Ovarian Cystadenomas Are Considered A New Growth – A Form Of Ovarian Cyst

Ovarian cysts are one of the most common conditions that gynecologists and obstetricians deal with. However, being told that you have an ovarian cyst means different things to different women; there are several different common types of these abdominal masses.

An ovarian cystadenoma is just one of several ovarian cysts that many women experience. Unlike functional cysts, which occur as a normal part of a menstrual cycle, a ovarian cystadenoma is considered a new growth or neoplasm.

Different Types Of Ovarian Cystadenomas

An ovarian cystadenoma is categorized based upon the composition of the actual cyst mass. If the cyst is at least 2 inches in diameter and is filled with clear fluid, it is considered to be a serous cystadenoma. Women from the ages of 20 to 50 may be at risk for this type of ovarian cyst. However, it is more likely to occur in women who are in their 30s and 40s.

Serous cystadenomas are almost always benign, but there is some risk of cancer associated with the cyst. It is also possible that this mass will grow quite large, creating pressure on surrounding organs, as well as causing abdominal swelling and weight gain.

Another type of ovarian cystadenoma, the mucinous cystadenoma, is filled with thick, sticky fluid. These masses often grow to be quite large. They are usually not diagnosed until they are at least six inches in diameter; however, in some cases, they can grow to be extremely large, weighing upwards of 100 lbs!

Younger women suffer from mucinous cystadenomas at lower rates than older women; most cases occur in women between 30 and 50 years of age. This ovarian cystadenoma also brings the same risks as the serous type, including pressure on surrounding organs and possible malignancy.

Treatment for Ovarian Cystadenomas

Once ovarian cystadenomas are discovered, they rarely shrink or diminish on their own. Some cases can stabilize to the point where the cyst isn’t causing interference with normal function. Depending on the size and activity of the cyst, surgery may be recommended.

A small cystadenoma may be removed via laparoscopic surgical procedures. Large masses, however, usually require full abdominal surgery to successfully remove the cyst.

Prevention and Care

While there is really no good alternative treatment for an active ovarian cystadenoma, there is a lot that you can do to prevent developing this cyst in the first place.

Diet and lifestyle choices that are made in your younger years will directly contribute to your overall health, including in the reproductive system. Women who are overweight are at an increased risk of developing an ovarian cystadenoma.

In addition, eating processed foods, artificial preservatives and high-fat fast foods can also increase the chances of hormonal imbalance and all types of ovarian cysts.

Favoring a diet high in fruits and vegetables, quality proteins and lean dairy can ensure that you never have to suffer through a cystadenoma surgery. If you have a family history of ovarian cysts, extra caution is warranted to reduce your risks.

While there is always a place for medical intervention, natural care is often as effective. Doctors are becoming more aware that a person’s individual choices probably have the biggest impact on their overall health and well-being.

When it comes to an ovarian cystadenomas, adjusting your diet and lifestyle are big steps to reducing risk. There are supplements, herbs and holistic approaches that can assist your body in maintaining optimal reproductive function.

Esophageal Cancer Metastasis

The spread of the disease from one organ or part to another non-adjacent organ or part is called metastasis or metastatic disease. Previously it was that only malignant tumor cells had the capacity to metastasize which is now in reconsideration due to research. The word metastasis in Greek means “removal from one place to another” and the plural form of metastasis is given as metastases.

Metastases are given as the process through which the cancer spreads from the place it started as a primary tumor to other parts of the body distant from the affected area. For example, a person with melanoma may have metastases in their brain and another person with colon cancer may not show symptoms of metastases.

Cancerous cells have two abilities such as increased motility and invasiveness on which metastases depends. Cells that metastasize are basically of same kind and have acquired increased motility and capacity to invade other organs. If cancer arises in lungs and metastasizes to liver, the cancer cells present in the liver are lung cancer cells.

A clinical research was conducted on metastases. A 65 year old man was admitted with dysphagia and no pulmonary symptoms were noted in him. A barium swallow test marked constriction of the middle esophagus and also an esophageal stricture with apparently normal mucosa 35cm from the incisors. A 2staged operation was planned for the patient due to his past history of cerebral thrombosis with right hemiplegia. Then thoracotomy cervical esophagostomy was carried out in which a tumor mass measuring 3.0 X 3.0 cm was found at the base of the middle lobe of right lung.

Two months later, esophageal reconstruction with a gastric tube placed in subcutaneous space was performed. In lower lung field, a tumor shadow was found during the post operative period. The epithelial surface of the esophagus appeared smooth and was stained with Lugol’s solution. It was to provide evidence that mucosa was normal. But after histological examination, it was found that the tumor was in the muscle layer and infiltrating the submucosal and other deeper layers. The tumor was poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma as it was a metastatic lesion from a lung cancer, but no specimen of pulmonary tumor was obtained and the patient died 231 days after the surgery.

On the basis of research and findings in patients, an aggressive surgical approach is needed for metastatic esophageal carcinoma when the primary tumor growth is suspected to be slow. But the decision to resect these lesions should be made after evaluation which ensures clinical benefit to patients.

Oxaliplatin is one kind of drug belonging to 3rd generation of platinum and it plays an important role in treatment of cancer and tumors. Capecitabine has slighter side effect and can be taken orally in the gastro-intestinal tract. The investigators believed that Oxaliplatin combined with Capecitabine treatment provides a safe, well tolerated and effective treatment for patients with metastatic disease.

Natural Remedies:
There are certain natural remedies that offer a promising cure for esophageal cancer. Along with the natural remedies and a well-researched different diet pattern, a few simple adjustments to your lifestyle can make a huge difference to your efforts for prolonging the life for several years. You can increase your chances of surviving esophagus cancer now by trying these proven natural remedies discussed here

10 Simple and Natural Home Remedies for Pneumonia

Pneumonia is a common illness that refers to an infection of the lungs. It occurs in all age groups, and is a leading cause of death among children and elderly people in chronic conditions. The major symptoms of pneumonia are productive cough resulting in mucus, chest pains, fever, chills and breathing shortness.

Here, in this article you will find home remedies for pneumonia. These home remedies are simple, easy to prepare and easy to follow. You will get benefited from these home remedies if followed as instructed below. These remedies can be taken along with your medication to improve your health and give relief from pneumonia symptoms.

1. Turmeric has several medicinal properties and is widely used in treating a number of ailments. It also helps in treating pneumonia. Other herbs such as black pepper, fenugreek and ginger are also beneficial for your lungs. You can take these herbs in raw or cooked form.

2. Sesame seeds are also helpful in treating pneumonia. Add 15 grams of sesame seeds in 250 ml water. Add a pinch of common salt, a teaspoon of linseed, and a tablespoon of honey in this mixture. Consume daily to expel phlegm from the bronchial tubes.

3. Ginger is a popular home remedy for treating most of the respiratory disorders. Take 10 ml juice of the fresh ginger, or one or two grams dried ginger powder along with honey two times daily.

4. Add a teaspoon of honey to a glass of lukewarm water. Drink it two or three times a day. This drink has very soothing effect and relieves symptoms.

5. Mix some camphor with warm turpentine oil and apply it on the chest. Gently massage to get relief from pneumonia.

6. The patient should be kept in a clean, hot and healthy room. Make sure that sunshine enters in the patient room.

7. Try to keep the chest and the feet of the patient warmer than the other parts of the body.

8. Do not take foods that may lead to constipation. It may aggravate the condition.

9. To get relief from chest pain and discomfort, take a teaspoonful of garlic juice.

10. Holy basil is also very useful in pneumonia. Take the juice of few fresh leaves of holy basil. Add a pinch of ground black pepper to this juice and consume at six hourly intervals.

Disclaimer: The reader of this article should exercise all precautionary measures while following instructions on the pneumonia home remedies from this article. Avoid using any of these products or ingredients if you are allergic to it. The responsibility lies with the reader and not with the website or the writer.

Copyright © Ryan Mutt, All Rights Reserved. If you want to use this article on your website or in your ezine, make all the urls (links) active.

Chest pain

Chest pain is discomfort or pain that you feel anywhere along the front of your body between your neck and upper abdomen.

Chest pain is one of the most common reasons people call for emergency medical help. Every year emergency room doctors evaluate and treat millions of people for chest pain.

Fortunately, chest pain doesn’t always signal a heart attack. Often chest pain is unrelated to any heart problem. But even if the chest pain you experience has nothing to do with your cardiovascular system, the problem may still be important — and worth the time spent in an emergency room for evaluation.

Type of Causes

Cardiac causes
Digestive causes
Musculoskeletal causes
Respiratory causes
Other causes

# Panic attack. If you experience periods of intense fear accompanied by chest pain, rapid heartbeat, rapid breathing (hyperventilation), profuse sweating and shortness of breath, you may be experiencing a panic attack — a form of anxiety.

# Shingles. This infection of the nerves caused by the chickenpox virus can produce pain and a band of blisters from your back around to your chest wall.

# Cancer. Rarely, cancer involving the chest or cancer that has spread from another part of the body can cause chest pain.

* severe pressure, fullness, squeezing, pain and/or discomfort in the center of the chest that lasts for more than a few minutes
* pain or discomfort that spreads to the shoulders, neck, arms, or jaw
* chest pain that increases in intensity
* chest pain that is not relieved by rest or by taking nitroglycerin
* chest pain that occurs with any/all of the following (additional) symptoms:
o sweating, cool, clammy skin, and/or paleness
o shortness of breath
o nausea or vomiting
o dizziness or fainting
o unexplained weakness or fatigue
o rapid or irregular pulse

Although chest pain is the key warning sign of a heart attack, it may be confused with indigestion, pleurisy, pneumonia, or other disorders.

Seek Treatment if you experience

* Sudden crushing, squeezing, tightening, or pressure in your chest.
* Nausea, dizziness, sweating, a racing heart, or shortness of breath.
* They know they have angina and their chest discomfort is suddenly more intense, brought on by lighter activity, or lasts longer than usual.
* Angina symptoms occur at rest.
* They have sudden sharp chest pain with shortness of breath, especially after a long trip, a stretch of bedrest (for example, following an operation), or other lack of movement that can lead to formation of a blood clot in the leg.
* Chest-wall pain persists for longer than 3 to 5 days.

A person’s risk of heart attack is higher if they have a family history of heart disease, smoke or use cocaine, have high cholesterol, high blood pressure, or diabetes.


Make healthy lifestyle choices to prevent chest pain from heart disease:

* Achieve and maintain normal weight.
* Control high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes.
* Avoid cigarette smoking and secondhand smoke.
* Eat a diet low in saturated and hydrogenated fats and cholesterol, and high in starches, fiber, fruits, and vegetables.
* Get at least 30 minutes of moderate intensity exercise on most days of the week.
* Reduce stress.

Dry cough an upper respiratory tract infection

Cough is initiated when irritant receptors in the mucousmembrane of the respiratory tract are stimulated. Coughis by far the most common respiratory symptom, andis characteristic in heavy smokers. Frequently, cough istriggered by the presence of sputum in the respiratorytract, and is useful in helping to clear infection from thebronchial tree. A wide variety of inhaled irritants in additionto cigarette smoke (e.g. noxious gases or cold air) maystimulate coughing, and this is more likely if the airwaysare already irritable because of inflammation as a consequenceof infection.

Similarly, the irritant receptors in thebronchial tree may be stimulated by tumours, inhaledforeign bodies, allergens and the asthmatic response,pulmonary oedema and external compression by lymphnodes. In non-smokers the most frequent causes of chroniccough are asthma, sinus disease and oesophageal reflux.With neurological disease laryngeal function may beimpaired or oesophageal motility abnormal (e.g. achalasia),and cough may be due to repeated aspiration.

A characteristic persistent dry cough canoccur with ACE inhibitors. Cough after drinking canalso indicate an oesophagobronchial fistula. In somepatients cough is worse at night, particularly in asthma orpulmonary oedema. Prolonged coughing reduces venousreturn, causes a transient fall in cardiac output and cerebraloxygenation, and leads to cough syncope. Damage tothe recurrent laryngeal nerve, commonly at the left hilumdue to bronchial carcinoma, leads to vocal cord paralysisand an inability to produce a normal explosive cough,which becomes ‘bovine’.

A dry cough, sometimes following an upper respiratorytract infection and often persisting for weeks or months,for which no cause can be found, is a common clinical problem.


In healthy subjects the bronchial tree produces approximately100 mL of mucus each day; this is carried upwards by ciliary action and is then unconsciously swallowed. This ‘escalator’ is a normal part of the mechanism for clearingdebris and pathogens from the bronchial tree. Indisease processes causing the production of excess mucus,irritant receptors are stimulated and sputum is coughedup.

Sputum is not described reliably by patients and it isalways best to inspect it. Sputum may be clear, white ormucoid, as in chronic bronchitis, or purulent, in which casepus is mixed with mucus and the sputum is yellow or green.Sputum may contain blood, which may be bright red (e.g.pulmonary infarction), a rusty colour (acute pneumonia)or pink (pulmonary oedema due to left heart failure). Inasthma the sputum may contain mucus plugs.

Microscopically,sputum may contain bacteria, pus cells, eosinophils(as in asthma and pulmonary eosinophilia) or malignantcells. It is helpful to know the volume of sputum producedeach day, and this can be particularly large: greater than20 mL in bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis, and lung abscesswhen there is a bronchopulmonary fistula. Clinicalprogress can be monitored by documentation of sputumvolume. Occasionally patients with alveolar cell carcinomaproduce very large volumes of clear watery sputum (bronchorrhoea). Anaerobic infection results in foul smelling sputum.

Natural Cure in Bronchitis

Bronchitis is a disease of the lungs. It is an inflammatory disease. The pathogenic agents which determine Bronchitis are viruses, bacteria or fungi. Bronchitis is also influenced and worsen by the weather. So it is recommended to avoid wet weather and winds.

A natural cure includes different oils, a well balanced diet which means fruits, vegetables and honey.

One of the most recommended oils is the oil of wild oregano. It is very good in the battle against viruses, bacteria or fungi that release Bronchitis. This oil can be liquid or in capsules. If it is liquid it can be taken by adding three or four drops in a cup of hot tea.The capsules contain 450 milligrams of oil of wild oregano and it is recommended to take it twice daily between meals.

Regarding the diet it is recommended for the patients with Bronchitis to eat homemade soup and spicy foods, like garlic, curry, cayenne. This kind of food fortify the immune system and helps to kill germs and loosen mucus.

One of the Bronchitis symptoms is the persistent cough. It becomes very frustrating for the patients. It was showed that sipping cool water can suppress the cough. But there must be paid very much attention not to be cold water because it can cause spasm.

Mustard, ginger and olive oil are also good in the natural cure of Bronchitis. To brake up the mucus it is recommended to mix 1/2 teaspoon of mustard powder and 1/2 teaspoon of ginger powder with 1 to 2 teaspoons of olive oil. The patients have to rub their chest with this preparation before bedtime.

Zinc is a powerful antioxidant and antibacterial element which is very helpful in bringing the blood flow to the bronchial lining. The effect is easing the cough and it also helps to suppress the inflammatory response.

Inhaling cooled air for few minutes can be the solution to break up an episode of anoying cough. Bronchitis is recently diagnose to asthmatics and this method of inhaling cooled air can help stop an asthma attack.

Fruits are very healthy in general. In Bronchitis are very good especially the enzyme rich foods like papaya, pineapples and kiwi. They help to break down solidified mucus. There is also a very special fruit called huo-han-kuo which grows exclusively in the pharmaceuticals preparations and it is a natural expectorant and anti-tussive.

The lungs function can be strengthen by the intake of blueberries, red peppers and spinach. Their color indicates that they are very rich in antioxidants. Also when the spinach is cooked fat extracts lutein a very benefic antioxidants.

For external use it is also recommended the mint oil and the almond oil. These oils must be used for the massage of the chest and of the feet. Scientists showed that there are some places on feet connected to the lungs.

Propolis is a phitonutrient that kills viruses, bacteria and fungi which are involved in Bronchitis. Propolis is found in raw honey

For more resources on bronchitis or especially about chronic bronchitis please click this link http://www.bronchitis-guide.com/chronic-bronchitis.htm

Physiotherapy and Early Shoulder Management

Physiotherapists and orthopaedic surgeons spend significant amounts of time and effort treating shoulder injuries and conditions, of which there are many. The shoulder, an unstable joint with a very large range of movement, the greatest in the body, is vulnerable in many situations to injury or mechanical stresses. Its instability means it can be relatively easily dislocated in a fall or activity at end range. We use the arm to save ourselves if we fall, making fractures common and heavy or overhead work over time leads to rotator cuff tears.

Physiotherapists pay close attention to the shoulder as there are many different operations, fractures and degenerative conditions which can affect this area and have an important role in the management of shoulder conditions after elective surgery or trauma, ensuring adherence to the surgical and rehabilitation protocols. On initially seeing the patient a useful strategy is to quickly go over the presenting problem from the beginning as this can indicate errors or misunderstandings which can then be corrected. Physiotherapists should also give the patients an opening so that they can feel they have told their story.

After operation or injury the weight of the arm hanging from the shoulder may need to be supported in a sling to reduce pain and allow damaged tissues to rest. The broad arm, triangular bandages are cheap but not comfortable around the neck and difficult to customise to the patient’s specific needs. Putting some foam round the strap at the neck may help slightly but a better solution is to use a Velcro based sling such as the Seton sling. Seton slings are greatly preferred by patients, are more comfortable and are easier to adjust to the specific requirements of the shoulder condition.

When fitting the Seton sling the elbow should fit right back into the gutter with the sleeve folded back slightly if necessary to allow the hand to be clear of the sling. There may be a small Velcro strap to place across the upper forearm to keep the gutter closed but this should not be tight or it can cut in to the tissues, especially if there is a lot of thick swelling such as after humeral fracture. The long strap is then taken from the elbow side of the sling over the opposite shoulder and down to the wrist. Tightening this up is where it gets trickier.

Due to the materials from which the slings are made there is a degree both of elasticity and friction against surfaces when they are adjusted. As the sling is adjusted and tightened up the elbow is often not well supported by the sling at all and patients are usually aware that the support is not that good. The physiotherapist can easily feel that the sling is not giving the correct support and if they just tighten up the strap it solely tightens up at the front but does not improve the support of the arm. This needs another strategy.

Two people are needed to adjust the sling in co-operation, a helper and the patient. The patient is asked to relax the arm as much as they can while the helper lifts the weight of the arm at the elbow, holding it there as they pull the strap from its attachment at the back of the gutter up and over the shoulder, then fixing it there with one hand. Continuing to hold onto the strap which has been pulled forwards the helper unstraps the Velcro fastening of the main strap and tightens it up. Checking the support of the elbow now will show it to be much better supported.

Sling management advice is useful for washing and dressing, for which the sling can come off. Putting clothes on should be using the affected arm first and the arm needs to be kept in by the body during the process with no active lifting of the shoulder. For washing if the patient keeps the arm bent by the tummy and bends forward they can get access to wash their armpit easily.

How To Treat Vertigo

Vertigo is a disease which manifests sudden postural imbalance and dizziness. The person may suddenly feel the symptoms but will get back to their normal state after the episode of vertigo. However vertigo is a serious disease as it increases the risk factor for some of the serious disorders such as strokes and tumors. There are different types of vertigo such as peripheral vertigo, objective vertigo and central vertigo, hence, the treatment of the vertigo is a necessity as it may lead to severe imbalance problems.

The treatment strategy for vertigo is decided based on the diagnostic results which should show the cause of the disease. The disease is usually treated symptomatically since it will help to reduce the severity of manifestations. The problem is in the inner ear, which includes dislocation of calcium crystals and infections such as Benign Positional Paroxysmal Vertigo (BPPV) and can be treated with certain exercises such as physical maneuvers. However, brain damage or cardiac problems are more serious and hence have to be treated very carefully.

The drugs for the treatment of vertigo can be administrated orally, through intravenous injections or patches in the skin. In case of any bacterial infections, antibiotics are preferred to stop the further complications. Meclizine hydrochloride, Diphenhydramine, Promethazine Hydrochloride, Diazepam and Scopolamine transdermal patch are some of the commonly used for the treatment of vertigo.

Particle repositioning maneuver is a specific treatment for vertigo caused by mis-positioning of calcium carbonate crystals. In the treatment the head has to be moved in such a manner to reposition the crystals and to give relief from the symptoms of imbalance.

The exercises for vestibular rehabilitation are also used as remedy for vertigo in which the patient repeatedly undergoes the position change from lying state to sitting and vice versa. This is repeated until the patient has recovered completely and most often, the recurrence of the disease will not occur.

In serious cases, surgery in the inner eye to insert a plug is recommended to overcome the disorder. It has high success rate and only 5% of people have to repeat the treatment.

Alternative medicines also suggest many effective treatments for vertigo. Poppy seeds, dates and citrus fruits are recommended as good remedies for vertigo. Herbal supplements and specific treatments are also included in treatment.

Rest is the immediate solution to vertigo, as soon as the symptoms are felt. Use of a cane is also sometime necessary to retain steadiness and balance. A patient with a tendency for vertigo must be extremely careful to adjust their movements at a slow pace.

Vitamin D: Women With Low Levels 70% More Likely To Have Hip Fractures

New research says that for women, Vitamin D deficiency can increase risk of hip fracture as much as 70%.

Hip fracture is one of the most common and most serious age-related health threats. There are about 1.6 million hip fractures worldwide each year, with 75% of the fractures happening to women over 50. Hip fracture leaves about 40% of its victims unable to walk independently, and can create profound loss of function.

In addition to causing chronic pain, reduced mobility, and increased dependence, hip fractures can actually be deadly. According to data from the International Osteoporosis Foundation, hip fracture increases the mortality rate as much as 24% in the first year, with a greater risk of dying for as long as five years after the fracture.

Known risk factors for hip fracture include low body weight, advanced age, and a diet that doesn’t provide enough calcium. But new research is indicating that one of the most important of all risk factors is vitamin D deficiency, which could actually increase a woman’s risk by an amazing 70%.

One of the latest studies, conducted by the University of Pittsburgh, monitored 800 women between the ages of 50 and 79 for nine years. The results showed that risk for hip fracture grew incrementally as blood levels of D vitamin dropped, to the point that women with the lowest levels of the vitamin had a 70% increased risk for hip fracture.

The association between low levels of the vitamin and hip fracture risk may be stronger for older women than younger women, the researchers noted. It is believed that vitamin D is tied most closely to hip fractures that occur because of pre-existing frailty, which is more commonly found among women over 50.

The recommended daily dose of vitamin D is 200 IU for people up to age 50, 400 IU for people aged 51 to 70, and 600 IU for people over age 70. Many experts disagree, citing this recommended dosage as far too low with some suggesting up to 1000 IU daily for both infants and adults.

Few Cerebral Palsy Baby Pictures For Research

Physical care for Cerebral Palsy

Physical care : A physical therapist specializes in making improvements to the development of the large muscles of the body, such as those in the legs, arms and stomach. Physical specialists help youngsters learn better paths to move and balance. They may help children with cerebral palsy learn to walk, use a wheelchair, stand by themselves, or go up and down stairs safely. Physical specialists will also work on fun talents like running, kicking and throwing, or learning to ride a bike. An example of this is forestalling the weakening or degradation of muscles that will develop with lack of use. Also, physical care will help avoid contractures, in which muscles become fixed in a stiff, unnatural position.

Occupational treatment for Cerebral Palsy

Occupational treatment : An occupational therapist specializes in bettering the development of the small muscles of the body, for example the hands, feet, face, fingers and toes. They may teach your youngster better or easier methods to write, draw, cut with scissors, brush their teeth, dress, and feed themselves.

Speech and Language care for Cerebral Palsy

They also help develop creative communication techniques for those that can not speak. A speech and language consultant will work with your child on communication abilities. This means speaking, using sign language, or employing a communication aid. Kids who can talk may work with a lecture therapist on making their speech clearer, or on building their language s 1000 kills by learning new words, learning to communicate in sentences, or improving their listening skills. Kids who can not talk may learn sign language, or how to use special equipment such as a PC that actually talks for you.

Drug care : your kid’s doctor may prescribe drugs to stop or control episodes related to cerebral palsy. These drugs are awfully effective in preventing fits in many children. Because there are different types of fits, different drugs may be prescribed because no one drug stops or controls every kind of fits. These drugs include Diazepam, Baclofen, and Dantrolene. If surgery is contradicted, these drugs can help reduce spacticity for short periods, however, their long term value is still being investigated. Though drug treatment may not totally correct complications related to cerebral palsy, proof does show that it helps manage Problems like fits and spactisity.

Sensory Integration Therapy for Cerebral Palsy

Sensory Integration care : One other approach to help youngsters with cerebral palsy achieve their perfect level of functioning is Sensory Integration treatment. This therapy helps to overcome issues experienced by many young children in soaking up and processing sensory information. Encouraging these abilities ultimately improves balance and steady movement. Treatments include stimulating touch sensations and pressures on different parts of the body. With the use of certain items,eg foam chips, water, or textured toys, this therapy will also galvanize youngsters to learn sequences of movements.

Owner’s Guide to Iguana Paralysis

Paralysis in iguanas is a very serious condition. While some iguanas may be paralyzed permanently, sometimes the condition is reversible. So, what exactly causes iguana paralysis?


Your iguana can become paralyzed for various reasons. The most common cause of this condition is metabolic bone disease. It can also occur if you keep your iguana in an improper environment or feed him a bad diet. Injuries, lesions, or tumors involving the spinal cord can also result in paralysis.


If this condition occurs because of metabolic bone disease, you will notice a variety of signs before your iguana actually becomes paralyzed. These warning signs include loss of appetite, twitching, and swollen lower jaws. Once paralyzed, your iguana will be unable to move. He won’t even be able to defecate or urinate by himself.


If you suspect that your iguana is paralyzed, it’s important that you take him to a vet as soon as possible. He will be able to tell for sure and begin treatment.


As mentioned earlier, paralysis can sometimes be reversed. Your iguana will be given a variety of medications include calcium, vitamin D3, and anti-inflammatories. He will also need to undergo physical therapy. Throughout this whole process, you will need to provide support care to your iggie. He won’t even be able to go to the bathroom without your help.


If your iguana’s paralysis is permanent, the outlook is very bleak. You will need to give him baths on a daily basis. You will also need to give him massages to help expel urine and feces from his body. Since he won’t be able to move by himself, you will have to transfer him to and from his basking, sleeping, and feeding areas. As his health continues to decline, euthanasia may be a more humane choice.

Information on Umbilical Hernias

Umbilical hernia is a very common abnormality of the belly button that occurs in most babies’ first years of life. Although parents become very concerned when they find out that their child has been diagnosed with umbilical hernia, there is virtually no reason to be worried about. Apart from being “in-esthetic”, umbilical hernia raises no major physiological issues. This type of hernia is a mild disorder that doesn’t interfere with the normal development of the child. Umbilical hernia is a post-natal abnormality of the belly button that occurs in more than 10 percent of all babies. This umbilical abnormality is commonly developed by girls and prematurely born infants and it is usually revealed in babies older than 6 months, rarely occurring prior to this age.

Umbilical hernia occurs when the umbilical ring fails to close properly, causing the belly button to swell. The swelling of the belly button induces babies a state of local discomfort and sometimes a small degree of soreness. In some cases, umbilical hernia can be accentuated by the babies’ movement and straining. The disorder doesn’t generate any other symptoms and it involves no risk of complication. Although umbilical hernia may sound and look serious, the disorder is in fact a very mild physiological affection.

Umbilical hernia can be easily revealed by a physical examination and the process of diagnosing the disorder doesn’t involve performing additional tests. Unlike other forms of hernia, which commonly require surgical intervention, umbilical hernia generally disappears by itself within the babies’ first years of life. Statistics indicate that more than 90 percent of umbilical hernias disappear by the age of 12 months without medical intervention.  However, in some cases this type of hernia can persist for a few years, causing children further distress and discomfort. Rarely, umbilical hernia can even persist until kindergarten or primary school.

The treatment for umbilical hernia rarely involves surgery. Due to the mild character of the disorder, doctors prefer to correct umbilical hernia through other means rather than surgical intervention. In order to correct this type of hernia, doctors usually choose to strap up the umbilical region with sterile bandages after carefully pushing the prominent extremities of the belly button back into place. After the belly button has been correctly positioned, the straps will prevent it from sticking out, allowing the belly ring to heal properly. By using this technique, umbilical hernia heals very fast, leaving babies with no visible scars.  

In rare cases, if umbilical hernia is very large or persistent, doctors may suggest correcting it through surgical intervention. The surgical intervention for umbilical hernia is very simple and doesn’t involve any risks. The incisions performed during the surgical intervention are small and they heal without leaving any permanent marks.

Back Pain Solutions Without Surgery

Acute back pain may begin suddenly and usually lasts around 3 months. Chronic back pain sometimes lasts throughout life.

The most common back pain is low back pain (LBP). It is is often described as sudden, sharp, persistent, or dull pain felt below the waist. LBP is very common and affects the majority of people at some point during their life. Up to 70%–85% of all people have back pain at some time in their lives. LBP is the most common cause of a limitation of activity in people younger than 45 years of age. It is the second most frequent reason for visits to a physician, and the third most common indication for surgery. It is the fifth-ranking cause of hospital admissions and is one of the leading causes of disability.

Low back pain is most commonly caused by muscle strain associated with heavy physical work, lifting or forceful movement, bending or twisting, awkward positions, or standing in one position too long. Any of these movements can exacerbate a prior or existing back disorder. Other conditions that can cause low back pain include spinal stenosis, arthritis (osteoarthritis), spinal infection (osteomyelitis), spinal tumors (benign and malignant), spondylolisthesis, and vertebral fractures (e.g. burst fracture).

Low back pain is either acute or chronic. Acute LBP may begin suddenly with intense pain usually lasting fewer than three months. Chronic pain is persistent long-term pain, sometimes lasting throughout life. Even chronic pain may present episodes of acute pain. Other symptoms include localized pain in a specific area of the low back, general aching, and/or pain that radiates into the low back, general aching, and/or pain that radiates into the low back, buttocks and leg(s). Sometimes pain is accompanied by neurological symptoms such as numbness, tingling, or weakness. Neurological symptoms requiring immediate medical attention include bowel or bladder dysfunction, groin or leg weakness or numbness, severe symptoms that do not subside after a few days, or pain prohibiting everyday activities.

Pain felt in the low back is not always indicative of a spinal problem. A thorough physical and neurological assessment may reveal the cause of the low back pain. The physical examination begins with the patient’s current condition and medical history. Examination of a patient with low back pain involves examining the patient’s range of spinal motion while standing straight, bending forward, and to the side. Asymmetry, posture, and leg length is noted. Methodical palpation of the spine can reveal muscle spasm, possible bony displacement, and tender points. Abdominal palpation is performed to determine if the cause of low back pain is possibly organ related (e.g. pancreas). The neurological assessment evaluates weakness, absence of reflexes, tingling, burning, pain, diminished function, and other signs that may indicate nerve involvement.

If infection, malignancy, fracture, or other risk factors are suspected, routine lab tests may be ordered. These tests may include complete blood count (CBC), erythrocyte sedimentation (ESR), and urinalysis. In some cases electrodiagnostic studies such as electromyography (EMG) or nerve condition velocity (NCV) are performed to confirm a diagnosis or localize the site of nerve injury. Plain radiographs (x-rays), CT Scan, and/or MRI studies are performed when fracture or neurological dysfunction is suspected. A MRI represents the gold standard in imaging today. A MRI renders high-resolution images of spinal tissues such as the spinal cord and intervertebral discs. X-rays are still the imaging methods of choice to study the bony elements in the low back. The results of the physical and neurological examinations combines with test results are carefully evaluated to confirm a diagnosis.

Most patients with low back pain are treated without surgery. A conventional treatment plan may include bed rest for a day or two combines with medication to reduce inflammation and pain. Medications recommended by the physician are based on the patient’s medical condition, age, other drugs the patient currently takes, and safety. The first choice for pain relief is often nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). These drugs should be taken with food to prevent stomach upset and stomach bleeding. Muscle relaxants may provide relief from muscle spasm but are actually benign sedatives, which often cause drowsiness. Narcotic pain relievers are prescribed for use during the acute phase and often for chronic pain management in appropriate patients.

Other modalities to treat low back pain might include physical therapy (PT), transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator (TENS) trial, ultrasound therapy, acupuncture and massage therapy. A managed PT program can help build muscle strength and flexibility, improve mobility, coordination, stability and balance, and promote relaxation. Patients who participate in a structured physical therapy program often progress to wellness more rapidly than those who do not. This includes low back maintenance through a home exercise program developed for the patient by the physical therapist.

Although the number of spinal surgeries done every year is on the rise, it is rarely required to treat low back pain. Surgery may be considered if the patient is experiencing bowel or bladder dysfunction, increased nerve impairment, progressive weakness, incapacitating pain, or spinal instability. The surgical procedure depends on the diagnosis or the cause of low back pain. To prevent low back pain, first and foremost, follow the treatment plan outlined by the physician. To enhance recovery from an episode of low back pain, or to help prevent future exacerbation, try to maintain good posture, be consistent in a home exercise program, and eat sensibly to maintain proper body weight.

About Walton Rehabilitation Health System:

Walton Rehabilitation Health Systems (WRHS) is a leading not-for-profit comprehensive, multi-specialty, dedicated provider of physical medicine and rehabilitation. Our mission is to be an advocate for wellness by providing a continuum of services to treat the whole person. WRHS, whose reputation extends throughout the south, is a trusted partner with just the right expertise and treatments to help people with disabling injuries and illnesses return to work and to a fulfilling life. By pursuing its mission, WRHS has grown to include Walton Pain and Headache Centers, Walton Community Services, Walton Options for Independent Living, Walton Foundation for Independence, and Walton Technologies. We are located at: 1355 Independence Drive, Augusta, GA 30901-1037. For more information visit www.wrh.org or call 866-4-WALTON.

Shingles Infection Pain Management – Medications and Vaccinations

There is no argument that shingles is a painful ordeal to have to endure, particularly for the elderly who are the ones mostly frequented by this disease.  Treatment for zoster is mainly palliative, but it is the antiviral meds that can help to interrupt the virus’s ability to replicate, which can lessen the severity and length of time the disease is active.

Medications for shingles are used to combat pain, shorten the duration of the disease, and decrease the risk of complications.


Cellulitis: A bacterial skin infection that can spread to the blood or lymph nodes, which can be deadly
Postherpetic Neuralgia: A painful condition of the nerve fibers and skin
Encephalitis: Inflammation of the brain
Hearing loss
Visual problems that can be temporary or permanent
Facial paralysis
Ramsay Hunt syndrome: Infection of the facial nerve with painful rash and facial muscle weakness

The active stage of shingles can prove to be a very painful and debilitating condition.  The good news is there are medications to combat the affects that an outbreak can have on your life.


Pain medications such as acetaminophen, aspirin, or ibuprofen, to decrease pain
Antiviral medications such as Acyclovir (Zovirax), Valacyclovir (Valtrex), and Famciclovir (Famvir)
Corticosteroids such as methylprednisolone and prednisone taken orally or by injection
Topical antibiotics applied to the skin to prevent bacterial infection on open and leaking blisters

Drugs for Postherpetic Neuralgia:

Acetaminophen, aspirin, or ibuprofen
Antidepressants, such as amitriptyline
Topical medications, such as a lidocaine patch
Anticonvulsants, such as gabapentin or pregabalin (Lyrica)
Corticosteroids, such as prednisone
Nerve block
Opioids, such as codeine, oxycodone, and morphine

The Zostavax Vaccine:

Zostavax, a chickenpox booster vaccine, was licensed in 2006 for the prevention of herpes zoster.  Clinical trials were conducted that thwarted the disease in approximately 50% of people 60 years old and up.  Additionally, it  significantly reduced the pain associated with this condition. However, this vaccine is contraindicated in people who have severe allergies, such as a reaction to gelatin and certain antibiotics such as neomycin.


Immune system problems such as HIV/AIDS
Drug treatments that affect the immune system such as steroids, radiation, or chemotherapy
History of leukemia or lymphoma
Active TB
Expectant mothers

Women should avoid pregnancy for at least 12 weeks after having the Zostivax vaccine.  Additionally, people who are experiencing any sickness should not be vaccinated until they have recovered, especially if there is a fever.

As with all medications there are some risks involved that you should familiarize yourself with.

Mild problems include: Redness, soreness, swelling, or itching at the injection site and headache.

Severe Reactions: Respiratory distress, hoarseness or wheezing, hives, paleness, weakness, rapid heart rate, and dizziness. These symptoms would manifest within a few hours of being vaccinated.

Contact your health care provider if you think a shingles infection is about to take place.  Early and fast treatment can prevent serious complications.

The Process of Painful Scar Tissue Removal

Scar tissue forming near the nerve root is called epidural fibrosis. This epidural fibrosis is a common occurrence after back surgery has been preformed. The formation of scar tissue is part of a normal healing process the body goes through after spine surgery. Unfortunately the build-up of this scar tissue can cause nerve impingements causing back pain and/or leg pain. There are successful procedures performed by surgeons called a Laminotomy.
A nerve that is under pressure and causing pain or impaired function is referred to as a pinched nerve. This can happen to nerves that control muscle movements or relay sensations to the brain.
The initial symptoms will affect your buttocks and legs, arms, fingers, neck or shoulders. These symptoms may be tingling, numbness, a burning sensation or shooting pains.
The pains and sensations can sometimes be felt quite a distance away from the point of pressure. Although you have a pinched nerve the lumbar region of your back, it’s possible that the only painful symptom that this may be causing could be in your calf. Pain and weakness may increase when there is nerve damage from constant pressure. Movement skills, reflexes, sensations in the affect area may be affected and muscular atrophy may begin to occur.
Nerves are extensions from the brain that reach out into the arms or legs to go to the muscles or skin. A nerve is a cell that is microscopic in size, and its fibers may run several feet in length toward its destination. A nerve cell that lives in the brain or within the spinal cord is called a central nerve, and a nerve that leaves the spine to go into the arms or legs are called peripheral nerves. These peripheral nerves are actually bundles of millions of nerve fibers that leave the spinal cord and branch to their target muscles to make them move or go to the skin to provide feeling.

If a nerve gets “pinched” the flow up and down the inside of the hose is reduced or blocked and the nutrients stop flowing. Eventually the membrane starts to lose its healthy ability to transmit the tiny electrical charges and the nerve fiber may eventually die. When enough fibers stop working, the skin may feel numbness or a muscle may not contract.

Minimally invasive laser spine surgery uses an arthroscopic approach to a Laminotomy opening the spinal canal without any need for general anesthesia. A laminotomy is generally performed in a surgical outpatient setting. A laminotomy is not a laminectomy.
Laminotomy: A laminotomy the surgical procedure used to relieve the spinal canal off pressure affecting the exiting nerve root and spinal cord. The process increases the amount of space available for neural tissue thus releasing the nerve(s).
The term laminotomy is derived from the Latin words lamina (bony plate that covers the posterior arch of the vertebra) and -otomy (act of cutting, incision).
A Laminotomy of the Spine may be used to treat the following conditions:
• Bone Spurs
• Pinched Nerve
• Spinal Stenosis
• Herniated Disc
• Bulging Disc
• Scar Tissue Formation
• Arthritis of the Spine