Causes of Coronary Heart Disease – What is CHD ?

Causes of Coronary Heart Disease – Coronary Artery Disease is often called Coronary Heart Disease.  The coronary artery is the main blood vessel  that carries blood to your heart. Coronary heart disease is the leading case of death for both sexes and strikes approximately 13 million Americans every calendar year.

Your arteries can get built up with plague blocking the flow of blood and oxygen through them. Plague is a fatty substance made from cholesterol. It can happen in ay artery but it is much more serious if it is the coronary artery. Coronary heart disease can lead to life threatening conditions such as angina. It is characterized by the thickening and hardening of the arties. This loss of elastically and narrowing of the arteries can lead to high blood pressure and if left untreated, increases the chance of a stroke and a heart attack.

The people most at risk are generally overweight or have diabetes you are more at risk of coronary heart disease. High blood pressure and high cholesterol will also put a person more at risk. Men and women can both get coronary heart disease and it can develop as a person gets older and there is evidence that it can be hereditory. Causes of Coronary Heart Disease also include obesity, smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, and lack of exercise, smoking, menopause in women, advance age (65 or older), and some types of infections of the artery walls. Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is simply the disease of the coronary artery, a situation whereby the artery that supply blood to the heart is clogged or blocked, reducing blood flow to the heart muscles which need oxygen from the blood supply and this could lead to a complete artery blockage. When this happens in the heart, the result is heart attack medically known as myocardial infarction. The same process in blood vessels supplying the brain results in a stroke.

The most common symptoms of coronary heart disease include angina or chest pain. A person having frequent chest pain may be suffering from Coronary Heart Disease (CHD). If suffering from the Signs Of Heart Failure, you should consult a doctor as soon as possible. What Causes Heart Attacks are the beginning of coronary heart disease. Symptoms of coronary heart disease are most of the time very noticeable, but sometimes you can have the disease and not even know it. Chest pain or discomfort is the most common and noticeable of all the symptoms, typical chest pain feels heavy or like ou are being squeezed. The pain happens because there is not enough blood and oxygen getting to the heart. The most common symptom of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is Angina Pectoris. This can occur as a result of restriction of blood flow to the heart due to plague sticking in the coronary arteries. The pain is described as a crushing or gripping pain across the chest which may also be felt in the throat and teeth. This is usually followed by sweating, breathlessness and exhaustion.

Change your lifestyle – stop smoking, lose weight, take more exercise and eat a healthy low saturated fat diet.  Lower your blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels. All these actions will avert the Causes of Coronary Heart Disease .

Heart Attacks in Public Places

What causes a heart attack? While many factors may come into play, generally a heart attack is caused when the circulation of blood to the heart is interrupted, cutting off the oxygen supply. Cardiac arrest that goes on for more than five minutes can also result in permanent brain injury. That’s why it is so important for a victim of sudden heart attack in a public place to receive immediate treatment.

Enter the ‘automated external defibrillator’, also called an AED. An AED is a portable electronic device that automatically diagnoses potentially deadly sudden heart attack. The beauty of this device is its ease of use. Anyone can be trained to use the AED to save the life of a sudden heart attack victim, and therefore the AED is becoming a standard piece of life-saving equipment in many public places, including:

·         Golf courses

·         Gyms

·         Sports arenas

·         Theme parks

·         Airports and airplanes

·         Shopping centers

·         Medical facilities

How does the AED save the lives of sudden heart attack victims? AEDs treat ‘fibrillation’ and ‘tachycardia’. Fibrillation simply means a rapid, irregular heartbeat, while tachycardia refers to an adult heartbeat that rises to more than 100 beats per minute.  The AED treats these problems using electrical therapy to re-establish a safer heartbeat rhythm, stopping fibrillation and tachycardia.

Florida law enacted in April 2007 makes AEDs available in public places where sudden heart attack is more likely to occur, such as areas where many older people tend to gather. However, because AEDs are so effective at saving lives, their use, and the training of individuals to properly use them to save lives, is growing. When used correctly, it is estimated that as many as 50,000 deaths could be prevented yearly.

Did you or a loved one experience sudden heart attack in a public place that might have been prevented? An AED and trained personnel may have helped, and you may be able to receive financial compensation for your losses. But the technology and the laws surrounding the training and use of AEDs is still new. Few attorneys are experienced in handling these types of cases, so you’ll want to choose carefully. In West Palm Beach, personal injury attorney Craig Goldenfarb is one of only five attorneys in the U.S. with this specialization.

Heart Disease Medicine

Heart disease supplements in the form of resveratrol have been called a heart disease medicine. It is believed to be able to inhibit congestive heart failure. Antioxidants in resveratrol might help protect the lining of blood vessels in the heart. A polyphenol called resveratrol is a substance in the skin of red grapes and other foods such as peanuts, blueberries and cranberries.

Resveratrol seems to have heart health benefits and could be considered a heart disease medicine. “Antioxidants may help prevent heart disease by increasing levels of “good” cholesterol and protecting against artery damage.” (Mayo Clinic) An abundance of doctors agree that something in resveratrol seems to strengthen the heart by keeping the blood vessels supple. This makes it a possibility that antioxidants in resveratrol will benefit the heart. An antioxidant is a capable of preventing the oxidation of cells in the body. Antioxidants eliminate the reactions oxidation through eradicating free radicals, and impedes other oxidation effects.

Resveratrol may well be the key to inhibiting damage to blood vessels by reducing “bad” cholesterol. It is also believed that it prevents blood clots. In addition, research has shown that the antioxidant could reduce the congestive heart failure stages and protect us from obesity and diabetes. Diseases closely related to heart disease.

Congestive Heart Failure Stages Caused By Disease

• Reduction of the flow of oxygen-rich blood. Build-up of plaque inside the coronary arteries by bad cholesterol. Atherosclerosis is a common heart health problem.
• Hardening of the arteries. The fatty tissue is reduced.
• Difficulty breathing. Less blood flow leads to less oxygen.
• Other organs affected are the lungs, kidneys, and intestines due to retention of fluids.
• Cramping of muscles in the arm and chest. The pain can be gripping.

Making lifestyle changes and getting ongoing care can help you avoid the problems of atherosclerosis and live a long, healthy life. Eating grapes, or drinking grape juice is a way to get resveratrol, however, only small amounts can be obtained. It is more convenient to get large amounts of antioxidants in heart disease supplements may be the perfect heart disease medicine helping to eliminate the congestive heart failure stages.

Symptoms and Home Remedies for Tuberculosis or TB

A infection of the lungs, Tuberculosis is caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The germ enters the body through the nose, mouth or windpipe and stays down in the tile lungs. The causes of tuberculosis include low resistance of the body, smoking, drinking and stress. The symptoms of this disease begin with cough and extend to chest pain, prolonged coughing and bringing out blood with cough. Fever, chills, sweating in the night, loss of appetite and weight loss are some other symptoms associated with tuberculosis. Though a brutal disease of the yester years, tuberculosis can now be successfully treated, even at home.

Symptoms of Tuberculosis


Only about 10 percent of those infected with TB develop the disease. The first symptoms of an active case of TB may be so commonplace that they are often dismissed as the effects of a cold or flu. The individual may get tired easily, feel slightly feverish or cough frequently. It usually goes away by itself, but about in about half the cases, it will return.

For people who have the disease, TB can cause lung or pleural (the lining of the lung) disease or it may spread through the body via the blood. Often people do not seek the advice of a doctor until they have pronounced symptoms, such as pleurisy (a sharp pain in the chest when breathing deeply or coughing) or the spitting up of blood. Neither of these symptoms is solely of tuberculosis, but they should not be ignored. Other symptoms include fever, loss of appetite, weight loss and night sweats.

About 15 percent of people with the disease develop TB in an organ other than the lung, such as the lymph nodes, GI tract, and bones and joints.

Home Remedies for Tuberculosis:

Indian gooseberry is most beneficial home remedy for tuberculosis. Indian gooseberry is commonly known as Amla and it gives energy and improves healthy capacity of vigorous activity. Take one tablespoon of honey and one tablespoon of fresh juice of amla. This mixture should be taken in the morning.

Juice of pineapple is also very much effective in tuberculosis. It dissolves mucus and thus gives fast result of recover. One should have daily one glass of pineapple juice. This is one of the useful home remedies for tuberculosis.

Find powerful herbal remedies Relief from Flu

Mint juice is also found very beneficial for treating tuberculosis. Take one teaspoon of mint juice, two teaspoon of honey, two teaspoon of pure malt vinegar, and 125 ml of carrot juice. These all things should be mixed and must be taken as a medicine. The dose must be taken three times a day. This not only dissolves the mucus, but also gives nourishment to lungs, vitality to body to fight against infection and also prevents hazardous effects of the drugs taken for tuberculosis.

Milk is the best and most easily available home remedy for tuberculosis. Calcium is the main thing that needs in treatment of tuberculosis. In addition, milk is nothing but richest source of calcium. At least four to five liters of milk must be consumed daily. You can start it slowly, and by increasing the amount, you can reach up to four to five liters per day.

Custard apple is considered as most beneficial remedy for tuberculosis. It re vitalizes the body. Twenty to twenty five seedless raisins and pulp of custard apple must be boiled in water on low flame. Gas must be off when it remains one third, filter it, add two teaspoon of powdered sugar, a pinch of cardamom, cinnamon. This is very relief giving drug. This is one of the best home remedies for tuberculosis

Vegetable like bottle gourd is found to be very much valuable drug to treat tuberculosis. Consumption of cooked bottle gourd regularly is much beneficial and even increases immunity to fight against infection.

Banana is also found to be valuable remedy for tuberculosis.

Drumstick leaves soup is considered much beneficial drug in treatment of tuberculosis. Take handful of leaves of drumstick, boil it in 200 ml of water for about five min. then should allow it to become cool, then add limejuice, pepper and salt. Moreover, this soup must be consumed daily morning at empty stomach. This is one of the common home remedies for tuberculosis

Orange is also found as a valuable to treat tuberculosis. One glass full of orange juice must be taken, one tablespoon of honey and a pinch of salt must be added. One should take this juice daily to nourish there lungs and regain vitality.

Understanding the S curve of technology innovation

Though the inception of a new technology seems random, its evolution over time once it comes into existence exhibits a reasonably stable pattern which can best be described in terms of performance characteristic.

The performance characteristic refers to an element of interest to a designer of a product or a user of a specific technology.  For example, fiber optics against the cables in traditional telephone systems provides a better voice clarity. The speed of a computer is another example of performance characteristic that is resulted in new technology. Technological performance can be expressed in terms of any attribute, such as density in the electronics industry (number of transistor per chip) or aircraft speed in miles per hour. The performance of a technology has a recognized pattern over time that, if properly understood, can be of great use in strategic planning. Technology innovation refers to the changes in performance characteristics of a specific technology over time.

The life cycle of innovations can therefore be described using the s-curve which maps again in a different way, ie, growth of revenue or productivity against time. In the early stage of a particular innovation, growth is relatively slow as the new product establishes itself. At some point customers begin to demand and the product growth increases more rapidly. New incremental innovations or changes to the product allow growth to continue. Towards the end of its life cycle, growth slows and may even begin to decline. In the later stages, no amount of new investment in that product will yield a normal rate of return.

The s-curve is derived from half of a normal distribution curve. There is an assumption that new products are likely to have “product life”. i.e. a start-up phase, a rapid increase in revenue and eventual decline. In fact the great majority of innovations never gets off the bottom of the curve, and never produces normal returns.

What is important is that each technology has a number of performance characteristics of a specific technology over time. As mentioned earlier, once a new technology comes into existence, the performance characteristics of interest show very little improvement in the early stages of the technology.

This initial stage is followed by a second phase of very rapid improvement in the performance characteristic. During the third stage, the performance characteristic continues to improve, but the rate of improvement begins to decline. In the final stage, very little improvement is visible and the graph that charts the progress in the performance characteristic of a technology over time takes an S-shape.

The s-curve of technological innovation summarizes four major stages in the evolution of a performance characteristic.

1. Emergence – (also known as embryonic stage) shows little improvement in key performance characteristic. Technology operates far below its potential. Neither the characteristics of technology nor its applicability to market needs may be well understood. A long gestation period exists before attempts are made to produce a technology. This new invention period is characterized by a period of slow initial growth. This is the time when experimentation and initial bugs are worked out of the system.

2. Rapid improvement – improves at an accelerating phase. The technology improvement period is characterized by rapid and sustained growth. As organizations engage in production, experience accumulates over time accelerating the improvement in performance characteristic. The technology becomes vulnerable to substitution or obsolescence when a new or better-performing technology emerges.

3. Declining improvement – it declines improvement.

4. Maturity – further improvement becomes very difficult to achieve. The mature technology period starts when the upper limit of the technology is approached and progress in performance slows down. This is when the technology reaches its natural limits as dictated by factors such as physical limits.

During the early phase, a new technology is introduced into the market place but its adoption is limited to a small group of early adopters and small niche markets. As the product gains ascendancy, new capabilities are introduced and refined with the goal of meeting the needs of the broadest possible segment of mainstream users. During this middle phase a dominant design begins to emerge, winning the allegiance of the market place and also effecting standardization of everything from design to manufacturing. The dominant design in turn allows heightened competition as new entrants realize opportunities for further innovation based on cost, scale and product performance.

This is the period of rapid and greatest growth as a technology matures and reaches the mainstream.  During the final phase the product reaches market saturation.

Some examples of technologies that have followed this path can be stated as follows.

The vacuum tube technology was limited by the tube’s size and the power consumption of the heated filament. Both of these factors were natural barriers to electron conduction in a vacuum tube. Electronic engineers could not overcome these limitations. The arrival of the solid-state technology, or transistor, which permitted electron conduction in solid material, changed the physical barriers of size and power. The transistor technology started a new technology life cycle and rendered the vacuum-tube technology obsolete.

Another example is ceramics, which have higher operating temperatures and substitute for metals used in internal combustion engines; the newer technology permits better performance of the engines. The performance of the engines can continue to improve as a result of a sequence of newer technologies, each with a higher limit of the performance parameter of interest.


Narayanan, V. K (2001) Managing technology and innovation for Competitive Advantage, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Fibroid Tumors

This is a long overdue article for American females. So many females are plagued with uterine fibroid tumors, older women as well as young teenage girls. Well, what are fibroids and how do they develop?

Fibroid tumors are benign growths that form on the interior muscular wall of the uterus. They also develop on the exterior of the uterus. I actually call fibroids what they really are trash bags. That?s right! The average American female?s body is so toxic (just like the average American male) and the major eliminative organs (colon, liver, kidneys, lungs, and skin) are either sluggish or outright doesn?t work, that the body?s intelligence actually causes an internal trash bag to form in the body to hold the toxic fluidic waste. This is the tumor. A tumor is a trash bag. Tumors hold waste to prevent the waste from circulating throughout the body.

The fibroid tumors range in sizes from small cherries to grapefruits and cantaloupe. The amazing thing is that many women who have fibroid tumors don?t even know they have them until diagnosed by a doctor. At first they are not painful, but as they grow, the pain subtly sets in. If you could see what a fibroid tumor looks like, it would gross you out. A good friend of mine named Tanya actually had her surgical removal of a fibroid tumor filmed.

A cousin of mine had a few fibroid tumors in her body as big as lemons and oranges. She was only 19 years of age. So fibroid tumors have hit very close to home for me personally.

Fibroid tumors are primarily caused by eating and drinking dairy (liquefied cow snot/mucus) products, e.g. ice cream, sour cream, cheese, yogurt and milk; and eating meat (slaughtered animal flesh).

The number one cause of fibroid tumors is dairy products. I find many females are hooked on dairy, especially cheese. It?s mind boggling to me because they have no idea of how cheese is processed. In order to make cheese, baby male cows are killed and their stomachs are cut open and their intestines are added to the cheese because of the intestinal enzymes. This is true! Disgusting, but true!

All that ice cream, cheese, and milk chocolate will eventually do a female in. To eat dairy products is to sign a contract for fibroid tumors.

Refined grains also play a role in the development of fibroid tumors, but dairy products are the major culprit. Just imagine what?s in that fibroid tumor – mucus, parasites and worms, and toxins to name a few.

Some tumors can grow so big that they can actually interfere with pregnancy. Most doctors will talk a woman with fibroid tumors into having an abortion for the sake of the fetus and the health of the woman.

Like with all other diseases, you can be healed of fibroid tumors. How? By dissolving them with herbs (in addition to modified diet)! You will excrete them out of your body via urination and defecation (and clotting via menstruation, if your body chooses this outlet). It will take some time, but they will eventually dissolve.

Fibroid tumors can make sexual intercourse very complicated due to immense pain and post-intercourse bleeding. They can greatly threaten pregnancy. They can also cause heavy and frequent menstrual periods, in addition to lethargy and fatigue and weakness. 40% of American females will unfortunately develop fibroid tumors in their lifetime, beginning as early as age 12.

I put together a formula for women and girls with fibroid tumors called Fibroid Buster. After doing our 3-week Full Body Detox (to start the healing and cleansing process), you can begin the anti-fibroid regimen by taking 6 capsules of Fibroid Buster per day.

Fibroid Buster is a formula that will help dissolve fibroid tumors in addition to cleansing the blood and the female channel. Fibroid Buster consists of the following herbs: Ashoka, Musta, Red Clover, White Oak Bark, Burdock, Carbon, Yucca, Manjistha, Goldenseal, Dong Quai, Squawvine, Cayenne, Witch Hazel Bark, Comfrey, and Rhatany.

Fibroid Buster is a powerful female reproductive channel and area astringent and alterative. It is 100% safe and sane, all-natural, and purely vegan.

Pneumonia Information

Pneumonia means that there is an infection or inflammation in the lung tissue. It can be caused by a lot of different micro-organisms – viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites. Pneumonia is a particular concern for older adults and people with chronic illnesses or impaired immune systems, but it can also strike young, healthy people. Having a long-term, or chronic, disease like asthma, heart disease, cancer, or diabetes also makes you more likely to get pneumonia. People most at risk are older than 65 or younger than 2 years of age, or already have health problems. Herpes simplex virus is a rare cause of pneumonia except in newborns. People with immune system problems are also at risk of pneumonia caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV).

Currently, over 3 million people develop pneumonia each year in the United States. People with weak immune systems at greatest risk of pneumonia. People with infectious pneumonia often have a cough producing greenish or yellow sputum and a high fever that may be conducted by shaking chills. Shortness of breath is also common. People with pneumonia may cough up blood, experience headaches, or develop sweaty and clammy skin. Other possible symptoms are loss of appetite, fatigue, blueness of the skin, nausea, vomiting, mood swings, and joint pains or muscle aches. In some people, particularly the elderly and those who are debilitated, bacterial pneumonia may follow influenza or even a common cold.Pneumonia can be treated with oral antibiotics given to your child at home.

Steroid medications may be used to reduce wheezing. Control your fever with aspirin or acetaminophen. Do not give aspirin to children. The best preventive measures include washing your hands frequently, not smoking, and wearing a mask when cleaning dusty or moldy areas. There are vaccines to prevent infections by viruses or bacteria that cause some types of pneumonia. Vaccines are now also given against the pneumococcus organism (PCV), a common cause of bacterial pneumonia. Antiviral medication is now available, too, and can be used to prevent some types of viral pneumonia or to make symptoms less severe. Drink plenty of fluids to help loosen secretions and bring up phlegm.When in the hospital, respiratory treatments to remove secretions may be necessary.

Pneumonia Treatment and Prevention Tips

1. Drink plenty of fluids to help loosen secretions and bring up phlegm.

2. Get lots of rest. Have someone else do household chores.

3. Control your fever with aspirin or acetaminophen.

4. Steroid medications may be used to reduce wheezing.

5. Vaccines are now also given against the pneumococcus organism (PCV).

6. If your child has chest pain, try a heating pad or warm compress on the chest area.

Rheumatoid Arthritis – Symptoms and Treatment

Arthritis is a common term for an illness that covers a broad spectrum that comprises more than one hundred illnesses. The two most common types of arthritis are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoarthritis is the most common, while rheumatoid arthritis is the second most common. Rheumatoid arthritis, however, is the most severe form of arthritis.

What are the Symptoms of Rheumatoid arthritis?

How do you know which type of arthritis you have? There are certain symptoms present for different types of arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis symptoms include:

  • Paleness
  • Appetite loss
  • Low-grade fever
  • Range of motion is limited
  • Numbness or Tingling Sensations
  • Redness of skin
  • Inflammation of skin
  • Hand and foot deformities
  • Swollen glands
  • Nodules under the skin – round and painless
  • Pleurisy – inflammation of the lungs

Rheumatoid arthritis symptoms can vary – and can include any of the above symptoms or all of the above symptoms. Different symptoms may be apparent at different stages of the disease. Consulting a physician with a list of your known symptoms can help you discover if rheumatoid arthritis is the type of arthritis you have.

Active and Inactive
Rheumatoid arthritis is a form of arthritis that can occur in stages. Rheumatoid arthritis symptoms can be active or inactive. When the symptoms are inactive, the patient is in remission – and can have long periods of time with no symptoms present.
Signs of a flare-up can include:

  • Fatigue
  • Aches in muscles and joints
  • Stiffness in joints
  • Low-grade fever can be present
  • Appetite loss
  • Joints can become red, swollen, painful, and tender

During a flare-up of rheumatoid arthritis symptoms, your daily routine can become severely limited. Things that you take for granted, like opening doors, opening jars, and sometimes, even walking, become too painful. At times like these, it is important that you understand that it is okay to let others help you.
Remission can occur at any time – there is no rhyme or reason. The symptoms can disappear at any time – and they can begin again at any time. Sometimes, the remission may last a few days and others times, it may last a few months.

Rheumatoid Arthritis Treatment

As with any medical illness, you should consult your physician for diagnosis. Once you have shared your rheumatoid arthritis symptoms with your physician, he/she may suggest tests – including blood tests and x-rays of your joints. Your physician uses the results of these tests, along with your symptoms in order to make a diagnosis.

Once a diagnosis has been made, you should discuss your choices with your physician. There is no known cure for rheumatoid arthritis – but many people have effectively managed to control rheumatoid arthritis symptoms by eating healthy, maintaining a healthy weight, and exercising regularly. It is very important to maintain your overall health – physically and mentally – in order to manage rheumatoid arthritis symptoms. One very important thing to remember is that even if your rheumatoid arthritis is in remission and you have not shown any symptoms for months, it is important to maintain your healthy way of life. You should maintain your exercise routine in order to keep the muscles around your joints strong so that when your joints need to rely a little more on the muscles, the muscles will be able to carry the load.

Before you use medicine to treat your rheumatoid arthritis, you should educate yourself as much as possible. Learn all you can about the possible side effects, how the medication interacts with other drugs and foods, and how the medication will affect your daily life. For some people, controlling rheumatoid arthritis symptoms with medication may be the answer. Others may choose not to take the risks associated with the medications available for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

For those who choose not to take that risk, there are many natural treatments that help to control rheumatoid arthritis symptoms. There are many herbal remedies that can be ingested to help ease the symptoms – and many herbal remedies that can be used as massaging oils and liniments to help ease the pain and inflammation of the joints. Many home remedies have been effective for people for years – the key is to find the one that will work for you.

What is Pneumonia? How to Prevent From Pneumonia?

Pneumococcal is a serious disease that causes much sickness and death. In fact, pneumococcal disease kills more people in the United States each year than all other vaccine-preventable diseases combined.

People with infectious pneumonia often have a cough producing greenish or yellow sputum and a high fever that may be conducted by shaking chills. Shortness of breath is also common. People with pneumonia may cough up blood, experience headaches, or develop sweaty and clammy skin. Other possible symptoms are loss of appetite, fatigue, blueness of the skin, nausea, vomiting, mood swings, and joint pains or muscle aches. In some people, particularly the elderly and those who are debilitated, bacterial pneumonia may follow influenza or even a common cold. People with weak immune systems at greatest risk of pneumonia. Sometimes pneumonia can lead to additional complications. Complications are more frequently associated with bacterial pneumonia than with viral pneumonia.

Pneumonia is caused by the inhalation of infected microorganisms (tiny, single-celled living organisms, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or protozoa) spread through contact with an infected person. The microorganisms enter the body through the mouth, nose and eyes. If the body’s resistance is down, the natural process of fighting off diseases is weakened and the microorganisms are free to spread into the lungs and the lungs’ air sacs.

Antibiotics usually work well with younger, otherwise healthy people with strong immune systems. You most likely will see some improvement in symptoms within 2 to 3 days. Unless you get worse during this time, your doctor usually will not change your treatment for at least 3 days. If there is no improvement or if your symptoms get worse, you may need culture and sensitivity testing. These tests help identify the organism that is causing your symptoms and determine whether the bacteria may be resistant to the antibiotic.

Mycoplasma pneumonias are treated with antibiotics. Even so, recovery may not be immediate. In some cases fatigue may continue long after the infection itself has cleared. Many cases of mycoplasma pneumonia go undiagnosed and untreated. The signs and symptoms mimic those of a bad chest cold, so some people never seek medical attention.

Rest in bed until body core temperature returns to normal (98.6 degrees F or 37 degrees C) and chest pains and breathing problems are gone. Drink six to eight glasses of liquids daily to help keep mucous thin and easy to cough up.

Most patients with mild pneumonia can be treated at home with oral antibiotics. Patients should be sure to drink plenty of liquids. Coughing should not be suppressed, since this is an important reflex for clearing the lungs. Some physicians advise taking expectorants, such as guaifenesin (Breonesin, Glycotuss, Glytuss, Hytuss, Naldecon Senior EX, Robitussin), to loosen sputum. For severe pain, codeine or other stronger pain relievers may be prescribed. It should be noted; however, that codeine and other narcotics suppress coughing, so they should be used with care in pneumonia and often require monitoring.

When the inflammation occurs in the alveoli (microscopic air sacs in the lungs), they fill with fluid. Your lungs become less elastic and cannot take oxygen into the blood or remove carbon dioxide from the blood as efficiently as usual.

Acute Bronchitis – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment Options

Acute bronchitis is a result of the inflammation of the large bronchitis in the lungs. This is usually caused by viral and bacteria pathogens. The symptoms experienced include an expectorant cough, fever, fatigue, headaches, breathlessness, pain in the chest and wheezing.

The respiratory system is very sensitive and at risk of developing many diseases. Acute bronchitis is one of the problems you might have. The bronchial tubes get infected in acute bronchitis. This tubes carry the air into your lungs. When you get acute bronchitis, the infected airways also swell and mucus is build inside them. All these conditions in acute bronchitis make it very hard for you to breathe.

In the past, bronchitis was often associated with measles and whooping cough. Acute viral bronchitis develops when a virus causing an upper respiratory tract infection invades the bronchi, triggering inflammation and the secretion of excess mucus. Asthmatic bronchitis is triggered by exposure to a substance to which the child is allergic.

Acute Bronchitis usually affects children, infants, tobacco smokers, old people, people living in polluted areas, and people with a weak pulmonary system. If this condition is left untreated, it can progress into chronic bronchitis. This respiratory disorder can occur at any season; however, the cold months of the winter aggravates it.

The most common virus that produces acute bronchitis is the same that causes cold. Although there are also cases of bacteria causing acute bronchitis, they are very rare. Recent studies have shown that a fungus can cause acute bronchitis in lesser cases that we thought possible.

Acute bronchitis symptoms include coughing, wheezing, chest pains, fever, fatigue and headache. The wheezing and shortness of breath is as a result of the airways blocking thus making air passage through them difficult. The chest pains sometimes cannot be felt. This is if the infection is not so severe. The cause of the chest pains is as a result of tightness in the chest as not enough air reaches the lungs. Another cause can be constant coughing.

To treat a case of acute bronchitis, one must take some steps in reducing the bronchitis symptoms. This is not a difficult task, especially if you are a healthy person, your only problem being bronchitis. Antibiotics are not one of the medication that work in case of bronchitis. Furthermore, if there is already a problem with your lungs, or with your heart, the bronchitis treatment will be a little more aggressive.

To diagnose acute bronchitis is a little bit difficult, because of the likeness of the symptoms to other symptoms of different diseases. The first thing that your doctor will ask you is you have had problems with your respiratory system in the past months. like infections. Then he will look for sounds that can indicate him if your airways are blocked. For that the doctor will listen your chest using a stethoscope. Another way to diagnose acute bronchitis is to test the oxygen level in your blood.

Luxated Patella: Is This Debilitating Condition Affecting Your Dog?

If you think that your dog is suffering from a luxated patella or a slipped kneecap, the best thing to do is take him to the vet as soon as you can. Although a slipped kneecap may not seem like a serious condition to your young dog, it is a progressive disorder and can be debilitating if left untreated.

5 Common Symptoms Of A Slipped Kneecap

Symptoms usually start to appear when the dog is young, between the ages of 6 months to 1 year. But in some dogs, symptoms show up as early as around 8 weeks of age, but remains undetected until the dog reaches maturity. Signs include:

1. Difficulty climbing stairs.
2. Occasional skipping or limping, especially during a run.
3. Lameness on the leg, especially on the rear, that occurs frequently and ends suddenly.
4. Difficulty squatting.
5. Suddenly yapping in pain while walking or running, usually lasting for 2 to 4 strides.

In severe cases, the kneecap dislocates more often and lasts longer. Your dog will show discomfort and pain, seems bowlegged, and exhibits a crouching way of walking.

Using one of the many available pet strollers will allow you to take your dog with you, even bike and jog with your dog. Using a pet stroller allows your dog to enjoy time with you outside without wearing himself out. He will still be left with energy when you get to the park, or dog run.

Luxated patella is categorized in four grades, depending on the severity of the condition:

Grade I: This is when the kneecap manually dislocates but goes back into place once the pressure is released. Considered as a mild case with treatment not necessary. However, you need to keep a close eye on your dog in case the condition gets worse.

Grade II: The kneecap dislocates more often, either manually or automatically, when the joint is being flexed and continues to be dislocated until the joint is extended and the leg is turned into the opposite direction of the dislocation. Considered as middle ground between mild and severe, dogs with grades I and II should be closely monitored in case the condition gets worse.

Grade III: The kneecap dislocates on a regular basis, whenever the joint is flexed and extended. Dislocation is manually decreased when the joint is extended. This is considered to be severe enough to warrant surgery.

Grade IV: The kneecap is permanently dislocated and cannot manually be put back into place. This is because the groove is too shallow or, in some cases, completely missing. Surgery is needed to fix this problem.

Multi-directional Instability of the Shoulder

This condition is moderately common, occurs typically on both sides and is a non-traumatic condition which interferes with the function of the shoulder. The laxity of the shoulder capsule and thereby the lack of its inherent ligamentous restrictions is the underlying problem causing these difficulties. With this laxity there is an excess of mobility in the shoulder joints in every joint direction. Patients may complain of instability, with the feelings that the shoulder will partly or wholly come out of joint at times. If this instability is not obvious to the patient they may complain only of pain when they present.

Shoulder instability is initially treated conservatively to attempt to increase the muscular stability with physiotherapy used to increase the strength of the rotator cuff muscles and scapular stabiliser muscles. If physiotherapy and other conservative management have been tried without much success then surgery is targeted at improving stability in the passive joint constraints such as the shoulder capsule and related ligaments. Arthroscopic surgical technique has rapidly improved to take over the older open methods.

How many people in the population suffer from multidirectional instability is not known and a much more common situation is to acquire instability of the shoulder due to an accident or incident which results in dislocation. TUBS is an acronym for this problem:

*    Traumatic cause

*    Unidirectional instability – only in a single direction

*    Bankart lesion is found – where the cartilage rim of the shoulder socket becomes detached

*    Surgery

TUBS describes the typical traumatic type of shoulder instability problem resulting from a single or repeated dislocation of the joint.

The instability type which is multidirectional is given the acronym AMBRI which stands for:

*    Atraumatic cause – no injury or accident

*    Multidirectional instability – laxness in all joint movements

*    Bilateral (both sided) shoulder involvement

*    Rehabilitation – this is the initial treatment process

*    I stands for the technical types of operative surgery needed for this problem.

The shoulder joint has a very high degree of mobility and is designed to allow us to place our hands where we want to within our visual fields, enabling us to perform actions while we watch. We have sacrificed stability of this joint for its mobility, leading to consequent problems when the shoulder is stresses in various ways.

In considering what stability of the shoulder means it is useful to think about various concepts. Balance is the concept that the head of the humerus should be centred on the centre of the glenoid socket. The rotator cuff muscles are the main controllers of this positional requirement, allowing the shoulder to be moved around by the large nearby muscles. If the rotator cuff muscles or the muscles stabilising the scapula weaken this can alter the ability to maintain balance. The muscles compress the head into the socket which is made deeper by the labrum, the cartilage rim around the socket.

The upper half of the shoulder socket adds to the resistance against upwardly movement of the head of the humerus which the rotator cuff also provides by its compressive function. Synovial fluid makes the joint surfaces wet and so they adhere to each other to a degree, the convex ball and the concave deepness of the socket combining to push any air out and create an amount of suction force holding the joint in place. A tight joint typically has a degree of negative pressure and this helps it hold together too. These methods of enhancing stability work in the mid ranges of the joint, the parts of the joint range where the ligaments are least effective.

The joint capsule acts passively to hold back excessive movement of the shoulder and keep it within safe limits, with thickened areas of the capsule developed into the ligaments of the shoulder, the most important of which is the inferior glenohumeral ligament. This does not mean that the muscles, the dynamic stabilisers of the shoulder system, are not very important in the normal function of the shoulder. Physiotherapy concentrates on strengthening and re-educating the rotator cuff and scapular stability muscles.

Benefits Coming From Calcium and Vitamin D to Reduce Stress Fractures

What is stress fracture? Sometimes it is named as “hairline fracture”, is a physical response to risk from the outside world which is fundamentally the kind of incomplete fractures in bones. Stress fracture is a contrast to the other kinds of fractures which are oddly distinguished by a solitary, critical impact. Based on the study, the cause of this kind of fracture is approaching from odd or recurring stress.

Study said that more than half of the cases of these fractures are associated with athletics that’s why it is a common sports injury. This is could be described as a very small sliver or crack in the skeletal part which normally happens in weight-bearing skeletal components, for example the tibia (bone of the lower leg) and metatarsals (bones of the foot).

Based to the study described at the 53rd annual Orthopaedic Research Society gathering in San Diego, CA. The way to decrease the stress fractures could be supplementation which discovered been in calcium and vitamin D, even over a short time period that can considerably reduce the stress fractures.

The chosen and double-blind study which been financed by the U.S. Department of Defense, examined 5,201 female U.S. Navy newly recruited and that been held throughout eight weeks of rudimentary training from 2002 to 2006. All women, ages 17 to 35, were split up into two groups with one group obtaining every day pill supplements of 2,000 mg of calcium and 800 IU of vitamin D, and the other group receiving placebo pills. The benefits are calcium supports bone formation and repair; while vitamin D assist the body to soaks up the calcium.

During the study, 170 newly recruited in the placebo group experienced stress fractures, about 25% more than in the group taking the calcium/vitamin D supplements. “What actually surprising us is that calcium/vitamin D supplements made a significant difference in such a short period time”. Frankly, we were not sure we would see any statistically significant results in only eight weeks,” said principal investigator Joan Lappe, Ph.D., R.N., a professor of nursing and medicine at Creighton University.

Lappe documented that the study might furthermore have significances for nonmilitary populations. “It appears that supplementation with calcium and vitamin D provides a health-promoting, easy and inexpensive intervention that does not interfere with training goals,” she said.

Following to this topic, stress fractures are usually having a narrow list of symptoms and it could present as a generalized area of pain, tenderness, and pain with weight bearing. Usually when running, a stress fracture causes severe pain in the beginning of the run, moderate pain in the middle of the run, and severe pain at the end and after the run.

In an identified cornerstone, only interview and examination by the physician are needed for those who had stress fractures which signify it is not essential to investigate. Other information is that X-rays are not dependable to see any evidence, really it generally do not show the evidence of stress fractures. On the other hand, scan, MRI, or 3-phase bone scan may be more effective in unclear cases.

The Dangers of Being a Jockey

Everyone talks about the dangers open to the horses in a Grand National but rarely does anyone mention the men who mount them – the poor jockeys.

AOL Sport sought the views of leading orthopaedic surgeon, Simon Moyes, who has treated many jockeys in his career, on the dangers a top jockey will face.

Moyes, who has owned a racehorse himself said: “Being a jockey is a high risk profession. There is an extraordinary amount of skill required; a combination of the position of the jockey whilst racing, the speed of the race horse, the manoeuvres during the race and the enormous jumps pre dispose the jockey to major trauma.

“The most common injuries that jockey’s sustain (19%) are to the head and neck followed by the lower leg (15%), foot and ankle (10%), lower back (10%) and the arm and hand (10%).

“Steeple chasing, in particular the Grand National, in my opinion produce a higher rate than normal of upper limb injuries such as fractures of the collar bone and the rest of the shoulder girdle.

“Jockeys in my experience have an extremely high pain threshold and rehabilitate and recover from such injuries much faster than the normal population. I personally wish all the jockey’s well for Saturdays great race at Aintree.”

Simon Moyes operates out of the Wellington hospital in St John’s Wood and his website can be found here Simon Moyes. The good news for Tony Dobbin is that he will be fit to ride in Saturday’s John Smith’s Grand National after all.


Different Types Of Treatment For Cerebral Palsy

There is no cure for cerebral palsy, but there are several treatments that help to relieve some of the extreme symptoms that the disorder displays. A patient should be advised by a multi-disciplinary team that encompasses physical therapy, occupational therapy, drug interventions, surgery, speech therapy, sensory integration, and adaptive equipment. Each patient is different and requires one or a combination of therapies that is individualized for that specific patient. The team should look at how the therapy will improve the quality of life of the patient and relieve pain, both physical and emotional, so that the quality of life will improve.

As rigidity or stiffness sets in, the physical therapist can concentrate on the large muscles of the legs and arms to build strength and movement to both. As exercise increases and the muscles develop, less pain and immobility will be present. On the other hand, the occupational therapist specializes on the small muscles of the body. The treatment should loosen up fingers and toes and let the patient perform simple tasks that take dexterity in the extreme digits. By combining exercise with the proper utensils, the cerebral palsy patient will be able to do simple or complex tasks as the severity of the condition exists.

If the cerebral palsy affliction is located around the facial muscles, the speech and language specialist can create therapies that will strengthen the muscles to help with expression and vocal annunciations. If the patient is severe, sign language will be taught to help the patient communicate their needs.

Surgery is not always need for the cerebral palsy patient but if performed, it sometimes helps muscle development or dexterity. It has been found the children with the disorder often walk upon their toes. Corrective surgery on the in seam and heal may lengthen the muscle so that the child may walk more correctly than if the surgery was not attempted.

Drugs do not take away all symptoms of cerebral palsy but the do diminish the occurrences of seizure and spactisity. Some common drugs for these symptoms include Tegriatol and Dilantin. The team must only recommend drugs for short term use to control symptoms and not a catch all to recommend a long term therapy.

Remember, each patient is different and one or all of these therapies might be recommended by the team. The cure may not be available, but with these treatments the quality of life will improve for most patients.

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