Scapular Fractures Information

A scapula fracture is an uncommon injury. A scapular fracture is a break in the scapula (shoulder blade). The scapula is a large, triangular, flat bone on each side of the upper back. Each scapula is attached to the humerus (arm bone). In the front, the scapula is connected to the clavicle. Together with the clavicle, the scapula connects the upper arm to the trunk of the body. Scapular fractures occur infrequently. Scapula fractures account for approximately 1% of all fractures. Scapular fractures are more common among men than among women because of their increased incidence of significant blunt trauma. Scapular fractures predominate in persons aged 25-40 years because of the increased occurrence of significant blunt trauma in this population.

The signs and symptoms of a scapular fracture is pain, tenderness, swelling, bruising, or a bump in the injured area. The bones may poke through the skin, not look normal, or look out of place. The shoulder and arm may feel weak, numb, and tingly. The three types of scapula fractures. Scapular body fractures are the most common type of scapula fracture. These injuries seldom require any specific treatment more than a simple arm sling. The important fact is that scapular body fractures are commonly (80-90%) associated with other injuries such as lung and chest injuries. Scapular neck fractures occur just adjacent to the glenoid–part of the shoulder joint. Again, most of these fractures can be treated without surgery unless there is significant angulation of the broken bones.

Glenoid fractures include the cartilage surfaces of the shoulder joint. These fractures require surgery when the should joint becomes unstable or if the fragments are far out of alignment. Patients with glenoid fractures are at risk of developing shoulder arthritis. Treatment will depend on the damage and the kind of fracture you have.
Surgery may also be needed to fix a scapula that sticks out through the skin. Pins, plates, and screws may be used to hold the bone together. Use of ice, analgesics, and sling and swath immobilization suffice for most fractures to the body or spine of the scapula. Nondisplaced fractures of the acromion usually can be treated with sling immobilization, ice, and analgesics. Coracoid fractures respond well to conservative therapy with sling immobilization, ice, analgesics, and early mobilization.

Scapular Fractures Treatment and Prevention Tips

1. All stellate glenoid fractures require early orthopedic consultation.

2. Ice packs may be put on your fractured scapula to decrease swelling, pain, and redness.

3. Surgery may also be needed to fix a scapula that sticks out through the skin.

4. Exercises that increase range of motion may be done as the pain decreases.

5. Physical therapy may be needed once swelling and pain are gone to help your scapular fracture heal faster.

Cerebral palsy and birth injuries

Cerebral palsy is a medical term designating a series of neurological conditions that cause physical disability. The term cerebral refers to the part of the brain that has been affected while palsy designates muscle paralysis.  Although there are different types of CP and the symptoms vary considerably from one patient to another, generally speaking the condition consists in the inability to control certain muscles of the body due to damages occurred in the brain around the time of birth.

The symptoms of the disease are usually not visible immediately after birth. They become obvious later, but by the age of three the majority of affected individuals are diagnosed. The most common signs include:

  • The baby begins to crawl, walk or speak later than normal
  • Has difficulty feeding, sucking and swallowing
  • Has abnormal muscles tone
  • Lays down or crawls in unusual ways
  •  Uses only one side of the body
  • Has hearing or vision problems
  • Has problems with coordination and balance
  • Suffers from seizure or muscle spasm

Depending on these symptoms doctors were able to establish different types of cerebral palsy. The most common ones include:

  • Spastic hemiplegeia: the baby has muscle stiffness on one side of the body. It usually affects just one hand, arm or leg.
  • Spastic diplegia: the lower limbs are affected, the muscles of the legs are tight, making walking difficult
  • Spastic quadriplegia: the legs, arms and body are affected, and the child most likely has mental retardation
  • Ataxic cerebral palsy: the child’s balance is affected, he has difficulties in performing precise movements
  • Dyskinetic cerebral palsy: the hole body is affected by muscle problems, the child will have difficulties in controlling his voice but the intelligence is normal

What causes cerebral palsy?

There are a series of conditions or incidents occurring before, during or immediately after birth that can lead to the development of CP. But no matter what the causes are, the disease occurs when brain cells die because of lack of oxygen. The affected area of the brain will not be able to control the muscles it is responsible for, so the individual will suffer from disabilities.

The most common causes of the condition, which occur before birth, especially in the first six months of pregnancy include:

  • Infections in the mother
  • Low blood pressure of the mother
  • Consumption of illegal drugs or alcohol during pregnancy
  • The fetus suffering from clotting disorder or heart anomaly

Although in the first six months the fetus is especially vulnerable to abnormal brain development, the birth is also a critical stage. If anything goes wrong, and the baby suffers a birth injury, he can develop cerebral palsy. The most common causes of the condition, which occur during birth include:

  • The baby is born prematurely or with a very low body weight
  • Multiple births
  • Breech delivery: the baby is born with his feet first
  • The umbilical cord is twisted around the baby’s neck
  • The second stage of labor was prolonged

In certain cases medical negligence can also be the cause of serious brain injury. For example if a doctor fails to perform a cesarean section when that is obviously needed, like in case the baby remains blocked in the birth canal or he is too large for normal delivery, or if the vacuum extraction is excessively used, the baby’s brain can be affected.

In a minority of cases the brain injury can occur in the first couple of weeks after birth. The newborn can suffer an infection, a head injury or poisoning. In order to cause cerebral palsy these incidents have to occur soon after birth, because later the child’s brain will become more resistant.  

No matter what exactly caused CP, the child will remain affected for the rest of his life, as brain injury is incurable. Even if a series of therapies are available to help these patients live a more normal life, the challenges might be overwhelming both for parents and child. That is why if parents suspect a birth injury could have been the cause of their child’s injury, they should contact a birth injury attorney to see if they qualify for financial compensation.

Bell's Palsy And The Eye

Bell’s palsy is a condition that results in temporary paralysis of facial muscles due to a viral infection that inflames the facial nerve. The affected side of the face can display a drooping mouth, a sagging eyebrow and lower lid, and an inability to close the eye. As a result, most people with Bell’s palsy suffer from an extreme form of dry eye known as exposure keratitis.

While Bell’s palsy is not life-threatening, the affected eye may appear teary, but it remains dry due to its inability to blink or close completely. It is recommended that those suffering from Bell’s palsy consult with an ophthalmologist. Treatment will likely involve the application of artificial tears on an hourly basis during the day and an ophthalmic ointment at night. It cannot be stressed enough, that lubrication is imperative to maintaining a healthy eye during the weeks or months of the condition’s duration.

Approximately 80 percent of people with Bell’s palsy recover within six months. But without proper care of the involved eye, you may suffer needless and permanent consequences such as ulceration and scarring of your eye’s cornea.

Bell’s palsy is more common in adults, in people with diabetes, and in pregnant women than in others. We recommend that you protect your vision with periodic professional eye examinations. At SUSSKIND & ALMALLAH EYE ASSOCIATES, P.A., we offer comprehensive eye examinations. We offer you the experience and credentials to provide you and your family with superior eye care. We’re currently accepting new patients. Call 732-349-5622 to schedule an appointment.

Repairing A Hernia – Part 3

The region of the hernia repair is commonly affected by hardness, swelling and bruising which are related to the clotted blood and fluid under the wound, the stitches pulling the wound together and finally by scar tissue formation. These difficulties all settle over time as the area heals. The genitals can be affected by bruising and then they can become black and blue. This is because downwards is the obvious direction for any bleeding to track after the hernia repair.

Sometimes bruising can be very extensive. Occasionally bleeding from a small blood vessel under the skin or near the repair can produce a collection of blood, visible as a bulge under the wound, called a haematoma. This may settle slowly on its own but sometimes needs to be let out by a further operation. If bleeding spreads down into the scrotum some swelling may remain around the testicle for a long time.

During the operation a small nerve which travels across the incision line may be cut through, causing a minor area of numb feeling at the inner end of the incision. To do the operation well this nerve has to be cut but because the numb area gets smaller with time and is hidden under the pubic hair it does not normally cause any problems. A chronic pain problem over the area of the repair can develop in one in twenty patients and can be a significant problem. Nerve stretch as the operation is being done or the nerve becoming tethered as the healing proceeds are possible reasons for this pain. A pain killer can be injected into the painful area to reduce the pain but in some cases the surgeon will need to re-explore the area to find the trapped nerve and release it.

There is the possibility of damage during the operation to structures around the hernia, the artery, tube to the testicle and the vein. These risks are greater when surgery is done for a recurrent hernia. The testicle can lose its blood supply and shrivel and require removal, and if the tube to the testicle is damaged it will mean the other testicle will need to maintain fertility. This is usually very possible. Removal of the testicle in older patients may be advised routinely by surgeons who are repairing a recurrent hernia and want the best outcome.

Infection of the wound is a risk but is uncommon. If the wound starts to become red then antibiotics may be needed. If pus starts to come out then the wound may need to be opened up to release the infection. Infection increases the chance of a hernia coming back. If the mesh becomes infected another operation may be needed to remove it and the hernia will then need to be repaired again later on. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a possible problem after hernia repair but is rare. If the patient is at particular risk then special precautions will be taken to reduce the risk. Moving the legs and feet as soon as possible after the operation and walking about early all help to stop thrombosis occurring.

The chances of a hernia happening again are less than once in twenty cases after the first repair of a hernia. To have a general anaesthetic involves some risk and this is greater if the patient is suffering from a longstanding medical illness or disease. Short term side effects with the frequency of one in ten to a hundred are blurred vision, pain over the site of injection, bruising and sickness. These are easily managed and do not persist for long.

Less common complications with a frequency 1 in 100 to 10,000 cover pains in the muscles, damage to the lips, teeth or tongue, headaches, temporary problems with speaking, sore throat and short term breathing difficulties. Serious and very rare complications with a frequency of less than 1 in 10,000 cover kidney and liver failure, long term nerve or blood vessel damage, damage to the lungs, eye injury, voice box damage, brain damage, severe allergy reactions and death. The rarity of these complications means that the frequency depends on co-existing medical problems.

Kyphoplasty surgery in India by experienced Indian spine surgeons

What is Kyphoplasty: Kyphoplasty is a surgery that offers relief to patients suffering from prolonged and debilitating pain from compression fractures in the spinal vertebrae. It provides medical cure by injecting bone-cement into the vertebrae to stabilize fractures, which results in significant pain-relief and restoration of mobility to patients.

Kyphoplasty surgery in India: Kyphoplasty surgery in India by experienced Indian spine-surgeons is providing relief to many patients who are suffering from spine-related problems. Now, Indian spine-treatment centres have started using the

latest spine-surgery techniques for the procedure of kyphoplasty. Kyphoplasty surgery is conducted in Mumbai and Chennai, which have some of the finest hospitals, with excellent medical infrastructure matching international standards, and these hospitals have the country’s best spine surgeons.

Performing the surgery: Kyphoplasty surgery is a spine procedure where bone-cement is injected, percutaneously, into a fractured spinal vertebra, in order to stabilize it. The procedure of Kyphoplasty is typically used for a spine fracture caused by osteoporosis, a disease that causes weakening of the bones and can lead to fractures in the vertebral bodies. Kyphoplasty can repair an osteoporotic fracture that causes extreme back pain, along with other symptoms like decreased height and spinal deformity or a hunch-backed appearance. The main purpose of Kyphoplasty is to cure pain caused due to fracture in the spinal vertebrae by stabilizing the bone.

Why India: Spine procedures like Kyphoplasty surgery in India at spine-treatment centers of Mumbai and Chennai, are performed with minimally invasive methods, thus assuring least post-surgical complications. The spine experts here are famous for giving quick medical appointments and providing reliable medical recovery and stay in hospital, all probably within a week’s time. The surgery costs in India are low as compared to countries like UK and USA.

Medical tourism in India offers various tourism packages according to the need of foreign patients. Packages include medical visa, stay at a five-star hotel, quick doctor’s appointment and surgery in top hospitals.

To know more about Kyphoplasty surgery in India visit www.dheerajbojwani.com or mail your queries at contact@dheerajbojwani.com

Shingles and Antibiotics

Thanks to many of the advances in modern science and medicine, researchers have developed antibiotics which significantly help people suffering from a case of shingles. Although there are a variety of antibiotics that may be prescribed by a doctor to someone suffering from shingles, they all perform the same basic functions.

Many doctors prefer to prescribe an antibiotic to their patients with shingles. These antibiotics are designed to not only ease the pain and irritation of the shingles rash, but also to decrease the duration that the rash lasts. Antibiotics for shingles include Zovirax, Valtrex and Famvir. Regardless of which antibiotic your doctor chooses to prescribe you, the key element is that you begin the antibiotic in the early stages of shingles. It has been proven in several different studies that these antibiotics are most effective when taken within three days of the initial symptoms of shingles. By beginning an antibiotic at this stage of shingles, you can ensure that it has the maximum effect on reducing irritation and duration.

Although some doctors choose to prescribe antibiotics to their patients with shingles, other doctors choose to only treat the symptoms of pain. In these cases, a doctor will recommend a common pain reliever such as Tylenol or Advil. The use of pain medications may be necessary for some patients even after the rash phase of shingles has ended. There are a percentage of shingles sufferers who experience postherpetic neuralgia, also known as PHN for short. PHN is basically a persistent pain that continues to occur even after the physical signs of shingles disappear. However, it is important to note that some doctors may prescribe an additional antibiotic to treat the symptoms of PHN.

In addition to pain medications and antibiotics, researchers are currently pursuing other forms of treatment. One of the more promising advances in the field of shingles treatment has been a vaccine to prevent occurrences of shingles. Although there has been a chickenpox vaccine for several years, researchers have not developed a completely effective shingles vaccine. However, several months ago, the FDA approved a shingles vaccine which is currently being used in high risk patients. Over the next few years, it is expected that this vaccine will be used in an increasing amount of the general population. Thanks to extensive research and development, people are being presented with a steadily increasing amount of treatment options for cases of shingles.

Please remember the advice and information in this article isn’t meant nor intended to replace professional medical advice. If you think you may be suffering from shingles you should speak to a doctor or special care practitioner as soon as possible and try to limit your contact with those around you until you know whether or not you have shingles.

Back Pain – SI Joint Dysfunction

Sacroiliac joint pain

 Sacroiliac (SI) joint pain has gained a lot of attention in the last ten years as an underappreciated cause of back pain with some studies indicating it is responsible for 15% to 40% of low back pain. The increased attention is due to the increasing knowledge of the SI joints intimate role in pelvic stability.  I hope more physicians consider SI joint pain in their differential after reading this article.

Pathophysiology

SI joint dysfunction due to inflammation within the joint itself is called sacroilitis. Pain from within the SI joint is common in rheumatoid patients and spondyloarthropathies.

The other cause of SI joint dysfunction stems from instability of the SI joint.  Many experts feel that SI joint pain is a component of a larger problem of pelvic instability (1). Pelvic instability has traditionally been underappreciated as a cause of low back pain, buttock pain, groin pain, and leg pain. Physical therapists and doctors of osteopathic medicine have been teaching these concepts for years but only relatively recently has this dissemination of knowledge trended towards mainstream thinking among medical doctors.

The SI joint complex (the SI joint and its associated ligaments) is the major support structure of the pelvic ring and is the strongest ligament complex in the body.  The complex consists of interosseous sacroiliac ligaments, iliolumbar ligaments, posterior sacroiliac ligaments, and the sacrotuberous and sacrospinous ligaments. The SI joints are two of the three joints involved in the stability of the pelvic ring.  The pelvic ring is the meeting place of the force vectors from the upper body and the lower extremities.  The third joint in the pelvic ring is the pubis symphysis. Pelvic instability causes pelvic rotation which can also cause twisting of the pubis symphysis.  Coupling this with its anterior location appears to provide an explanation as to why patients with SI joint instability can also experience anterior groin pain. Anecdotal evidence for this is seen when patients undergo a successful SI joint intra-articular injection relieving all of their posterior back, buttock, and leg symptoms but the patient still has groin pain. Groin pain is almost never eliminated by SI joint injections unless pelvic symmetry is corrected.

 If the SI joints are unstable, it can lead to significant pain and discomfort over the SI joints as well as numerous referred areas.  If an individual affected by SI joint pain has pain only over his or her SI joint, he/she  should be considered lucky. Most often SI joint instability causes unnatural strain on the entire low back and pelvic region causing a sometimes confusing clinical picture. Pain referral patterns of SI joint pain are often confused with L5 or S1 radiculitis or radiculopathies.

Referral patterns of SI joint dysfunction (2)

SI joint dysfunction often presents with a confusing clinical presentation.

1.       Buttock pain 94%

2.       Lower lumbar pain 74%,

3.       Lower extremity pain 50%, with 28% of these lower extremity pains going distal to the knee

4.       Pain goes all the way into the foot 13%. Younger patients are more likely to refer pain distal to the knee.

5.       Groin pain 14%. 

Most patients with SI joint instability also experience pain over the buttock region due to secondary muscle spasm of the gluteus muscles and piriformis complex.  Lower extremity symptoms are explained by the piriformis muscles natural tendency to spasm or tighten over the sciatic nerve whenever the SI joint is out of alignment.  This spasm of gluteus and piriformis muscles can cause a mechanical crowding or impingement of the sciatic nerve as it exits just below the SI joint (see figure 1. note the intimate association of the piriformis muscle, SI joint, and sciatic nerve).  Patients often complain of buttock pain and radiation of pain down to the knee and even down to the foot. Not all back pain and leg pains are due to a pinched a nerve from an intervertebral disk herniation.  SI joint dysfunction very closely mimics S1 or L5 radiculitis’ or radiculopathies because of the above described sciatic nerve irritation or impingement.

Groin pain and abdominal pain are not uncommon with SI joint instability.  Often times the groin pain is mistaken as a urologic problem like pudendal neuralgia, prostatitis,  genitofemoral neuralgia, or sterile epidydymitis(1). This is likely either due to unnatural tension on the nerves and ligaments around the pubis symphysis or actual impingement of the pudendal nerve which lies between the sacrospinous ligament and sacrotuberous ligament. The distance between these two ligaments abruptly narrows when the Ilium and sacrum are out of alignment i.e. SI joint instability.

The typical history of SI joint dysfunction consists of lateral or bilateral low back pain almost always below the pelvic rim. Pain can also radiate into the hip, groin, pelvis, leg, and foot.  The most common location of pain is in the buttock with pain extending down to the knee. Females are much more affected than males though the ratio is unclear.  The mechanism of injury is a continuum from completely atraumatic events to more obvious trauma like motor vehicle accidents, childbirth, or falls. A little over one third of failed back surgery patients suffer from SI joint dysfunction. In my practice, I often see patients who lose a substantial amount of weight and then develop SI joint dysfunction.  The etiology of this is unclear. Women who have had multiple births also seem to have a higher incidence of SI joint dysfunction.  The symptoms may be acute or may present as a remote or cumulative injury with chronic waxing and waning of symptoms with slow progression over time.  Patients often experience some degree of temporary relief with manipulation.  Patients must change positions frequently to avoid pain.  This is called “Theater Party Cocktail Syndrome”. Patient’s legs can also feel like they’re going to give out, but with objective testing of motor strength, no dysfunction is found. This is called a “Slipping Crutch syndrome”. Patients usually have a difficult time sleeping and getting out of bed in the morning can be excruciatingly painful. Continued movement after waking up tends to improve the pain.

There are many provocative physical exam maneuvers used to help establish the diagnosis of SI joint dysfunction. Going through each one of these provocative maneuvers is beyond the scope of this article.  It is important to note that the predictive value of provocative SI joint maneuvers in determining SI joint dysfunction is only 60%(4).  The conclusion of a recent study by Slipman et al(5), was that physical exam techniques can at best enter SI joint dysfunction into the differential diagnosis of a patient’s low back pain.  Of the alleged signs of sacroiliac joint pain, maximum pain below L5 coupled with pointing to the PSIS or local tenderness just medial to the PSIS (sacral sulcus) has the highest positive predictive value (PPD) at 60%(4).

Diagnosis

The gold standard for making a diagnosis of SI joint dysfunction is a fluoroscopically guided SI joint injection. Fluoroscopy is needed to accurately and consistently inject the sacroiliac joint.  Only 12% of patients had intra-articular SI joint injections when fluoroscopy was not utilized (3).  Also important is to anesthetize the entire SI joint complex.  In my experience as an interventional pain physician this cannot be consistently done by palpation alone, especially in obese patients.  It is humbling to see anatomy change under fluoroscopic guidance. What you perceive with palpation is sometimes markedly different than the actual location of the structure that you palpate.  Also vitally important is that these diagnostic injections are followed up with another physical exam while the patient is in the recovery room. Sending a patient home, having them follow up in several weeks, and then determining if this “diagnostic” injection was successful has consistently been shown to be an inaccurate way of establishing a pathoanatomic diagnosis.

Treatments

There is no one specific treatment for SI joint dysfunction which helps all patients.  The treatment varies if the dysfunction is intra-articular (inflammatory), or if it’s a lack of stability. Conservative treatment should first be tried including the manipulation by a qualified physical therapist or osteopathic physician to restore normal motion and balance,  home self-correction exercises,  a walking program (avoid heavy axial loading maneuvers), and core strengthening exercises (Pilates, Yoga, or guided physical therapy). Some patients also benefit from a quality SI joint support belt.  If conservative therapy is not helpful then I recommend a diagnostic SI joint complex injection.  The injection should include the SI joint ( intra-articularly) and the supporting ligaments with pain relief lasting for the duration of the local anesthetic and achieving greater than 75% pain relief. If there is any question about the positivity of this diagnostic test,  it should be repeated.

Radiofrequency Denervation

If the diagnosis has been established by an intra-articular SI joint injection and pain relief using conservative therapy affords no long-term pain relief, then consideration for other treatments can be made.  Radiofrequency denervation of an SI joint carries about a 65% success rate for patients who have failed other conservative therapies and only mild instability around the joint. The procedure involves the neurotomy of the lateral branch nerves that lay over the sacrum and innervate the posterior SI joint. The advantage of SI joint radiofrequency is that it is a very safe procedure with almost no documented morbidity.

Prolotherapy

Another treatment for SI joint pain is Prolotherapy.  Prolotherapy works by stimulating an inflammatory cascade which leads to fibroblastic activity thereby strengthening the entheses of ligaments and tendons. Prolotherapy on SI joints usually requires very strong Prolotherapy solutions.  In my experience, hypertonic Dextrose Prolotherapy only relieves 20 to 30% of most patients’ pain.  More aggressive prolotherapy usually reduces pain by 50% or greater in roughly 75% of patients. The greatest advantage of Prolotherapy is that it is provides a level of permanent relief.

SI joint Fusion

If the patient fails radiofrequency and prolotherapy, the last treatment option would be consideration for an SI joint fusion.  The outcome data on SI joint fusions is not highly favorable.  However, there are new minimally invasive SI joint fusions that have recently been approved by the FDA that appear promising. Patients with very diffuse pelvic pain and leg pains are not good candidates for fusion surgery. 

How the Feldenkrais Method Can Help Children with Disabilities

Children with learning or motor difficulties have trouble with simple baby tasks: sitting, crawling, and walking. Through movement we experience our world. Long before speech and thinking develop and take over how we express ourselves, we learn through our actions—through how we react to and interact with our environment. By using movement as the vehicle for learning, Feldenkrais not only taps into these early learning patterns, but also into older, inherited evolutionary patterns. This makes Feldenkrais a potent and powerful learning tool for your child’s developmental success.  And the kids love it!

Using Feldenkrais, the emphasis is both learning how to move, and using movement as a tool for learning. It’s an experiential education, making it tangible and personal for children of all ages:

  • We solve movement puzzles, generating and developing ideas through doing and inventing movement solutions to the common childhood skills of sitting, reaching, and crawling.
  • We play movement games that increase spatial awareness and develop interpersonal skills through nonverbal communications.
  • We encourage problem solving, emotional exploration and creative thinking in movement experience and expression.  This integrates thinking, sensing and moving, adding greater potency and relevance to learning.

The Feldenkrais Method uses movement as a primal means to tap into a universal and inherited potential of human development.  Each child is invited to explore the answers to movement problems and puzzles (e.g. reaching, rolling over, turning, and sitting up).  Dr. Feldenkrais developed brilliant movement directives and constraints while simultaneously insisting upon an approach of ease and pleasure. These directives and constraints establish clear limits, yet attention is directed away from “pushing the limits”, and toward abilities. An environment is now provided which focuses on a child’s own curiosity and encourages children to discover their own unique answers toward moving with greater ease. The boundaries become a source for playful investigation instead of something to defeat. The answers to movement questions come easily and playfully in this child-like learning environment. Rather than striving for an ideal or goal, the Feldenkrais Method encourages children to develop their inherent capacities and fulfill their potential regardless of the task or environment.

This is the Feldenkrais model for creating movement lessons for children. The intention is not to just teach children how to move better. The intention is to use movement as a means to help children recognize, develop and grow into their own potential. To learn, think and live creatively. And to share this learning with others.

The Feldenkrais Method offers hope especially for the child with developmental difficulties. Children of all ages can benefit. Children can receive treatment  for a wide range of diagnoses including ADD/ADHD, amputee, anxiety, Asperger’s Syndrome, asthma, ataxia, autism, balance issues, behavioral issues, birth defects, cerebral palsy, developmental delay, Down’s Syndrome, dystonia, genetic  defects, injury, juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis, learning disabilities, neurological disorders, postural issues, premature birth, scoliosis, spasticity, Spina Bifida, spinal cord injuries, structural issues (e.g. club foot), TMJ, torticollis, Tourette’s Syndrome, and trauma.

If physical therapy, orthotics, and prosthetics have disappointed you and your child, the Feldenkrais Method can be used to safely treat all problems for which surgery isn’t required. Feldenkrais uses simple, gentle movements to reorganize posture, flexibility, strength and coordination. Based on the neurological processes by which we learn movement skills, it is a novel approach to childhood disability, using the power of the brain to help the body function more efficiently. More efficient use of self creates environments within which abilities can flourish. Many children are better in a matter of weeks. Let Feldenkrais help your child have fun with life again.

Why You Can Get a Sore Throat From Using the Volcano Vaporizer

I noticed sometimes when i’m using the Volcano Vaporizer im getting a bit of a sore throat afterwards. Its not too bad and unlike smoking, where i get nasty cough and feel the impact on my lungs immediately. It feels more like my throat is simply a bit more sensitive and sore than usual.

None of my friends who use this device experienced anything like this, they are all very happy with the Volcano. So i was wondering wether i have simply very sensitive lungs (which is the case by the way, especially since i stopped smoking cigarettes) or maybe the Volcano Vaporizer isn’t so healthy and harmless as its marketed after all. I got my doubts because all of my vaporizing buddies also smoke cigarettes and i got the thought that maybe their lungs simply aren’t as sensitive from all the smoking. So i decided to do some research on the topic.

I started out on looking into the technology of the Volcano Vaporizer itself, the way this device is working. Honestly i had no clue how exactly this vaporization process was working and what the advantages of it were compared to simply burning the plant material.

I found out that with the vaporization method hot air flows through the plant material with a controlled temperature between 103°C (266°F) and 230°C (446°F). Through this process the active ingredients and flavourings within the plant are released into the air and can be inhaled. This is basically the same method as simply smoking the plant material, the difference being that with smoking the plant material the desired temperature is reached by burning the plant material. This has several disadvantages compared to vaporizing.

From the health aspect, by simply burning the plant material you do not only inhale the wanted active ingredients and flavourings, but also the toxic combustion by-products. These toxic by-products are responsible for the long-term damage in the lungs which can be caused by smoking. I don’t think i need to list those here, we are hopefully all aware of those anyway.

Economically there is also a huge loss in effectiveness in the process of burning. Due to the uncontrolled burning temperature a lot of the wanted active ingredients simply get destroyed in the process. With the vaporizing method the temperature can be controlled and the active ingredients don’t get destroyed which results in an increased effectiveness. You can actually use the same plant material two or three times and still get an effect, even though the effect gets weaker each time. For me this is actually the biggest advantage even over the health aspects, because i simply save a lot of money by "re-cycling" the material.

The third aspect is that by vaporizing you don’t get toxic combustion by-products which simply results in a more "tasty" experience. These by-products not only cause damage to the lungs like mentioned above but they also distract from the flavourings in the plant material as they overlap them. I was actually very pleasantly surprised the first time i vaporized by how tasty it was. You can notice much more subtleties in the flavour of the plant material than you would by smoking.

So while this all sounded very good to me in theory i still had my doubts about this device. I can understand how this technology works but still i got this sore throat feeling sometimes after vaporizing, so i looked into some scientific studies about the Volcano Vaporizer.

A study from the Institute of Technology at the University of Leiden came to the conclusion that "the final pulmonal uptake of THC is comparable to the smoking of cannabis, while avoiding the respiratory disadvantages of smoking". (Evaluative study on the Volcano Vaporizer, Division of Pharmacognosy, Institute of Biology, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands)

So far so good but still why the irritation in my lungs? Don’t get me wrong its not a huge thing and it goes away after a while and is very different from the felt impacts on my lungs by smoking. But i just wanted to find this out and decided to dug a little deeper.

And finally in another study by D. Gieringer published in the journal of Cannabis Therapeutics i found the little sidenote that "A puff of strong vaporized cannabis will occasionally elicit a cough. This could be entirely due to THC". (Study on the effectiveness of the Volcano Vaporizer, Dale Gieringer, Journal of Cannabis therapeutics, Vol. 4 2004)

So at last i could be at rest about my Volcano Vaporizer again and finally use it with a clear conscience again. You may wonder why i am so picky about this and delve so deep into this topic but you have to know that used to smoke cigarettes for nearly 10 years and after i quit that my lungs got very sensitive to any kind of smoke. Yet i didn’t want to let go of my favourite herb and that’s why i ended up with the Volcano and i was very happy with it until i discovered this little detail.

Since i tend to tell all my friends how happy i am with the Volcano Vaporizer and encourage them to get one too and stop destroying their lungs i simply wanted to make sure i can do this with a clear conscience.

Home Remedies For Strep Throat – Remedies That Actually Work

Strep throat is the infection of pharynx, tonsils, esophagus  that is caused by the bacteria A Streptococcus. The throat becomes inflamed, red and sore. Some of the symptoms of strep throat  may include difficulty in swallowing, headache, feeling weak, rash,  loss of appetite, excessive sweating, stomach pain, fever, sore throat, red, and white patches on the tonsils and throat. The symptoms of strep throat generally improved for 3 to 5 day. If you have developed a sore throat for more than a week, it is typically caused by something else and not strep.

Strep throat is a contagious disease that can easily spread infection from one person to another through direct touch or contamination of inanimate object. In order to reduce your risk of getting strep throat, it is important to maintain good personal hygiene and to avoid close contact with a person who already has the infection. People who suffer from strep throat should also take proper measures to help reduce the spread of bacterial infection.

Left untreated,  strep throat may develop serious health issues such as tonsillitis, kidney inflammation and rheumatic fever, sinus infections, ear infections, and pneumonia. In the vast majority of cases, strep throat  can be treated with antibiotics but there are home remedies for strep throat that can relieve your sore throat and promote faster healing

Saline Gargle. Cost effective and effortless- saline gargle is one of the most common home remedies for strep throat. You can find it in your kitchen. Just add about one half to one teaspoon of table salt into a glass of warm water, stir and gargle. It helps if you do gargling about thrice a day. Salt has a soothing effect and helps kill the bacteria that cause strep throat.

Cinnamon and Ginger. One of the most effective strep throat home remedies is through the use of cinnamon and ginger. Boil one teaspoon of powdered cinnamon and ginger and take this as a medicine for strep throat. Ginger and cinnamon have excellent healing properties that many consider to be effective in treating various types of inflammations especially strep throat.

Apple Cider Vinegar and Honey. What else can apple cider vinegar not do? Apple cider is very common the list for effective home remedies for strep throat and other conditions, too. Mixing a tablespoon of apple cider and one tablespoon of honey to a glass of hot water can work wonders. Sip this mixture slowly to ensure an ample amount passes through your throat but do not let the mixture get cold.

Ice Cream Bars. Who says Ice Cream Bars are only for those who have sweet tooth? The thing with sore throat is that our pharynx is inflamed and blood vessels in the area are dilated. These needs to be remedied and cold foods that can help constrict the vessels that cause the inflammation. Ice cream bars a good way of relieving the heat inside our throat. First is that it is cold and second is that it has a semi-solid solution allowing it to pass slowly to our throat.

Chew Garlic. Garlic has antibiotic properties called allicin which kills strep bacteria. Cut a thin slice of garlic then place in your cheek. Make sure to suck the garlic cloves like a candy then let them very slowly slide down your throat and swallow them.

Warm Compress. Take face cloth soaked in warm water and apply it into your throat. Heat has amazing healing and soothing properties, making it one of the effective home remedies for strep throat

Proper hydration. Proper hydration will keep your body systems working properly, including metabolism and digestion, and help in treating infections like common cough and colds.

Diabetes Mellitus – Types, Causes, Symptoms and Complications

Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar (glucose) levels, which result from defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both. Diabetes mellitus, commonly referred to as diabetes (as it will be in this article) was first identified as a disease associated with “sweet urine,” and excessive muscle loss in the ancient world.

Diabetes is a serious, lifelong condition that affects an estimated 20.8 million people. About 30 percent (6.2 million) do not know they have it. Each year, about 1.5 million people find out they have diabetes (1) and probably have had the disease for seven years before it was diagnosed.
Diabetes is a metabolic disorder affecting the way the body uses digested food for growth and energy. As a person eats, digestive juices break down the food into a simple sugar called glucose. Glucose is the main source of fuel for the body.

Types of Diabetes Mellitus:

Type 1 diabetes mellitus can occur at any age and is characterized by the marked and progressive inability of the pancreas to secrete insulin because of autoimmune destruction of the beta cells. It commonly occurs in children, with a fairly abrupt onset; however, newer antibody tests have allowed for the identification of more people with the new-onset adult form of type 1 diabetes mellitus called latent autoimmune diabetes of the adult (LADA).

Symptoms of type 1 diabetes:

· Increased thirst
· Increased urination
· Weight loss in spite of increased appetite

Type 2 diabetes mellitus was once called adult-onset diabetes. Now, because of the epidemic of obesity and inactivity in children, type 2 diabetes mellitus is occurring at younger and younger ages. Although type 2 diabetes mellitus typically affects individuals older than 40 years, it has been diagnosed in children as young as 2 years of age who have a family history of diabetes.

Symptoms of type 2 diabetes:

· Blurred vision
· Slow-healing infections
· Impotence in men

Genetic causes — Many people with type 2 diabetes have a family member with type 2 diabetes or conditions commonly associated with diabetes, such as high blood lipid levels, high blood pressure, or obesity. As an example, 39 percent of patients with type 2 diabetes have at least one parent with the disease. The lifetime risk that a first-degree relative (sister, brother, son, daughter) will develop diabetes is five to ten times higher than that of a person of a similar age and weight who has no family history of diabetes.

Complications:

People with diabetes may experience many serious, long-term complications. Some of these complications begin within months of the onset of diabetes, although most tend to develop after a few years. Most of the complications are progressive. The more tightly a person with diabetes is able to control the levels of sugar in the blood, the less likely it is that these complications will develop or become worse.

The eyes can be affected in several ways by diabetes mellitus. Diabetic retinopathy is one of the leading causes for irreversible blindness in the United States. This retinopathy can occur with either type I or type II diabetes mellitus, usually a decade or so after the onset of diabetes. Most persons with type I diabetes and many of those with type II diabetes develop some background (non-proliferative ) retinopathy. Proliferative retinopathy is more ominous and is more likely to occur when diabetes mellitus is poorly controlled.

Caffeine Causes Glucose Level Spikes In Type 2 Diabetics

Did you know that nearly 18 million Americans have been diagnosed as having diabetes, and this figure continues to rise? Of those diagnosed, 95 percent have adult-onset (or Type 2) diabetes, and only about half of them are even aware that they have the disorder. Adult-onset diabetes used to be a rare occurrence, developing in an individual around the mid-forties. Now, however, it is becoming increasingly more common at younger ages, and even among children.

Although there have been some research studies that have shown how caffeine (from coffee consumption) can stabilize insulin levels in Type 2 diabetes, a recent study conducted at Duke University, headed by James D. Lane, PHD. shows quite the opposite effect. This small study focused only on 14 individuals who had Type 2 diabetes, which is a life-long disease marked by high levels of sugar in the blood. It occurs when the body does not respond correctly to insulin, a hormone released by the pancreas. The results revealed that when caffeine was ingested together with meals it caused their blood glucose levels to spike wildly, and insulin levels swung out of control.

What is interesting about this study is, that the effects of caffeine on blood sugar levels is not new, or breakthrough scientific news. This has been known for decades, and a commonly learned concept by most first year biochemistry medical school students.

When a Type 2 diabetic ingests caffeine from coffee, or any other caffeinated product, it almost always produces an elevation in their glucose levels, throughout the day, by about 8 percent. Researchers think that caffeine interferes with the glucose transporting process in moving glucose out of the bloodstream and into body cells and muscle tissue where it is burned for fuel.

Caffeine consumption also triggers the release of the hormone and brain neurotransmitter, adrenaline, which raises blood sugar levels. When caffeine is consumed in combination with refined sugars such as white sugar and artificial dairy creamers that many people put in their morning coffee, it will intensify the effects on blood sugar levels. Long-term use of the two can lead to hypoglycemia. Caffeine plus refined sugars, or sugar substitutes, can be a deadly combination for anyone with diabetes, no matter which type.

It would seem to go without saying that a diabetic would would be well-advised to avoid this combination for life, or plan to be fighting their daily control of their insulin levels. Consider this as well, daily and heavy caffeine consumption reduces insulin sensitivity-the effects of which can last up to 12 hours after last ingesting a source of caffeine.

Dehydration is a common effect of drinking too much caffeine. Although you may think you are getting plenty of water in these type of drinks, caffeine, however, works against your body in two ways, it dehydrates body cells, by increasing urination. And, dehydration inhibits insulin secretion in the pancreas.

According to Dr. F. Batmanghelidj, M.D., author of “Your Body’s Many Cries For Water”, when adequate water level amounts are denied to the pancreas, by you not drinking enough, the body will adapt by clinging to what water reserves it has left to act upon the most important function it must perform at the time. Digestion of a meal you just ate by breaking it down and neutralizing acid in the intestines comes before proper insulin secretion.

Dr. B explains,in chapter 10, page 125, “As it happens, when insulin secretion is inhibited, except for the brain, the metabolism of the body is severely disrupted. In a dehydrated state, the brain benefits from insulin inhibition. The brain cell itself is not dependent on insulin for its functions. The cells in most other parts of the body are totally dependent on the properties of insulin for their normal function. If we think about it, there is a natural logic to the ultimate production of insulin-independent diabetes in severe chronic dehydration. Why is it called insulin-independent diabetes? Because the Body can still manufacture insulin, although it takes the influence of some chemical agents to promote its secretion.”

“This phenomenon of insulin inhibition with dehydration shows that the primary function of the pancreatic gland is directed at the provision of water for food digestion. The insulin inhibition is an adaption process of the gland to the dehydration of the body.”

Although controlling Type 2 diabetes is, clearly, more complicated than just reducing, or eliminating, one’s caffeine intake, further reading and investigation of this chapter in this book will open some eyes, also, into the important role amino acids play in this disease as well. Diabetes seems, to me at least, to be a disease brought on by the over eating of processed food, the wrong type of fats, and drinking the wrong type of fluids. It’s more than just genetics. A, highly, controllable condition when one maintains the eating of a proper diet.

Obesity in Children

Obesity has long been a problem among many Americans. This disease can damage many aspects of a person’s life. It can cause many more physical problems including heart disease and diabetes. It can also cause sufferers emotional strain and a negative self image. In recent years, Americans have been watching their children struggle with the same problems. And they aren’t the only ones. Problems with childhood obesity are being dealt with in many areas of the world.

According to the Centers for Disease control and prevention, sixteen percent of American children between the ages of six and nineteen are overweight or obese. That adds up to over nine million children who struggle with the many challenges of dealing with obesity.

While the number of American children struggling with obesity is overwhelming, the really staggering aspect of it is how this number is increasing. The number of children who are overweight or obese has refused to decrease or even stay constant. It rises at a downright scary level every year.

Children who are overweight as children are very likely to stay overweight as adults. This means dealing with the same problems for their whole lives. This is all the more reason for adults to take a stand and do something about our children’s health. But first, we must understand why are children are having so many problems with obesity.

There are many reasons that a child may struggle with their weight. The first reason is diet. So many times, adults let children eat what they want. Their young, they should enjoy their lives, they say. But children are more likely to enjoy their lives when they are healthy with restrictions than when they are unhealthy and may do what they want.

It is sometimes hard to decide what foods are good for children. There are many prevailing theories, but a good guideline to follow is to simply think sensible. Low sugar, low fat, whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and lean meats are usually good ideas. However, we all know that most children aren’t going to like that spinach you deem healthy, so you may have to be a little creative when it comes to supper recipes. If you would like a little help coming up with nutritious and healthy meals, there are many sites online that you can visit.

If you need more help, you may think about contacting a professional nutritionist. He or she will be able to help you in constructing a practical diet plan tailored to your child’s specific needs.

Of course, poor diet is not the only reason that so many children are struggling with their weight. Lack of exercise is another reason. Television and video games are often self-consuming, even to many adults. So the time spent with these activities should be monitored and limited to make way for physical activities.

Genetics and environment also play a role in the causation for childhood obesity. People all want their children to be healthy, but sometimes they are simply born with the lower hand. Many factors can’t be helped. However, one way to curb weight problems in children is to set a good example for them. Don’t eat what they can’t, and don’t watch TV more than they can. Be good to your body, and they are more likely to be good to theirs.

Recognizing Acute and Continual Lyme Disease Symptoms

It remains to be enormously divisive in nature while there is no fixed medication and more than a few other difficulties can consequence on or after the progress.

To summarize, ruthless  Lyme disease symptoms can resolve without warning anywhere commencing a only some days to more than a few  weeks even as Continual Lyme disease symptoms will little by little engraft into the internal environment of the affected person.
Acute Lyme disease symptoms can be treated simply and successfully with a single or recipe of antibiotics like penicillin, doxycycline and amoxicillin.

Lyme disease symptoms  regularly begin with flu-like feelings.

The Lyme disease symptoms are headache, fever, muscle pains, weakness, and stiff neck.
Afterward the tick’s bite, about few days or one month following it, approximately 60% of Light-skinned patients experience an erythema migrans (EM) – an enlarging inflammation.
Dark skinned people experience bruise.

The flu-like symptoms, which are actually Lyme disease symptoms, can continue as long as the treatment treatment, despite the fact that there may also be minor emotional and mental symptoms like mood swings, sleep problems and intent difficulties. Pain relievers can be taken for muscle and joint pain as well as drugs that lessen the body temperature. Treatment lasts from one to two months.

Early symptoms should be treated straightaway delay. The first typical indication is a bull’s-eye rash accompanies by flu-like symptoms such as fever, body weakness, joint, muscle pain and chills. Unusual symptoms in acute Lyme disease symptoms involve palpitations, heart block and neurologic symptoms like changed mental condition and neuroborreliosis, the central nervous system disorder.
It is possible for Lyme disease symptoms to go through a latent  stage in its transition commencing acute to Continual disease. Severe symptoms can fade away for weeks, months or even years prior to recurring in additional ruthless  manners.

Incomplete Lyme disease symptoms:

Physicians are likely to  misidentify premature Lyme disease symptoms for flu, and later on, they experience certain non definite signs together with a variety of complexities with different body organs.

This is just a half-done record of Lyme disease symptoms, as there are other than three hundred symptoms in the medical glossary involving Lyme disease symptoms infection.

Non-specific Lyme disease symptoms: Sore throat, night sweats, severe fatigue, and inflamed glands

Digestion:
Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain (especially in kids), and diarrheas are several of the leading digestive problems of  Lyme disease symptoms.

Heart: some of the main Lyme disease symptoms:
Vasculitis – inflammation of the wall of blood vessels including veins , arteries and capillaries
Carditis, Pancarditis – the inflammation of the heart or its surroundings
Myocarditis – inflammation of the myocardium, the muscular part of the heart.

Muscles:
Joint inflammation and pain are the most common of Lyme disease symptoms: Arthritis that transfers from joint to joint cause damage to the joints of the body
As an outcome: Loss of muscle tone, muscle ache.
Bell’s palsy – paralysis of the facial nerve resulting in inability to control facial muscles on the affected side,

Nervous System:
Meningoencephalitis – both meningitis (an inflammation of the meninges- the system of cells membranes which envelops the central nervous system), and encephalitis, which is an infection or inflammation of the brain
Neurosyphilis – an infection of the brain or spinal cord, Encephalitis – an acute inflammation of the brain, spinal nerve root pain, tremors and shakes.
Results: Shortage reflexes, unequal  blood flow in brain, confusions, mood swings and speech difficulties – those are the major nervous system difficulties indicating severe Lyme disease symptoms and situation, memory failure, sleep problems, dementia, panic attacks, irrational disorder.

Skin:
People who catch Lyme disease regularly get a rash. Typically it  shape s a bull’s-eye pattern of red and white rings around the tick bite. Later on the might develop Lyme disease symptoms as  Paresthesia – A skin sensation, such as burning, prickling, itching, or tingling, with no apparent physical cause. Sensory lack of feeling; Tingling and numbness.

Reproductive System:
People who are sick with Lyme disease might have Urine control problems. The might have trouble to bring to an end the flow of urine from the bladder.
Other indication of Lyme disease symptoms are: Bowel incontinence – the loss of bowel control, resulting in involuntary passage of stool.
Men likely to have testicular pain – feeling pain in the testicles. Sexual dysfunction. 
Women might have  troubles   all through pregnancy – miscarriage, and delayed baby development.

Several of the Lyme disease symptoms are indicative of illnesses as the following:
Multiple Sclerosis – Disease that affects the central nervous system.
Parkinson’s disease – Central nervous system disorder that damages the motor skills and speech, in addition to other functions.
Alzheimer- a progressive and fatal brain disease, the most common form of dementia. Alzheimer’s  damages the brain cells, causing problems with memory, thinking and behavior.

The above-mentioned description is not a diagnostic tool, but the purpose is to proffer a underpinning for you to have a discussion with your personal physician regarding the innumerable Lyme disease symptoms.

Continual Lyme disease symptoms
30-50% of acute Lyme disease patients go on to expand chronic Lyme disease symptoms.  Furthermore, some previously  present but without symptoms  patients may make active their disease  following  a variety of pressures such as trauma, surgery, pregnancy, coexisting illness, antibiotics treatment, or ruthless  emotional stress.

Continual Lyme disease symptoms are enormously serious as  the manifestations are much more ruthless and; there is no fixed  medicine  for it. It cannot be effectively treated with antibiotics therefore  there are specific and individualized approaches in caring for patients in the Continual condition. The effects are requiring a long-term antibiotic use plus other therapies.

There is more controversy revolving around the medicinal treatment approach. The interaction of more than a few drugs and the Continual intake of antibiotics can prove to be overwhelming for the liver, kidneys and blood circulation as well.

Continual antibiotic intake can effect  to the patient being immune-compromised.

Steroid  therapy may be prescripted. Due to the effects and counter-effects of various treatments that are not yet traditional , a fixed treatment  cannot be completely guaranteed solely throughout  medicine. Immune responses as a result of bacterial invasion are compromised at times making the person susceptible to acquiring other diseases.

Additional  examination is necessary for chronic Lyme disease symptoms as its pathogenesis, the system by which Lyme disease begins, is not entirely known. There are also, more than a few symptoms suggestive to those of other diseases making it tricky  for health center  to diagnose accurately. The person may have acquired a new illness but still show the same of late phase  of Lyme disease symptoms. At this time, Doctors and medical researchers are studying fresh cure options to specifically individualize places for health care for Lyme disease patients.

Helping Continual Lyme disease Patients:

Except of from therapeutic treatment, chronic Lyme disease patients can be helped helpful procedures.
Founding  managing means with the aim of particularly cater to their requests or the  personality  existing by the disease, Lyme disease symptoms are significant.  Lyme disease symptoms, the chronic ones, still be around for more than a few years. Every sign can have a corresponding coping tactic.

Remove Red Rough Skin – Stop the Soreness

Do you want to remove that red, rough skin on your face, hands and neck?  Sure your do.  And I am going to tell you exactly how to do that – remove the red rough skin and stop the sore miserable pain.

To remove red rough skin and stop the soreness is best solved by understanding  the cause of red rough dry skin. 

There could be several different causes, but typically, it is overexposure to the elements or long-term dermatitis.  If you work in a harsh environment, it may be difficult, but it is possible to improve the skin’s appearance and its health. 

Taking the steps to do that is important for several reasons.  Your appearance is, of course, one thing, but the skin’s health affects you in more ways than you might think.  It is a part of the immune system.  When it is not functioning properly, you are more susceptible to viral and other types of infections.  So, here are my suggestions.

Protect Yourself from the Elements 

If you want to remove red, rough skin, the first step is to protect the affected area from the environment.  It could be sun, wind or cold that is causing the problem.  It could be smoke, dust or other environmental toxins. 

Wear gloves when you are working outdoors.  Wear a hat, with a brim that is wide enough to protect your face from the sun.  Wear lightweight “breathable” clothing that does not trap moisture against the skin.  When damp clothing rubs against you, it causes chafing, in other words, redness and roughness.

If you are frequently exposed to sunlight, use a broad spectrum sun block.  Zinc oxide is the best.  Remember to reapply it according to the directions.  One application won’t do for the whole day. Reduce Your Exposure to Irritants

If you are a man that shaves your shaving cream and your aftershave are probably contributing to your problem.  In order to remove red, rough skin, start shaving less frequently.  Be sure that your blades are sharp.  Try using plain grape seed oil (available at gourmet food stores) as a shaving lubricant.  Only save when your beard has been softened by a hot towel or steam from the shower.  After shaving, use a moisturizer, instead of an alcohol based after shave.   

Use a Nourishing Moisturizer on a Regular Basis

This is the most important step if you really want to remove red, rough skin.  Ingredients like witch hazel and Functional Keratin inhibit inflammation that can occur after shaving.  Creams containing the antioxidant coenzyme Q10 have been proven to reduce roughness.  The two of them work together to improve the skin’s moisture content.  The cause of roughness is essentially excessive dryness, usually over a long period of time.

If the problem is on your face and you are a man, an active facial fluid is the best choice.  If you are a woman, there are two separate moisturizers to consider.  One is for use as a Daytime Moisturizer and  the other is a Restorative Night Cream; it contains Shea butter and many other beneficial ingredients.

To remove red, rough skin on the hands, heels, elbows or other parts of the body use a high quality Body Lotion.  The above creams I recommend work better than anything else on the market, because they contains more active ingredients. And they definitely help get rid of red, rough skin.