Warm season – a period of exacerbation of allergic diseases is very rasprostarennogo – hay fever. Hay fever (from pollen – pollen) – this is an allergic disease which is caused by an inadequate immune response to pollen of various plants – pollen allergens. The term “hay fever” was introduced in 1819, it was assumed that the cause of eye disease is seasonal hay. Relationship between symptoms of allergies and the pollen was set in 1873.
Hay fever occurs in all age groups, but usually the first symptoms begin to worry in childhood or adolescence. Hay fever – chronic disease, the symptoms of hay fever are repeated every year at the same time. Season (spring, summer) increased symptoms – the most important diagnostic feature of pollinosis. The severity of acute pollinosis depends on the concentration of pollen in the air (more pollen – is more pronounced allergic reaction), the spectrum and the degree of individual sensitivity to pollen allergens (range of sensitivity determines the duration of exacerbation, and the degree of sensitivity – the intensity of symptoms).
The concentration of pollen in the atmosphere associated with the air temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, which largely determines the intensity of allergic reactions. In dry and warm weather plants pylyat intense and allergy symptoms worse. On cold days, the pollen is released much less, but the period of flowering plants is prolonged. Significantly reduced the concentration of pollen in the air during and immediately after rain and windless weather. In the morning hours (from 5 to 11 hours), the intensity of deposition is maximal in the evening, it decreases and is minimal at night. When leaving a different climatic zone, where no allergenic plants, the symptoms of acute pollinosis cropped in 2-3 days.
Hay fever causing pollens primarily vetroopylyaemyh plants that emit huge quantities of small (20 – 60 microns), pollen carried by wind over long distances – tens and even hundreds of kilometers. Therefore, manifestations of the disease may be where the plant is not allergenic. In addition, plants that produce pollen, should be widely disseminated in the region. From a number of characteristics of pollen depends on the body’s ability to respond to it. For example, birch pollen, timothy grass and sagebrush have a very high potential to cause allergies (allergens), and pine pollen – no.
In central Russia pylyat plants from late March until October. Depending on weather conditions starting date of pollination of plants can be shifted by 5 – 10 days. The highest allergenic activity has pollen ragweed, sagebrush, grass (prairie) grasses and birch trees, but in different regions of the “rampant” different allergens (in Japan – a cedar pollens, in Ukraine – chestnut and oak, in Southern Europe – pellitory).
Several groups of allergenic plants (trees, grasses and weeds) and a few periods or seasons of acute pollinosis (1. Spring, 2. Early summer, and 3. Late summer or summer-autumn). In a classic case of an allergy develops in the pollen of two or three plant species, and exacerbation of the disease lasts about a month. However, there are cases of multiple sensitization (polisensibilizatsii), when aggravation of the disease has lasted for almost all of the warm season.
The first period of exacerbation of hay fever – spring (March – May). During this period pylyat woody plants. First, in March-April, blooming alder, hazel and birch. In late April, the turn of the willow, poplar, elm, ash, maple. In May – oaks, lilacs, apple trees, coniferous trees. In Moscow and Moscow region “dangerous dose” of pollen yield birch, alder, hazel, oak, poplar, ash, maple. The most important allergen in this group is to birch pollen. Later, all the other trees dusty tree (in June).
Grasses (prairie) grasses.
Pollen grains – pollen allergen number one in Europe, opens the second period – the early years. Depending on the region of Europe grasses bloom from May until late August. In the second half of May and begin to dust foxtail bluegrass. In June, they are joined by timothy, fescue, and hedgehog. In the middle band is the main cause of hay fever pollen of timothy grass, bluegrass, hedgehogs, fescue, wheat grass, chaff, feather grass, bent grass, foxtail and fire.
The third period of acute pollinosis – late summer (August – September). This time, the flowering plants of the family Asteraceae and Chenopodiaceae; vysokoallergennymi properties have sagebrush and weeds. In these families there are plants that cause allergies and in earlier periods: for example, a dandelion, a close relative of wormwood and ambrosia – in May. Plantain, sorrel and nettles – representatives of different families – are beginning to dust in June and July, their sputtering continues until autumn.
Seasonal allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis, pollen asthma.
During the period of pollination (palinatsii) plant pollen from the air settles on the mucous membranes of the nose, eyes and mouth, along with the air enters the bronchial tubes, in contact with the skin, and sensitive to her people, symptoms of allergies. They are caused by allergic inflammation that develops as a result of contact with allergenic pollen cells of the immune system.
The main nosological forms of hay fever are seasonal allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis (seasonal allergic rinokonyunktivit) and pollen asthma. You may be allergic to pollen (hay fever), if you each year, roughly the same period of spring or summer, notice one or more of the following symptoms:
• indomitable sneezing (sneezing bouts), itchy nose, profuse watery nasal discharge (heavy cold) or stuffy nose (allergic rhinitis, allergic rhinitis);
• itching and redness of the eyes, watery eyes (allergic conjunctivitis);
• itching palate, tongue (allergic pharyngitis);
• dry cough, difficulty breathing, shortness of breath or choking, wheezing in the chest (pollen asthma);
• skin rash, itching of the skin (atopic dermatitis or allergic urticaria).
Status of the seasonal exacerbation of hay fever like “colds”, but the temperature usually remains normal. In the midst of illness may experience common symptoms – the so-called “pollen intoxication: irritability, fatigue, poor appetite, weight loss, depression, possible migraine attacks. In contact with pollen in the gastrointestinal tract, such as bee products, possible nausea, vomiting, sudden abdominal pain in conjunction with urticaria.
One of the most affordable and effective forms of allergy treatment is a pill Claritin.