My Dog Has Diarrhea! Help!

Most cases of diarrhea in properly vaccinated dogs are trivial in health terms, and though they can be alarming and messy they do not need you to rush off to your vets – just as you would not rush off to your doctor on the first sign of an upset tummy and a dose of the runs. That having been said, some cases can be serious, particularly in dogs weakened by other illness or old age, or if they have not been vaccinated.

Dogs that are otherwise fit will usually respond to simple measures designed to provide the lining of the intestine with a rest so it can heal, possibly supplemented by simple treatments you can administer yourself. More serious cases will require more medication and even intravenous fluids and hospitalization. The bottom line is, if you are worried or if the dirrhea lasts for more than a couple of days, a visit to your vet is in order to ensure proper pet care.

What causes it?

In most cases diarrhea occurs simply because the intestine has become inflamed and irritated – either because your dog ate something that did not agree with him or because of an infection (anything from viruses to worms). In its early stages dirrhea seldom causes illness, but if it lasts more than a couple of days your dog will usually start feeling sorry for himself – usually because of the loss of salts and fluids from the body and the general discomfort involved. If the infection is deeper than just the gut surface then there may be blood in the diarrhea (this is called dysentery) – this is a cause of worry for most owners, but in properly vaccinated dogs it is seldom as serious as it appears. If your dog starts to vomit it usually marks the spread of inflammation higher up the gut towards the stomach.

One serious cause of diarrhea is the viral infection caused by Parvovirus. This is a fast-spreading disease usually affecting youngger dogs and can be fatal – unfortunately it is easily prevented with the vaccine that all dogs should be given when they are puppies, and already boosted. Dogs affected with Parvovirus are usually suddenly very ill, with bloody diarrhea and vomiting. Other viruses and bacteria may cause diarrhea too, but are usually milder than Parvovirius infections. Although parasitic worms can cause diarrhea they are seldom present in sufficient numbers in adult dogs to do so, though they can in puppies.

Owners of dogs which are in the habit of scavenging and eating rubbish will often be able to predict a problem before it starts – typically their pet turns up looking a bit sheepish and guilty, and this is followed by progressively louder stomach rumblings and whiffy wind and then finally several bouts of diarrhea. You'll know if you have a dog like this!

Other cases of dirrhea occur because dogs have ateen something quite normal that just happens not to agree with them as an individual. Again, most owners of such dogs will in time become aware of certain things that their dog can not eat because it gives them the runs.

What can I do to help?

For simple cases of diarrhea it usually helps to put your dog on a bland diet of white meats, eg white fish (ie not mackerel, salmon, herring, tuna, etc) or chicken, together with boiled rice or pasta. This should be fed until the diarhea has ceased and the normal diet introduced gradually over a period of about three days. Because diarrhea strips fluids from the body always make sure your dog has constant access to water to prevent dehydration. In cases which appear to be associated with feeding a particular food, then avoid that in future.

You can buy a number of very helpful over-the-counter treatments for dogs with diarrhea and other dog health products available without veterinary prescription in the UK. There are a number of products to help sooth the gut lining and absorb any toxins which may be present and also things to help restore salts and electrolytes which may have been lost, and yet more to help establish a proper mix of 'good bugs' in the gut – so called pro-biotics and pre-biotics. As for worming, dogs over six months of age should be wormed four times a year to ensure they stay effectively worm-free, while a puppy should be wormed at least monthly. Excellent wormers for adult dogs and pups are available without prescription.

While your dog has diabetes, give him a rest from his normal exercise routine – just like you, he probably does not feel much like exercise when unwell. Also remember that there may be germs involved which can infect humans, such as E. coli , so it's very important to maintain high levels of personal and household hygiene to protect you and your other family members.

When should I call my vet?

It's an important principle of pet care to know when you should take your pet to your vet as opposed to doing things for yourself. Here's a list of reasons to consult your vet if your dog has diarrhea:

  • If your dog loses his normal brightness and vigor.
  • If the condition worsens – for instance if after a couple of days of diarrhea he starts to vomit, or if dysentery develops.
  • If your dog stops eating or drinking.
  • If he becomes dehydrated (if you notice his eyes sink in their sockets, his skin becomes less moveable over his body, his mouth becomes dry or tacky).
  • If he's not properly vaccinated and up to date with his boosters and he's looking ill along with having diarrhoea – especially if you've heard there's Parvovirus in the district.
  • In multi-dog households, if others start to have diarrhea too.
  • If your dog has recurring bouts of diarrhea, even if mild.

In general, most dogs get over a dose of diarrhea fairly quickly and without the need for expensive veterinary involvement, and as long as you as an owner recognize what needs to be done for your pet then the whole thing usually settles down within a couple of days.

Cookery Demonstrations and Other Methods of Learning How to Cook

Culinary arts continue to grow in popularity. Today, more and more people participate in cookery demonstrations to discover new dishes. Others attend culinary institutions to learn the basics of food preparation. The world has come a long way since the days when people only learned cooking skills from their mothers. There is a wide variety of ways for you to learn this ancient art. How do you know which of these choices fit your learning style?

Below are some of the most popular methods people use in learning the art of cooking. They teach individuals different levels of food preparation. A combination of these items can help you learn faster and allow you to become a better cook.

Cookery Demonstrations

The world's best chefs tour different countries and offer various cookery demonstrations to eager audiences. Their target audience are homemakers and beginners who already have basic kitchen skills. You can watch as they prepare easy dishes while explaining the process step-by-step. They will ask select members of the audience to try making the dish adjacent them if they are teaching larger groups. Smaller groups will get to try making the dish alongside these chefs themselves.

What makes these demonstrations popular is you get personal interaction with an expert and see how to make a specific dish firsthand. They also give tips and suggestions on ingredients, cooking techniques and pairing options during the session. These classes are easy to find because they often come as promotional programs for different products. If you already have a basic working knowledge of kitchen skills and would like to study new recipes, this is the perfect opportunity for you.

Culinary Schools

People who go to culinary schools do not automatically want to be chefs. Formal cooking institutions offer basic classes for people who are only beginning to explore the kitchen. They provide a structured program where you will learn different skill sets at a given period. You will begin with knife skills and basic cooking techniques to recognizing ingredients and their flavors before moving on to creating different dishes.

Many people choose this because they receive training from expert chefs. The combination of hands-on experience and classroom lectures lets you master the fundamentals under the guidance of chef instructors. You will also have your classmates for support. They will help you review your lessons and practice your skills. Together, you can exchange ideas on dishes and discover new dishes from each others' cooking experiences. This is ideal for those who want a more structured method and those who learn faster with a support group.

Personal Chef Service

Those who have the resources go for personal chef service. You can hire chefs not only to cook for you, but to teach you how as well. You will work with your personal chef one-on-one. The chef will give his undivided attention and answer all your questions as you learn skills at your own pace. There are no structures and schedules for these sessions because you dictate these factors. You can call for your personal chef or set your own time. You can also choose specific skill sets you want to gain. Busy people and those who learn faster in hands-on sessions will benefit from this method.

Diabetes and Killer Foot Ulcers!

Neuropathic ulcer, well that's a fancy name for leg ulcer … it is an infected area on your leg or foot and results from damage which you could not feel. So really, this is the time when it would be great for you to realize if you have diabetic neuropathy, you should do everything you can to control your blood sugar levels. There may not be time later!

Use whatever measures you can to achieve a normal fast blood sugar level by:

  • increasing your intake of fiber
  • raising your protein intake
  • adding cactus fruit jelly or
  • herbs

to your diet each day.

In a study reported in the Journal of American Podiatric Medical Association in September / October, 2009, Dr. K. Winkley and his research team studied people with diabetic foot ulcers.

They found that of 253 people with diabetes and their first foot ulcer, there were:

  • 40 people who died
  • 36 diabetics needed an amputation,
  • 99 diabetics treated from foot ulcers repeating
  • 52 people had ulcers that just would not heal

Frightening statistics! Who would have though that forty people with diabetes would actually die from foot ulcers they probably did not even know they had. They were not aware of pain because they had peripheral neuropathy and could not feel anything! It is equally shocking to find out that thirty-six either needed their foot or lower leg amputated. These figures mean 30% of the total number of people in the study died or required an amputation.

Thirty-nine per cent had their neuropathic ulcers return and 21% had ulcers that would not heal.

These statistics are a tragedy … why did not someone intervene and make sure that they did heal? Who checked their protein levels to make sure that their body had the raw material needed to create new skin? The ability to create new skin is innate in every one of us. All we have to do is provide enough protein and antioxidants to do the job. Who checked to see if they had enough antioxidants?

The answer is: no one!

To ensure this does not happen to you :

  • have 75 grams protein each day if you weigh 120 lbs (54.4kg) or less. If you weigh between 120 and 200 lbs (54.4 and 90.7kg) add another 15-25 grams protein. More than 200 lbs (90.7kg) … make it a total of 125 grams for the day. Some experts recommend a daily protein intake of 0.55 grams per 2.2 lbs (1 kg) of body weight for patients with compromised kidney function.
  • take your supplements: alpha-lipoic acid appears to improve neuropathy symptoms as does gamma-linolenic acid. Carnitine reduces pain in diabetic neuropathy and magnesium appears to slow the progress of neuropathy over the long term.

You can get over this type of neuropathic ulcers, or foot ulcers, without dying, without an amputation, without a recurrence and without having healing problems.

Antioxidants, Acids, Alkali and Cancer

In my previous articles on cancer, I did not discuss the role of acids, bases and antioxidants in detail. But with the current hype about the miraculous nature of basic water, antioxidant foods and drugs, I feel compelled to step in and set the records straight with current available medical literature.

The efficacy of acids, bases and antioxidants in cancer therapy is not a myth. It has a biochemical basis informed by modern research (SS Kim et al., 2004; Ian F. Robey & Lance A. Nesbit, 2013). The apprehensive controversy surrounding this subject emanates from poor coordination of research findings.

I have read articles (Bradley A. Web et al., 2011; Shi Q. et al., 2001; Silver M. et al., PubMed 2011) supporting systemic alkalosis or systemic hyperacidosis as the dominant toxic factor in cancer development. I have also watched video presentations claiming that cancer development is just a natural cellular adaptation to toxic environment, which is corrected by normalizing the environment.

These claims are to say the least, unbalanced truths. By the end of this discussion it would have become obvious that there is no basis for undue generalizations in the management of cancer. There still remains the need for expert jurisdiction in formulating a cancer treatment protocol.

BEFORE CANCER

First, let me state that the human body will literally rust away like a nail left under the rain over time without inbuilt natural protective mechanisms. To prevent rust or oxidation, most macromolecules essential for human existence are shielded from molecular oxygen or oxygen equivalents with hydrogen molecules (reduction). Oxygen equivalents are those compounds that remove these protective hydrogen molecules from other compounds.

They are also called oxidizing agents. Compounds that restore these hydrogen molecules are called reducing agents. The two most important organic agents in human body are glutathione and ubiquinone, while the two most important oxidizing agents are molecular oxygen and free oxygen radicals.

APOPTOSIS AND GROWTH SUPPRESSOR GENES

The human body cells are normally continuously moving from resting phase, to growth phase and then multiplication phase. This continuous state of growth and multiplication means that any organ can potentially grow to any size, depending on its natural growth rate. By inference all human beings may also grow into giants. It even suggests immortality of human beings.

Thankfully, every cell has an inbuilt apoptotic clock that ensures that it dies after a specified number of days, making room for incoming cells. Thus red blood cells, for instance, are recycled every 120 days. The size and shape of the cells of individual organs are equally limited prior to their date of apoptosis, by growth suppressor genes (notably p53, AP1, NF-kB) located in the nucleus.

Anything that hinders the functions of apoptosis and growth suppressor genes would obviously be expected to unleash uncontrolled growth and multiplication of cells in any organ of the body. This rapid growth of disorganized and poorly differentiated cells is called cancer.

All anti-growth suppression and anti-apoptosis agents are called carcinogens. They may be chemicals, radiations, biochemical molecules, acids, bases, free radicals, heat, cold, etc. But they all exert their effect by activating apoptosis gene or growth suppressor gene. They accomplish this by corrupting the gene coding system in such a way that the codes are wrong (missense) or mean nothing (nonsense).

The code is corrupt due to the insertion of the wrong amino acid code into a gene sequence or the excision of the right amino acid code from the sequence. Consequently the t-RNA misreads or miss-senses the expression of the right apoptosis or growth suppressor protein.

TOXINS, FREE RADICALS AND CARCINOGENS

Toxins are basically those compounds which activities will directly or indirectly lead to human rust and death by caatabolic or destructive oxidative reactions in body tissues. The high powered toxic tissue oxidizing agents are called free radicals (ROS and RNS), which are basically free ionized oxygen or nitrogen atoms (O2 and N2)

When a toxin causes a gene altering damage in the nuclear region of a cell (oxidative nuclear damage) it is then known as a carcinogen. As such not all toxins are carcinogen. Aflatoxin (from mold) is not only toxic to liver cells, but extremely causes liver cancer, making it a carcinogen.

The detoxification process mainly converts lipid soluble toxins into excretable water soluble glucuronides in three steps. In step one the toxins are aggregated and isolated in the specific organisms that neutralize them.

Then glucuronic acid is attached to them in the presence of glutathione which the protective hydrogen molecules. (Note that in fighting oxidants hydrogen (non-ionized) transported by reduced NADPH is a friend, while in acid-base balance ionized hydrogen is the enemy).

Free radicals can also contribute to cancer development by inducing genetic mutation through oxidative nuclear damage, or suppress cancer growth by promoting apoptosis. Step three is the excretion of the toxins.

ANTIOXIDANTS

Compounds use to replenish hydrogen molecules in glutathione and other endogenous reductase enzymes are called antioxidants. A lot of these reducing agents occur naturally in fruits and vegetables. Others are available as drug extracts from plants and animals.

Individual antioxidants target different steps of the detox process. This is why balanced nutrition by itself goes a long way to keep our bodies toxin free. The air we breathe, the food we eat, the water we drink, and the environments we live in are all full of toxins, including heavy metals. To survive as human beings, an extensive detoxification mechanism has to exist.

Every body tissue has detox ability, but the liver, gut, and lymphoid tissues and kidneys play the dominant role. Thus most toxins are trapped, neutralized and excreted through feces, urine or bile. Stagnation or obstruction of flow in any of these three organs, generally leads to a toxic state.

Stressors and nutritional inadequacies that weakened the immune system also contribute to toxic states allowing micro-organisms to multiply and generate additional toxic substances that must be removed.

Successful detoxification requires a lot of energy, which comes from glucose metabolism. Biochemical energy is not measured in Joules, but in ATPs (Adenosine Triphosphate). The metabolic process for converting glucose to ATP is called glycolsis.

During aerobic glycolysis one molecule of glucose combines with two molecules of ADP3 (Adenosine Diphosphate) and two ionic phosphoric acid molecules to yield two ionic ATP4 molecules and two lactate molecules. The ionic ATP4 molecule gives up one Hydrogen proton (H +) to yield one molecule of ionic ADP3-, which is reused in glycolysis.

Under anaerobic (low oxygen) conditions, ATP is generated differently. One molecule, each, of ADP3 and ionic phosphoric acid accumulated from aerobic glycolysis recombine without glucose to form one molecule of ATP4 + and one hydroxyl molecule. Two hydrogen protons combine with two bicarbonates to end up as carbonic acid inside body cells.

TOXIC ACIDOSIS

Glycolsis can be aerobic when it consumes molecular oxygen, or anaerobic when it consumes oxidizing agents. Both the detox reactions and glycolsis are driven or catalyzed by enzymes, which depend on the availability of specific micro-molecules, proteins, amino acids and vitamins as cofactors for their functions.

By the time enough ATP is generated to keep the body toxin safe, sufficient carbonic acid hydration of respirable carbon dioxide (CO2) has been accumulated to keep the inside of each cell perpetually acidic. In a highly toxic state, which includes rapid proliferation of cells, this intracellular acid builds up exponentially beyond survivable limits.

Cancer cells are known to rapidly outgrow their blood supplies and go into severe hypoxic states. This is why the cancer cell nucleus has to rapidly increase the expression of sodium driven proton extruding proteins and enzyme proteins through nuclear sensing of sharp rise in HIF.

Thus, by default, the intracellular fluid (ECF) of each cell is acidic (low pH) while that of the extracellular fluid (ECF) is alkaline (high pH). It is important to note at this point that while intracellular fluids exist in compartments inside the cells, extracellular fluids coalesce to form a pool in which all body cells submerged.

This ECF pool is represented by intercellular fluid, lymph, blood, and glandular secretions, all of which feed into the circulatory system of the body. ECF acid or base build up in any part of the body is extremely dissipated into the circulatory system, which centrally contains a slightly basic pH of 7.20 -7.40.

In addition to mobilizing ammonium and bicarbonate ions the central buffer system has the ability to move chloride ions in and out cells (chloride shift) to maintain acid-base balance.

MEMBRANE SENSORS AND TRANSPORTERS

To keep intracellular acid below lethal level, the inner surface of the cell membrane has acid sensors and transporters that detect abnormal rise in intracellular acidity and trigger increased extrusion of hydrogen and retention of alkaline bicarbonate ions.

This trigger is mediated by the rise in the blood level of hypoxia induced factors (HIF) and probably acidosis induced factors (AIF). On detecting this rise in HIF, the nucleus temporarily increases the expression of Na-driven proton transport proteins and histidine rich basic proteins.

The ammonium radicals on the amino acids of these basic proteins (especially histidine) serve as physiologic buffers for organic acids.

"Protonation and de-protonation has been shown to change protein structure and thus, alter protein-protein binding affinity, change protein stability, modify protein function, and alter subcellular localization (Schonichen et al., 2013b).

Evolutionarily, histidines must confer some selective advantage for cancers, as 15% of the 2000 identified somatic mutations in cancer involve histidine substitutions, with Arg-to-His being the most frequent (Kan et al., 2010) ".

The nucleus also temporarily steps up the expression of important enzyme proteins that catalyze the buffer reactions, sometimes mono-carboxylate, carbonic anhydrase, and aminotransferase enzymes.

In a similar manner the external surface of the cell also has alkaline sensors made up of G-protein coupled surface receptors, which also communicate with the nucleus to increase or decrease the expression of relevant proteins and enzymes. As tissue hypoxia decreases, the level of HIF decreases along with nuclear expression of proton extrusion proteins and enzymes.

Failure of this return to normalcy has been observed as one of the hallmarks of early cancer. What started out as a normal adaptive change becomes persistent because of irreversible genetic modifications that triggered it.

CELLULAR SURFACE ACID / BASE REVERSAL

The central physiological buffer system has a maximum capacity to neutralize up to 30 micromoles of acid / gram tissue / min in systemic acidosis or 5-10 micromoles of base in alkalosis.

Beyond these levels, normal body cells are unable to continue their buffer functions because the enzymes are deactivated. At this point there is a reversal of the normal acid-base distribution on either side of the cell membrane, which is lethal to normal issues. In some critical situations, chloride ions are shifted massively into all body cells (chloride shift) to urgently dilute the extracellular acidity.

But the gastric cells have the natural ability to survive in the presence of high extracellular acidity (HCl at pH of 6.6). How they manage this high extracellular acidity then becomes very important in understanding how cancer cells survive extracellular acidity with normal intracellular acidity for their survival and proliferation. Some cancer cells are known to have accumulated genetic adaptations that enable them to survive extreme pH conditions (carbonic acid at pH of 6.6).

Gastric cells are shielded from concentrated HCl secreted into the stomach mainly by structural barriers (thick basement membrane, thick mucosal layer and thick mucous layer). There are no natural inhibitors of hydrogen potassium ATPase enzyme that catalyzes the final phase of acid excretion.

In severe cases of peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD), gastro-esophageal reflux (GERD), or Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome, when this natural barrier is ulcerated by concentrated HCl, some gastric lining cells undergo gobelt intestinal metaplasia (transformation into ectopic intestinal epithelium in the stomach) to secretively neutralizing alkaline fluids into the stomach.

While there is no natural attempt to control the hydrogen potassium ATPase enzymes, pharmacological intervention with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) like omeprazole has been successful in reducing gastric secretion in severe cases of chronic gastric hyperacidity.

Similarly some esophageal epithelial cells undergo gastric metaplasia to become gastric cells in the face of chronic exposure to reflux gastric acid (Barrett's Esophagus). Acquisition of this missing ability to control hydrogen potassium ATPase and sodium driven proton extrusion by monocarboxylate enzyme appear to be critical to the survival of cancer cells

IN EARLY CANCER

It is important to note that the natural response to extracellular hyperacidity in the GIT depends on the stage and localization of the acidity. Both goblet metaplasia and gastric metaplasia have been recognized as precancerous lesions (carcinoma in situ). At the early stage of Barret esophagus, the response is only structural to prevent cell wall damage.

But when the barrier has failed in the stomach, the response is alkaline secretion. A person on preventive alkaline water will be helping to neutralize the added hypoxic acidity of early cancer in Barret's Esophagus and chronic PUD, but not in any way preventing the occurrence of cancer itself, since proton extrusion in cancer is irreversible.

Any cancer practiced at the in situ stage is usually best treated with surgical excitation and radiotherapy, rather than alkaline water.The question then is: "Why did prophylactic alkaline water not prevent the metaplasia?"

The answer to that is that while oral alkali take may cap out at micromoles of alkali per gram tissue, cancer proton extrusion acid build up ranges in nanomoles per gram tissue (a thousand times more). Also intracellular hypoxia and hyperacidity are not the only risk factors for cancer.

Radiations are known to be commonly responsible for skin cancers, even as HPV is known to be responsible for cervical cancer. Prophylactic alkalosis has not been reported to prevent any of them. Sticking to the hype that alkaline water is the best way to prevent and even cure cancer, puts people at risk of missing early opportunities to truly cure cancer.

Alkaline water intake will help the body maximize the physiological adaptive response acidosis. Unfortunately, even at maximum physiological capacity, extracellular buffers are no match for cancer intracellular proton extruders.

As the well adapted cancer cells grow and multiply freely their neighboring non-cancerous cells are rapidly destroyed by ECF hyperacidity creating more space for them to occupy. Thus cancer invasiveness has been shown to correlate with the degree of acid-base reversal across the cancer cell membrane.

At the advanced stage of cancer with ECF acidity readings in nanomols compared to originally boosted alkalinity readings in micromoles, buffer therapy has been shown to be resisted by cancer cells. One such reported example is the inefficacy of a basic drug doxorubicin used in the treatment of Leukemias and lymphomas.

Going by what has been discussed so far, it is obvious that externally sourced acids and alkali can not be safely loaded to outweigh tumor generated levels in ECF and ICF. It is also understandable that no single pH balancing agent, can be used to treat both acid sensing and alkaline sensing cancers.

Preventive or prophylactic intake of acidic or alkaline liquids or foods remains relevant only within the physiological buffering range, when adaptive changes are still reversible. Unfortunately at that point the tumor generated acidity would have risen to resistant levels. Preventive alkaline water intake in a person with undiagnosed acid sensing cancer is not likely to retard the growth of the tumor.

Simply preventive intake of alkaline water in a patient with undiagnosed alkaline sensing cancer will encourage it to grow and establish faster. Patients receiving treatment for emesis gravid arum (vomiting in pregnancy) for instance, can not be on preventive alkaline regimens in the face of systemic alkalosis from heavy loss of gastric acid through vomiting.

However, it is possible that some people are unable to fully optimize the natural buffer system, due to genetic predisposition or problems related to amino acid metabolism. In such situations, preventive acid or base intake supplements the patients effort to achieve maximum physiological buffering. This can easily account for some of the spectacular results observed in some patients whose cancers were taken early.

In conclusion, the management of cancer remains complicated. When there is a strong family history or occupational predisposition for cancer, cancer screening needs to be done early to search for risk factors and genetic markers.

Where there are suggestions of cancer predisposition, full blood tests, scans, biopsies, endocrinology tests, and radiological test should be done by a primary care provider and reviewed by a team of experts in radiology, hematology, pathology, oncology surgical oncology, gastroenterology, and international medicine.

References:

Ian F. Robey and Lance A. Nesbit, Investigating Mechanisms of Alkalinization for Reducing Primary Breast Tumor Invasion

Bradley A. Webb, Michael Chimenti, Matthew P. Jacobson & Diane L. Barber, Dysregulated pH: a Perfect Storm for Cancer Progress

Silvia M. Titan1, Otávio CE Gebara2, Silvia HV Callas2, Ana O. Hoff3, Paulo M. Hoff2 and PCA Galvão2, Case report: a rare cause of metabolic alkalosis, 2011

SS Kim, HW Yang, HG Kang, HH Lee, HC Lee, DS Ko … – Fertility and sterility, Quantitative assessment of ischemic tissue damage in ovarian cortical tissue with or without antioxidant (ascorbic acid) treatment, 2004 – Elsevier

M Valko, CJ Rhodes, J Moncol, MM Izakovic … – Chemico-biological …, Free radicals, metals and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer, 2006 – Elsevier

Rofstad EK, Mathiesen B, Kindem K, Galappathi K. Acidic extracellular pH promotes experimental metastasis of human melanoma cells in athymic nude mice. Cancer Res. 2006; 66 (13): 6699-6707. doi: 10.1158 / 0008-5472.CAN-06-0983.

Gillies RJ (2002). In vivo molecular imaging. J. Cell Biochem. Suppl. 39, 231-238 10.1002 / jcb.10450 (monocarboxylate transporters and Na-driven proton extrusion)

Shi Q, Le X, Wang B, Abbruzzese JL, Xiong Q, He Y, Xie K. Regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor expression by acidosis in human cancer cells. Oncogene. 2001; 20 (28): 3751-3756. doi: 10.1038 / sj.onc.1204500.

Gallagher FA, Kettunen MI, Day SE, Hu DE, Ardenkjaer-Larsen JH, Zandt R., et al. (2008). Magnetic resonance imaging of pH in vivo using hyperpolarized 13C-labeled bicarbonate. Nature 45

Gatenby RA, Gillies RJ (2004). Why do cancers have high aerobic glycolysis? Nat. Rev. Cancer 4, 891-899 10.1038 / nrc1478 (Pasteur Effect)

Antioxidants, Acids, Alkali and Cancer

In my previous articles on cancer, I did not discuss the role of acids, bases and antioxidants in detail. But with the current hype about the miraculous nature of basic water, antioxidant foods and drugs, I feel compelled to step in and set the records straight with current available medical literature.

The efficacy of acids, bases and antioxidants in cancer therapy is not a myth. It has a biochemical basis informed by modern research (SS Kim et al., 2004; Ian F. Robey & Lance A. Nesbit, 2013). The apprehensive controversy surrounding this subject emanates from poor coordination of research findings.

I have read articles (Bradley A. Web et al., 2011; Shi Q. et al., 2001; Silver M. et al., PubMed 2011) supporting systemic alkalosis or systemic hyperacidosis as the dominant toxic factor in cancer development. I have also watched video presentations claiming that cancer development is just a natural cellular adaptation to toxic environment, which is corrected by normalizing the environment.

These claims are to say the least, unbalanced truths. By the end of this discussion it would have become obvious that there is no basis for undue generalizations in the management of cancer. There still remains the need for expert jurisdiction in formulating a cancer treatment protocol.

BEFORE CANCER

First, let me state that the human body will literally rust away like a nail left under the rain over time without inbuilt natural protective mechanisms. To prevent rust or oxidation, most macromolecules essential for human existence are shielded from molecular oxygen or oxygen equivalents with hydrogen molecules (reduction). Oxygen equivalents are those compounds that remove these protective hydrogen molecules from other compounds.

They are also called oxidizing agents. Compounds that restore these hydrogen molecules are called reducing agents. The two most important organic agents in human body are glutathione and ubiquinone, while the two most important oxidizing agents are molecular oxygen and free oxygen radicals.

APOPTOSIS AND GROWTH SUPPRESSOR GENES

The human body cells are normally continuously moving from resting phase, to growth phase and then multiplication phase. This continuous state of growth and multiplication means that any organ can potentially grow to any size, depending on its natural growth rate. By inference all human beings may also grow into giants. It even suggests immortality of human beings.

Thankfully, every cell has an inbuilt apoptotic clock that ensures that it dies after a specified number of days, making room for incoming cells. Thus red blood cells, for instance, are recycled every 120 days. The size and shape of the cells of individual organs are equally limited prior to their date of apoptosis, by growth suppressor genes (notably p53, AP1, NF-kB) located in the nucleus.

Anything that hinders the functions of apoptosis and growth suppressor genes would obviously be expected to unleash uncontrolled growth and multiplication of cells in any organ of the body. This rapid growth of disorganized and poorly differentiated cells is called cancer.

All anti-growth suppression and anti-apoptosis agents are called carcinogens. They may be chemicals, radiations, biochemical molecules, acids, bases, free radicals, heat, cold, etc. But they all exert their effect by activating apoptosis gene or growth suppressor gene. They accomplish this by corrupting the gene coding system in such a way that the codes are wrong (missense) or mean nothing (nonsense).

The code is corrupt due to the insertion of the wrong amino acid code into a gene sequence or the excision of the right amino acid code from the sequence. Consequently the t-RNA misreads or miss-senses the expression of the right apoptosis or growth suppressor protein.

TOXINS, FREE RADICALS AND CARCINOGENS

Toxins are basically those compounds which activities will directly or indirectly lead to human rust and death by caatabolic or destructive oxidative reactions in body tissues. The high powered toxic tissue oxidizing agents are called free radicals (ROS and RNS), which are basically free ionized oxygen or nitrogen atoms (O2 and N2)

When a toxin causes a gene altering damage in the nuclear region of a cell (oxidative nuclear damage) it is then known as a carcinogen. As such not all toxins are carcinogen. Aflatoxin (from mold) is not only toxic to liver cells, but extremely causes liver cancer, making it a carcinogen.

The detoxification process mainly converts lipid soluble toxins into excretable water soluble glucuronides in three steps. In step one the toxins are aggregated and isolated in the specific organisms that neutralize them.

Then glucuronic acid is attached to them in the presence of glutathione which the protective hydrogen molecules. (Note that in fighting oxidants hydrogen (non-ionized) transported by reduced NADPH is a friend, while in acid-base balance ionized hydrogen is the enemy).

Free radicals can also contribute to cancer development by inducing genetic mutation through oxidative nuclear damage, or suppress cancer growth by promoting apoptosis. Step three is the excretion of the toxins.

ANTIOXIDANTS

Compounds use to replenish hydrogen molecules in glutathione and other endogenous reductase enzymes are called antioxidants. A lot of these reducing agents occur naturally in fruits and vegetables. Others are available as drug extracts from plants and animals.

Individual antioxidants target different steps of the detox process. This is why balanced nutrition by itself goes a long way to keep our bodies toxin free. The air we breathe, the food we eat, the water we drink, and the environments we live in are all full of toxins, including heavy metals. To survive as human beings, an extensive detoxification mechanism has to exist.

Every body tissue has detox ability, but the liver, gut, and lymphoid tissues and kidneys play the dominant role. Thus most toxins are trapped, neutralized and excreted through feces, urine or bile. Stagnation or obstruction of flow in any of these three organs, generally leads to a toxic state.

Stressors and nutritional inadequacies that weakened the immune system also contribute to toxic states allowing micro-organisms to multiply and generate additional toxic substances that must be removed.

Successful detoxification requires a lot of energy, which comes from glucose metabolism. Biochemical energy is not measured in Joules, but in ATPs (Adenosine Triphosphate). The metabolic process for converting glucose to ATP is called glycolsis.

During aerobic glycolysis one molecule of glucose combines with two molecules of ADP3 (Adenosine Diphosphate) and two ionic phosphoric acid molecules to yield two ionic ATP4 molecules and two lactate molecules. The ionic ATP4 molecule gives up one Hydrogen proton (H +) to yield one molecule of ionic ADP3-, which is reused in glycolysis.

Under anaerobic (low oxygen) conditions, ATP is generated differently. One molecule, each, of ADP3 and ionic phosphoric acid accumulated from aerobic glycolysis recombine without glucose to form one molecule of ATP4 + and one hydroxyl molecule. Two hydrogen protons combine with two bicarbonates to end up as carbonic acid inside body cells.

TOXIC ACIDOSIS

Glycolsis can be aerobic when it consumes molecular oxygen, or anaerobic when it consumes oxidizing agents. Both the detox reactions and glycolsis are driven or catalyzed by enzymes, which depend on the availability of specific micro-molecules, proteins, amino acids and vitamins as cofactors for their functions.

By the time enough ATP is generated to keep the body toxin safe, sufficient carbonic acid hydration of respirable carbon dioxide (CO2) has been accumulated to keep the inside of each cell perpetually acidic. In a highly toxic state, which includes rapid proliferation of cells, this intracellular acid builds up exponentially beyond survivable limits.

Cancer cells are known to rapidly outgrow their blood supplies and go into severe hypoxic states. This is why the cancer cell nucleus has to rapidly increase the expression of sodium driven proton extruding proteins and enzyme proteins through nuclear sensing of sharp rise in HIF.

Thus, by default, the intracellular fluid (ECF) of each cell is acidic (low pH) while that of the extracellular fluid (ECF) is alkaline (high pH). It is important to note at this point that while intracellular fluids exist in compartments inside the cells, extracellular fluids coalesce to form a pool in which all body cells submerged.

This ECF pool is represented by intercellular fluid, lymph, blood, and glandular secretions, all of which feed into the circulatory system of the body. ECF acid or base build up in any part of the body is extremely dissipated into the circulatory system, which centrally contains a slightly basic pH of 7.20 -7.40.

In addition to mobilizing ammonium and bicarbonate ions the central buffer system has the ability to move chloride ions in and out cells (chloride shift) to maintain acid-base balance.

MEMBRANE SENSORS AND TRANSPORTERS

To keep intracellular acid below lethal level, the inner surface of the cell membrane has acid sensors and transporters that detect abnormal rise in intracellular acidity and trigger increased extrusion of hydrogen and retention of alkaline bicarbonate ions.

This trigger is mediated by the rise in the blood level of hypoxia induced factors (HIF) and probably acidosis induced factors (AIF). On detecting this rise in HIF, the nucleus temporarily increases the expression of Na-driven proton transport proteins and histidine rich basic proteins.

The ammonium radicals on the amino acids of these basic proteins (especially histidine) serve as physiologic buffers for organic acids.

"Protonation and de-protonation has been shown to change protein structure and thus, alter protein-protein binding affinity, change protein stability, modify protein function, and alter subcellular localization (Schonichen et al., 2013b).

Evolutionarily, histidines must confer some selective advantage for cancers, as 15% of the 2000 identified somatic mutations in cancer involve histidine substitutions, with Arg-to-His being the most frequent (Kan et al., 2010) ".

The nucleus also temporarily steps up the expression of important enzyme proteins that catalyze the buffer reactions, sometimes mono-carboxylate, carbonic anhydrase, and aminotransferase enzymes.

In a similar manner the external surface of the cell also has alkaline sensors made up of G-protein coupled surface receptors, which also communicate with the nucleus to increase or decrease the expression of relevant proteins and enzymes. As tissue hypoxia decreases, the level of HIF decreases along with nuclear expression of proton extrusion proteins and enzymes.

Failure of this return to normalcy has been observed as one of the hallmarks of early cancer. What started out as a normal adaptive change becomes persistent because of irreversible genetic modifications that triggered it.

CELLULAR SURFACE ACID / BASE REVERSAL

The central physiological buffer system has a maximum capacity to neutralize up to 30 micromoles of acid / gram tissue / min in systemic acidosis or 5-10 micromoles of base in alkalosis.

Beyond these levels, normal body cells are unable to continue their buffer functions because the enzymes are deactivated. At this point there is a reversal of the normal acid-base distribution on either side of the cell membrane, which is lethal to normal issues. In some critical situations, chloride ions are shifted massively into all body cells (chloride shift) to urgently dilute the extracellular acidity.

But the gastric cells have the natural ability to survive in the presence of high extracellular acidity (HCl at pH of 6.6). How they manage this high extracellular acidity then becomes very important in understanding how cancer cells survive extracellular acidity with normal intracellular acidity for their survival and proliferation. Some cancer cells are known to have accumulated genetic adaptations that enable them to survive extreme pH conditions (carbonic acid at pH of 6.6).

Gastric cells are shielded from concentrated HCl secreted into the stomach mainly by structural barriers (thick basement membrane, thick mucosal layer and thick mucous layer). There are no natural inhibitors of hydrogen potassium ATPase enzyme that catalyzes the final phase of acid excretion.

In severe cases of peptic Ulcer Disease (PUD), gastro-esophageal reflux (GERD), or Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome, when this natural barrier is ulcerated by concentrated HCl, some gastric lining cells undergo gobelt intestinal metaplasia (transformation into ectopic intestinal epithelium in the stomach) to secretively neutralizing alkaline fluids into the stomach.

While there is no natural attempt to control the hydrogen potassium ATPase enzymes, pharmacological intervention with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) like omeprazole has been successful in reducing gastric secretion in severe cases of chronic gastric hyperacidity.

Similarly some esophageal epithelial cells undergo gastric metaplasia to become gastric cells in the face of chronic exposure to reflux gastric acid (Barrett's Esophagus). Acquisition of this missing ability to control hydrogen potassium ATPase and sodium driven proton extrusion by monocarboxylate enzyme appear to be critical to the survival of cancer cells

IN EARLY CANCER

It is important to note that the natural response to extracellular hyperacidity in the GIT depends on the stage and localization of the acidity. Both goblet metaplasia and gastric metaplasia have been recognized as precancerous lesions (carcinoma in situ). At the early stage of Barret esophagus, the response is only structural to prevent cell wall damage.

But when the barrier has failed in the stomach, the response is alkaline secretion. A person on preventive alkaline water will be helping to neutralize the added hypoxic acidity of early cancer in Barret's Esophagus and chronic PUD, but not in any way preventing the occurrence of cancer itself, since proton extrusion in cancer is irreversible.

Any cancer practiced at the in situ stage is usually best treated with surgical excitation and radiotherapy, rather than alkaline water.The question then is: "Why did prophylactic alkaline water not prevent the metaplasia?"

The answer to that is that while oral alkali take may cap out at micromoles of alkali per gram tissue, cancer proton extrusion acid build up ranges in nanomoles per gram tissue (a thousand times more). Also intracellular hypoxia and hyperacidity are not the only risk factors for cancer.

Radiations are known to be commonly responsible for skin cancers, even as HPV is known to be responsible for cervical cancer. Prophylactic alkalosis has not been reported to prevent any of them. Sticking to the hype that alkaline water is the best way to prevent and even cure cancer, puts people at risk of missing early opportunities to truly cure cancer.

Alkaline water intake will help the body maximize the physiological adaptive response acidosis. Unfortunately, even at maximum physiological capacity, extracellular buffers are no match for cancer intracellular proton extruders.

As the well adapted cancer cells grow and multiply freely their neighboring non-cancerous cells are rapidly destroyed by ECF hyperacidity creating more space for them to occupy. Thus cancer invasiveness has been shown to correlate with the degree of acid-base reversal across the cancer cell membrane.

At the advanced stage of cancer with ECF acidity readings in nanomols compared to originally boosted alkalinity readings in micromoles, buffer therapy has been shown to be resisted by cancer cells. One such reported example is the inefficacy of a basic drug doxorubicin used in the treatment of Leukemias and lymphomas.

Going by what has been discussed so far, it is obvious that externally sourced acids and alkali can not be safely loaded to outweigh tumor generated levels in ECF and ICF. It is also understandable that no single pH balancing agent, can be used to treat both acid sensing and alkaline sensing cancers.

Preventive or prophylactic intake of acidic or alkaline liquids or foods remains relevant only within the physiological buffering range, when adaptive changes are still reversible. Unfortunately at that point the tumor generated acidity would have risen to resistant levels. Preventive alkaline water intake in a person with undiagnosed acid sensing cancer is not likely to retard the growth of the tumor.

Simply preventive intake of alkaline water in a patient with undiagnosed alkaline sensing cancer will encourage it to grow and establish faster. Patients receiving treatment for emesis gravid arum (vomiting in pregnancy) for instance, can not be on preventive alkaline regimens in the face of systemic alkalosis from heavy loss of gastric acid through vomiting.

However, it is possible that some people are unable to fully optimize the natural buffer system, due to genetic predisposition or problems related to amino acid metabolism. In such situations, preventive acid or base intake supplements the patients effort to achieve maximum physiological buffering. This can easily account for some of the spectacular results observed in some patients whose cancers were taken early.

In conclusion, the management of cancer remains complicated. When there is a strong family history or occupational predisposition for cancer, cancer screening needs to be done early to search for risk factors and genetic markers.

Where there are suggestions of cancer predisposition, full blood tests, scans, biopsies, endocrinology tests, and radiological test should be done by a primary care provider and reviewed by a team of experts in radiology, hematology, pathology, oncology surgical oncology, gastroenterology, and international medicine.

References:

Ian F. Robey and Lance A. Nesbit, Investigating Mechanisms of Alkalinization for Reducing Primary Breast Tumor Invasion

Bradley A. Webb, Michael Chimenti, Matthew P. Jacobson & Diane L. Barber, Dysregulated pH: a Perfect Storm for Cancer Progress

Silvia M. Titan1, Otávio CE Gebara2, Silvia HV Callas2, Ana O. Hoff3, Paulo M. Hoff2 and PCA Galvão2, Case report: a rare cause of metabolic alkalosis, 2011

SS Kim, HW Yang, HG Kang, HH Lee, HC Lee, DS Ko … – Fertility and sterility, Quantitative assessment of ischemic tissue damage in ovarian cortical tissue with or without antioxidant (ascorbic acid) treatment, 2004 – Elsevier

M Valko, CJ Rhodes, J Moncol, MM Izakovic … – Chemico-biological …, Free radicals, metals and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer, 2006 – Elsevier

Rofstad EK, Mathiesen B, Kindem K, Galappathi K. Acidic extracellular pH promotes experimental metastasis of human melanoma cells in athymic nude mice. Cancer Res. 2006; 66 (13): 6699-6707. doi: 10.1158 / 0008-5472.CAN-06-0983.

Gillies RJ (2002). In vivo molecular imaging. J. Cell Biochem. Suppl. 39, 231-238 10.1002 / jcb.10450 (monocarboxylate transporters and Na-driven proton extrusion)

Shi Q, Le X, Wang B, Abbruzzese JL, Xiong Q, He Y, Xie K. Regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor expression by acidosis in human cancer cells. Oncogene. 2001; 20 (28): 3751-3756. doi: 10.1038 / sj.onc.1204500.

Gallagher FA, Kettunen MI, Day SE, Hu DE, Ardenkjaer-Larsen JH, Zandt R., et al. (2008). Magnetic resonance imaging of pH in vivo using hyperpolarized 13C-labeled bicarbonate. Nature 45

Gatenby RA, Gillies RJ (2004). Why do cancers have high aerobic glycolysis? Nat. Rev. Cancer 4, 891-899 10.1038 / nrc1478 (Pasteur Effect)

Bile Reflux or Acid Reflux?

Although carbonated beverages cause acid reflux, this is not the only problem that some acid reflux sufferers are faced with. Bile reflux is another uncomfortable backflow of fluid that often compounds acid reflux. However, instead of disturbing stomach acid back into the esophagus as is the case with acid reflux, bile reflux throws bile (a digested fluid that is made by the liver) up from the small intestine into the stomach and esophagus, causing inflammation to both.

Due to the fact that bile reflux and acid reflux can occur together, this means that the esophagus is doubly asserted, which causes more inflammation to its lining, and puts a person at a higher risk for developing complications.

What are the symptoms of bile reflux?

– The signs and symptoms associated with bile reflux are similar to acid reflux, making it difficult to distinguish one from the other, especially when both conditions tend to occur simultaneously. That being said, unlike acid reflux, bile reflux causes inflammation within the stomach, which creates a biting, or burning pain in the upper part of the abdomen.

Other symptoms that are characterized by the condition can include:

– Frequent heartburn

– Nausea

– Vomiting bile

– An occasional cough or croakiness in the throat

Along with symptoms, bile reflux teamed with acid reflux can eventually create complications including:
– Gastritis – This is a complication that is caused by bile reflux alone. Gastritis is characterized by irritation and inflammation within the stomach. Although this is not typically a serious condition, in some cases it can cause stomach ulcers, bleeding, and chronic gastritis increases the risk of stomach cancer.
– GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) – Frequent attacks of heartburn may be a sign of GERD. This is when a person suffices from chronic acid reflux which can be a potentially serious issue as it may lead to a condition known as esophagitis – the inflammation of esophageal tissue.
– Barrett's esophagus – This is a condition that occurs after long term exposure to stomach acid and / or bile and results in a change of color and tissue composition in the lower esophagus. The new cells are resistant to stomach acid but they have an increased risk of becoming cancerous.
– Esophageal restriction – Scar tissue can form in the lower esophagus, which results from frequent exposure to stomach acid and / or bile. The scar tissue can cause a stricture (a narrowing in the tube) which can lead to trouble swallowing and increase the risk of choking.
– Esophageal cancer – When the esophagus has been exposed to prolonged repetitive stomach acid and / or bile, cancer has the potential to form practically anywhere along the length of the esophagus. This is a serious and difficult form of cancer to treat.

How do you treat bile reflux and acid reflux together?

Proton Pump inhibitors – The best way to treat these conditions, especially for those who suffer from GERD and Barrett's esophagus, is proton pump inhibitors. These are treatments that are designed to block acid production. These meds can sometimes also help reduce the effects of bile reflux.

Ursodexycholic acid – This is the most common medication for treating bile reflux. Ursodexycholic acid helps to encourage bile flow.

Other medications – If bile reflux is the result of the stomach taking too long to empty, other drugs may be prescribed to improve the flow of food through the stomach

The real trouble with bile reflux is that it is hard to control. Unlike acid reflux which can be managed through diet and lifestyle changes, bile reflux can really only be controlled through specific medications or by surgery in several cases. Unfortunately, sometimes even after treatment, bile reflux continues to plague sufferers. Thus, bile reflux may need to be treated separately from acid reflux.

Fibromyalgia Symptom Checklist, 5 Ways to Recognize If You Have It!

With over 100 autoimmune diseases to pick from, how can you tell which one you may have? Some of them are similar enough to others to be misdiagnosed, even by specialists. And probably the most difficult autoimmune disease to diagnose since symptoms of some other seemingly unrelated diseases appear simultaneously and cloud the issue … is fibromyalgia. To see if you have it, take a look at the fibromyalgia symptom checklist below!

Blood tests and x-rays may work great to identify other diseases, but not fibromyalgia. Currently, there are no diagnostic tests available, although genetic predisposition is thought to be a factor. That's why the fibromyalgia symptom checklist is so valuable! There are guidelines established by the American College of Rheumatology which are utilized by most healthcare providers in making a fibromyalgia diagnoses. In the guidelines, a person may have fibromyalgia if he or she has all three of the following conditions on the fibromyalgia symptoms checklist:

1. Chronic widespread pain, affecting both the right and left sides of the body above and below the waist

2. Feeling pain at at least 11 out of 18 possible tender points when light pressure is applied to the area … 9 on the left side of the body and 9 on the right

3. Chronic broad pain and tenderness is present for at least 3 months

Now, that's just 3 of the 5 ways to recognize fibromyalgia on our fibromyalgia symptom checklist … it's based on pain and trigger points , which your healthcare provider will probably use in making your diagnosis. The last two criteria are based on other corroborating symptoms :

4. Extreme fatigue that does not get better with rest or sleep; that feels like you've overdone your workout; delayed reaction to stress or physical exertion leaving you feeling drained and / or ill

5. Experiencing one or more of the other corroborating symptoms of fibromyalgia (other than the pain / trigger points and fatigue) that can vary in intensity and effect …

The following is a list of potential corborborating symptoms from the fibromyalgia symptoms checklist, which may accompany the pain and fatigue of fibromyalgia:

  • unexplained change in body weight,
  • sweats and chills,
  • muscle stiffness upon waking or standing after sitting for a long period,
  • muscle twitching,
  • fibrocystic breasts (lumps, tenderness), cravings for chocolate / and / or carbohydrates,
  • rapid or unusual changes in vision, blind spots
  • migraines and headaches,
  • sinus infections / post nasal drip, allergies,
  • earaches and ringing in the ears (tinitis)
  • shortness of breath,
  • sensitivity to mold and yeast,
  • insomnia and sleep problems,
  • grinding teeth during sleep,
  • PMS or menstrual problems, loss of libido or impotence,
  • irritable bowel syndrome, frequent urination, bloating and nausea,
  • pelvic pain and abdominal cramps,
  • difficulty in speaking, confusion and difficulty following directions,
  • difficulty concentrating and brain fog, balance and coordination problems,
  • disorientation in familiar surroundings, short-term memory impairment,
  • burning or tingling sensations in hands and arms,
  • difficult recognizing some colors,
  • hypersensitivity to odors / bright lights / loud noises / temperature and barometric pressure,
  • difficult driving at night,
  • panic attacks and anxiety,
  • depression, tendency to cry easily, mood swings, unusual irritability,
  • chest pain that mimics a heart attack, irregular / rapid or fluttery heart beat,
  • Mitral valve prolapse,
  • mottled skin, pronounced nail ridges and / or nails that curve under, thick nail cuticles
  • easily brewed or scared skin,
  • temporary hair loss,
  • nose bleeds, and hemorrhoids.

Keep Records on Your Fibromyalgia Symptoms Checklist!

Keep records of all your symptoms no matter how strange they seem. Fibromyalgia has so many "faces" that every case is unique and may require treatment which targets the specific symptoms of your illness . Discuss your fibromyalgia symptoms checklist with your physician and detail how the symptoms are affecting your ability to function. Together you can develop a treatment program based on what works for you! And consider adding a nutritional program to strengthen your body and take control of your symptoms.

As a fibromyalgia survivor, I use a nutritional program which has authorized me to get away from prescription medications and their side-effects, with my doctors' approval. To find out more about natural treatments of fibromyalgia, contact me by clicking on one of the links now:

http://www.overcomefibro.com/5-ways-to-recognize-fibromyalgia.html

Study Finds Elevated Homocysteine ​​More Than Doubled Heart Attack Risk in High Risk Patients

A report scheduled to be published in 2007 appearing early online in the journal Cardiology revealed that having an average average total homocysteine ​​level increases the risk of a coronary event among men and women with atherosclerosis by a factor of 2.5.

The current study involved participants in the Benzafibrate Infarction Prevention Study which evaluated the effect of benzafibrate for secondary prevention of coronary events in 3,090 men and women with chronic heart disease, defined as a history of heart attack or angina. Dr Moti Haim, of the Rabin Medical Center in Petah Tikva and his colleagues in Israel matched 69 subjects who experienced fatal or nonfatal heart attack, or sudden death with an equal number of participants who remained free of recurrent coronary events or stroke through the 4.7 to 7.6 year follow-up period. Blood samples were analyzed at the beginning of the study for lipids, fibrinogen, blood chemistry and other factors, and total homocysteine ​​concentrations were measured in frozen serum samples obtained at the beginning of the study.

The median total homocysteine ​​among individuals with recurrent coronary events was 15.2 micromoles per liter compared to 12.9 micromoles per liter in the control group, with a median of differences between the matched pairs of subjects of 3.95 micromoles per liter. Individuals who homocysteine ​​levels were in the top one-third of participants experienced a 2.5 times greater risk of a coronary event or sudden death than those whose values ​​were in the lowest third.

"In the present study, we provided evidence that in patients with preexisting vascular disease, there is an association between total homocysteine ​​concentration and accident of coronary events, which is independent of traditional risk factors and inflammatory markers," the authors write. They note that not all studies have found the same association, and hypothesize that elevated homocysteine ​​could have a strong predictor of coronary events in high risk patients but not low risk ones. Furthermore, they could not conclude whether homocysteine ​​was a causative factor or bystander marker of cardiovascular risk. "If total homocysteine ​​level is causally related to CHD risk, then our findings suggest that patients with preexisting vascular disease may have a greater potential benefit from interventions that lower homocysteine ​​concentrations," they observe.

Exercising After A Heart Attack

Within living memory, a heart attack or stroke was considered by many to be effectively the end of any hope of a normal and active life.

Typically the patient would have been advised to be extremely careful and to undertake little, if any, exercise.

However, all that has now changed.

Medical science recognizes that not only is exercise after a heart attack possible but it may actually be highly desirable. It could help the patient to move quickly back into something approaching a normal life rather than one as an invalid.

If you have suffered such an event in your life, here are a few top tips relating to post-illness exercise.

1. Do nothing until you have taken in-depth advice from your own doctor. Keep in mind that this article and others like it can not be read as qualified medical advice for your unique situation.

2. Assuming you have medical clearance to do so, start off with some gentle exercise. Some basic on-the-spot aerobic type exercising will start to get some of your joints and muscles back into condition after what may have been an enforced period of activity during your treatment.

3. Start making the effort to engage in regular walking. To begin with, do it around the home and your garden for a few minutes each day. Then, build up to 15, 30 or 45 minutes per day and upwards. Do not be wild ambitious or try and achieve everything on day one.

4. Keep your initial walking, even when it is starting to extend in duration, gentle. Do not try to break any speed records and avoid things such as steep inclines.

5. Over time, again in consultation with your doctor, you can start to try and walk a little bit more vigorously and briskly. Try to swing your arms a little in order to get upper torso muscular activity going.

6. If, like many people, you find walking a little boring, set yourself itineraries. Try to find local routes that will culminate in arriving a given destination such as a view, museum, older building or café etc. This will give you some objective rather than just walking for walking's sake.

7. After a time, you may be able to upgrade to some more demanding exercise, possibly including things such as resistance exercises covering gentle weights etc. Yet again, do not take the decision to move to this type of exercise unilaterally but only under medical supervision.

8. Make sure that your food consumption is synchronized with your medical condition and exercise regime. Approved weight loss recipes and programs will usually be able to tailor their recommendations to your exact individual circumstances. Do not make arbitrary judgments about what you should or should not eat either. Remember, your doctor may have nutritional priorities for you that are not governed primarily by a desire to see you lose weight.

Many patients who have suffered what were initially debilitating heart attacks or strokes are able to make a significant recovery and achieve a lifestyle comparable to that they had previously enjoyed, simply by taking sensible levels of post-attack exercise combined with a planned eating regime.

It is worth making the effort to find out more about this important subject.

Cholesterol, What Is It and Why Should I Care What My Levels Are

We often hear the term cholesterol on television, in magazines and from our doctor, but do we really know anything about it?

It is actually a fat-like waxy substance secreted by our liver within our body. It is an important part of every cell in our body and serves certain vital functions, like the following:

Generating hormones in our body

– Maintaining healthy cell walls
– Producing bile acids, that help in fat digestion
– Making Vitamin D.

Of course, it is very important for our body to function well, but at the same time excessive production of this sticky substance results in hardening of the artery walls, which in turn leads to several serious health complications like heart attacks, strokes, etc. This does not mean than having low levels is good for your health. Very low levels can indicate liver cancer, in the worst-case scenario. Therefore, in order to avoid such health complications it is very important to keep your levels under control. A healthy number to aim for is 140-200 milligrams per deciliter of blood.

What most do not understand, is that age is not necessarily an indication of whether you have a buildup in your artery walls. So, whether you are a young individual or a senior citizen, it is always pertinent that you keep a proper check on your cholesterol level, to ensure good health.

Causes of high cholesterol:

There may be several causes for an individual to develop a higher than normal profile. Some of these causes are avoidable while others are not, but whatever the reason may be, educating yourself about cause and effect gives you a better idea on how to deal with your situation in an appropriate way.

So, let us take a quick look at some of the causes that may be a potential reason to throw your body out of balance:

– It may be the result of your aging

– It can be hereditary and passed down from our parents

– Wrong eating habits like consuming high fat foods and trans fats

– Unhealthy habits like consuming more than a moderation of alcohol and smoking cigarettes

Treatments for high cholesterol:

There are millions of people who have this health issue. However, the good news is that cholesterol disorders can be treated; all it takes is some dedication and will power on your part to overcome the situation. Let us take a quick look at how you and your doctor together can effectively increase your cardiovascular health:

– Follow a healthy diet plan. Your diet should include foods that are low on fat and high fiber.

– Exercise regularly. It is also important to follow a proper workout program. That best way to go about it is to consult a professional physical instructor who can design a proper exercise program for you. Doing so will help you get the best results in the most effective way possible.

– Quit unhealthy habits like smoking, drinking and not getting enough sleep.

– Try to reduce your stress if possible. There are many stress reduction courses that you can take or if you prefer you can pick up a book about stress.

– Your doctor may give you a prescription to help regulate and normalize your levels. A statin drug is the usual course of treatment but your doctor may also recommend a non-prescription product.

These are usually made of plant sterols and do not have the same side effects as statins do. However, it's best to talk it over with your health care provider and the two of you together can decide together on your best treatment.

In case you are diagnosed with high cholesterol level, make sure that you go to a doctor immediately and get yourself treated at the earliest to avoid future complications. Remember, a good combination of healthy fat free or low fat diet, exercising and medication is likely to contribute significantly towards improving your health and lower or raising your personal level.

Emphysema Life Expectancy, and What You Can Do About It

To be honest about it, emphysema life expectancy is not very encouraging. This disease affects a person progressively and it is irreversible and thus life expectancy because of emphysema is certainly affected. Alternative treatments may however offer some help. Not only humans, emphysema attacks animals too. For example, canine emphysema is not that uncommon.

Prior to antibiotics, infection in the lungs, particularly by the tubercular bacilli that caused pulmonary tuberculosis could not be cured – doctors merely described the disorder as a “wasting disease”. Even today, after the invention of multi-powered drugs, TB remains as one of the toughest diseases to be fully cured.

Emphysema, which also involves the lungs, is yet another difficult to cure disease. As a matter of fact, modern day medics cannot cure it at all. While pulmonary tuberculosis is manageable with highly potent antibiotics that can eventually kill the bacilli before the bacilli can kill the patient, no antibiotic can repair the holes in the lungs that has been caused by the alveoli. And this is the tragedy of emphysema.

The Emphysema Disease And Its Life Expectancy

Emphysema is a chronic and progressive pulmonary (lung) disorder and it is characterized by breathing symptoms that include shortness of breath, difficulties in breathing and a feeling of being winded during exertion. Though the symptoms in emphysema and chronic bronchitis are more or less similar, emphysema’s breathing trouble is a unique and singular phenomenon.

Studies reveal that emphysema is more prevalent in men above the age of 65 years. And if someone is diagnosed with the disease at this age, many doctors give the person a maximum of 3 years to live. Children and those in pregnancy can also be a victim. Of course though life expectancy takes a beating here too, but they can expect to live for longer. It can be said that the life expectancy goes down with age. But on the positive side, at least emphysema is not contagious and so there is no risk of the family members getting affected.

The distinguishing symptoms include as much as 35% to 55% damage in the lung tissues, and most of such damage is beyond repair. Based on the results of breathing tests (PFT or the Pulmonary Function Test) there are 4 successive stages of emphysema and they are…

Stage 1 – Mild

Stage 2 – Moderate

Stage 3 – Severe

Stage 4 – Very severe or Terminal

Emphysema Life Expectancy And The Role Of Spirometry

Spirometry is employed to measure the volumes/percentage of exhaled air by the patient in a second. This is medically termed as FEV 1 or Forced Expiratory Volume over one second. This is an important test because it gives the doctor an estimate about the patient’s health status and how long he or she may live. For a normal healthy person, the Spirometer reading will hover between 80 and 100. But for an emphysema patient whose reading is below 35, the person will belong to Stage 4, and this will mean that he or she is not expected to live for long. However, with some information and effective measures, the person will be certainly able to survive for many years.

Diagnostic test results apart, several other factors also help determine emphysema life expectancy. These include the patient’s body weight (lower weight indicates a greater risk), how much he or she can cover before experiencing breathing problems, the ability to resist viral or other infections and others.

To improve emphysema life expectancy, doctors usually prescribe long-term oxygen therapy and this also eases the breathing problems. Small, handy oxygen cylinders can provide 24-hour supply of oxygen, thereby increasing the life expectancy to a great extent. But the key is to act according to the physician’s advice.

How to Avoid the Seven Landmines of Growth

Although I want to warn you of the seven landmines you could step on when your business starts to grow, I do not intend to discourage anyone from taking advantage of any opportunity to grow their business, just as I hope to see mine grow, but I want to see you on a journey to continuous success, not just a temporary lurch forward followed by a crash as you drive into a wall. (Yes! I have changed the metaphor, just to make the point!) So let us look at each of the landmines and see how it can be avoided.

1. Money . The more money there is in your business the more interesting it becomes to thieves and fraudsters, even within the business sometimes. Have a good look at your physical security arrangements and at your procedures for receiving, managing, and paying money. You might have been lucky so far, but now you need more than luck. There is also the problem of Cash Flow. Money usually goes out before it comes in. If you expand too fast you might run out of money even if you are making good profits on paper. Have your accountant or financial advisor look at your cash flow and avoid early bankruptcy. And do not forget our favorite creditor, the taxman. He often turns up late but is relentless in his demands. Be ready. Excuses do not wash. Trust me.

2. Property . Is your property still fit for purpose? Think about overcrowding, access, car parking, security, and Health and Safety. If more people are coming and going the risk of an accident, or just inefficient working, is increasing. You may find you need to move, or you may find a new layout, traffic flow, and signage will be enough.

3. People . If you take on new people do not forget to train them, and include basic induction. (Who is going to do it?) Many employers take too much for granted. Another reason to review Health and Safety: new employees will not necessarily have the same "common sense" as existing ones. Then think about your contracts of employment, procedures, and instructions, or you may find you can not get rid of people who turn out to be unsuitable, however good your recruitment process is. (Is it?)

4. Systems. Most business owners review their IT systems when the business grows, but often forget to review the manual systems which even nowdays are an important element in the mix. I can rely on my memory for appointments and for finding documents, up to a point, but the more of everything there is the less confident I am in this, and the more systematic I need to become. I know other people who are so reliant on their mobile 'phones, that I do not know how they would survive if one was lost or damaged.

5. Outsourcing. You may already be outsourcing certain functions, but as the business grows you need to review this. It may be that you and your staff are trying to do to much, and especially too much of what you are not good at! Outsourcing could be the answer. However, remember that failures by your supply chain can affect your productivity and your reputation. Pick the right suppliers and look at their risk management. Set up a system of performance monitoring.

6. Clients. Growth usually means more clients. The new ones are likely to be different from the existing ones, with different expectations, and possibly less tolerant of your shortcomings. (We all have them you know!) So upgrade your customer care arrangements, possibly getting some training for your staff and even yourself.

7. Yourself! A friend of mine has recently been lucky enough to see his small business expand rapidly and has just realized that his biggest obstacle was himself. He has started taking advice on time-management, cash flow, customer care, and other aspects of managing a business rather than just doing a job. I hope it will not be too late for him. What about you?

I hope your business is going to grow and that nothing I have written will put you off. Just watch out for the landmines and ensure your growth is going to continue – profitably.

Prolactinoma – Ayurvedic Herbal Treatment

A prolactinoma is a tumor originating n the pituitary gland and is responsible for secreting excess amounts of a hormone called prolactin. This tumor can cause headache, visual disturbances, impaired production of pituitary hormones, and hyperprolactinemia, which may lead to infertility or impotence.

This condition can be treated with medicines or by resorting to surgery. Ayurvedic herbal treatment can be used as supportive therapy to bring about faster or a more complete relief, and reduce the need for surgery. Medicines like Arogya-Vardhini, Triphala-Guggulu, Panch-Tikta-Ghrut-Guggulu, Kaishor-Guggulu and Kanchnaar-Guggulu can be used to reduce the size of the tumor. Herbal medicines like Shallaki (Boswellia serrata), Guggulu (Commiphora mukul), Haridra (Curcuma longa), Gokshur (Tribulus terrestris), Punarnava (Boerhaavia diffusa), Amalaki (Emblica officinalis), Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia), Manjishtha (Rubia cordifolia), Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) and Mandukparni (Centella asiatica) can also be used for this purpose.

Medicines like Maha-Triphala-Ghrut, Shatavari-Ghrut, Punarnavadi-Qadha, Punarnavadi-Guggulu, Pathyadi-Qadha, Abhrak-Bhasma, Godanti-Bhasma, Laghu-Sutshekhar-Ras, Ekang-Veer-Ras, Vat-Gajankush-Ras, Maha-Vat-Vidhvans-Ras, and Bruhat-Vat-Chintamani-Ras can be used to reduce visual disturbances, headache and other symptoms caused by pressure of the tumor on the surrounding brain tissue.

Medicines like Yashtimadhuk (Glycyrrhiza glabra), Kapikacchu (Mucuna pruriens), Triphala (Three Fruits), Dashmool (Ten Roots), Ashwagandha, Mandukparni, Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) and Shankhpushpi (Convolvulus pluricaulis) can be used to bring the pituitary function to normal. Immunomodulatory medicines like Suvarna-Malini-Vasant, Suvarna-Parpati, Suvarna-Bhasma, Trivanga-Bhasma, Bhrungraj (Eclipta alba), Tulsi, Trikatu (Three Pungent Herbs), and Kutki (Picrorrhiza kurroa) can be used to facilitate faster therapeutic improvement and also to prevent a recurrence of the tumor.

The overall management of prolactinoma depends upon the size of the tumor and the severity of the symptoms. It should be noted that all such patients should be under the regular supervision and care of a specialized team of doctors including a Neurologist and an Endocrinologist.

Pros and Cons of Declawing Your Cat – Know Your Options

Please consider your options before presenting your cat for declaw surgery

There are many alternatives to declawing that should be considered before you choose to have this surgery done on your cat. I'm going to discuss a selection here, along with three of the most common surgical techniques.

Option to # 1: "PRE-CLAWING"

I'm going to coin a term here! Have you ever heard the term "precycling"? It's the act of buying items that you know will NOT create a lot of waste. Like, buying something in a cardboard box instead of something in a plastic bag. Anyways, if you've got a cat, or you're going to get a cat, THINK before you buy your furniture. Cats like to scratch rough surfaces, so instead, buy items with a smooth texture like leather or velvet. The better you "preclaw", the more likely you can avoid having to declaw your kitty!

Option to # 2: NAIL TRIMMING

Triming your cat's nails is pretty easy, once you get the hang of it. A cat with blunt nails does MUCH less damage to furniture, drapery and rugs, and in my opinion, trimming your cat's nails is much easier than applying Soft Paws. The basic premise of trimming your cats nails is to cut the white part, do not cut the pink part:

Option to # 3: SCRATCHING POSTS

Most cats can be trained to use a scratching post to avoid declaw surgery. Scratching posts can be bought, or if you're into carpentry, built. Sisal-covered posts are preferred by many cats, although other materials like cardboard are often equally effective. Scratching posts that include multiple elevations (horizontal and vertical) are best since cats like sitting on elevated surfaces. If one post does not work, get a second one, and experiment with their locations. Offer kitty a variety of surfaces and elevations, and he will soon choose his favorites. You may need to entice him to paw at the new post by encouraging him to chase after a toy or string around it. As you may expect, the earlier you start to train your cat to use appropriate scratching surfaces, the more likely he will be to prefer scratching posts in the end.

Option to # 4: SOFT PAWS

These are soft vinyl caps that you superglue onto each of your cat's nails. They fall off after a few weeks, and need to be reapplied at least monthly. I can count on one hand the number of clients who have used these and liked them. On the other hand, if you think you'd like to see your cat with fluorescent pink nails, these might just be the thing for you. Seems to me trimming the nails is easier and just as effective.

Option to # 5: FELIWAY

Feliway is a pheromone, produced as either a pump spray or a room atomizer, that mimics the scent applied when a cat rubs the side of her face on something. The theory here is that if your cat smells what she thinks is her own pheromone on the couch, she'll be less likely to feel the need to apply the scent that comes out of the bottom of her FEET by clawing.

FOR MORE INFORMATION ON AVOIDING DECLAW SURGERY, this site from Cornell University offers a video series on Managing Destructive Scratching Behavior you may like. http://www.partnersah.vet.cornell.edu/destructive-scratching

Veterinarians use one of three basic surgical tools to perform declaw surgery

LASER SURGERY

Sure, they're whiz-bang, and incredibly expensive, but it turns out a LASER is really just a fancy scalpel blade. Its supposed upsides are that it "seals and cauterizes" as you cut, but the way it does this is by literally burning a hole through the tissue. As you may imagine, burned tissue does not like treating against other burned tissue, and bleeding several days after surgery is not unusual. I have seen NO clinical benefit to using the LASER, so I do not have one. Do not believe the hype! A LASER does NOT improve results, and is NOT worth the money!

THE GUILLOTINE DECLAW

BOOOO! Back in the day, veterinarians used a brand name nail trimmer to remove MOST of the claw. Problem is, sometimes that little bit of claw you left in there regrow, causing additional pain and often a second surgery to remove the regrown portion. No vet worth visiting does this anymore. MANY OF THE STORIES YOU READ ABOUT THE INTERNET REGARDING POORLY HEALING DECLAW SURGERIES ARE RELATED TO THIS OUTDATED SURGICAL TECHNIQUE. Nail Trimmers do a POOR job of declawing

COLD STEEL BLADE

When I am asked at our Indianapolis Veterinary Clinic to declaw a cat, with informed consent and having considered alternatives, my surgical experience has taught me to prefer an ordinary # 11 scalpel blade for this surgery. I can feel the tissues and make sure I'm only cutting what I intend to cut, I can see the tissues and do not have to wear LASER-attenuating plastic glasses, I can hear the tissues move and not listen to the gas- evacuation pump that is necessary during Laser surgery. In my hands, a scalpel is the safest, quickest healing, most effective tool to use for this surgery.

Consider your options and make an INFORMED decision before surgery

Whatever your feelings, it's clear there are alternatives to consider. Alternatives to having it done in the first place, plus alternatives to consider on the surgical table if you decide to have it done.

Pediatric Bronchitis – Parents' Guide To Dealing With It

Bronchitis is a respiratory problem which can be found in the lower tract. It occurs when there is an inflammation of the airway tubes that include the trachea and larger air tubes that carry oxygen to the lungs.

There are two types of bronchitis infections: acute and chronic.

Followed by viruses, acute infections usually bother the nasal passages, sinuses, and throat and then going to the larger tubes. Sometimes bacteria cause the infection.

When parents smoke around their children, the kids are likely to get sick with bronchitis much easier than those not around smoke. Children who have a pre-existing condition or heart disease are also at risk.

Chronic bronchitis is produced by an overabundance of mucus that causes a productive cough. Until the infection is clear, it progresses into a constant inflammation that can hinder the stream of air. It can also cause serious damage of the tract.

COPD (Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) is a respiratory problem that can cause long time issues for the patient in doing physical activity and normal breathing.

The main culprit for kids is the constant, long-term exposure of smoking. Sometimes allergies and environmental irritants can be troublesome for them too.

What are the symptoms?

For children, preventive measures need to be taught earlier. Kids need to know to cover their mouths when they sneeze or cough. They also need to continuously wash their hands. Kids also need a flu vaccine to help them fight any type of breathing problems. If the parents or grandsparents can stop smoking, this would be beneficial for the children too.

Both types of infections have similar symptoms:

* Tires easily
* Wheezing
* Difficulty breathing worsened by physical exertion
* Mucus filled cough (if there is any blood in the mucus, then consult in the child's physician.
* Rales (these are abnormal sounds that are found in the lungs by the doctor.)

There are several tests that can be used to diagnose children's respiratory problems. They include: x-rays, pulse oxymetry, pulmonary lung functions, arterial blood gas and sputum.

If it's left untreated, the infection can develop into more serious respiratory infections that include pneumonia, pulmonary hypertension, heart failure on the right side as well as emphysema.

When it sees there is no infections, doctors will treat the child for a common cold. This means staying in bed, drink lots of fluid. Using a humidifier can help the child get over the cold much quicker. If the child experiences dry cough, it would be necessary to use a cough suppressant for their own comfort. Aspirin is a no-no for children because of the danger of Reye's syndrome. Tylenol or Motrin should be the only two medicines parents should use.

Sometimes to get the mucus moving, doctors may suggest using expectorants. These types of medicine will thin the mucus out, which makes it easier to get rid of quicker. Before doing this, consult the pediatrician.

Antibiotics will only be prescribed for bacteria related bronchitis. Like adults, children need to take the medicine as directed to avoid recurrences. Children under age 8 will be given Amoxicillin instead of other types of medicines.

As for chronic problems, treatment depends on how far into the disease you are. Children need a healthy environment and supervised exercise. Some medications can be used to relieve the stress on the bronchial tubes so allowing air to flow through.

Preventive measures are always better than a cure. Parents who smoke need to remember that when they smoke so do their children who in turn also face health problems.