Risk factors of stroke disease: Cigarette smoking

Risk factors for stroke have been classified as ‘non-modifiable’ or ‘modifiable’ (Goldstein et al 2001).  Modifiable risk factors are those factors that can be managed or treated and include high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, atrial fibrillation and hyperlipidaemia (an inherited blood disorder associated with high serum cholesterol) (Wolf and D’Agostino 1993).  Non-modifiable risk factors include age, gender, race and ethnicity and family history (Gillum 1998; Gorelick 1998). 

Studies have shown that stroke incidence in the USA is higher in blacks than in whites (Gorelick 1998; Howard et al 1994).  In a study investigating risk factors in stroke, Gillum (1999) found that blacks had a 38 per cent greater incidence of strokes than whites.  This may be because the incidence of high blood pressure, obesity and diabetes mellitus is higher in the black population than the white population (Gillum 1999).

Cigarette smoking  Several studies  have shown that cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for stroke (Shaper et al 1991; Wannamethee et al 1995; Wishant, 1997)  In a population of 7,735 British men monitored for eight years, cigarette smoking was found to be associated with a risk of having a stroke (Shaper et al 1991).  Shinton and Beevers (1989) found that cigarette smoking increased the risk of cerebral infarction among smokers compared to non-smokers.  However, the risk of stroke disappeared two to four years after stopping smoking  (Kawachi, Colditz and Stampfer 1993).  In the only study in Saudi Arabia, El Sayed et al (1999) found that 1.8 per cent of stroke survivors who been admitted to hospital were smokers, although these results should be carefully interpreted because there were no comparisons between smokers and non-smokers.

Smoking After A Heart Attack – What Are The Consequences?

If you are a smoker, one of the first things that your doctor would advise you to do after you have a heart attack is to stop smoking. Do not take this advice lightly. This is one recommendation that would save your life if you follow it; or kill you if you do not. There are plenty of reports that tie smoking to deaths by heart attack; there is no doubt about this – smoking after heart attack means death.

Smoking Kills – In More Ways Than One

You would associate smoking with lung cancer, which is a fact. However, it is also a fact that smoking is one of the major factors that cause heart attacks. As a smoker, you are primarily exposed to the risk of cancer of the throat and the lungs. However, a lot of people lead a cancer free life, but develop heart diseases.

Smoking steals oxygen from the tissues and cells. As a result, regeneration of cells does not take place in the manner that it should. This is why people who smoke have translucent looking skin, early wrinkles, and scrawny hands. They age earlier as smoking halves the capacity of the muscles to work, and prevents the immune system from fighting against free radicals and infections. Smoking literally smothers the body by squeezing the flow of oxygen from the cells.

Smoking And The Heart

Smoking narrows the arteries in your body and promotes the building and rupturing of plaque. This makes you a prime candidate for heart disease. When it comes to survivors of a first heart attack, smoking means sure death. There are no two ways about this. An MI usually results in the death and/or damage of a portion of the muscles of the heart. This interferes to some extent with its optimal functioning.

When you smoke following a heart attack, you prevent healing of the damaged muscle(s) and at the same time starve it of oxygen. The result is that the heart would overwork itself and cause a repeat MI, which often would be very serious if not fatal.

What If You Cannot Quit Smoking?

In that case, you need to learn – as soon as possible – how to draw a legal binding will. It is imperative that you do not die intestate, as this would add further stress to your family after your death – and this would be anytime from months to years following the first heart attack. It would also be good if you plan and allot funds for your funeral ceremony.
I am not being morbid. Smoking after a heart attack is a sure method to invite death early. This is one point on which all doctors agree upon; smoking affects the heart and is a primary and major factor that leads to heart attack.

The Good News

Quitting smoking cuts the risk of death by repeat heart attacks by 82%, which is a whooping figure under any circumstances. What would you want? Give up smoking and live a long and a quality life; or continue to smoke and end up in an early grave.

The choice is of course, yours.

For more information on this and other subjects on heart attack and heart health products, go to http://www.heartattackprofessor.com

Risk Factors for Heart Disease can be Controlled

Many of the risk factors for heart disease are related to lifestyle and environmental factors and are typically labeled uncontrollable (non-modifiable) or controllable (modifiable). These can be conditions, personal traits and lifestyles that contribute to atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), which causes coronary artery disease.

The seriousness of this disease can be seen in the fact that over 40% of all people in the United States who suffer a heart attack will die from its affects.

Heart disease, which is a term that includes several more specific heart conditions, is the leading cause of death in the United States and is a major cause of disability. The major forms of this most deadly of diseases include acute rheumatic fever, chronic rheumatic heart disease, hypertensive heart disease, coronary heart disease, pulmonary heart disease, congestive heart failure and any other heart condition or disease.

It is, in simplistic terms, the inability of the heart to pump or receive adequate amounts of blood due to atherosclerosis or damage to the heart caused by infection or congenital defects. In fact heart disease and stroke both have the same risk factors and causes.

An estimated 25% of all Americans have one or more risk factors for heart disease, increasing their risk for heart attack.  Most risk factors are related to lifestyle while other risk factors that cannot be changed include age, gender, and genetics.

Health behaviors associated with a high risk of heart disease include being physically inactive, eating a diet high in salt and saturated fat, and smoking tobacco.  While you can’t control your age, gender, race, or family history, you can decrease your chances of developing heart disease by focusing on the lifestyle changes you can make to improve your overall health.

Leading a healthy lifestyle and following medical advice to reduce or remove risk factors is the best way to reduce the risk of developing heart disease.  Although heart disease takes on different specific forms, there are a common core of risk factors that influence whether someone will ultimately be at risk for heart disease or not.

There are many factors that can increase your risk of getting heart disease.  Some of these factors are out of your control but most of them can be avoided by choosing to live a healthy lifestyle. Excess body fat is one of the greatest risk factors for heart disease.  Cholesterol levels are determined by a combination of age, gender, heredity, and dietary choices, and of these four factors, changing your diet to a healthier one is something you can do something about.  High blood pressure combined with other risk factors such as being physically inactive, eating a diet high in salt and saturated fat, and smoking tobacco greatly increases your chances of getting heart disease as well.  In some cases other factors such as stress and drinking too much alcohol have been linked to cardiovascular disease.

Fortunately, many risk factors for heart disease are caused in part by unhealthy lifestyle habits, which can be altered so as to reduce one’s chances of developing heart disease.

Tuberculosis Remains Deadly After The Discovery Of Effective Treatment

Wilhelm Röntgen discovered the X-ray machine in 1895 after German doctor Robert Koch identified bacilli as the cause of TB in 1882. The said machine makes possible men in lab coats and medical scrubs to scan the lungs of the living persons for signs of tubercular lesions. In 1921, BCG or Bacillus Calmette-Guérin, the potent vaccine against TB, was discovered by French scientists. Within a short span of just 6 months of treatment, an infected person can be totally free from tuberculosis. But the malady seemed all too smart to easily be knocked off.

Tuberculosis became even more dreadful in the mid 1980s, and the progress prompted the World Health Organization to declare the disease a global emergency. And in 1995, TB claimed more lives. At present, one-third of the world population is suffering from tuberculosis, and every second someone is newly infected. In 2009, in United States alone, 11,540 cases were reported. There was a considerably big drop of in this number. From 4.2% in every 100,000, there’s been a drop of down to 3.8%. However, thousands still die from this disease despite the discovery of effective treatment many years ago.

Over the past hundred years, TB was successful in sending 200 million to grave. The MDR or multi-drug resistant and XDR or extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis killed 150,000 in 2008. Sadly, even the developed lands were unable to totally rule out this deadly disease. In a region of the developed Russian country, more than half of the cases are drug-resistant. There are places that were effective in fighting off tuberculosis like Peru, Hong Kong and New York City.

Governments and health organizations remain optimistic in winning over tuberculosis, and this year’s celebration of the World TB Day is aimed to raise awareness regarding this global epidemic so as everyone would have part in purging the disease. WHO continues to promote DOTS, which stands for Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course.

Aside from the disease itself, there’s also a need to combat the different aspects that lead to failure of stopping tuberculosis namely deteriorated TB-control programs, incapacity to buy medication, malnourishment, and crowded living conditions. The HIV AIDS epidemic has also helped fuel the spread of TB. And of course, there has to be an effective way to counter the drug-resistant TB strains as they are far more contagious than the common strains.

9 Home Remedies For Stop Your Hair Loss Fast

There are various hair loss treatments available in the market. It can be treated using chemical based medications or using hair transplantation mechanism. However, the later one is not accepted by every one due to its radical character. Most home remedies to treat hair loss in the market today could easily treat excessive hair fall. But still there are a lot of alternative methods that could help you treat your hair thinning naturally.

1. For preventing hair loss, caused by dandruff, use rosemary oil. Regular use of rosemary oil can significantly reduce dandruff to ensure healthy growth of hair.

2. This natural hair loss remedy is well-respected in herbal study since ages because of its ability to stimulate the hair follicles, hence to promote hair growth. It is also useful for preventing hair to become thinner. It is rich with fatty acid, so it also helps preventing premature hair loss and premature baldness.

3. Smooth the paste onto your skin where you wish to remove hair. It should cover the area completely. Allow the paste to dry to the point where it cracks before you move on.

4. Using Red Henna like the uncooked egg yolk is another natural way to prevent further hair loss. Just apply Red Henna on the scalp for about half an hour. You don’t have to worry if you see your hair turn red, this will be washed off.

5. Aloe vera is one of the most commonly used and effective hair growth natural remedies. Massage the scalp and hair with aloe vera gel and leave for about half an hour, before rinsing with water. For best results, use twice or thrice a week.

6. It has the ability to increase the growth of the hair up to 50%. It also enhances blood circulation on the scalp. It releases histamine that effectively stimulates cell division. Hence, it also augments hair follicles as well as it promotes new growth of hair.

7. I’m sure you have olive oil in your home kitchen. After washing your hair, apply it and it will revitalize your hair strands and help it recover from dullness.

8. Use castor oil, if you are experiencing hair thinning. You can use it alone, or mix it with almond oil to massage the scalp to stimulate hair growth.

9. We all know that dandruff is of the major causes for hair fall. Rosemary, the valuable natural hair loss remedy, helps fighting against dandruffs. If used regularly on the scalp, it lowers the possibility of having dandruff by 80%. The circulatory movement of rosemary also removes sebum accumulation on the scalp. Rosemary is thus really effective care for fighting against your hair loss.

Older women, uterine fibroids need treatment

Uterine fibroids are the most common female genital cancer. According to the survey: 35 women over the age of about 20% of uterine fibroids.

Uterine fibroid is a benign tumor growing in any part of the uterus, the smooth muscle and fibrous connective tissue. As women enter old age, lower levels of estrogen, fibroids can be gradually shrinking. However, postmenopausal patients with fibroids are often late. Women near menopause, such as fibroids is not great, normal menstruation, no compression symptoms can check once every 2-3 months, and gradually shrinking fibroids with menopause.

But there will be a small part of the fibroids malignant, more common in older age, when there should be alert to the following conditions, timely treatment, so early detection, early diagnosis and early treatment:

–Fibroids cause heavy bleeding, or long-term as excessive, resulting in excessive menstrual anemia, and drugs can not cure.

–Fibroids grow to the size of a fist, the other organs in the pelvis caused by oppression, relieve symptoms require surgery, and the deterioration of large chance of fibroids larger than small fibroids.

–Fibroids grow too fast, or after menopause, not only did not shrink fibroids, but larger.

— Fibroids grow larger and faster, especially after menopause or menopause or the rapid growth of fibroids after menopause bleeding.

The treatment of uterine fibroids , with the continuous development of medicine, modern gynecology for more than minimally invasive surgery of uterine fibroids treatment, less pain, faster recovery of the older age!

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The Circumstances That Lead to Upper Back Pain Lungs

Upper Back Pain Lungs are important to note. There is nothing worse than back pain. Neither could you do your daily activities nor could you enjoy the rest if you are facing the back pain problem. There is no immediate relief as it takes time to heal the cause of back pain. Back pain felt in upper back is sometimes accompanied with chest pain or lungs pain.

A lung is an organ which performs the work of inhalation and exhalation of oxygen. It takes into air with oxygen and exhales the carbon dioxide. It is very important function. Any respiratory disease will affect the lungs. Lungs are situated near heart within the rib cage.

The lungs will be affected by pneumonia. There is inflammation of lungs in pneumonia. It causes back pain. These symptoms need immediate attention from doctors. Back pain in many lung diseases is common. If the person is smoking for many years then the lung diseases like pneumonia and tuberculosis are risks to his life. He experiences the back with these diseases.

Even the lungs cancer patients do complain about the upper back pain. Upper back pain lungs are experienced with some serious diseases. There are some remedies for such back pain. You need to be very positive about the recovery from the back pain. Only medication is not sufficient for the successful recovery from the upper back pain lungs.

The symptoms appear when you have a cough. If you try to breathe deeply then you might get pain which is present in back as well as in lungs. Some patients have medical history of back pain with their family.

The upper back pain lungs may be chronic; it should be treated with the conservative methods like hot and ice applications, massage therapy, chiropractic theory, physical theory. The medications should be minimal as the patient must be on other medication for the main disease of pneumonia, tuberculosis, asthma.

The simple exercises will help the patient rather the medication because it may have adverse effect on patients’ body. The upper back lungs pain is persistently present with the patient of lungs cancer. They are advised to try the acupuncture theory. Even hypnotherapy can be used for such patients to prepare their positive attitude towards treatment

Upper back pain lungs should not be confused with the chest pain. Chest pain may be symptom of other problems. Upper back pain lungs may also happen because of sudden injury in car accidents or falling on floor. Such pains are unbearable but the medications used will give relief to patient for temporary time.

Over the longer period this pain will be removed completely with the good treatment. Smoking should be avoided to prevent the upper back pain lungs.

Upper back pain lungs are diagnosed by the X ray, MRI and scan. Symptoms of other problems are also studied before deciding the treatment for upper back pain lungs.

Though there are many improvements in the medical field, little has changed about the back pain. You have to bear what you could not cure. Mostly the problems of back pain are solved after many days treatment. Its recurrence should be avoided by doing every day exercises.

Possible Reasons For Left Side And Breast Pain

Pain in the left side of the body can be a sign of inflammation in one of the organ located there. While we think about pain in one’s breast of woman, the disease of breast cancer comes to mind, it does not choose the side it grows on. If pain is felt in the left side of the breast, it may be signify something else other than cancer.

The left side of the body has organs such as the lower end of the heart, the left lung, the stomach, part of the liver, the pancreas, the adrenal glands, spleen, parts of small and large intestines, left kidney and left side of reproductive organs, which are the left ovary and the left fallopian tube with part of the uterus in women and left testicle in men.

Pain in the left side will never point to appendicitis unless a person has situs inversus totalis. It means that it could be inflammation of the stomach, left lung, spleen, left kidney, ovary or the left side of the intestines.

Lower end of the heart is located on the left side of our chest. The heart beats making a diastolic pressure pumping blood from the lowest part. This is the reason; heart beat is always sensed on the left breast. Acid reflux is one cause feeling pain in the left breast, it most known as heartburn. It gives a painful burning sensation in the esophagus which is just below our breastbone. This burning sensation can rise upwards to the throat, neck or jaw. A major symptom of gastroesophageal reflux disease is heartburn. Acid reflux is also identified as one of the causes of chronic cough and may even imitate asthma.

Pain in the left side of the body can be because of pancreatitis, stomach ulcer or ovulation pain. Pancreatitis is a common health problem having two types which are acute and chronic. In acute pancreatitis, the pain is sharp, short-lived and mostly severe. The pain can spread to the back or below the left shoulder blade. It is mainly caused by alcoholism, gallstones and gallbladder disease. On the other hand, chronic pancreatitis is a result of extended alcohol abuse.

Heartburn does not affect the heart in any way despite its name. This name is given because of the reason that the burning sensation is felt more intensely right where the heart should be. However, this pain is just referred from the actual location which is at the entrance to the stomach. Alternative treatments of heartburn do not require intake of drugs or restrictive diet but raising one’s sleeping bed at a slight angle so that the head is raised slightly higher than the feet. This angle prevents gastric acid from rising into the esophagus and causing the pain.

Pain in the left side can also be a sign of stomach ulcer. The stomach may have a hole in the lining of or the duodenum. Usual common symptoms of peptic ulcer are severe burning pain and discomfort in the abdominal area, nausea, vomiting food or blood and belching. Gastric ulcer creates pain that is usually experienced shortly after meals, while in duodenal ulcer gives pain that is experienced between meals or when the stomach is empty. The pain decreases by taking antacids. Pain is generated from the ovulation of women when they do it once a month. This pain is called ovulation pain and it is a lower-abdominal pain. If pain increases then it is always better to go to the doctor and have a complete check-up.

Upper Left Side Back Pain—Causes and Treatment

backpain-woman-couch.jpgUpper left side back pain, also called middle back pain, thoracic pain or left upper back pain occurs between the base of the neck and the upper part of the lumbar spine. The most pain prone area in the upper back comprises the trapezius, the triangular shaped muscles as well as the shoulder blades.

The reason that it is also called thoracic pain is that the upper part of the spine is connected with the thoracic or chest area.


1. In most cases, the upper left side back pain occurs due to the wear and tear of the muscles in the back.

2. Sometimes a nerve in the neck or thoracic part of the spine gets pinched due to   bulging disc or arthritis.

3. The vertebrae get afflicted with osteoporosis or weakening of the bones. It becomes so weak that it cannot withstand the weight of the spine itself.

4. Injuries due to accidents or falls may also cause severe pain in the upper back muscles.

5. Overuse of the muscles of the upper back and poor postures can cause strain in the joints and ligaments. Painters, who have to work in awkward postures such as while painting the ceiling, often suffer from upper back pain.

6. Women with large breasts sometimes have to strain to stand straight. This may also cause pain the upper back.

7. Heart problem may also indicate itself by causing pain in the upper back area of the neck.


In most cases the pain may be caused due to some mechanical problem in your back such as strain, overwork or wrong posture. Here are some of the steps you may take to get relief from the upper left side back pain at the initial stage.

1. Massage: Do a deep massage over the afflicted area for a minute or two every hour. Just rub the tender spot by extending your hand across the opposite shoulder.

2. Knead: Knead the trapezius muscles gently like a cat kneads with its paws. Do it yourself or get your friend of spouse to do that.

3. Use elbow: You may ask your friend to gently press the tender area with the point of his elbow for a few seconds at a time and repeat it a few times. Pressure upon a point temporarily stops the supply of blood followed by a sudden flow of oxygen carrying blood. This relaxes the muscles.

4. Correct posture:  A wrong posture often weakens and damages the muscles that support the weight of the back. Always be careful of your posture while sitting, standing, sleeping, walking or working.

5. Sports bra: Women with large breasts should try wearing sports bra which provides better support to the shoulders and neck.

Are you suffering from upper left side back pain?  It does not matter that you have suffered from it for 10, 15 or even 30 years. You would be completely cured in just 21 days even if you are a lost case. Click Here Right Now    to learn more about how you can get fast and permanent relief from your back pain.

Infant Bronchitis – Everything Parents Need To Know

Parents can sacrifice all their lives for children, hen when their child is unwell how can they have a sound sleep?

When the child is persistently coughing & breathing with difficulty, you might be thinking that this no ordinary cough or cold. Well, check with your pediatrician as your baby might be suffering from Bronchiolitis.

Bronchitis commonly occurs in the adults. In this disorder the large airways in our body get inflamed. Bronchiolitis refers to the infants with their airways inflamed between their chest & the lungs. This term is coined from the word bronchioles, a part of the bronchi of the infants that is naturally smaller than that of an adult. Therefore the infections in this case are easily plugged & viruses enter very easily.

When is your child at risk?

1. At the age of 6 months, the baby becomes prone to develop bronchiolitis. Until the baby becomes 2 years old, this tendency is far too much.

2. The infants are rather more susceptible to this ailment during the winters and the early period of spring season.

3. The babies exposed to cigarettes & belch smokes also bare a high risk of catching up the said illness.

4. For infants, even the crowded environments cause the symptoms of bronchiolitis.

5. Male infants are at a higher risk to acquire bronchiolitis than the females.

6. During the first 6 months, the male infants that are formula-fed become more likely to acquire this ailment as compared to those who are breast-fed.

What are the causes of bronchiolitis?

Respiratory Syncytial Virus or RSV is the key cause of bronchiolitis among the infants. The researchers have proved that RSV causes major ailments among young children, mostly the infants.

The other viruses that lead to bronchilitis are as follows:

1. Parainfluenza Virus

This sort of virus most oft brings the pediatric respiratory infections in the infants.

2. Mycoplasma

This sort of virus is a crucial cause of pneumonia & several other disorders linked to the respiratory system.

3. Adenoviruses

This virus commonly causes ailments like conjunctivitis and several others related to the respiratory system.

4. Influenza Virus

This sort of virus enters the human body’s respiratory tract and leads to the individuals suffering with cold, cough & some extent bronchitis.

What are the symptoms?

1. The baby begins to have a runny & stuffy nose along with meek cough. This is the key symptom of bronchiolitis among infants.

2. Next the child would suffer from varied breathing difficulties, that is both in the inhaling and exhaling part.

3. Just in a day or 2, the baby would have increased breathing difficulty along with rapid wheezing & cough. By this time, you must get aware as the heartbeats would have become very unusually fast.

4. While all the above symptoms are a must, they are often accompanied with the others like fever and/or cooler body temperature & reduced appetite.

How can the medical experts diagnose bronchiolitis?

In case you observe the above given symptoms in your infant, you must check with a pediatrician as soon as possible. The pediatrician would first check the baby’s medical history and then assess the baby with some physical examination. Further the doctor would order for some further tests that must be taken very seriously. These tests are as follows:

1. Pulsoximeter
2. Chest x-ray

What are the treatments recommended?

1. The child can be temporarily relieved with the first-aid.

2. Next you must give your child lot of non-caffeinated fluids. This would control the dehydration in the child.

3. You can opt to make use of the humidifiers and/or saline nose drops. These would help mucus to lighten out very quickly.

4. At times, the medical experts recommend that the parents and/or caregivers should bring their infant to a hospital so as to get them well-supervised care such as giving the fluids & oxygen as & when needed and giving the right humidified atmosphere. One very important thing in this case would be that the child would get proper medical care.

Is bronchiolitis preventable?

Once your child is saved from a bronchiolitis attack, you must not risk him/her with another episode of the ailment. So, you must undertake the preventive measures that are as follows:

1. While the dicey seasons for the infant like winters and early spring season, make sure to keep your child away from persons suffering with cough, cold and flu.

2. Make sure that as a parent and/or a caregiver, you must wash your hands every time before handling the infant.

3. In case you cough or sneeze, you must use a tissue or a handkerchief to cover your mouth well enough.

In case you are likely to become ill, request someone to take over your responsibility for a few days

Shoulder Strengthening Exercises – Everyone should do them

One thing I have learnt is that if you don’t look after your shoulders, sooner or later they are going to let you down.  It’s not their fault; they’re just a dodgy design.  In the designer’s defence, the specification was quite demanding.

“We want a joint that can turn 360 degrees in any direction; we want to be able to wave our arms about, throw things as far as we can, lift heavy objects, swing from our arms from side to side, do hand stands occasionally, hang from our arms when climbing, oh yes, and I would quite like to be able to reach behind me without difficulty.”

And just to make the design even more demanding, I would like this joint to be low maintenance as well!

Which is where most of us go wrong!  Your shoulder joint is not low maintenance.  If you put that many demands on a joint you need to look after it.  So what does looking after a shoulder joint involve?

Exercise! Whether you are using your shoulders for sport or just normal day to day activity the best way to keep them healthy is exercise.  The part of your shoulder that you really need to focus on is your rotator cuff.  This is a group of four small muscles that help hold your shoulder in place and also help with that all important rotating movement that we enjoy; hence the name.

These four muscles form a cuff around the shoulder pulling the humerus (upper arm bone) into the socket of the shoulder joint.  They are the key to healthy shoulders; they take the strain whenever we lift something, they pull the shoulder together, stopping it from getting dislocated whenever we put it under load.

They are also the part of the shoulder that is most at risk of injury and an injury to the rotator cuff can be devastating, putting you out of action for several months. 

Interestingly, if you damage a rotator cuff, the therapy will involve virtually the same shoulder therapy exercises that would have prevented the injury in the first place.  These aren’t difficult muscles to exercise, you don’t need to join a gym and start pumping weights, these are small muscles and gentle exercise is all they need to stay in shape and keep your shoulders healthy.

By focusing on exercising the rotator cuff muscles you can also significantly strengthen your whole shoulder.  Weight lifters often find, for example, that they hit a plateau when it comes to training.  By exercising and strengthening the rotator cuff muscles specifically, some weight lifters have reported as much as a thirty per cent increase in overall performance.  Think of the rotator cuff as the weakest link in a chain; the chain being your shoulder.  If you strengthen the weakest link, you strengthen the chain.

So start shoulder strengthening exercises today.  Ten minutes a day, three or four times a week will wake up those muscles, make you stronger and stop you suffering the shoulder injury that affects nearly eight million Americans every year.

Physiotherapy – Management of Hip Replacement

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the commonest joint degeneration condition in the world, resulting in huge amounts of pain and suffering, work loss, expense and disability. Ageing of western developed populations, soon to be followed by some developing countries such as China, will place an increasing burden on medical services as the occurrence of OA rises steadily with age. There will be an increasing need to provide medical and physiotherapy treatment for OA over the next 50 years and for many thousands of people this will involve joint replacement. 

Medical interventions can be rated on a scale which calculates the improvement in quality of life which results and here hip replacement comes out top of all treatments. The 1960s saw its development into a standard treatment for hip arthritis but the 21st century has seen the technique evolve into a complex and predictable approach to many hip conditions, with excellent fifteen year plus results. Once conservative treatments have been exhausted due to a worsening joint then joint replacement becomes the standard choice.

Total hip replacement involves removal of the arthritic joint surfaces and their replacement with metal and plastic components. The top of the femur, the ball of the hip joint, is removed and the socket is reamed out to make it bigger to accept the new part. Cement is pressurized into the bony areas and a steel alloy femoral component with a ball and stem is inserted down the femur and a plastic cup of ultra high density polyethylene into the socket. The metal-plastic interface allows very low friction and wear, ensuring a long life for the joint.

On return from operation the physiotherapist will check the patient’s operative record, medical observations and assess the patient. Initial physio treatment consists of checking respiratory status and the muscle power and feeling in the legs to exclude nerve injury. Exercises are given to restore normal movement although an epidural can cause loss of movement in the legs and delay progress. The physiotherapist will then mobilise the patient with an assistant, taking care of the hip precautions, stand them up and walk them a short distance with elbow crutches or a frame.

Toes, ankles, quadriceps, hip flexion and buttock exercises continue to restore normal muscle activity to the legs and maintain the circulation. Routine painkillers should be taken as this helps patients get up and about and once safe they can get up three times a day or more with a helper to walk, toilet and wash. Usual precautions are taken and when sat out the chair must be the correct height and normally patients do not put their feet up whilst sitting.

After hip replacement patients require instruction and correction to achieve a normal walking pattern, develop muscular power and improved function. Physiotherapists teach the appropriate gait at the time, often starting with “step to” where the patient moves the walking aid, steps the operated leg forwards and steps up to it with the other leg, a stable and safe pattern. Progression is to ‘step through” where the unaffected leg steps beyond the other in an approximation of a normal walking pattern. Patients often progress naturally then to a gait where they move both the crutches and the affected leg forward at the same time and start to walk in a fully natural pattern.

Once they return for their follow up appointment at six weeks after operation patients have often achieved a good gait, reasonable hip strength and returned to some activities of daily living. The physio may advise a stick if they are unsteady, slow or older, and they can gradually regain their previous abilities provided they observe the precautions to prevent hip dislocation:  Avoid hip flexion over 90 degrees by not sitting down in low seating, not sitting down or standing up too quickly, not bending over to the floor quickly and not crouching.  Weight bearing on the leg and rotating the body weight is unwise.  Get medical advice if an infection develops e.g. in the bladder, chest or teeth, as this can transfer to an artificial joint.  Avoid crossed legs in sitting.

Different Types of Bone Fractures

A particular form of vibration machine is vibration training, which is becoming increasingly popular. Initially, vibration training was mainly used in the fitness industry, but the use of vibration machine using latest techniques is expanding quickly. Now days it is widely used in physical therapy, rehabilitation and professional sports. Besides it is also increasingly use for beauty and wellness applications.

One of the most interesting statements I came across during researching this article was – to paraphrase – the popularity of antidepressants may be a triumph of marketing over science. Why is that? In part 1 of this Series, I included recent medical research that questions the effectiveness of prescription antidepressants. Now we are increasingly realizing that these drugs also may come with serious side effects.

Neglect consists of withholding food, protection, shelter or health care to a vulnerable elder. According to the National Center on Elder Abuse, more than 550,000 persons, older than 60 years of age, experience abuse and neglect in domestic settings. Neglect might directly cause poor health due to dehydration or malnutrition or it might lead to delays in medical care or might even involve noncompliance with a prescription or health plan.

Using plates, wires and screws to fix fractures was introduced in the 1880s and 1890s but there were difficulties with design of the implants, infection, metal allergies and an inadequate knowledge of the background fracture healing biology. The 1950s saw a more advanced development of the principles and techniques of the fixation of bone fractures and modern scientific research has promoted the modern assessment, fixation and management of bone fractures.

A ligament is made up of multiple strands of tissue – similar to a nylon rope. A sprain results in tearing of the ligaments. The tear can be a complete tear of all the strands of the ligament or a partial tear, where a portion of the strands of the ligament are torn. The ligament is weakened by the injury – how much depends on the degree of the tear.

Elemental calcium is the amount of calcium that is available to actually work in the body. Study your daily diet and see if you can and should increase your calcium intake through the food you eat. Generally, the best elemental calcium-rich foods are the nonfat or low-fat dairy products, and nondairy food like green, leafy vegetables, salmon, sardines, and soy products like tofu.

It is a crucial part of a healthy diet. If any defects exist, it can affect the formation of bones and teeth or kidney stones if over retention occurs. Natural sources of food based calcium come from milk, cheese, seaweed, nuts and seeds, beans, oranges, orange juice and Soya milk.

German researchers have now demonstrated that a baseline amount of beta-interferon must be active in order for competent immune recognition and response to any viral invader, which of course includes the swine flu (H1N1). One of the many immune roles of vitamin C is to enhance the production of beta-interferon.

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Know the Signs of Cerebral Palsy

Every parent should know the signs of cerebral palsy. Of course, not every child will have the condition. Those who do also cannot be cured of the disorder. Detecting the condition however, could lead to early therapy and treatment. Having the condition treated early can help improve a child’s ability to cope with life’s challenges.

Waiting for Signs

Cerebral palsy signs aren’t the same for every child. This is because there are various types of the disorder. The signs and symptoms also therefore tend to differ. The time when the first visible signs appear also varies per individual. Some infants may show signs in the first few weeks or months of birth. There are others however, who may only show indications of the disorder after a couple of years. Whether the signs appear early or late, one thing is certain, parents are often the first ones to notice them. It is therefore crucial that parents be vigilant and observant.

Developmental Signs

There are many possible signs of cerebral palsy. The most telling signs however are delays in the natural motor progress of the child. This means that a child with cerebral palsy may not be able to walk, crawl, grasp, sit or smile on the ages which he normally should. Be careful though. Not every delayed child has cerebral palsy. That is why observations of motor abilities are always paired with other diagnostic factors.

In general, there are specific motors skills that develop on certain months after birth. From 3-6 months, a child should gradually be able to gain control of its neck. He will also learn to crawl and sit with some assistance. By the age of 1, a child will begin to stand on his own, walk with some help and grasp objects with his hands. By the age of two, a child should be able to walk by himself, pick toys, pull and push and seat himself.

A child who is unable to accomplish these developmental tasks may be showing signs of cerebral palsy. Add to this the appearance of other possible signs and symptoms such as scissors gait, tremors, drooling, lack of movement coordination and lack of balance.

Muscle Tone

Aside from developmental clues, a child’s muscle tone should also be checked. A baby with the disorder could have very soft or floppy muscles or very rigid ones. It is possible that babies may initially have floppy muscles that become rigid. If you are not sure about the right feel of infant muscle tone, you have to ask your child’s pediatrician.


Doctors also check reflexes aside from muscle tone. There are certain primitive reflexes that should only be present in infants. Their presence in older babies and children could be signs of cerebral palsy. One common example is the Moro reflex. A baby on its back with the legs tilted up would raise its arms in a seeming embrace. This reflex disappears after six months or so. Those who retain this reflex should be checked further for cerebral palsy.

There is no reason to believe that you should watch for signs of cerebral palsy. Your child may never have the condition at all. It still pays however, to be extra watchful and prepared for any eventualities.

Quadriplegia -causes, Symptoms, Treatment

Causes of Quadriplegia

Cervical (neck) injuries usually result in four limb paralysis. This is referred to as Tetraplegia or Quadriplegia. Injuries above the C-4 level may require a ventilator or electrical implant for the person to breathe. This is because the diaphragm is controlled by spinal nerves exiting at the upper level of the neck. Refers to paralysis from approximately the shoulders down. Most spinal cord injuries result in loss of sensation and function below the level of injury, including loss of controlled function of the bladder and bowel.

Quadriplegia is a type of cerebral palsy in which all four limbs are affected.  It is usually accompanied by more severe symptoms of nerve damage interfering with normal muscle movement than the other types. 

Causes of Quadriplegia
You may be paralyzed because you were in a car or sports accident that broke your neck. Having a tumor or other diseases in your spinal canal can also cause quadriplegia. It may be possible for the nerves to start working again if your spinal cord is just bruised or swollen.

It is caused by damage to the brain or the spinal cord at a high level – in particular spinal cord injuries secondary to an injury to the cervical spine. The injury, known as a lesion, causes victims to lose partial or total mobility of all four limbs, meaning the arms and the legs.Typical causes of this damage are trauma (such as an auto accident, gunshot wound, fall, or sports injury) or disease (such as transverse myelitis, polio, or spina bifida).

There are a variety of common causes for quadriplegia. Quadriplegia is often the result of traumatic injury to the spinal cord. Quadriplegia is the medical term used to define paralysis which affects the lower extremities, upper extremities, and most, or all, of the trunk from the neck down.

Signs and symptoms
The location of the injury. In general, injuries that are higher in your spinal cord produce more paralysis. For example, a spinal cord injury at the neck level may cause paralysis in both arms and legs and make it impossible to breathe without a respirator, while a lower injury may affect only your legs and lower parts of your body.Symptoms of cerebral palsy can be as simple as having difficulty with fine motor tasks like writing or using scissors, or as profound as being unable to maintain balance or walk. Severely afflicted patients may have involuntary movements, such as uncontrollable hand motions and drooling

Treatment of Quadriplegia
Quadriplegia treatment is catered to the specific needs of each patient and often depends on the nature and severity of a person’s condition. Quadriplegia treatment generally addresses a patient’s loss of functioning and feeling in certain areas of the body, loss or impairments in organ functioning

In the meantime, spinal cord injury treatment focuses on preventing further injury and enabling people with a spinal cord injury to return to an active and productive life within the limits of their disability. This requires urgent emergency attention and ongoing care.Conservative treatment of pressure sores includes appropriate wound care, debridement of necrotic tissue, optimization of nutrition, release of pressure, and minimization of muscle spasticity to provide the patient with the best opportunity to heal by secondary intention. Stage 1 and 2 pressure sores are treated conservatively.