Causes and Treatment of Peptic Ulcer

In the digestive system, ulcer comprises the area where the tissue has been destroyed by gastric juices and stomach acid. Peptic ulcer disease is a general term used for ulcers that occur in the stomach or duodenum (upper part of the small intestine) or esophagus. A peptic ulcer is a sore formed due to injury in the gut lining of the stomach, duodenum, or esophagus. A peptic ulcer of the stomach is called a gastric ulcer; of the duodenum – a duodenal ulcer; and of the esophagus – an esophageal ulcer.

An ulcer occurs when the body’s acidic digestive juices, which are secreted by the stomach cells, erode the lining of these organs. Thus, the mucous membrane lining of the digestive tract is damaged causing gradual breakdown of tissue.

What are the causes of the peptic ulcer?

The main causes of peptic ulcer are –

1. Peptic ulcer is mainly caused due to an infection by a bacteria called Helicobacter pylori – also referred to as H. pylori. It is considered the primary cause of ulcers. This bacterium is found in the stomach, and along with acidic secretions can damage the tissue of the stomach and duodenal, causing inflammation and ulcers.

2. Acid and pepsin – When one eats, the food is partially digested in the stomach and the rest gets carried forward to the duodenum. Our body’s defense mechanisms are such that the stomach can protect itself from the digestive juices in various ways like production of mucus by stomach, which protects stomach tissues, and also the blood circulating in the lining of the stomach protects it. But, when the hydrochloric acid and pepsin enzymes overcome this defense mechanism of the gastrointestinal tract, it causes erosion of the mucosal wall resulting in peptic ulcer.

3. NSAIDs – Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs –

The most common NSAIDs which cause ulcers are aspirin, ibuprofen. Others medicines used to treat several arthritic conditions also lead to the same. They can fail the stomach’s defense mechanisms, making it vulnerable to harmful effects of acid and pepsin by reducing the stomach’s ability to produce mucus and bicarbonates, and also reducing the blood flow and cell repair in the stomach lining.

4. Smoking –

Researches show that cigarette smoking increases chances of developing an ulcer. Smoking also reduces the healing rate of existing ulcers and contributes to ulcer recurrence.

5. Caffeine –

Caffeine rich beverages and foods stimulate acid secretion in the stomach. Also it can aggravate an existing ulcer.

6. Alcohol –

While no direct causal relationship has been established which goes on to prove that alcohol causes peptic ulcer, but high co-relationship has been found which indicates that people who consume large amount of alcohol are more prone to peptic ulcer.

7. Physical stress –

Physical stress can increase the risk of developing ulcers, especially in the stomach. Examples of physical stress that can lead to ulcers are injuries such as severe burns and any major surgery.

What are symptoms of peptic ulcer?

Many a times, symptoms of peptic ulcer are late to show up. The common symptoms of ulcer disease are several and mostly include –

1. Abdominal pain –The pain is usually in the upper middle part of the abdomen, above the navel and below the breastbone. The pain often occurs several hours after a meal, which becomes worse at night and early morning, when the stomach is relatively empty. Temporary relief from pain is possible if some amount of food, if antacids are taken.

2. Burning pain in the gut

3. Nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite and unexplained loss of weight are some of the associated symptoms.

4. Bleeding – In very severe ulcers cases, bleeding in the stomach or duodenum may also occur. Bleeding can be either in the form of vomiting of blood or blood in the stool.

5. Chest pain

6. A slowly bleeding ulcer can also cause anaemia, where there are not enough red blood cells to transport oxygen around the body.

How is peptic ulcer diagnosed?

Peptic ulcer is mainly diagnosed after analyzing the symptoms, lifestyle and diet of the person. Some tests that help diagnose ulcer include a blood test, endoscopy and an upper gastrointestinal test with barium.

What increases a person’s risk of getting peptic ulcer?

A person is more likely to develop a peptic ulcer if he:

• has an H. pylori infection

• uses NSAIDs quite often

• smokes cigarettes, eats tobacco

• chronic alcoholic

• have relatives with peptic ulcers

• are older than 50 years.

How is it treated ?

A customized treatment is required based on age, condition and the extent of the ulcer, and the person’s compatibility with drugs. Generally, doctors prescribe some antacids, or inhibitors of the proton pump. If H. Pylori causes the ulcer, the patient will be prescribed some antibiotic drugs too.

Apart from drugs, few lifestyle changes are also recommended. Smoking and drinking alcohol and coffee must be totally abandoned. Avoid taking foods that causes pain and burning in the gut. The person should lose excess weight, if overweight. In case medicinal treatment is not effective, then surgery is the ultimate solution.

How to prevent peptic ulcer?

One can prevent peptic ulcers by avoiding alcohol, smoking, taking aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which trigger break down of the stomach’s protective barrier and increases stomach acid secretion.

To prevent infection from H pylori, one should avoid contaminated food and water and observe complete personal hygiene.

Clinical Depression and Its Symptoms

According to the definitions of most medical, psychological and psychiatric bodies, there is a commonality in the diagnosis of depression. Most depression tests have a very similar framework. Almost without exception, clinical depression will be diagnosed if a certain number of feelings, that are signs of depression, are present over a certain period of time.

Current theory suggests those clinical depression results from complex interactions between brain chemicals and hormones that influence a person’s energy level, feelings, sleeping and eating habits. These chemical interactions are linked to many complex causes–a person’s family history of illness, biochemical and psychological make-up, prolonged stress, and traumatic life crisis such as death of a loved one, job loss, or divorce. Following are some of the common symptoms of clinical depression:

Markedly diminished interest or pleasure in all, or almost all, activities most of the day, nearly every day.
Significant weight loss when not dieting or weight gain, or decrease or increase in appetite nearly every day. Note: In children, consider failure to make expected weight gains.
Insomnia or hypersomnia nearly every day
Psychomotor agitation or retardation nearly every day
Fatigue or loss of energy nearly every day
Feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt (which may be delusional) nearly every day.
Exhaustion on waking
Disrupted sleep, sometimes through upsetting dreams
Early morning waking and difficulty getting back to sleep
Doing less of what they used to enjoy
Difficulty concentrating during the day
Improved energy as the day goes on
Anxious worrying and intrusive upsetting thoughts
Becoming emotional or upset for no particular reason
Shortness of temper, or irritability
Restlessness or decreased activity noticed by others
Thoughts of suicide or death
Teenagers may show depression by taking more risks and/or showing less concern for their own safety.

What are the symptoms of gastritis and how to treat it?

Burning sensation in the upper part of stomach, vomiting, nausea, flatulence, belch … are just some of the symptoms of gastritis. Gastritis is inflammation of gastric mucous membrane, which may, but also may not be the precursor of boil.
Rare are the people who occasionally are not suffering from gastritis. However, if you smoke, drink lots of coffee, eat spicy foods, drink alcohol, then you are surely in high-risk group.
Gastritis usually attacks the elderly, but this does not mean that young people will not have such problems. Apart from alcohol, smoking, spicy food, gastritis may be a result of taking certain medications, for example, aspirin and anti-rheumatics as a result of viral and bacterial infections.
If you suffer from gastritis, first of all, consider your lifestyle. If you are one of those who drink cups of coffee and smoke a few cigarettes early in the morning, then change your morning ritual, and certainly before the first sip put at least something in your mouth. Soda drinks and strong flavored foods are damage to you.

Recommendation: Eat a banana first thing in the morning.
When you have an attack of gastritis, you should stop eating for a while and then take light boiled foods, in small quantities. Avoid lemon, orange, grapefruit, and sour food.
Also be careful with larger quantities of dairy products (especially sour yogurt)! If a pain in the stomach continues to bother you, take antacid – a cure for the annulment of acidity.

If you are tormented by gastritis for a long time, it would be smart to contact the doctor, who will probably make X-rays and (I) gastroscopy, take a sample of tissue for biopsy to determine the exact cause of the illness.

Cardiovascular System Diseases – Treatment and Prevention

Cardiovascular disease, along with various cancers rank among the first death factors in the modern world. Cardiovascular system problems from year to year affect a growing number of young people. In order to prevent a terrible trend you are given information about the main types of diseases. Treatment of cardiovascular diseases is mainly to take preventive measures; otherwise it will go under the surgeon’s scalpel, as very few diseases treated by medical methods.

Ischemia. Coronary heart disease is a seal or vasoconstriction of the arteries delivers oxygen to the heart. The overwhelming reason for the restriction of blood vessels is atherosclerosis – the gradual process of accumulation of cholesterol on artery walls. Causes of coronary heart disease may also be metabolic, inflammatory and allergic processes and other types of vascular pathology. Therefore, in order to reduce the risk of developing coronary disease should first develop proper diet habit.

Treatment of cardiovascular disease Arrhythmia. Irregular heartbeat – random or acceleration (tachycardia – more than 120 beats) heart rate. Arrhythmia can be caused by heart disease (the cardinal reasons), the influence of drugs, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, stress and sedentary lifestyles. To prevent the development of arrhythmias you should go ahead a healthy lifestyle, eating more healthy foods and exercise, which normalize the natural rhythm of the heartbeat – morning exercise and fresh air.

Heart failure – a complex disorder in which the heart pumps blood less than it should. Most likely to occur when fatigue and overload of the heart, or for violation of its blood supply. To avoid the development of cardiovascular disease need to be able to fully rest and recover.

Heart defects (congenital or acquired) a structural change in the ventricle, atrium, valve or the main vessels of the heart, blood circulation in the body or the heart. Causes of congenital heart disease (occurring before birth) person is not fully understood, but much can be caused by viral diseases, overweight, drug use, alcohol by the mother during pregnancy. Acquired heart often develops as a result of diseases – rheumatic fever, sepsis, atherosclerosis, syphilis. Unfortunately heart disease is one of those for cardiovascular disease for which there is not one hundred percent of preventive measures which reduce the likelihood of disease. Treatment of heart disease as congenital or acquired, in most cases is only possible during surgery.

For more rare cardiovascular diseases include cardiomyopathy (disease of the heart muscle) and pericarditis (inflammation of the tissues surrounding the heart). A cause of cardiomyopathy associated with genetic diseases, but for sure is not known. Pericarditis can cause infections (viruses, bacteria, rickettsia, fungi, protozoa), rheumatism, joint diseases, autoimmune diseases, myocardial infarction, renal failure, radiation, cancer, parasites.

Lymphedema Treatment

As modern medicine is just starting to understand the lymphatic system and lymphedema, lymphedema treatments are still very much in the early stages of development.

Most lymphedema treatments are based on Complete Decongestive Therapy (CDT). This involves wearing tight fitting bandages to help push lymph out of the affected limb and to stop extra fluid retention. The bandages are worn whilst performing specific exercises designed to stimulate lymph flow and reduce the swellings. Manual lymph drainage massages are also performed which encourage lymph flow. Proper diet is also advised.

Skin care is also vital in maintaining good health and avoiding infections. As lymphedema can cause poor circulation and an accumulation of toxic waste, the skin can suffer and turn dry and scaly which in turn can lead to cracks in the skin allowing bacteria to enter the body and blood stream. As the affected area is full of stagnant, protein rich fluid which is ideal for bacteria breeding ground, allowing bacteria to enter could cause a very serious infection leading to further complication.
This is pretty much the foundation of what most lymphedema therapists prescribe.

Originally, exercise was not prescribed as it was thought that putting the limb under any kind of stress would cause more swellings and irritate the lymphoedema. Now though new research is proving that exercise is actually beneficial and that people whom regularly exercise have much less symptoms of lymphedema than people who don’t.

I have personally been studying the lymphatic system since 2003 after I developed bad health which was affected my lymph system. Initial I did not know what was wrong and doctors could not identify what was wrong either. It took me many years to discover what was wrong and then find out how to cure myself. As there was so little information about the lymphatic system and how to heal it, it was an uphill battle all the way with virtually no help from the doctors and health specialists. After many test and years I discovered what it takes to heal the lymphatic system and regain amazing levels of health and in my research I have found that this directly applies to lymphedema sufferers.

As a result of my research I have put together an eBook guide on how to heal the lymphatic system and reduce lymphedema swelling which is only available from my website
Although currently there is no cure for lymphoedema, there are certainly many things which can be done to keep swellings under control and maintain excellent health. My eBook “Discover How To Heal Your Lymphatic System & Reduce Swelling Caused By Lymphedema” covers all known lymphedema treatment but it also covers what most people don’t know or understand and that is what you put into your body affects your lymphedema.
Here’s some of what you will discover;

– The 5 little known, yet very powerful supplements for healing…

– The Secret of lymphedema healing that most doctors don’t know…

– 3 proven steps to increasing lymph flow and clearing blockages

– 2 simple keys (that are right in front of your eyes) to living a healthier life

– WARNING: 3 things you should never consume when suffering with lymphedema

– You’ll discover in just a few short minutes how your day to day life affects your lymphedema and what you need to change immediately

– 6 time tested and proven strategies for having a healthy, clean, free flowing lymphatic system

– When to use supplements in the healing process

– 7 everyday but often overlooked foods which will dramatically improve your lymphedema

– How to increase circulation and lymph flow…

– Money saving advice

– Should you exercise? If so, how often?

– How to control bacteria and infections

– The once famous but forgotten secret that instantly allows you to be happy and fulfilled everyday…

– Improve conditions after lymph node surgery & removal

– How to fight & cure cancer

– Learn how to perform manual lymphatic drainage on yourself and save money

– How to increase the lymphatic system’s ability in fighting diseases & illnesses

– Increase energy levels

– Slow the ageing process

– Improve the quality of your skin, hair, nails and teeth

– Improve circulation

– What foods cause congestion

– What foods stimulate the lymphatic system and increase circulation

For more information go to

Anxiety and Adjustment Disorders

Anxiety is the automatic body’s response to alleged risk. While anxiety disorders emanates from overwhelming perceived threats. We often worry and get tensed when responding to or anticipating a stressful situation. The optimistic side of anxiety is that it aid us to stay focused, motivated and spur us to conquer challenging jargons. However, when nervousness graduates to be constant and irresistible and becomes a setback in your daily performance it is referred as an anxiety disorder. The apparent symptoms of generalized anxiety disorders (GAD) are fatigue, nausea, muscle weakness and heart palpitations. This topic will carefully examine similarities and differences of anxiety disorders and adjustment disorders in references to a case study of an edgy electrician. The paper will be of great significance to learners who will be armed in dealing with anxiety disorders.

Adjustment disorder is caused by poignant and behavioral changes that alter sound functioning of a person due to stressful changes experienced in a paradigm shift of his/her life. The most common similarity between anxiety disorders and adjustment disorders are both victims encounter stress, worry, significant anxiety and loss of attentiveness. More so, both disorders can develop as a result of genetic influence commonly known as family history and both escalate due to stressful life and changes in occurrences (Casey, 2001). Although these disorders relates with some shared causes and symptoms they are essentially relatively different. Their largest variation exists in their symptoms, where adjustment disorder victims’ symptoms are portrayed in times of change or stress. While patients suffering from generalized anxiety disorders experience extreme worries and anxiety in an array of stuffs. In some instances a patient can have both disorders making generalized anxiety disorder severe due to adjustment and alteration of things. For example in this case study the electrician seems to be worrying much about his parent health and how his wife extrapolates him in regard to family affairs. This worries have be made worse by a feeling of disconnection from co-workers on his job and nervousness associated with it. His signs are a clear indication of presence of general anxiety and adjustment disorders. But further diagnosis need to be carried to determine if he suffers from adjustment disorder. We shall apply five-axis diagnostic system to effectively eradicate through classification of all disorders and illness he is experiencing (Casey, 2001).

Axis I- 293.84 Anxiety Disorder due to heart palpitations, dizziness and sweating palms

  • 308.3 Acute Stress Disorder

Axis II – deferred

Axis III – No signs requiring this diagnosis.

Axis IV – 309.24 Adjustment Disorder with Anxiety

  • V71.01 Adult Antisocial Behavior

Axis V – 30: Behavior is considerably influenced by delusions or hallucinations

The first one will be Axis I diagnosis that includes diagnosing clinical disorders, learning and developmental disorders. In our case we are going to diagnose generalized anxiety disorder while relying on clinical judgment. We shall assess longevity of excessiveness of anxiety and worry for a particular situation, inability to control the worries and if the symptoms are not part of another mental disorder. Since our patients experience irritability, concentration problem, fatigued and feeling restless this is a sure way of presence of GAD (Bronish, & Hecht, 1989). Our patient is affected by his family background as his parents’ health and wife relationship disturbs his mind frequently.

The second diagnosis that is Axis II diagnosis entails personality disorders and mental retardation. This is going to be deferred as it cannot be diagnosed simultaneously with Axis one diagnosis. Even though disorders associate with it are not present in this case. Hence, the need to go to Axis III diagnosis that is reserved for medical or physical conditions like Mitral Valve Prolapse and hyperthyroidism hence not applicable in our case as there is no any such signs. To determine if patient experiences legal problems, social issues, lack of an adequate support system and other psychosocial and environmental problems we are going to use Axis IV diagnosis. The factors present in our case are occupational problems articulated by his worries in regards to relationship between him and co-workers. This scenario calls for thorough axis IV diagnosis through elaborate subjective and objective process to determine whether this state is the epicenter of all the anxieties (Barlow, 2002).

To give a psychiatrist a complete diagnosis the axis V diagnosis must be carried out for vivid outlining of factors influencing anxiety and adjustment disorders. This popularly known as global assessment functioning that is an overall rating of patient’s performance in his daily occupational, social and activities operation. In electrician’s case, it is true to state that he has moderate difficulty in social occupational function as he confesses to have few social contacts. Also diagnosed is his unfounded worries influenced by delusions and hallucinations.

Ethnicity and background may affects diagnosis through lack of cooperation especially when the mater touches on confidentially family affairs. Some cultural beliefs prohibits one from exposing family history, hence, it becomes very difficult to deal with such a patient.

Silent Heart Attack Symptoms – Why Didn’t I Feel A Thing

It has already been established that more people die from heart attacks than any other condition known to man.  More women than men die from it, and more blacks than whites are diagnosed with it.  But these are just facts of the number of incidence of heart attacks that we are of aware of.

It appears there’s another killer among the population that you don’t hear much about, and it goes by the name of Silent Heart Attack or Non Q-wave Unrecognized Myocardial Infarction (UMI). It happens more often that previously thought and carries with it a uniquely high risk of premature death. These silent heart attacks go totally unnoticed because there is no pain associated with them and they don’t show up on EKG tracings.

It is difficult to comprehend how often these types of heart attacks occur, and no one can predict the future outcome of this condition. They are silent in nature and detection is elusive until after the fact.  Silent heart attacks occur more often in people who have significant heart disease.  With heart disease, the nerves surrounding the heart are usually damaged, which explains how a silent heart attack can happen without the victim’s knowledge.  

Those at risk for silent heart attack include diabetics, who are more prone to this type of attack, as well as women, the elderly, and those diagnosed with having heart disease.  Presently, there are no clear cut guidelines for the treatment of patients who exhibit signs and symptoms of having a silent heart attack, or Non Q-Wave UMI, but recent clinical studies have been conducted to help find an appropriate treatment.  Currently, the treatment for silent heart attack is no different than the care given to those who have already been diagnosed with heart disease.

Silent heart attack symptoms do not resemble the classic heart attack symptoms.  A known cause of this condition is Silent Ischemia (Decreased blood supply to the heart muscle).  When blood flow to the heart is blocked by plaque, the heart muscle in the area of the blockage becomes damaged.  It does not produce any symptoms because the nerve supply to the coronary arteries is also damaged. Surprisingly, when an attack is severe there may not be any chest pain at all. This can be the only a welcomed factor to having a painless heart attack, as the pain can be excruciatingly debilitating.

Bloated Stomach After Heart Surgery – Healing Tips

Heart surgery is one of the more serious and involved types of surgery that you can undergo. While there is a variety of heart surgery procedures, all of them should be taken seriously – and all of them require some significant recovery and healing time.

Of course, there can be major complications after heart surgery, including stroke, heart attack, serious bleeding, skin graft failure, and loss of life. Fortunately, these complications are quite rare.

There also are a number of possible minor complications that you can experience after heart surgery, including: nausea, vomiting, minor infections, slight bleeding, scar formation, allergic skin reactions, numbness . . . and a bloated stomach. Bloated stomach problems could be caused by fluid build-up, excessive gas, constipation, or other conditions.

If you are experiencing any of the above-mentioned major or minor complications after heart surgery, it is important that you consult with your doctor to ask him or her for treatment options.

Among the minor complications that you can experience after heart surgery, one of the most uncomfortable is having a bloated stomach. This condition can be accompanied by a distended stomach (that protrudes outward more than normal), accompanied with a general feeling of discomfort in the stomach area.

The following techniques can be tried to reduce the effects of a bloated stomach after heart surgery:

1. One of the causes of your problems could be constipation. If this is the cause of your bloating, try eating more high-fiber cereals, fruit and vegetables. And, be sure to drink 6-8 glasses of water each day.

2. Bloating is often caused by poor digestion. To improve your digestion, try eating more slowly. Chew your food thoroughly, and eat several small snacks or meals throughout the day.

3. Chewing gum can, believe it or not, contribute to improved bowel activity.

4. Try drinking warm tea a few times per day.

5. Consider using hot packs to relieve symptoms of gas and bloating.

6. Over-the-counter medicines like Maalox and Gas-X can help keep bloating to a minimum, while keeping your bowels moving.

7. If motility (movement of food through your digestion system) continues to be a concern, your doctor may decide to conduct a medication review to determine whether your medications may be playing a part in your bloating problems.

8. If the problems persist, a full gastro-intestinal (GI) evaluation may help your doctor to better evaluate this symptom.

9. In serious cases, your doctor may admit you to the hospital to have tubes inserted into your nose, stomach or rectum to relieve the pressure of excess gasses or fluids in the body.

10. Try taking an acidophilus supplement (found in many yogurts and some types of mil), as this will help restore the balance of the friendly bacteria in the bowel.

11. Finally, if your bloating is indeed caused by digestion problems, avoid the following foods:

meats, dairy products, broccoli, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, beans and legumes, cauliflower, onions, prunes, dark beer, red wine, carbonated drinks, sugar, and fried or fatty foods

Stomach discomfort and bloating after heart surgery could be caused by fluid build-up, gas or both. Check with your doctor for suggested remedies. And, try these suggested methods for reducing the symptoms and causes of bloated stomach after heart surgery.

5 Shocking Facts About Heart Disease

The biggest and most infamous serial killer in America is not a clinical psychopath, it is heart disease. Heart disease has been steadily increasing since the 1950’s and seen a marked increase in the last 20 years. At one time or another someone’s life will be directly or indirectly affected by heart disease.
Below are 5 shocking facts that you should know about heart disease:

Fact One

In America alone there are over sixty million people who have one or more forms of heart disease. It we break that down into a ratio that is nearly one out of every four people with heart disease.

Fact Two

One out of every two deaths in America can be linked or directly caused by heart disease and stroke. These two diseases together have caused more deaths that all the other diseases combined together.

Fact Three

Many people think that driving can be dangerous however, you are ten times more likely to be killed by heart disease than being killed in a car accident. Although AIDS is a horrific you are thirty times less likely to die of it than you are with heart disease.

Fact Four

Heart disease is not fussy killer. Whether you are male or female heart disease does not discriminate. It also makes no difference to the color of your skin as heart disease is the biggest killer of both male and females in all ethnic and racial groups in America.

Fact Five

As well being the biggest cause of deaths heart disease costs a fortune. It is estimated that the average cost related to heart disease in America is approximately 300 billion dollars.
Even though heart disease is responsible for causing many deaths it is a preventable disease. The rise of heart disease has a lot to do with the life style that many people live today. More and more people are taking less exercise, they are eating too much and the food that they are eating is very unhealthy.The rise of the fast food culture has increased the levels of obesity in America to a stage that is soon becoming epidemic. People who are overweight or obese or at a much greater risk at developing and dying from heart disease.
As pointed out in many cases heart disease is preventable. If you are overweight or obese then you should seek help and begin to change your lifestyle. You can begin by cutting down on foods that are high in saturated fats. Eat a diet that is high in fresh vegetables and fruit and lean meats. A healthy diet should also be taken in conjunction with regular exercise. If you do this regularly you will help to reduce your risk of getting heart disease.

How Does Tuberculosis Manifest?

Tuberculosis can give a lot of symptoms to a person but there are cases in which patients came to the doctor for other problems and they are discovered this disease too. Sometimes tuberculosis gives only night sweats and the patient will not go to the doctor only for such a mild symptom. Generally extrapulmonary tuberculosis is encountered in those who have a weakened immune system and have other important diseases associated too.

The most affected of extrapulmonary TB and military TB are the patients who have AIDS. In those patients symptoms vary from chest pains and night sweats to morning coughing with blood. In those who are in a bad status loss of weight might be encountered along with these other symptoms. At the physical exam the doctor will hear with his stethoscope diminished breath sounds and coarse crackles.

It is not easy to diagnose tuberculosis as the symptoms can be found in other diseases too, like: lung cancer, asperigollosis, pneumonia, sarcoidosis, pneumoconiosis, diabetes mellitus, hyperthyroidism and mediastinial lymphadenopathy.

The doctor will ask for a thoracic X-ray. If tuberculosis is present on the thoracic X-ray cavitation, calcification and nodes will be seen. Other tests must me done to be sure the disease is tuberculosis. A biopsy is indicated also, and if it shows granulomas and caseation then there is a confirmation of tuberculosis. Sputum can also be tested to see if it contains the Koch bacteria. If the tuberculosis is not localized in the lungs then the urine can be taken as a sample and analyzed or the LCR or even the blood. The lymph noses biopsy can be made because tuberculosis can shed there too. If the doctor thinks the tuberculosis affected some other organs he will take a sample of liquid from the pleural space, the pericardial space, or the peritoneal space.

In those patients in which the sputum test got negative the bronchoalveolar lavage can be tested too to eliminate any possibility of misdiagnosing. This is done with an optic bronchoscope which is passed from the mouth or the nose towards the trachea and then the lungs. This procedure is not painful as the doctor uses a lidocaine spray to locally sedate the patient. With the bronchoscope a sample will be taken from the alveolar space as a saline solution will be entered the lungs to flush out bacteria and loose cells. This solution will be collected and tested in the end of the procedure.

With the help of the bronchoscope biopsy can be performed from small tissue samples from the bronchi. These samples will be analyzed in the laboratory to see if they are infected with the Koch bacilli.

So, if you want to find more about tuberculosis history or even about tuberculosis symptoms please click this link

The Pros and Cons of Living in New Jersey

If you are thinking of moving to the garden state, the following article reviews some of the benefits and drawbacks of living in New Jersey.

Situated on the East Coast with close proximity to New York City and Philadelphia, New Jersey geographically rests in an ideal commercial crossroads location. As a result, the economy is very strong and diverse. For example, rather than capitalizing on one industry like many other states, New Jersey is home to printing, electronic, health care, retail, service, food processing, fishing, shipping, and agricultural industries. The state economy produces more than $400 billion every year. The average per capita income is also well above the national average.

Unfortunately, the cost of living in New Jersey probably requires a good portion of those larger salaries. For example, New Jersey carries one of the heaviest tax burdens of any state in the nation. NJ real estate is also very expensive since the average price from a single family home is $400,000 or more; a figure that is double the national average. In some areas, like Morris or Bergen, $800,000 is more of the median home price.

Part of the reason why real estate is so expensive is because of the scarceness of land. Three hundred years of settling and development coupled with an effort to preserve the state’s natural beauty leave very little room for new growth. In addition to limiting development land, the untouched reserves also add to the state’s appeal though which makes and the real estate value climb even higher.

If you are looking for the most “affordable” part of New Jersey, the southern region of the state, which is also known as the Pine Barrens, is one of the least expensive and least populated areas. The northwest region probably isn’t far behind the Pine Barrens because of its mountainous and wooded terrain. A lot of people are drawn to the metropolitan areas of New York City and Philadelphia or the coastal communities along the eastern shore though. If you work in one of the larger cities, affordable housing will probably be hard to come by.

In spite of the high cost of living, New Jersey is a beautiful and industrious place to settle down. It also boasts one of the strongest education systems in the country. That’s why New Jersey students consistently earn the highest average scores on Advanced Placement tests in the nation.

Pseudotumor Cerebri Symptoms and Treatment

Pseudotumor Cerebri – An Overview

Pseudotumor cerebri is often confused with a tumor, but it is not one. Thus it is given the name “pseudo tumor” meaning fake or false tumor. It is also known as idiopathic intracranial hypertension which occurs when there is pressure on the brain. This causes symptoms that are similar to a tumor. The condition usually affects people between the age group 20 – 50 and is more common amongst women than men.

Causes –

When there is an increase in the pressure within the skull it leads to pseudotumor cerebri. Although the exact reason is hard to find out, the condition can easily be treated. Apart from this reason there are some medications that if consumed, can increase the risk of pseudotumor cerebri. For example –

1. Steroids
2. Excessive dosage of vitamin A
3. Minocycline
4. Tetracycline
5. Lithium etc.

Health conditions such as head injury, kidney disease etc also can result to a pseudotumor cerebri.

Symptoms –

The major symptoms of pseudotumor cerebri are as follows –

1. Headaches
2. Blurry or double vision
3. Dizziness
4. Pulsating effect in the ear
5. Nausea

Serious risks with pseudotumor cerebri are temporary or permanent loss of vision along with excruciating headaches. While this condition is not life-threatening and is curable, action should be taken in time so that there is no permanent loss of vision (which is the biggest side-effect). The headache experienced in this condition often ranges from light to severe. Usually the condition can be treated easily, but in some people the condition may recur after a period of time. The recurrence can be after months or even years. The symptoms get worse with physical activity, especially if the patient is obese.

Diagnosis –

Several tests are done, starting from an eye test. This is done to determine how poor the vision is and how it can be corrected. Scans of the head, to check if there are any blood clots or tumors are also done. Medications are prescribed in order to ease the condition of the patient, and give relief from the pain.

Treatment –

Pseudotumor cerebri is usually treated with medications to reduce the headaches and decrease in vision. Following a strict diet in order to lose weight is recommended for obese individuals. For those having serious vision problems, a surgery is also recommended. Although it is not known exactly why there seems to be a connection between obesity in women and pseudotumor cerebri, weight loss is essential and will make a huge difference. The medication given for treatment will be to reduce the intracranial pressure.

Natural Pneumonia Treatment – Part 1

Pneumonia is a serious infection of the lungs that can be caused by any of a number of different infectious agents, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and mycoplasma. The infection causes tiny air sacs in the lung area to become inflamed and filled with mucus and pus, inhibiting oxygen from reaching the blood. Lobar pneumonia affects only a section, or lobe, of one lung. Although symptoms can vary in intensity, they usually include fever, chills, cough, bloody sputum, muscle aches, fatigue, sore throat, enlarged lymph glands in the neck, cyanosis (a bluish cast to skin and nails), pain in the chest, and rapid, difficult respiration.

Pneumonia is typically preceded by an upper respiration infection such as cold, influenza, or measles. Factors that increase the risk of pneumonia include being either under one year or over sixty years of age, a weakened immune system, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, HIV infection, seizure or strokes, aspiration under anesthesia, alcoholism, smoking, kidney failure, sickle cell disease, malnutrition, foreign bodies in the respiratory passages, exposure to chemical irritants, and even allergies.

Bacterial pneumonia can be very dangerous and may come on either suddenly or gradually, usually as a complication of some other health problem such as respiratory disease, a weakened immune system, or viral infection. Older adults, young children, alcoholics, and people who have just undergone surgery are also at risk. Streptococcus pneomoniae is the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia. Symptoms usually include shaking, chills, and high temperature. The cough is dry at first. Then a rust-colored sputum is produced, and breathing becomes rapid and labored. Chest pain that worsens upon inhalation, abdominal pain, and fatigue are also common, This type of pneumonia is unlikely to spread from one person to another.

Viral Pneumonia is more variable in course and severity. It can come on suddenly or gradually, and symptoms- which are much the same as those of bacterial pneumonia- can be mild, severe, or anywhere in between. It is less serious than bacterial pneumonia, but if not cared for properly, a second, bacterial pneumonia infection can set in.

Fungal Pneumonia, especially Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), is much less common that either the bacterial or viral variety, and is often associated with a weakened or suppressed immune system. People with HIV, AIDS, or certain types of cancer, or who are taking immunosuppressive drugs following organ transplantation, are most likely to be affected.

Mycoplasma pneumonia, or “walking pneumonia” is caused by an agent that is unclassified but appears to be both bacterium and virus. This form of pneumonia usually affects people under forty. The symptoms tend to be less severe than those of viral or bacterial pneumonia and include a cough that is spasmodic, along with chills and a fever.

Infants can contract pneumonia due to a Chlamydia trachomatis infection transferred to the child during the birth. Childhood pneumonia can also be caused by the same bacteria that cause whooping cough.


The Chinese mushrooms cordyceps is available in a tonic formula to support the lungs. Clear lungs from Ridgecrest herbals is a Chinese herbal formula designed to provide nutrients to the lungs. Elderberry has antiviral properties and reduces pneumonia symptoms. Ephedra (ma huang) is beneficial for relief of congestion and coughing. Warning: do not use this herb if you suffer from anxiety, glaucoma, heart disease, high blood pressure, or insomnia, or if you are taking a monoamine oxidase inhibitor. Eucalyptus oil is beneficial for relieving congestion. Put 5 drops in hot bath or 6 drops in a cup of boiling water, put a towel over your head, and inhale the vapors. Olive leaf extract enhances immune system function and fights all types of infection, including the flu virus.

More recommendations for natural pneumonia treatment

Consume plenty of fluids, especially fresh juices, herbal teas, soups and quality water, to prevent dehydration and help flush out the body. To shorten the length of the flu, go on a liquid diet emphasizing hot herbal teas and hot broth for one of two days. Sleep and rest as much as possible. Do not take zinc at the same time you eat or drink citrus fruits or juices. It will diminish the effectiveness of the zinc. Do consume a lot of other types of fruit. Fenugreek breaks up phlegm and mucus, and slippery elm helps remove them from the body. If you are over sixty-five, see your health care provider.

Pneumonia can cause serious complications for people in this age group. Antibiotics are useless against viral illnesses like pneumonia and influenza. The best way to get rid of the problem or any other infectious illness is to attack it head on by strengthening the immune system. The thymus and adrenal glands are the power seat of the immune system. When the body is getting sick, or is already sick, it is under stress, and stress taxes the immune system. Researchers have linked vulnerability to colds, flu and pneumonia to psychological stress.

Potent natural pneumonia treatment recommended by almost top naturopathic doctors is the self-administered oxygen therapy. They discovered that, microbes, harmful bacteria, and viruses such as pneumonia, cancer heart disease and even aids, do not cause the disease by themselves. They just thrive in their natural habitat the oxygen – deprived environment. The moment the environment in our body is deprived of oxygen it becomes acidic and normally all kinds of viruses and harmful bacteria thrive and reproduce dramatically. The cells in our body with enough supply of oxygen is uninhabitable by all kinds of diseases viruses and even pneumonia. Therefore, the recommended approach is to keep the body always oxygenated. Take the time to explore and study this powerful and controversial treatment.

Chest Pain: Causes and Treatment

In medicine, chest pain is a symptom of a number of serious conditions and is generally considered a medical emergency, unless the patient is a known angina pectoris sufferer and the symptoms are familiar (appearing at exertion and resolving at rest, known as “stable angina”). When the chest pain is not attributed to heart disease, it is termed non-cardiac chest pain.

Chest pain is one of the most frightening symptoms a person can have. It is sometimes difficult even for a doctor or other medical professional to tell what is causing chest pain and whether it is life-threatening.

Chest pain and heart attack

Chest discomfort or pain is a key warning symptom of a heart attack. Heart attack symptoms include:

1. Chest discomfort or pain that is crushing or squeezing or feels like a heavy weight on the chest.

2. Chest discomfort or pain that occurs with:
a. Sweating.
b. Shortness of breath.


causes of chest pain include:

1. Asthma, which is generally accompanied by shortness of breath, wheezing, or cough.

2. Pneumonia, a blood clot to the lung (pulmonary embolism), the collapse of a small area of a lung (pneumothorax), or inflammation of the lining around the lung (pleurisy). In these cases, the chest pain often worsens when you take a deep breath or cough and usually feels sharp.

3. Chest pain is merely a symptom, not a diagnosis. Many medical problems can cause chest pain, and before the chest pain can be adequately treated, the actual underlying cause needs to be identified. The following is a list of the more common causes of chest pain, roughly in order of the frequency in which they are seen in the emergency room.

4. Heart attack. A heart attack can cause pressure, fullness or a crushing pain in your chest that lasts more than a few minutes.

5. Pericarditis. Inflammation of the sac surrounding your heart (pericarditis) causes sharp, piercing and centralized chest pain. You may also have a fever and feel sick.

6. A broken rib can be quite painful, especially when you cough or try to take a deep breath.

7. A blood clot in the lung (pulmonary embolism), which usually causes deep chest pain with the rapid development of extreme shortness of breath.

Treatment of Chest Pain

Taking care of yourself at home
If your doctor has ruled out serious causes of chest pain, it is likely you will make a full recovery. General self-care suggestions include:

* Follow your doctor’s advice about treatment.
* In the first few days at home, try to take it easy.
* Rest if you feel tired.

Standard treatment begins with coronary angiogram to determine the presence of disease and medication therapy. As disease severity progresses, treatment moves to interventional strategies, such as stents or coronary artery bypass surgery. The majority of patients with coronary artery disease achieve excellent results with these standard therapies.

Know the Symptoms of Cold and Cough

Colds with or without cough usually are caused by a virus. Antibiotics are not effective against viruses. Colds cannot be cured, but cold symptoms can be treated with over-the-counter medications.

Colds are most contagious during the first 2 to 4 days after symptoms appear, and may be contagious for up to 3 weeks. Your can catch a cold from person-to-person contact or by breathing in virus particles that are spread through the air by sneezing or coughing. Touching the mouth or nose after touching skin or another surface contaminated with a rhinovirus can also spread a cold.

Acetaminophen is less likely to upset your stomach than other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen which are used to relieve aches and pains. However, studies have shown that acetaminophen, aspirin or any other NSAID may worsen asthma and/or peptic ulcers. Aspirin should not be used in children under eighteen years old because it may play a role in causing Reye Syndrome, a rare but severe liver and central nervous system condition. Be sure to discuss all medication choices with your doctor.

A person who is going to cough first draws a deep breath in. This action causes his glottis to close and his muscles to contract, thus building up pressure in the chest. Then suddenly, the glottis opens, an explosive discharge of air sweeps through the air passages and carries with it the excess secretions or, in some cases, foreign matter, which has irritated the larynx, trachea, or bronchi.

Improper use of this medication (abuse) may result in serious harm (e.g., brain damage, seizure, death). Do not increase your dose or take this medication more often than recommended by your doctor or the package instructions without your doctor’s approval.

Flu symptoms are quite similar to cold symptoms; it’s often hard to tell the difference. But there is one clue about flu that can help you know. When you have the flu, you feel flu symptoms sooner than you would cold symptoms, and they come on with much greater intensity. You may feel very weak and fatigued for up to 2 or 3 weeks. You’ll have muscle aches and periods of chills and sweats as fever comes and goes. You may also have a stuffy or runny nose, headache, and sore throat.

Cold or say common cold happens for three to four days and goes back with time. But allergic cold comes more often say every three to four weeks with same time period and symptoms and stay for longer. Better will be ask your health care provider about whether you are suffering from just common cold or allergic cold and cure for the same.

In fact many medical specialists now say that children in particular shouldn’t be given cough medicines, especially with cough suppressants, because they can have potentially dangerous side effects such as drowsiness, balance problems and chest infections in asthmatics. Other ingredients such as antihistamines can cause coughs and decongestants such as pseudoephedrine might cause irritability, sleeplessness and problems with muscle tone.

If your symptoms are bearable, you’re probably better off saving your money and treating your cold or flu the old-fashioned way — by drinking plenty of fluids, resting if possible, and seeing your doctor if your symptoms don’t go away after a few days, or if they get worse.