Marfan Syndrome Explained

Marfan Syndrome

History and Explanation

Marfan Syndrome is a genetic, “inherited” disorder that affects the body’s connective tissue. Connective tissue is the tough, fibrous tissue that connects one part of the body with another. It is a major component of tendons, ligaments, bones, cartilage, and the walls of large blood vessels. Marfan Syndrome affects one out of every 10,000 newborns. It is one of the most common of the more than one hundred inherited disorders of connective tissue. The disorder affects males and females from all racial and ethnic groups. It is named after Dr. Antoine Marfan, who in France, in 1896, described a five year old patient with unusually long, slender fingers, limbs and other skeletal abnormalities.

The problem in Marfan Syndrome is caused by a mutation (change) in a gene. Genes are segments of DNA that direct the body to produce proteins. In many families with inherited Marfan Syndrome, the mutation affects the FBN1 gene on chromosome 15; although a second gene on chromosome 5 may be involved in some cases. Normally the FBN1 gene enables the body to produce a protein called fibrillin which contributes to connective tissue strength and elasticity. Fibrillin, normally, is especially abundant in the aorta, in the ligaments that hold the eye lens in place, and in bones. Individuals with Marfan Syndrome have scant or faulty fibrillin in these structures which stretch abnormally because of their inability to withstand normal stress. The abnormal gene is usually inherited from one parent who has the disorder. The abnormality is a “dominant” genetic trait, so each child of a parent with the abnormal gene has a 50:50 chance of inheriting it.

For example, my father had Marfan Syndrome which he inherited from his father thus resulting in a normal FBN1 gene and an abnormal FBN1gene in his body. If my father gave me his mother’s normal gene, I would not have had Marfan’s. Since he gave me his father’s abnormal gene, it expresses itself as a dominant gene over my mother’s normal gene. I then, also, have the same opportunity to pass my father’s abnormal gene or my mother’s normal gene, resulting in a 50:50 chance of each of my children inheriting the disorder when combined with my wife’s normal FBN1 gene. As it stands now, one of my three daughters, who is 2 ½ years old, has inherited the disease. One daughter, 5 years old, does not seem to have inherited it and one daughter, 11 months old, we haven’t had tested yet.

On a side note, we have chosen to get life insurance for our children before being tested or officially diagnosed for Marfan Syndrome. My mother did this for me and since being diagnosed, I would not have been able to get life insurance and am not able to increase it. I highly recommend asking your doctor to hold off on an official diagnosis until life insurance is finalized.

In about 25% of diagnosed Marfan cases or 2,500 of Marfan newborns, a genetic accident (new mutation not inherited) occurred in the sperm or egg cell in unaffected parents, thus resulting in a Marfan child. In these cases, reoccurrence risk for related offspring (siblings) is unpredictable, but usually very low.

Features

Because of the inherited problem of producing fibrillin, people with Marfan Syndrome have many different problems related to weakness in connective tissue. These problems include, but are not limited to:

1) Reduced vision – in about 65% of Marfan patients, the lens of the eyes become dislocated because tiny eye ligaments that normally hold the lens in place are weak. This condition is called Ectopia Lentis. Marfan Syndrome also seems to increase the risk of near-sightedness, cataracts at an unusually early age (40-50 years old), glaucoma, detached retina, and crossed eyes. It is generally not recommended for Marfan patients to undergo lasik eye surgery due to tissue frailty and excessive scar tissue.

2) Skeletal abnormalities – patients with Marfan Syndrome are typically very tall, having long limbs and long, slender spider-like fingers. They also may have severe chest deformities, such as a chest that is either caved in or protrudes in front. Some patients may have scoliosis (curvature of the spine) and/or flat feet and some may display a high-arched palate in the roof of their mouth and crowded teeth. Many have very loose joints. The skeletal abnormality is frequently what people notice and question first and may be the first clue to a Marfan’s diagnosis.

3) Cardiovascular changes –
a. Weakened connective tissue affects the heart and large blood vessels of people with Marfan Syndrome. This creates the most serious problem associated with the disorder which is weakness of the aorta (the body’s largest artery). Cardiovascular changes affect most individuals with Marfan Syndrome to some degree. Blood pumped from the heart passes forcefully and directly into the aorta which branches out to carry oxygen-rich blood to the entire body. As the walls of the aorta gradually weaken (aortic dilatation), they can split in places allowing blood to leak into the chest, abdomen, or wall of the aorta itself. Sudden large splits can, and often do, result in sudden death. Recent studies have shown that cell death (necrosis) occurs at a much higher rate in Marfan patients which contributes to aortic dilatation or the weakening of the aortic walls.
b. Connective tissue weakness in the heart can also cause mitral valve prolapse (a “floppy” mitral valve or heart valve that doesn’t close properly) resulting in mitral valve regurgitation (a problem in the closing of the mitral valve that results in significant back flow of blood into the left atrium). Heart valves are pairs or trios of flaps that keep the blood flowing in one direction through the heart. Their motion during heart beats may allow brief reverse blood flow (leakage) and can cause a heart murmur.

You may have Marfan Syndrome if you exhibit at least two of these three major criteria: Ocular, Skeletal, or Cardiac. You could also have genetic testing done to determine if the FBN1 gene is abnormal.

Severity

The severity of Marfan Syndrome features varies, meaning that some people with the Syndrome have more serious effects than others. This variability can occur even within one family.

For example, my grandfather lived a very normal life without Marfan complications until an automobile accident ruptured his dilated aorta resulting in immediate death.

My father, on the other hand, was 6’5″, 135 pounds, and very unusual looking, meaning unproportionately long face, very narrow jaw, spidery arms and legs, etc. (this look is called “Marfanoid”). He had severe valve leakage as early as age nine and died a very sick man, at the early age of 40, on the operating table during open heart surgery to replace the aortic valve, mitral valve, and aortic root/ascending aorta.

I don’t look unproportionately unusual, although I am slender with long fingers and toes. I do have the cardiac abnormalities resulting in open heart surgery at the age of 26 to repair my aortic valve, mitral valve, and replace my aortic root/ascending aorta with a Dacron graft.

My older sister, who also has Marfan’s, doesn’t look proportionately unusual and, although being monitored by echocardiograms, does not present herself with the classic cardiovascular abnormalities; meaning all her cardiovascular measurements are currently within normal limits.

Diagnosis

Marfan Syndrome is sometimes difficult to diagnose because the features and severity of the disorder can differ greatly among affected individuals or family members. Also, certain other disorders, such as Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, have features that overlap with those of Marfan Syndrome. In some cases, genetic testing of a blood sample may be recommended to help confirm the diagnosis. Genetic testing is more likely to aid in diagnosis in families with multiple affected members. Genetic testing is frequently unavailable at the average hospital and requires special expertise found at large children’s hospitals or university hospitals.

Your doctor should ask about any family history of Marfan Syndrome, as well as about any family members who are unusually tall and slender and ask if they have vision problems. Your doctor should also ask about any family history of sudden cardiac death resulting from aortic dissection (rupture), especially if this death was attributed to “heart problems”.

Your doctor may suspect Marfan Syndrome based on this family history, your personal history of Ectopia Lentis (dislocated eye lenses), and your physical appearance. The diagnosis can be confirmed if you have an aortic aneurysm (dilated aorta) visible on echocardiography, a painless test that uses sound waves to outline the structure of the heart and its major vessels. The diagnosis will be even more certain if you have other skeletal abnormalities (chest wall deformities or scoliosis) or heart murmurs due to aortic or mitral valve abnormalities.

Marfan’s in Women

Women with Marfan Syndrome who become pregnant are considered to be high-risk, whether or not they have symptoms of an enlarged aorta. They face an increased possibility of aortic splitting during pregnancy. The pregnancy causes greatly increased blood volume and pressure required to maintain normal fetal/mother circulation.

Treatment

Currently Marfan Syndrome cannot be cured or reversed but advances in treatment have greatly improved the outlook for children and adults with Marfan Syndrome. Today, the life expectancy of individuals with the disorder, who receive early, proper medical treatment, is about 70 years. It’s important to note that although knowledge about Marfan Syndrome has increased in recent years, expertise in treating the cardiac symptoms is rare. Research can be done to narrow your search for a Marfan’s expert through the National Marfan Foundation, an organization providing support to Marfan patients and their families throughout communities all over the country. Most of the problems associated with Marfan Syndrome can be managed effectively through medication as a preventative tool of the disease’s progression as long as it is diagnosed early.

The disorder is usually treated by a team of specialists overseen by a single doctor who knows all the aspects of Marfan Syndrome. The team would consist of an ophthalmologist (eye doctor), orthopedist (foot doctor), cardiologist (heart doctor), orthodontist (teeth doctor) and a spine specialist.

There is no medical treatment currently to reverse the fibrillin abnormality in people with Marfan Syndrome. Current research on a strain of mice that are born with similar fibrillin problems may lead to a successful treatment for Marfan’s in the future. One of the drugs being used is Losartan. They are beginning the first phases of human testing to experiment with medications that have actually reduced the aortic size in Marfan mice.

Preventative Therapy

Until we can shrink the aorta, doctors try to prevent or delay the aortic changes seen in Marfan patients by prescribing beta-blockers and/or Ace-Inhibitors.

a. Beta Blockers – These medications, such as Propranolol (Inderal), Metoprolol (Lopressor), and Atenolol (Tenormin) decrease the strain on the aorta’s walls by slowing the heart rate and reducing the force of heart contractions, especially during exercise. They also reduce blood pressure.

b. Ace-Inhibitors – These medications, such as Lisinopril (Prinivil), and Captopril, help to drop blood pressure by relaxing arterial tension. In addition, they have been shown to decrease accelerated cell death (necrosis) in the aorta which is common to Marfan’s. My 2 year old daughter is currently taking Enalapril, also an Ace Inhibitor, in a liquid form and loves it. This will slow the progression of cell death in her aorta as well as stop the increasing progression of the aortic dilation. As a result, they are hopeful she will never have open heart surgery and hopeful she will be able to bear children which is an amazing, and new, development for a female Marfan’s. My sister, 5 years ago, was told she could never bear children.

c. Calcium Channel Blockers – although not used as often anymore, they help to reduce force of contraction (how hard your heart squeezes) and blood pressure.

Nutrition Therapy

Nutrition is so important in the development of healthy connective tissue, particularly in growing children. We build a trillion cells a day by what we eat. It takes 19 vitamins and minerals and 9 amino acids with a perfect protein to build a perfect cell. Even if we miss only one nutrient, then we are building imperfect cells for seven days. These defective cells will promote the development of degenerative diseases among other things. We are the only ones who can do something about our nutrition.

With proper consumption, assimilation, and elimination our body has the ability to:
o Change the chemistry of the blood in seven days
o Change the composition of cells in seven weeks
o Change some major organs in seven months
And, as science knows, we have a completely new body in seven years. Physiological chemists state that there is not a blood cell in our body more than fourteen days old and that we rebuild a new heart every 30 days.

Can nutrition, alone, cure Marfan’s? Obviously not; however, my children and I need the proper building blocks available for the production of the best connective tissue we are capable of making. The cause of different severities among Marfan patients is unknown; however, I believe that a major component in lessening the severity in my family has been proper nutrition.

We lead a very busy life and it is natural that our nutrition generally suffers as a result. 99% of American adults fail to meet the USDA “Food Pyramid” dietary guidelines (Council for Responsible Nutrition, 1998). Therefore, we need supplementation, especially for our children. This is where Shaklee, a nutraceutical company, can benefit us greatly.

Shaklee was founded by a Chiropractic doctor in 1956. It is considered the number one leader in the nutritional industry. Shaklee nutritional products are recognized by the government as food rather than drugs. Shaklee has spent over $100 million on research which is more than the next six largest companies combined. They have over 150 scientists on staff whereas many nutritional companies don’t even have a research staff. Shaklee has never had to recall a single product in its 50 year history because each product goes through as many as 176 separate tests for purity, potency, and safety. All this to say that not all vitamins are created equal. Shaklee is superior in many areas. Ask your company for their clinical research.

For recommendations on where to begin with supplementation, refer back to my website by clicking here and going to the bottom of the website page.

Intervention Therapy

If you have Marfan Syndrome, your cardiologist should monitor your heart health carefully with echocardiograms (heart ultrasounds) at least annually to check for developing problems in the aorta and mitral valve. Surgery is usually recommended if the patient’s aortic root has stretched to more than 6 cm. in diameter or the thoracic aorta has widened to greater than 5 cm. in diameter. In a typical operation, the faulty aortic valve, along with a section of the aorta where it emerges from the heart, is replaced with an artificial valve attached to a synthetic tube. The mitral valve, if affected, can also be repaired or replaced at this time.

There are many different types of valves that can be used as replacements. These include:
1) Tissue valves – these include pig valves (porcine), cow valves (bovine), and human valves (homograft). The advantage of the tissue valve is that you don’t have to be on Coumadin the rest of your life. The disadvantage is that they typically last between 10-15 years.

2) Mechanical (metal) valves – these include St. Jude’s (bi-leaflet tilting discs), Bjork-Shiley (single tilting disc), and Star Edwards (ball cage valve). Of these three, St. Jude’s is the best option and is most commonly used. The advantage of mechanical valves is that they can last up to 20-30 years. The disadvantage is that you will be on Coumadin the rest of your life.

After any valve replacement surgery, the patient is given anti-clotting medication, such as Coumadin, at least temporarily. If your valve is a mechanical valve, you will be on Coumadin for life because blood tends to clot when it comes into contact with the metal.

A recent study showed that early, preventative surgery for aortic dilation is far safer than waiting until an emergency surgery is needed. With preventative surgery, the death rate was 1.5% versus 12% for patients who had surgery on an emergency basis. This is played out to be true in my family – my Dad waited to have surgery until it was an emergency and died during the operation; whereas, I had surgery early enough that I was healthy and strong and recovered very quickly.

If you have Marfan related scoliosis of 20-40 degrees, you can be treated with a brace and physical therapy. For scoliosis greater than 45 degrees, you will need surgery.

Crowded teeth can be adjusted by an orthodontist (remember to take antibiotics if you have a valve problem).

You should have an annual eye exam to look for Marfan related eye problems. If you have dislocated lenses, you may be able to be treated with special lenses called Aphakic Lenses and special eye drops to widen the pupil rather than surgery. If eye surgery is necessary, it should be done in an ophthalmology center that specializes in the treatment of Marfan Syndrome.

Precautions

The greatest danger is death from a sudden split in the aorta. Dilation may happen from the normal pumping of the blood through a weakened aorta, from extreme physical exercise (as in my case) or extreme emotional distress, both of which sends the blood rushing at higher pressures.

Children and adults with Marfan Syndrome are warned to avoid heavy exercise, contact sports, and lifting heavy objects. However, with their doctor’s guidance, most are able to participate in less vigorous activity such as walking, bike riding, and swimming. All of these activities should be non-competitive. If you have a coach pushing your performance to its maximum, it’s considered competitive.

Because of heart valve abnormalities, most people with Marfan syndrome are prone to infections in those valves. They must be treated with oral antibiotics to prevent infection of valves by bacteria in the blood stream before routine dental work, including a cleaning, as well as before any kind of surgery. Those who have had valve replacement surgery sometimes require higher doses of antibiotics which are usually given by injection.

Call your doctor if you have chest pain, shortness of breath especially during exercise, or an irregular pulse. If you know you have Marfan Syndrome, call your doctor immediately if you experience severe pain in the front or back of the chest, sudden weakness or tingling in the arms or legs, or an unexplained fever. These may be symptoms of aortic dissection (tear), a medical emergency that can lead to aortic rupture, which is fatal in 90-95% of cases.

Conclusion

In conclusion, Marfan Syndrome is a rare disease and requires close monitoring. Marfan Syndrome cannot be “caught” from another person – it is generally inherited, with the exception of very rare mutations. Support groups for Marfan families are available across the country and I strongly recommend finding an active, local group to answer questions. You can locate a group by going to the National Marfan Foundation website.

Genetic counseling should be considered for Marfan’s who are considering having children.

As Marfan’s age, it is possible for the lining around the spinal cord to stretch towards the base, the lumbar region. In Marfan’s patients this is called Dural Ectasia and is seen best by MRI. Radiologists, however, may call this abnormality a Neurofibroma (benign tumor) if they aren’t familiar with Marfan Syndrome. Dural Ectasia can cause lower back pain.

Connective tissue disorders are rare but many. You may have been diagnosed with Marfan Syndrome when in reality you have a different yet very closely related syndrome. In the same way, people may be diagnosed with a connective tissue syndrome that can more accurately be diagnosed as Marfan Syndrome.

I am an Echocardiographer by trade and welcome any questions about the heart and/or measurements, etc. Even if you just need someone to talk to, we would love to hear from you. If you have any further questions or we can be of help, please contact us at the information below.

Sources

** Information acquired from “IntelliHealth”, “March of Dimes” and “National Marfan Foundation” websites as well as years of personal experience in the field of echocardiography.

** Feel free to pass this information along to anyone who may benefit from it as long as you include the information, including website, at the bottom.

James & Titia Jonas – A Healthy Advantage
303-482-0002
1-800-228-6237
Longmont, CO
www.ahealthyadvantage.net
articles@ahealthyadvantage.net

Medicine on preventions of stroke and blood clot to heart

Clopidogrel is in the class of antiplatelet used to prevent strokes and heart attacks in high-risk patients. This medicine works by helping to prevent harmful blood clot to heart or in the body and maintains the normal blood flow to the heart, brain and other organs. We all know that drugs not only have curative effect, but also have negative effect.  For instance clopidrogrel’s such adverse effects include hemorrhage, severe neutropenia and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Thus medicines should be used under medical supervision.

A stroke is the sudden death of brain cells in a localized area due to inadequate blood flow. Preventions of stroke are important as it is a medical emergency requiring immediate treatment. Prompt treatment improves survival and an increase in degree of recovery can be expected.  It occurs when blood flow is interrupted to part of the brain. Brain cells start dying quickly without enough blood to supply oxygen and nutrients and remove wastes. Depending on the region of the brain affected, stroke can cause paralysis, slurred speech, loss of memory and reasoning, coma or death. A stroke is sometimes called a brain attack or a cerebrovascular accident CVA. Emergency treatment of stroke from a blood clot is aimed at dissolving the clot.

A person who may have suffered a stroke should be taken in an emergency room immediately. Treatment to dissolve a blood clot, the leading cause of stroke, must begin within three hours of the stroke to be effective. A brief neurological examination is performed to determine the extent and location of deficits such as weakness, lack of coordination or loss of vision. Once stroke is suspected, a computed tomography scan (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is performed to determine a stroke caused by blood clot from one caused by hemorrhage, a critical distinction that guides therapy. Blood tests and urine tests are done periodically to check for abnormalities. Other investigations that may be performed to guide treatment include an electrocardiogram, angiography, ultrasound, and electroencephalogram.

Heart attack, also called a myocardial infarction or myocardial infarction, is often the first symptom of coronary artery disease. It is the death, damage, or blood clot to heart or part of the heart muscle because the blood supply to the heart muscle is severely reduced or blocked. It is caused by severe coronary artery disease. The outcome of a heart attack also depends on where the block is. Most heart attacks are caused by blood clots that form on atherosclerotic plaque. This blocks a coronary artery from supplying oxygen-rich blood to part of the heart. A number of major and contributing risk factors increase the risk of developing coronary artery disease. Some of these can be changed and some cannot. People with more risk factors are more likely to develop coronary artery disease.

Heart attacks treated with resuscitation (CPR) if necessary to initiate and maintain the patient’s breathing and his heart.  other therapy may be a close monitoring, electric shock, drug therapy, re-vascularization procedures, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and coronary artery bypass surgery. Drugs to stabilize the patient and limit damage to the heart include thrombolytics, aspirin, anticoagulants, painkillers and tranquilizers, beta-blockers, ace-inhibitors, nitrates, rhythm-stabilizing drugs, and diuretics. Drugs that limit damage to the heart can only be successful if given within hours of a heart attack.  Immediate treatment for suspected acute myocardial infarction includes oxygen, aspirin, and sublingual nitroglycerin. Most of STEMI (ST elevation MI) are treated with thrombolysis or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). NSTEMI (non-ST elevation MI) should be managed with medication, although PCI is often performed during hospital admission.  People who have multiple blockages and who are relatively stable, or those in a few emergency cases, bypass surgery may be an option.

Heart Attacks Information

A lot is written about the so called common signs of Heart Attacks and what they are supposed to typically consist of but what is fact and what is fiction? Here we take a look at the basic issues surrounding Heart Attacks or Myocardial infarctions.

A Myocardial infarction (MI or AMI for acute myocardial infarction) is more commonly known as a heart attack.These occur when the blood supply to part of the heart is interrupted causing some heart cells to die. One of the most common causes of this is when the coronary artery is blocked through the rupture of atherosclerotic plaque.An unstable collection of white blood cells (especially macrophages and lipids (like cholesterol) collectively known as Athersclerotic plaque separate from the wall of an artery.The end result of all of this (called ischemia) which is a restriction in blood supply) has been known to cause damage or death of the heart muscle tissue known as Myocardium.

Though symptoms of a Heart Attack do differ there are certain classic symptoms such as shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, pain in the arm, back and neck, and a growing sense of anxiety (also known as impending doom). Fewer classic symptoms are often experienced by women with shortness of breath, indigestion and fatigue being most common.{Approximately one quarter of all myocardial infarctions are silent, without chest pain or other symptoms.|It does have to be remembered though that 25 percent of all Myocardial Infarctions occur in silence and without classic symptoms such as chest pain.Prompt treatment for a Myocardial infarction is essential if the patients chances of survival are to be maximised. To be quite honest in situations like these, minutes and seconds do matter.

Heart attacks are the leading cause of death for both men and women all over the world.As you can imagine there are a number of important risk factors to be taken into consideration here such as potential previous history of cardiovascular disease, the age of the patient and the consumption of alcohol, unsuitable food and tobacco.

As is also imagined there are considerably more factors that are actually taken into consideration such as additional medical conditions of which potential or actual diabetes is one, obesity, high blood pressure or hypertension and/or incidence of kidney disease

Immediate treatment for suspected acute myocardial infarction includes oxygen, aspirin, and sublingual glyceryl trinitrate (colloquially referred to as nitroglycerin and abbreviated as NTG or GTN).Pain relief is also often given, classically morphine sulfate.

Heart Diseases Part Xvi – Aspirin: Friend or Foe ?

Besides cancer, heart disease kills more than 2,000 Americans everyday. Approximately 60 million Americans have heart disease. There are many causes of heart disease. Anything that serves to damage the inner lining of blood vessels and impedes the transportation of oxygen and nutrition to the heart can be defined as a risk of heart disease. You might have heard “taking an Aspirin a day will keep your heart attacks away”. In fact, Aspirin does help your heart. the salicyca acid in aspirin helps to keep bloods cells from clumping together and sticking to the arterial wall. This reduces the risk of heart diseases. Here are some reasons to be cautious about aspirin therapy.
Before discussing the benefits and side effects of aspirin, there are some people who should not take aspirin. These include:
a. Allergies to ASA
b. last trimester of pregnancy
c. prone to bleeding
d. has an active peptic ulcer
e. taking blood thinner medication.

1. Aspirin indeed helps your blood from clotting. If you suffer any bleeding, taking aspirin will make bleeding harder to stop. Study show that aspirin might increase the bleeding complication. If you are taking any blood thinner medication or you have an ulcer, please consult with your doctor before taking aspirin. For people suffering from hemorrhages (this is the loss of blood from the circulatory system or internal bleeding taking aspirin) they would do more harm than good.

2. Aspirin increases the risk of bleeding and hemorrhagic strokes that are caused by blood vessels bursting in or around your brain. Therefore do not assume that taking an aspirin a day would do no harm. Please consult with with your doctor before starting aspirin therapy.

3. Study shows that aspirin does not work well with people with high cholesterol levels. People with cholesterol levels over 220 respond poorly to aspirin therapy. Therefore, if your cholesterol level is over 220 you might need to find some other therapy to lower the risk of heart diseases.
Aspirin also causes some side affects such as heartburn, indigestion and mild-to-moderate abdominal or stomach cramps.

I hope this article will give you more understanding of the good and bad of aspirin. If you need more information of the above subject, please visit my home page at:

Kyle J. Norton
http://medicaladvisorjournals.blogspot.com
http://heartdiseasespartxvi.blogspot.com/

http://heartdiseasespartx.blogspot.com/

The Facts on Tb and Tb Test Reports

For decades, great strides have been made in the fight against TB but in recent years it has been on the rise. While some may be quick to place the blame on lax immigration laws, the actual demographics of TB just don’t back this line of thinking up. For instance, Richmond California, a predominantly African American city located just outside of San Fransisco, now has a TB rate that equals that of many third world countries. At the same time Latino farming communities in northern areas of the same state have TB rates that are equivalent to those of near by white, middle class, blue collar working communities.

Whos to Blame?

So the argument can logically be made that it is not immigrants who are responsible for the rise in the TB rate, but rather Americans who choose to live promiscuous, antisocial lifestyles. Can immigrants also be blamed for the three times higher than average rate of venereal disease and aids in African American communities as well?

Targets the Lungs

Rather than pointing the finger though, the best course to take to eliminate the scourge of TB is education and awareness. TB is a disease caused by a bacterium commonly known as Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. The organ that this bacterium effects primarily is the lungs, although it can and will attack other organs of the body.

Highly Treatable Once it Has Been Detected

A Positive test report for TB does not necessarily mean that a person has an  active case of TB. This is because a person can become infected but the disease can remain dormant in their system, often for years and even a lifetime. The good news however, is that the disease is highly treatable once it is detected but it does involve an oral medicine treatment regimen over a period of months.

Hair Loss – Will A Topical Hair Loss Treatment Be Enough?

Hair loss is one subject I am passionate about probably because I have fought the hair loss battle for over a decade, and at least up until this point consider my efforts to have been a success. In this article I will offer my opinion as to whether or not a topical hair loss treatment alone will be enough to deliver significant results.

Topical treatment come in many different forms with the most popular being the wide array of hair care products containing either 2 or 5 percent minoxidil.

Minoxidil was originally approved as an oral medication for blood pressure but now is primary used as a topical treatment for androgenic alopecia (male or female pattern balding). Statically, it is said to re-grow hair 80 percent of the time but the truth of the matter is only about 15 percent of the time does the new growth resemble hair. In fact, it has more the look and feel of peach fuzz. On the other hand the success rate rises substantially when the goal is to protect existing hair.

The reason for the low success rate when it comes to quality hair re-growth is the way male and female pattern baldness attack the scalp.

The driving force behind these two common conditions is the androgen hormone dihydrotestosterone (DHT) which attacks the small pouch like structure just below the scalp called a hair follicle. Over time DHT starts to shrink and destroy these tiny pouches making hair re-growth difficult at best and impossible at worst.

Even more troubling is that both male and female pattern balding are progressive conditions that gradually spread turning what might be initially perceived as an inconsequential problem into a full blow case of baldness.

If you are only using a topical hair loss treatment you are focusing on the areas where the most damage has been done. These types of products are not designed to be used as full scalp treatments rather to help slow balding around the crown. They also are not suggested for the front part of the scalp and make no claim to slow a receding hairline.

As you now know by using only a topical treatment for loss of scalp hair you likely will always be a little behind the curve. For this reason I believe an oral treatment is needed to protect and nourish areas which have yet to be impacted.

There are couple of different ways to go when it comes to oral hair treatments. Some believe saw palmetto alone (for men) will do the trick. I disagree with this belief.  On the other hand when saw palmetto is combined with biotin, or other hair stimulating ingredients, the result tend to be better.

The oral hair re-growth formulas that have produced the best result for me are those in liquid form which encourage healthy blood flow and circulation to the hair follicle and scalp while offsetting any other underlying problems (such as thyroid inconsistencies) that might be contributing to loss of scalp hair. Some of the ingredients commonly found in these types of hair re-growth formulas are ginkgo, rosemary, prickly ash, yarrow, and eastern purple coneflower.

In conclusion, in my opinion the best formula for reversing hair loss is the combination of oral and topical treatments. That said, perhaps the most important message when it comes to slowing, and hopefully reversing, loss of scalp hair is to address the problem before it gets out of control since it is always easier to protect existing hair than it is to produce new quality hair growth. 

How to Treat Brain Tumors

However, few maladies manage to both simultaneously confound researchers in their mystery, yet hold such promise for the cure and management as prominently as brain tumors. There is strong belief that some significant breakthroughs in brain tumor treatment may only be 4-6 years away.

Medical professionals and scientists use this particular classification system so that they may gather statistical data, uncover the underlying cause of the development of the various tumors that develop in the brain, and determine the treatment strategy for the tumors.

It has been established that there are treatments for brain tumors in children that may prove to be highly successful when it comes to eliminating and/or reducing the tumor. Naturally, early treatment is the most effective as it often results in the possibility of a positive and productive outcome.

Diagnosed with a stage 4 brain tumor my closest friend may not have too much time left that she will know who I am. I am a fixer, and there is nothing that I can do to make her better. The questions I have might help me understand how this could happen and how fast it has taken it’s toll on everyone in our close circle of love.

The patient will be treated by the team of health care professionals. There are many treatment options for surgery depending upon type and stages. This is the most common treatment for brain tumors. This is not a contagious disease and cannot spread from one person to other.

You may suffer from headache or inconvenience during first few days of surgery. Tumors may be defined in: benign and malignant. Benign does not contain cancer cells, whereas malignant contains cancer cells. After surgery regular follow-up is very important to make sure that the tumor has returned or not.

The common person hears about someone dying from a brain tumor and then questions why the medical personnel did not pick up on this diagnosis during routine physicals, or that the individual had not noticed any ailments early on and sought medical help before it was too late. What most people do not understand is how very difficult it is to detect a brain tumor in its initial stage of growth.

There are many different types of brain tumors. Doctors use a method that is referred to as “Classification”. This is nothing more than grouping the many different types of brain tumors according to the characteristics that they possess. Naturally, each of the tumors that affect the brain are issued a specific names.

Brain – It is a spongy bunch of tissue, and is sheltered by the skull with 3 thin membranes that is called the meninges. The diluted fluid that is known as the cerebrospinal fluid protects the brain. The fluids will flow throughout the spaces in between the meninges and to spaces within brains that is known to be the ventricles.

There are many symptoms that may develop when an individual develops a metastatic brain tumor. These symptoms come as a result of the fact that tumors have the capability of destroying cells in the brain, the inflammation that typically occurs with tumors, and the pressure that the tumor may cause as it grows.

Bacterial Pneumonia – Causes, Symptoms, Prevention, And Treatment

A recent article on a science website claimed that the deadly 1918-1919 influenza epidemic was made more lethal by bacterial pneumonia infections in influenza patients. While an epidemic of the same scale has not recurred, bacterial strains of pneumonia continue to kill around 40,000-70,000 people annually across the globe. It infects more than three times that number.

So, what causes this disease?  Pneumonia can be caused by viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Bacterial infections are the deadliest and the most common cause of pneumonia in adults. Bacterial pneumonia results in an inflammation of lungs. The major bacterial agents of pneumonia are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pyogenes. Other strains include Pneumocystis jiroveci, which can cause life threatening infections for those afflicted with HIV. Even TB germs can lead to pneumonia in patients with an insufficient immune function.

Is There A Way To Prevent Infections?

Studies have shown that some people are at a higher risk of developing bacterial pneumonia than others. Besides people grappling with poor health and illnesses, such as heart problems, diabetes, liver malfunction, immune system disorders, dementia or impaired neural functioning, smokers, people living in crowded facilities and nursing homes, and those suffering from recurring lung and breathing problems are at higher risk. Identifying the population at risk is the first step to prevention.

Maintaining hygiene is one of the most effective ways to curb infections. Always wash your hands after visiting the restroom, changing diapers, and before meals. Sneeze in a handkerchief or tissue paper. Ask your doctor for information on vaccines for bacterial pneumonia, which is administered to high risk population, including patients with critical illnesses.

What Are The Symptoms?

Symptoms Of Bacterial Pneumonia Are Often Mistaken For Common Flu. Watch Out For:

* Difficulty in breathing
* Fever and persistent chills
* Chest pain
* Rapid weight loss
* Phlegm that is tinged red-brown
* Loss of appetite
* Sweating

If you are at a higher risk of infection, you should contact your doctor if your “cold” lasts for more than three days.

Diagnosis And Treatment

A doctor will use a stethoscope to find out if your lungs make unusual sounds while you breathe. If the doctor feels you have bacterial pneumonia, he might ask you to undergo an X-ray. Additional diagnostic procedures include blood tests, CT scan, and sputum test.

Based on the doctor’s assessment, you might be admitted to a hospital or be administered antibiotics at home. Hospitalization is recommended for patients who have nobody to care for them at home, are not showing any signs of improvement through antibiotic treatment, or suffering from other illnesses.

Besides medication, you can improve your chances of recovery by drinking a lot of water, following doctor’s instructions closely, and taking a few days off from work to rest. You must also take adequate precautions to prevent the spread of infection.

Bacterial pneumonia might cause complications in HIV affected and diabetic patients. In such cases, the patient might need to be hospitalized and put on a ventilator or undergo surgery to remove fluid collecting around lungs.

Pulmonary Embolism – Symptoms and Causes

Pulmonary embolism (PE) is an extremely common and highly lethal condition that is a leading cause of death in all age groups. A good clinician actively seeks the diagnosis as soon as any suspicion of PE whatsoever is warranted, because prompt diagnosis and treatment can dramatically reduce the mortality rate and morbidity of the disease. Unfortunately, the diagnosis is missed more often than it is made, because PE often causes only vague and nonspecific symptoms.
The lungs are a pair of organs in the chest that are primarily responsible for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air we breathe and blood. The lung is composed of clusters of small air sacs (alveoli) divided by thin, elastic walls (membranes). Capillaries, the tiniest of blood vessels, run within these membranes between the alveoli and allow blood and air to come near each other.

Symptoms

Symptoms of PE are sudden-onset dyspnea (shortness of breath), tachypnea (rapid breathing), chest pain of “pleuritic” nature (worsened by breathing), cough, hemoptysis (coughing up blood), and may aid in the diagnosis. More severe cases can include signs such as pleural rub, cyanosis (blue discoloration, usually of the lips and fingers), collapse, and circulatory instability. About 15% of all cases of sudden death are attributable to PE.

Pulmonary embolism symptoms can vary greatly, depending on how much of your lung is involved, the size of the clot and your overall health — especially the presence or absence of underlying lung disease or heart disease.

Chest pain that often mimics a heart attack. The pain can occur anywhere in your chest and may radiate to your shoulder, arm, neck or jaw. It may be sharp and stabbing or aching and dull and may become worse when you breathe deeply (pleurisy), cough, eat, bend or stoop. The pain will get worse with exertion but won’t go away when you rest.

In some cases, the only signs and symptoms are related to deep vein thrombosis (DVT). These include swelling of the leg or along the vein in the leg, pain or tenderness in the leg, a feeling of increased warmth in the area of the leg that’s swollen or tender, and red or discolored skin on the affected leg.

Causes

Physiological risk factors include venous stasis (poor blood flow in the veins), venous injury (injury to the veins), and having a condition or illness that predisposes to clotting (cancer, certain blood protein deficiencies, infection). Older persons seem to have a higher risk for pulmonary embolism, as do obese persons and women taking oral contraceptives. Some people have inherited abnormalities in blood clotting that make them more likely to have pulmonary embolism.

Microscopic thrombi, or clots, are continually being made in the bloodstream. Normally, these are broken down quickly, but under certain conditions they grow to form a larger clot that blocks a vein. This is called deep vein thrombosis (DVT).

Clots that form in the veins throughout your body can dislodge, travel through the bloodstream to the right side of the heart, and then enter the pulmonary arteries, where they may cause a blockage. A blockage can occur in any small artery, but the lungs are especially vulnerable because all of the blood in the body passes through the lungs every time it circulates. Most often, a number of clots will shower your lungs during an episode of pulmonary embolism; it’s unusual for just one clot to take place.

Infant Bronchitis – Everything Parents Need To Know

Parents can sacrifice all their lives for children, hen when their child is unwell how can they have a sound sleep?

When the child is persistently coughing & breathing with difficulty, you might be thinking that this no ordinary cough or cold. Well, check with your pediatrician as your baby might be suffering from Bronchiolitis.

Bronchitis commonly occurs in the adults. In this disorder the large airways in our body get inflamed. Bronchiolitis refers to the infants with their airways inflamed between their chest & the lungs. This term is coined from the word bronchioles, a part of the bronchi of the infants that is naturally smaller than that of an adult. Therefore the infections in this case are easily plugged & viruses enter very easily.

When is your child at risk?

1. At the age of 6 months, the baby becomes prone to develop bronchiolitis. Until the baby becomes 2 years old, this tendency is far too much.

2. The infants are rather more susceptible to this ailment during the winters and the early period of spring season.

3. The babies exposed to cigarettes & belch smokes also bare a high risk of catching up the said illness.

4. For infants, even the crowded environments cause the symptoms of bronchiolitis.

5. Male infants are at a higher risk to acquire bronchiolitis than the females.

6. During the first 6 months, the male infants that are formula-fed become more likely to acquire this ailment as compared to those who are breast-fed.

What are the causes of bronchiolitis?

Respiratory Syncytial Virus or RSV is the key cause of bronchiolitis among the infants. The researchers have proved that RSV causes major ailments among young children, mostly the infants.

The other viruses that lead to bronchilitis are as follows:

1. Parainfluenza Virus

This sort of virus most oft brings the pediatric respiratory infections in the infants.

2. Mycoplasma

This sort of virus is a crucial cause of pneumonia & several other disorders linked to the respiratory system.

3. Adenoviruses

This virus commonly causes ailments like conjunctivitis and several others related to the respiratory system.

4. Influenza Virus

This sort of virus enters the human body’s respiratory tract and leads to the individuals suffering with cold, cough & some extent bronchitis.

What are the symptoms?

1. The baby begins to have a runny & stuffy nose along with meek cough. This is the key symptom of bronchiolitis among infants.

2. Next the child would suffer from varied breathing difficulties, that is both in the inhaling and exhaling part.

3. Just in a day or 2, the baby would have increased breathing difficulty along with rapid wheezing & cough. By this time, you must get aware as the heartbeats would have become very unusually fast.

4. While all the above symptoms are a must, they are often accompanied with the others like fever and/or cooler body temperature & reduced appetite.

How can the medical experts diagnose bronchiolitis?

In case you observe the above given symptoms in your infant, you must check with a pediatrician as soon as possible. The pediatrician would first check the baby’s medical history and then assess the baby with some physical examination. Further the doctor would order for some further tests that must be taken very seriously. These tests are as follows:

1. Pulsoximeter
2. Chest x-ray

What are the treatments recommended?

1. The child can be temporarily relieved with the first-aid.

2. Next you must give your child lot of non-caffeinated fluids. This would control the dehydration in the child.

3. You can opt to make use of the humidifiers and/or saline nose drops. These would help mucus to lighten out very quickly.

4. At times, the medical experts recommend that the parents and/or caregivers should bring their infant to a hospital so as to get them well-supervised care such as giving the fluids & oxygen as & when needed and giving the right humidified atmosphere. One very important thing in this case would be that the child would get proper medical care.

Is bronchiolitis preventable?

Once your child is saved from a bronchiolitis attack, you must not risk him/her with another episode of the ailment. So, you must undertake the preventive measures that are as follows:

1. While the dicey seasons for the infant like winters and early spring season, make sure to keep your child away from persons suffering with cough, cold and flu.

2. Make sure that as a parent and/or a caregiver, you must wash your hands every time before handling the infant.

3. In case you cough or sneeze, you must use a tissue or a handkerchief to cover your mouth well enough.

In case you are likely to become ill, request someone to take over your responsibility for a few days

Home Remedies for Bronchitis – Which Remedies Do Wonders

Bronchitis refers to the inflammation of the bronchial tree, an important organ of respiratory track in the human body. Since the organ is related to the respiratory track, any adverse condition affecting the organ will affect the breathing too and therefore, in bronchitis, there will be difficulty in breathing. The condition occurs when the inner-wall that lines the main air passage of the lungs gets infected and then becomes inflamed.

There are many causes for bronchitis; one of the most common is infection. The infection can be due to virus or bacteria. Whatever the cause is, generally the condition may subside within couple of days without any great efforts except giving some proper antibiotic but if it is severe, it may turn to a worse condition in which, the breathing, sometimes gets difficult.

The bronchitis is closely related to another health ailment called bronchiolitis in which, there will be inflammation of bronchi. In both the conditions, the symptoms will remain almost same such as difficulty in breathing, coughing and wheezing sound may be heard by stethoscope or if they are severe, by distance too.

Some of the useful home remedies for bronchitis are mentioned below –

• One of the proven home remedy for bronchitis is taking one glass of milk then adding half teaspoon of turmeric powder and drinking it two to three times a day regularly on daily basis. It is advisable to have it on empty stomach.

• Another great home remedies for bronchitis is usage of the wonder drug ginger. This wonderful herb serves as the anti inflammatory and mucolytic. For this, take about ½ teaspoon each of ginger powder, pepper and cloves. One can either prepare tea by using that mixture or else one can simply lick that mixture powder with honey. This will help in boosting the immunity of a patient.

• Onion has great value as remedy in bronchitis. One should take one teaspoon of raw onion juice in the morning for at least 4 months.

• One of the best home remedies for bronchitis is take 50 gm of fresh spinach leaves and 250 ml of water. Add a bit of ammonium chloride and one teaspoon of honey to it. Take this mixture works wonderfully in curing bronchitis.

• For treating bronchitis, heat little bit castor oil planet leaves on a pan. Cool and then spread them on the chest of the affected person. This is to be done overnight. One should be cautious as castor oil planet is poisonous and therefore, should not be taken internally.
• One can also mix a mustard powder with equal amount of flour and water. Smear the mixture on the chest area of an affected person. One thing is to be noticed that some people might be sensitive to the mustard as it might sting and therefore, test on a small area first.

• Drinking fresh cabbage juice every day is good for bronchitis.

• One can pour a cup of boiling water into a cup with grind or cut horseradish root. Let it be for about five minutes and then drink it. Repeat three times a day for about 7 days.

• One can also put ½ tsp of licorice root tea in a cup of hot water. Let it be cool for ten minutes, strain and drink. Repeat thrice a day. This gives good results in bronchitis.

Physiotherapy – Management of Hip Replacement

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the commonest joint degeneration condition in the world, resulting in huge amounts of pain and suffering, work loss, expense and disability. Ageing of western developed populations, soon to be followed by some developing countries such as China, will place an increasing burden on medical services as the occurrence of OA rises steadily with age. There will be an increasing need to provide medical and physiotherapy treatment for OA over the next 50 years and for many thousands of people this will involve joint replacement. 

Medical interventions can be rated on a scale which calculates the improvement in quality of life which results and here hip replacement comes out top of all treatments. The 1960s saw its development into a standard treatment for hip arthritis but the 21st century has seen the technique evolve into a complex and predictable approach to many hip conditions, with excellent fifteen year plus results. Once conservative treatments have been exhausted due to a worsening joint then joint replacement becomes the standard choice.

Total hip replacement involves removal of the arthritic joint surfaces and their replacement with metal and plastic components. The top of the femur, the ball of the hip joint, is removed and the socket is reamed out to make it bigger to accept the new part. Cement is pressurized into the bony areas and a steel alloy femoral component with a ball and stem is inserted down the femur and a plastic cup of ultra high density polyethylene into the socket. The metal-plastic interface allows very low friction and wear, ensuring a long life for the joint.

On return from operation the physiotherapist will check the patient’s operative record, medical observations and assess the patient. Initial physio treatment consists of checking respiratory status and the muscle power and feeling in the legs to exclude nerve injury. Exercises are given to restore normal movement although an epidural can cause loss of movement in the legs and delay progress. The physiotherapist will then mobilise the patient with an assistant, taking care of the hip precautions, stand them up and walk them a short distance with elbow crutches or a frame.

Toes, ankles, quadriceps, hip flexion and buttock exercises continue to restore normal muscle activity to the legs and maintain the circulation. Routine painkillers should be taken as this helps patients get up and about and once safe they can get up three times a day or more with a helper to walk, toilet and wash. Usual precautions are taken and when sat out the chair must be the correct height and normally patients do not put their feet up whilst sitting.

After hip replacement patients require instruction and correction to achieve a normal walking pattern, develop muscular power and improved function. Physiotherapists teach the appropriate gait at the time, often starting with “step to” where the patient moves the walking aid, steps the operated leg forwards and steps up to it with the other leg, a stable and safe pattern. Progression is to ‘step through” where the unaffected leg steps beyond the other in an approximation of a normal walking pattern. Patients often progress naturally then to a gait where they move both the crutches and the affected leg forward at the same time and start to walk in a fully natural pattern.

Once they return for their follow up appointment at six weeks after operation patients have often achieved a good gait, reasonable hip strength and returned to some activities of daily living. The physio may advise a stick if they are unsteady, slow or older, and they can gradually regain their previous abilities provided they observe the precautions to prevent hip dislocation:  Avoid hip flexion over 90 degrees by not sitting down in low seating, not sitting down or standing up too quickly, not bending over to the floor quickly and not crouching.  Weight bearing on the leg and rotating the body weight is unwise.  Get medical advice if an infection develops e.g. in the bladder, chest or teeth, as this can transfer to an artificial joint.  Avoid crossed legs in sitting.

Anterior Hip Replacement – What is it All About?

As a Fellowship Trained Joint Replacement Surgeon, I am often asked about the latest developments in arthritis surgery. With the advent of minimally invasive techniques in orthopedic surgery there has been a renewed interest in performing hip replacement through the front (anterior) of the hip as opposed to the more traditional posterior, or backside approach. The logic behind anterior hip replacement is to try to minimize muscle damage by separating muscles to gain access to the front of the hip as opposed to releasing and repairing the muscles to gain access to the hip joint form behind. In short, there is no perfect way to deliver implants to the hip joint. If there were, we would all be performing that approach only for hip replacement surgery. Having given you this background, these are the most frequently asked questions encountered in my office:

Is anterior hip replacement a new technique?

No. The anterior hip approach was first described by Smith-Petersen in 1917. It was used by the French surgeon, Robert Judet, in 1947 to perform an isolated femoral head replacement. This later evolved into other French surgeons performing complete hip joint replacements through an anterior exposure in the 1960’s.

If this technique has been in existence since 1960, why all the interest now?

Early surgeons found that the visualization of the hip socket was excellent through the front of the hip; however it was very difficult to insert a long straight metal stem down the femur through an anterior approach. If complications occurred during surgery it was very difficult to change or extend the anterior approach to overcome difficult surgeries and provide for better visualization. Therefore, most surgeons opted to perform hip replacement through posterior, or posterior and lateral exposures. The posterior approach has become the standard of care since that time. By using specialized instrumentation, newer generation hip implants, a custom operating table, and real time intraoperative x-ray equipment, anterior hip replacement has made a resurgence. These additions have allowed the the anterior approach to become easier and more reliable to perform than before.

What are the drawbacks to anterior hip replacement?

Performing an anterior total hip replacement requires positioning on a special operating table with the legs attached directly to the table. By manipulating the table, the leg is positioned to insert the hip stem. Since it is difficult to judge how much force is applied to the leg, fractures in the leg bones have occurred on the operating table. The implants are placed using real time x-ray equipment; if that equipment is malpositioned the implants can be misplaced leading to potential increased wear or dislocation and a painful joint.

Is it true that hips done through an anterior approach will not dislocate?

No. All hip replacements can dislocate. Historically, the incidence of dislocation from an anterior approach is less than through a posterior approach. However with a new generation of hip replacements, the use of larger femoral head replacements has reduced the incidence of hip dislocations for all approaches.

What hip approach do you recommend?

I recommend finding a surgeon who is versed in anterior, posterior, and anterolateral hip replacement. Since every hip exposure has specific pros and cons, it is the job of the surgeon to match each individual patient’s need to the specific approach. Patients and surgeons want to minimize pain and speed recovery, yet the main objective of hip replacement is to provide patients with a well done operation, with good component position, and the expectation that it will last for the next 20-30 years.

Fractures, Bone Pain, Foot or Leg Cramp Treatment

Fractures, bone pain, foot or leg cramp during post menopause can also be referred to as Osteoporosis. Bone strength slowly decreases and causes the skeletal system to become more fragile. Bone density represents about 70 percent of the bone’s strength. When osteoporosis exists, the bone become porous, giving the body a greater chance to have fractures, bone pain, foot or leg cramps.

Post menopause is the final phase of the transition of your body caused by hormone levels changing with your age. Most women over the age of 50 should consider having a test done that measures the density of your bones.

Considering having a bone density test done by a physician is a diagnostic test that will measure the amount of minerals left in your bones allowing the doctor to determine whether or not osteoporosis has set in.

These tests have been debated as to whether or not your physician has enough evidence to administer the proper medication to treat these symptoms. The testing is very valuable because it will give your doctor the proper information to administer hormone, and/or drug treatment.

There is a number of prescription drugs used to treat these symptoms. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is one way to treat these symptoms. Replacement hormones consist of synthetic estrogen, and or, progestin. These hormones replace a woman’s depleting hormones allowing the body to be relieved of the symptoms of menopause. These replacement hormones, if taken up to five years after menopause begins can stop the effects of osteoporosis. It is estimated that HRT can give a 50 to 80 percent decrease in vertebral fractures, and a 23 percent decrease in non-vertebral fractures if taken with a five year use. There are side effects to HRT which include bloating, nausea, breast tenderness, vaginal bleeding, fluid retention, weight gain, depression, and a possible increase of migraine headaches.

Herbs have also been used to treat osteoporosis such as Vitex, also known as chaste berry. This herb is known to even out hot flashes, mood swings, and restore vaginal lubrication.

The symptoms of fractures, bone pain, foot or leg cramps are feelings of power surges throughout the body, and can be very uncomfortable.

Along with the hormone/drug treatment, there are also natural ways to fight fractures, bone pain, foot or leg crams during post menopause.

By drinking milk, eating calcium rich foods, such as broccoli, deep green leaf lettuces like kale, and taking calcium supplements. Doctors recommend that you take 1,500 mg., along with magnesium because it will work with your body to help you absorb the calcium better. Foods to avoid during this time are caffeine, including chocolate, alcohol, and spicy foods. You can also increase your diet with foods like soy tofu, and soy products because they are rich in isflavones. By utilizing these mediums you can delay the natural causes of fractures, bone pain, foot or leg cramps, during post menopause because when you lose bone density, you can not get it back.

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Cerebral Palsy Spastic Medical Condition – Variate Of Stages Of Cerebral Palsy

What’s cerebral palsy condition?

It’s a devastating experience for many fogeys when they hear from their doctors that their child has been diagnosed as having cerebral palsy. This one disorder confuses not only fogeys but also doctors and that s why most doctors take a long time to diagnose this health condition. After a comprehensive testing, the surgeon should be in a position to tell the parents what kind of the disorder is affecting the kid.

Brain development in a baby starts right from the time of pregnancy until the time they reach three, and depending on the damage which has occurred in their brains, babies can be classified as having different sorts of palsy. There are many types of cerebral palsy and spastic cerebral palsy is the commonest type found in several children.

Fogeys should remember that cerebral palsy is not a progressive disorder that’s it does not worsen as one ages. When a child has been diagnosed as having spastic cerebral palsy, it means that your child has stiff muscles, which tend to become tight too. They show extraordinary resistance when they’re stretched. In standard folk, muscles have a tendency to work in pairs. When one muscle group begins to contract, the other group starts to relax and this gives us free movement in our limbs. But in spastic palsy, the spastic muscles become active at the same time and this inhibits movement and this muscled war between the two groups is known as co-contraction.

There are three types of spastic cerebral palsy and they’re spastic diplegia, spastic hemiplegia and spastic quadriplegia. When a child is diagnosed as having spastic diplegia then the child finds that their hip and leg muscles are tight and their legs are crossed at the knees thus making it very difficult for the kid to walk.

In spastic quadriplegia, which is the most grim of the three a kid who is influenced by this disorder will be mentally, retarded as well as having their limbs also influenced. Not merely will the child experience episodes it also will be difficult for the kid to speak, eat and move without trouble.

Spastic cerebral palsy can be treated with the help of care, medications and even surgery. Children with this disorder would do well to learn music and dance therapy, yoga, physical treatment so they become better.