurs in two ways.

1. trauma called as external coumpound fracture

2. When the sharp end of # fragment penetrates through overlying soft tissues & skin it is called as internal compound #

3. According to cause of fracture:

Traumatic # : when fracture occurs due to direct or indirect violence

Pathological or spontaneous #: here the fracture occurs to a diseased bone followed by a slightest injury

Stress or fatigue fracture

4. According to number of fractures:

Single: only one fracture segment is present at a single site

Multiple: many fractures occurs at multiple sites in the body

5. Fracture may be:

Complete #: in this whole thickness of bone is disconnected

a) impacted: fragments get impacted into other either straight or angular

b) non impacted: # fragments remain separate 1. Un displaced #

2. Displaced #

Incomplete #: the fracture does not involve whole breadth of the shaft

Local examinations:

Inspection: abnormal swelling & deformity due to displaced fractures segments

Attitude: patients adopt particulars attitudes which are very diagnostic. Shortening of the limb.


1. local bony tenderness is a valuable sign of fracture

2. bony irregularity when the whole length of the injured bone is palpated

3. abnormal movements is a definite sign of fracture

4. crepitus is a sensation which may be felt or heard when the bone ends are moved against each other

5. pain is elicited

6. absence of transmitted movements

7. swelling

8. shortening of limb

9. restricted movements

10. stiffness of joints

General examination:

1. Evidence of shock is to be looked

2. in pathological # age of patient must be asked for

Special investigations:

Xray of anterio-posterior and lateral views

Complications of fractures:

1. non union

2. mal union

3. delayed union

4. shock

5. crush syndrome

6. venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolisam

7. tetanus

8. fat emboli

Homeopathic approach.:

A definet surgery is needed to correct the fracture, after the defect is corrected the role of homeopathy comes. It quickens the healing, reduces the side effects, increases the power of body to self rejuvenate the devitalized site, can also be used as an antiseptic to avoid infections in case of open fractures


1. First medicine for any trauma or wound resulting in fracture.

2. Reduces bleeding, bruising, pain and trauma

3. If patient experiences Sore, bruised feelings in the muscles as if beaten and bluish-black discoloration under the skin

4. Compound fractures that bleed

5. Worse: Touch, Lying on hard surfaces, Motion

6. Better: Lying down, especially with the head low

Calcarea Phosphorica (Calcium phosphate)

1. Fractures which do not heal well after a long time

2. Stimulates the bone ends to unite

3. Aching and soreness in bones and joints, especially when the area feels cold and numb.

4. Encourages repair and strengthening

5. Worse from cold, damp, especially melting snow

6 BetterWarm, dry weatherLying down

Eupatorium Perfoliatum (Boneset)

1. Sore and bruised, like their bones are broken

2. Very restless, but they would rather keep still because it hurts to move

3. Deep aching in the bones

4. Worse: Cold air, Sight or smell of food

5. Better: Conversation, Perspiration

6. Strong thirst for cold drinks

7. Desires cold foods and ice cream


1. The main medicine to think of for fractures, to use after the bruise soreness has resolved with Arnica

2. Stimulates union of the bone ends and should not be used until the bone is set properly

3. Fractures which are slow to heal

4. Used if Pains persist long after the injury

5. Phantom limb pain after amputation

6. Sensation of the rough end of bones jagging into the flesh

7. Aftereffects of fractures and injuries to the periosteum, the outermost covering of the bone


1. Help to bring relief if excruciating pain results from even the slightest motion.

2. The person usually wants to remain completely still and not be touched..


1. crushed injuries to body areas that are well-supplied with nerves.

2. If smashed fingertips or toes etc

Ruta graveolens:

1. This is known for its effect on bone-bruises and on injuries to the periosteum

2. When the pain around a fracture is extreme, and the person feels lame or weak.

3. Helpful in many cases when pain persists after treatment with Arnica.

Aging and cerebral palsy-Guidelines for parents and families

People with cerebral palsy and their families can experience a range of overwhelming problems and consequences following ageing process. Recent research indicates that PWCP experience an increase pain, muscle and joint fatigue, depression and loneliness, and feelings of isolation as they age. However, research suggests that people with cerebral palsy and their families are in need for information about cerebral palsy and its ageing process. The needs for information have been identified in studies in developed countries but it is even more urgent for PWCP and their families in Arab region because culturally, families involves taking responsibility for all aspects of their children care at home and in the community.  In developed countries other resources, such as voluntary organisations and support from health and social care departments are available to help families in their role but these do not exist in most of developing countries including Arab region.  A meta-analysis was performed to summarize findings of intervention studies of ageing process of people with cerebral palsy. The information provided in this presentation about consequences of CP ageing will enable a better understanding of the need for support for people with disabilities including PWCP.  To translate the findings of this report into action, a detailed report of the recommendations drawn from the findings will be presented. Additionally, providing information about cerebral palsy and its ageing process reduces the depression and worries of people with cerebral palsy and their families.

This review paper highlight a number of important issues related to cerebral palsy ageing process and provides guidelines for people with cerebral palsy and their families of how to cope with the sequences of ageing and will allow parents to play their role effectively.  These guidelines will also inform policy makers, health and social professionals, service providers with important information to help them dealing with their clients ageing process issues.

Overeynder, J. et al. (1995.) “I’m Worried About the Future The Aging of Adults with Cerebral Palsy. NY State Developmental Disabilities Planning Council

Saleh Al-oraibi, (2004). The impact of culture on the care  of children with disabilities in Jordan. UNICEF publications.


The eagle is known as Laqwa in arabic. The muscles on the face of victims of facial palsy are pulled that which pulls their mouth outwards giving them a resemblance to a eagle’s face. Hence the name Laqwa in arabic. Gallen, the Greek physician who supported the humoral doctrine stated that this disease could be due to a problem with a nerve in the face.

Both the sexes are equally affected. There is a prodromal stage during which the person can feel pain on the side of the face which is going to get affected. It continues for a day or two until the palsy develops. There is a paralysis of some of the facial muscles. It becomes difficult to close the eyes and mouth on the affected side. The skin on the affected side of the forehead gets stretched and over a period of time gets harder.

Rhazes emphasised the need for immediate treatment to obtain best results. Recovery is remote if treatment is started after six months.


  • Aaqarqarha (Anacyclus pyrethrum,Dc) 2 gm, Zanjabeel (Zingiber officinale,Rose) 1 gm,Asl-us-soos(Glycyrrhiza glabra,Linn) 2 gm.
    All the above ingredients are to be boiled in 100ml. of water until reduced to half their original quantity. This preparation is to be taken twice daily for 30 to 45 days.
  • Khulanjan (Alpinia galanga,Linn) 1 gm. Ustukhuddus (lavendula stoechas,Linn) 1 gm. Annisson (Pimpinella anisum,Linn)
    2 gm.
    They are to be similarly boiled till reduced to half the original quantity. To be taken twice daily for two months.
  • Zanjabeel (Zingiber officinale,Rose) 10, Lasun (garlic) (Allium sativum,Linn)15 gm, Til oil 100 ml.
    All the above ingredients are to be roasted over the flame and then applied over the affected side, twice daily for six weeks..

Inguinal Hernia – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Inguinal hernias occur when soft tissue — usually part of the intestine — protrudes through a weak point or tear in your lower abdominal wall. The resulting bulge of this common condition can be painful — especially when you cough, bend over or lift a heavy object. In many people, the abdominal wall weakness that leads to an inguinal hernia occurs at birth when the abdominal lining (peritoneum) doesn’t close properly. Other inguinal hernias develop later in life when muscles weaken or deteriorate due to factors such as aging, strenuous physical activity or coughing that accompanies smoking.

The most common location for hernias is the groin (or inguinal) area. There are several reasons for this tendency. First, there is a natural anatomical weakness in the groin region which results from incomplete muscle coverage. Second, the upright position of human posture results in a greater force occurring at the bottom of the abdomen, thereby increasing the stress on these weaker tissues. The combination of these factors over time breaks down the support tissues enlarging any preexisting hole or leads to a tear resulting in a new hole.


There is often no apparent cause. Heavy lifting, straining when using the bathroom, constipation, excessive coughing or sneezing, vigorous exercise or sex can be contributory factors.Some people are at more risk than others; those with a family history of hernia, people with cystic fibrosis and those with an undescended testicle.

Although abdominal hernias can be present at birth, others develop later in life. Some involve pathways formed during fetal development, existing openings in the abdominal cavity, or areas of abdominal wall weakness.


Inguinal hernias appear as a bulge or swelling in the groin or scrotum. The swelling may be more noticeable when the baby cries, and may get smaller or go away when the baby relaxes. If your physician pushes gently on this bulge when the child is calm and lying down, it will usually get smaller or go back into the abdomen.

In developing baby boys, a hole in the abdomen allows the testicles to descend into the scrotum. In girls, a similar opening may exist even though the ovaries do not descend out of the abdomen. Normally, this hole closes before a baby is born. A hernia results when a sac protrudes through the opening and the lining of the abdominal cavity.

Some inguinal hernias don’t cause any symptoms, and you may not know you have one until your doctor discovers it during a routine medical exam. Often, however, you can see and feel the bulge created by the protruding intestine. The bulge is usually more obvious when you stand upright, especially if you cough or strain.


Treatment is important to avoid a potentially serious condition called a strangulated hernia. This is when the bulging through the muscle wall obstructs the flow of blood to the intestine or stops the flow of intestinal contents leading to tissue death. An inguinal hernia can often be reduced, pushed back into place. If it is nonreducable then surgery is required under a general anaesthetic. Usually done on an out patient basis the segment of bowel is put back in the abdominal cavity and the muscle closed. A piece of plastic mesh is sometimes used to reinforce the weakened muscle area. A dry dressing protects the incision area for a few days.