Diabetic Skin Care

Epidemiology
Diabetes mellitus is characterized by high blood glucose (hyperglycemia) which can be due to: a) decreased production of insulin (called Type I diabetes mellitus) due to destruction of the pancreas on an autoimmune basis or b) decreased peripheral sensitivity to insulin (called type II which also has some decreased production of insulin by the pancreas) associated with obesity and lack of physical activity. Only about 5-10% of the total have type I disease, the rest have type II.

The most recent statistics available (2005) reveal 20.8 million people (7% of the population) with diabetes of which 14.6 million were actually diagnosed leaving 6.2 million unaware of the presence of this serious disease. Moreover, its prevalence has increased 40% in the last decade and is expected to increase by 165% between 2000 and 2005 (figure 1). It has been estimated that fully 1/3 of the population born in 2000 will develop diabetes. In addition to patient suffering and disability, the economic impact in direct and indirect costs is enormous, amounting to $132 billion in 2002 representing 1/10th of all health care costs.

There were 224,092 deaths attributable to diabetes in the USA in 2002 (probably an underestimation). The risk for death in patients with diabetes is twice that for people of the same age without diabetes, and this decreased longevity is due to cardiovascular disease. Diabetes increases the risk of heart disease and stroke 2-4 fold over that for people without diabetes. Its microvascular complications of retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy make diabetes mellitus the leading cause of blindness, end-stage renal disease, and non-traumatic lower extremity amputations in the U.S.A.2 The frequency of the last complication is increasing (figure 2).

Pathogenesis

The macrovascular and microvascular complications of diabetes are closely related to hyperglycemia and oxidative stress, which is when cells fail to detoxify the reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced during metabolism. Four hypotheses have been proposed to explain how hyperglycemia causes complications: 1) increased polyol pathway flux, 2) increased intracellular formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE), 3) activation of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms, and 4) increased flux through the hexosamine pathway.

A unifying concept is that hyperglycemia-induced mitochondrial superoxide overproduction activates these 4 pathways. Excess superoxide partially inhibits the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) thereby diverting upstream metabolites from glycolysis to pathways of glucose over-utilization. Superoxide anion achieves this by causing DNA strand breaks that result in activation of poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) which in turn ribosylates and deactivates GAPDH. By preventing their metabolism, this process increases energy substrates resulting in increased flux of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) to diacylglycerol (DAG), an activator of PKC, and of triose phosphates to methylglyoxol, which is the main intracellular AGE precursor. Increased flux of fructose-6-phosphate to UDP-N-acetylglucosamine in the hexosamine pathway increases modification of proteins by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine and increased glucose flux through the polyol pathway consumes the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) and depletes GSH (reduced glutathione, a natural potent anti-oxidant).

Several mechanisms have been postulated to explain why increasing the polyol pathway flux is detrimental. These are sorbitol-induced osmotic stress, decreased (Na++K+) ATPase activity, increased cytosolic NADH/NAD+ and decreased cytosolic NADPH.

Activation of the hexosamine pathway results in intracellular glycosylation and donation of N-acetyl glucosamine to serine and threonine residues of transcription factors such as Sp1 resulting in increased production of factors such as plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1).5

Production of intracellular AGEs damages target cells by three mechanisms. Intracellular proteins modified by AGEs have altered function (like neurotropism, axonal transport, and gene expression). Secondly, extra-cellular matrix components modified by AGE precursors interact abnormally with other matrix components and with the receptors for matrix proteins (integrins) on cells. Thirdly, plasma proteins modified by AGE precursors bind to AGE receptors (RAGE) on endothelial cells, mesangial cells, and macrophages inducing receptor-mediated production of ROS as a second messenger to activate the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B), a transcription factor causing pathological changes in gene expression.5

Hyperglycemia-induced activation of PKC has a number of pathogenic consequences by affecting expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthetase (eNOS), endothelin-1 (ET-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), TGF-beta 1, and PAI-1, and by activating NF-kappa B and NAD(P)H oxidases. Increased eNOS and decreased ET-1 decrease blood flow causing hypoxia. Increased VEGF causes increased vascular permeability and angiogenesis. Increased TGF-beta leads to increased collagen, fibronectin, extra-cellular matrix, and basement membrane resulting in capillary occlusion. Increased PAI-1 decreases fibrinolysis leading to vascular occlusion. Increased NF-kappa B causes an increase in pro-inflammatory gene expression. Increased NAD(P)H oxidase causes increased ROS (resulting in DNA damage, oxidation of polydesaturated fatty acids in lipids, and oxidation of amino acids in proteins). These pathogenic mechanisms can all be characterized as a result of ROS effects on genes and proteins.5

Diabetic Skin

The skin of the diabetic is prematurely aged and is subjected to the problems of neuropathy, macrovascular disease, and microvascular disease. In addition, diabetes is associated with poor wound healing, susceptibility to infection, and decreased cell-mediated immunity. This battle may go on unrecognized to the naked eye and dictates a keen vigilance by both doctor and patient to prevent the dreaded complications of this disease. The struggle is against oxidative stress and inflammation, ischemia and necrosis.

Clinical manifestations

1. Diabetic dermopathy is the most common dermatological manifestation of diabetes and is due to microvascular changes. Because it is associated with but not specific for diabetes mellitus, it serves as a marker for the disease. This dermopathy is most often seen in diabetic men over the age of 50 but may also be seen in euglycemic diabetics and healthy individuals. The lesion is so named because of typical changes in the microvasculature. Irregularly shaped patches of skin with a depressed surface are found primarily over the anterior aspect of the lower legs but may occur on the upper arms and thighs and over bony prominences. The lesions are light brown in color due to extravasated red blood cells and deposition of hemosiderin in histiocytes. They appear in crops and resolve over 12-18 months. Since the lesions are asymptomatic, no specific treatment is required except to protect the area from trauma and secondary infection.

2. The skin of the diabetic foot is usually dry due to decreased sweating as a result of the autonomic neuropathy of diabetes. Sweating normally helps hydrate the stratum corneum, and dry skin is prone to callus formation with cracking and fissuring.

3. The “diabetic foot” is due to neurovascular and ischemic changes. It is a very serious complication of this disease. Loss of sensation means that the diabetic patient is no longer able to sense and avoid injuring agents in the environment. Thermal trauma can have horrific results. Even minor mechanical trauma to the skin of the diabetic foot can result in blisters, sores, and ulcers. This is compounded by motor loss to the intrinsic muscles of the foot leading to deformities including a high plantar arch and “hammer toes.” Bony prominences are created at the heel, toes, and metatarsal heads that become pressure points over which the skin can break down. This can lead to ulceration; infection of skin, soft tissues, and bone (osteomyelitis); gangrene (which can be either “wet” due to necrosis with infection or “dry” due to necrosis without infection); and ultimately amputation. The skin over pressure points can become thickened as a callus or corn or develop blisters that can get infected. The skin between the toes can become macerated which fosters secondary infection by bacteria and fungi. The bones of the feet can degenerate producing fractures (Charcot foot). One dreaded complication from this is a “rocker-bottom foot” that often results in skin breakdown and infection. A “diabetic foot” is usually asymptomatic until late in the game. Special attention is required: the patient should inspect his or her feet daily to avoid the complication, and a physician with expertise in this field is required for optimal results.

Treatment:

Control of hyperglycemia: The first step in controlling hyperglycemia in type II diabetics is diet and exercise. Then oral hypoglycemic agents are added of which there are many. Ultimately, insulin may be required by injection. Insulin is the first therapeutic step in type I diabetics. Unfortunately, control of blood glucose is difficult particularly in type II patients probably related to poor compliance. It is at this level that the patient can be most helpful. Make sure the patient takes control of their blood glucose, exercises, has proper diet, attends to their skin, and uses appropriate medications. Patients should check their blood sugar often and their feet daily. The best results come from treatment based on pathogenesis, and prevention is the name of the game.

Pharmacology

Corneotherapy is made possible by what is known as the 500 Dalton Rule. The 500 Dalton Rule is used in the development of topical drugs and trans-dermal delivery systems. The skin’s barrier is effective in blocking molecules with an atomic weight more than 500 Daltons, but molecules of less weight pass through the skin’s barrier. Topical drugs like cyclosporine, tacrolimus, and ascomycins can be effectively delivered through the skin because the molecules of these drugs are all smaller than 500 Daltons.

While the stratum corneum’s physicochemical barrier resists the penetrations of large molecules, smaller molecules with a molecular weight of less than 500 Daltons pass transcutaneously. Molecular size is an important factor governing passage of substances through the skin, giving substances with higher molecular weights self-limiting properties. Passive delivery of substances, due to their low molecular weight, provides novel delivery opportunities. Included in these low molecular weight substances are vitamins, amino acids, ?-3 and ?-6 essential fatty acids, and antioxidants like hydroxytyrosol.

Instructions for Patients to Prevent Diabetic Foot Problems
You should start taking good care of your feet. Set a time every day to check them. Now is the time for you to play an active role in your health care with these 10 steps:

1.Test your blood glucose often. Work with your health care team to keep your blood glucose in your target range with proper diet and exercise.
2.Avoid foot problems by early detection of changes before they get worse. Look at your bare feet daily for red spots, cuts, swellings, and blisters. If you cannot see the bottoms of your feet, use a mirror or ask someone for help.
3.Get active. Plan your physical activity program with your health care team.
4.Get informed. Ask your doctor about Medicare coverage for special shoes (orthotics).
5.Wash (not soak) your feet every day in lukewarm water and dry them carefully, especially between the toes.
6.Keep your skin soft and smooth. Rub a thin coat of skin cream over the tops and bottoms of your feet, but not between your toes.
7.If you can see and reach your toenails, trim them when needed. Trim your toenails straight across and file the edges with an emery board or nail file.
8.Wear shoes and socks at all times. Never go barefoot. Wear comfortable shoes that fit well and protect your feet. Check inside your shoes before wearing them. Make sure the lining is smooth and there are no objects inside.
9.Protect your feet from hot and cold. Wear shoes at the beach or on hot pavement. Don’t put your feet into hot water. Test water before putting your feet in it just as you would before bathing a baby. Never use hot water bottles, heating pads, or electric blankets. You can burn your feet seriously without realizing it.
10.Keep the blood flowing to your feet. Put your feet up when sitting. Wiggle your toes and move your ankles up and down for 5 minutes, two (2) or three (3) times a day. Don’t cross your legs for long periods of time. Don’t smoke!

Remedy® Description:

Clinical Pharmacology: The active ingredient in these preparations is dimethicone 1.5% that protects the skin. Olivamine® is a patent pending blend of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents that helps repair cell membranes and restore cells to a healthy state. Olivamine® contains the following:

Hydroxytyrosol

3,4-dihdroxyphenylethanol (hydroxytyrosol: DOPET) is the major component in the phenolic fraction of olive oil. It is a hydro-soluble and lipid soluble molecule that is an efficient scavenger of peroxyl radicals. Experiments demonstrate that DOPET effectively counteracts the cytotoxic effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in various human cellular systems. In studies using DOPET pre-incubated cells, it was found that damage due to oxidative stress, such as lipid peroxidation and alterations of cell permeability, could be prevented and that DOPET exerted a protective effect against H2O2 induced oxidative hemolysis.

Glycine

Altering cellular osmolality to a hyperosmotic state results in a decrease in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) allied with necrosis and resultant necrosis. Glycine is a cytoprotectant against injury by ATP-depletion. Glycine protects ATP-depleted cells by low affinity interactions with multimeric channel protein, stabilization of which may other wise lead to formation of pathological pores. Such porous defects in membranes of ATP-depleted cells have been characterized recently, showing definable exclusion limits for molecules of increasing sizes. Glycine provided during ATP-depletion blocked the development of membranous pores completely. The relationship between necrosis and an extracellular depletion of ATP makes its protection and restoration imperative during the prelethal stages of necrosis or early necrosis.

L-Taurine

L-Taurine can act as a direct antioxidant that scavenges or quenches oxygen free radicals intracellularly to block ROS mediated cell death. The beneficial effects of the ROS-scavenging capacity of L-taurine include attenuation of lipid peroxidation, reduction of membrane permeability, and inhibition of intracellular oxidation in different cells. Taurine prevents high glucose induced apoptosis in endothelial cells thru ROS inhibition and stabilization of intracellular calcium. Apart from its effect on antioxidant defense, L-taurine also functions as a principle modulator of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis.

N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine

In research conducted by the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, SUNY Buffalo School of Medicine, Buffalo, NY, and the Free Radical & Radiation Biology Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, the University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, we investigated the hypothesis that NAC-induced free radical-signaling delays G0/G1 cells progression to S phase by regulating the cell cycle regulatory protein cyclin D1 and the free radical-scavenging enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD). Treatment with NAC resulted in increased cellular glutathione levels indicating a shift to a more reducing environment. This shift in cellular redox environment was associated with delayed progression from G0/G1 to S. NAC treatment resulted in a decrease in cyclin D1 and an increase in MnSOD protein levels. The absence of NAC-induced G1 arrest in fibroblasts over-expressing cyclin D1 (or a non-degradable mutant of cyclin D1-T286A) indicates cyclin D1 regulates this delay in G0/G1 to S progression. These results support the hypothesis that cellular redox environment regulates cellular proliferation via regulating cell cycle regulatory protein levels. Furthermore, our results also suggest that inclusion of NAC in skin care formulations might help in appropriate wound healing by controlling proliferation and preventing scarring.

L-Proline

DNA synthesis is a vital part of cell life. In studies done in vivo and in vitro, L-proline was found to be the only amino acid that was involved in the stimulation of DNA synthesis. Further, epidermal growth factor (EGF) elicited no response without the addition of L-proline. Proline-deficient media such as Leibovitz’s L-15, Eagle’s minimal essential, and Dulebecco’s modified minimal essential did not induce DNA synthesis. However, using media such as Williams E, McCoy’s 5A and Ham’s F-12, which are rich in L-proline, there was DNA synthesis and marked proliferation. L-Proline is essential for the induction of cellular proliferation in vivo and in vitro through its effect on synthesis of intracellular collagen.

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

The term vitamin B6 is used to describe all biologically inter-convertible forms of pyridoxine including pridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxal 5-phosphate, and pyridoxamine. Vitamin B6 is an essential co-factor in numerous enzymatic reactions involved primarily in amino acid metabolism. In addition, vitamin B6 functions as an antioxidant by interacting with singlet molecular oxygen during oxidative stress.

Vitamin B3 (Niacinamide)

Niacinamide is a precursor of the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) used to generate ATP in the mitochondrial electron-transport chain. Niacinamide is involved in DNA integrity and maintains phosphatidylserine membrane asymmetry to prevent cellular inflammation and phagocytosis. Current research demonstrates that niacinamide prevents the induction of caspase-8, caspase-1, and caspase-2 activities during cellular injury. The cytoprotectant effects of niacinamide are involved in the maintenance and preservation of cellular membranes.

Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM)

Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a naturally occurring organic compound containing 34% elemental sulfur. Sulfur is critical in the formation of collagen. The flexibility of bonds between cells, including skin, is dependent upon sulfur. MSM provides a bioavailable from of sulfur and supports the body’s ability to produce N-acetyl-L-cysteine and L-taurine that are sulfur-containing amino acids. MSM is an important volatile component in the sulfur cycle. Topically applied MSM is keratolytic through the formation of hydrogen sulfide. MSM aids in wound healing via keratin. Compounds containing sulfur are found in all body cells and are indispensable for life. Low levels of MSM are implicated in slow wound healing.

Indications and Usage

Remedy® with Olivamine® temporarily protects and helps relieve chapped or cracked skin in patients with dry skin or diabetes mellitus. It is useful in prevention of skin complications from diabetes.

Contraindications

Do not use products on deep or puncture wounds, animal bites, or serious burns.

Warnings

These products are recommended for external use only.

Precautions

When using this product do not get into eyes. Stop use and ask a physician if the condition worsens, symptoms last longer than 7 days, or symptoms clear up and then return within a few days. Keep out of reach of children. If swallowed, get medical help or contact a Poison Control Center right away. Protect the products from freezing and excessive heat.

Adverse Reactions

An allergic skin rash is possible with any of the components. If redness, itching, or hives occur, stop the product and seek medical care.

Dosage and Administration

Apply cleansing lotion to wet or dry skin and rub gently. Rinse or wipe with a moistened cloth. The cleanser acts without lathering. Apply the cream liberally until the entire area is covered. Both the cleansing lotion and the repair cream can be used as needed.

Obesity: Symptoms and Their Effects

Obesity

Overweight and obesity are defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that presents a risk to health. A crude population measure of obesity is the body mass index (a person’s weight (in kilograms) divided by the square of his or her height (in meters). Overweight and obesity are major risk factors when people eat more calories than they burn off; their bodies store the extra calories as fat. for a number of chronic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Obesity is an abnormal accumulation of body fat, usually 20 percent or more over an individual’s ideal body weight. Obesity is associated with an increased risk of illness, disability, and death. It may be simply an extreme degree of overweight – but a person can be overweight without being obese.

Symptoms of Obesity

Adiposity (fat cells) in the breast region in boys

Large abdomen (white or purple marks are sometimes present)

Increased adiposity in the upper arms and thighs.

Accumulation of excess fat below the diaphragm and in the chest wall may put pressure on the lungs, causing difficulty in breathing and shortness of breath, even with minimal exertion.

There is indigestion aggravated by so much abdominal fat. Urinary incontinence is an often undisclosed but embarrassing symptom, particularly for women, and is very common for the obese. Snoring and sleep apnoea have a strong association with abdominal obesity

Strain on the weight bearing joints.

Extra body fat

High blood pressure

Heart and blood vessel problems, such as stroke and coronary heart disease

Health effects of obesity

Heart Disease-The risk of heart attack, congestive heart failure, sudden cardiac death, and angina or chest pain is increased in persons who are overweight or obese. High blood pressure is twice as common in adults who are obese than in those who are at a healthy weight. Obesity is associated with high triglycerides and decreased HDL cholesterol.
Cancers-Obesity is associated with an increased risk for some types of cancer including endometrial (cancer of the lining of the uterus), colon, gall bladder, prostate, kidney, and post-menopausal breast cancer. Women gaining more than 20 pounds from age 18 to midlife double their risk of post-menopausal breast cancer, compared to women whose weight remains stable.
Health Risk of Arthritis-Osteoarthritis is a painful degenerative joint disorder that has been called “wear and tear”. Arthritis since it is caused by physical stress on joints. It most often affects knees, hips, and lower back vertebrae. Extra weight can place pressure on these joints, accelerating the wearing away of the cartilage that normally protects them. Gout is a joint disease, but it is caused by high levels of uric acid. Uric acid can form crystal deposits in the joints, causing pain and inflammation.
Psychosocial effects – In a culture where often the ideal of physical attractiveness is to be overly thin, people who are overweight or obese frequently suffer disadvantages. Overweight and obese persons are often blamed for their condition and may be considered to be lazy or weak-willed. It is not uncommon for overweight or obese conditions to result in persons having lower incomes or having fewer or no romantic relationships. Disapproval of overweight persons expressed by some individuals may progress to bias, discrimination, and even torment.

Do You Use Calamine Lotion For Most Rashes

Calamine lotion is a wonderful product. From poison ivy to eczema the lotion can help relieve the symptoms of several different types of rashes. The main uses for calamine lotion are to help relieve pain, itching and discomfort from skin irritations. These irritations can be caused from plants, household materials and even some airborne irritants. Calamine lotion basically helps dry out the skin rash that is caused by the environmental irritants.

The main ingredients in Calamine lotion are zinc oxide and ferric oxide. The main ingredient in the lotion asks as an anti-itching agent. The main ingredient is an antipruritic ingredient that treats rashes by soothing the itching and irritation. Several of the rashes calamine lotion has been known to help are sunburn, eczema, poison ivy, insect bites or stings, rashes or chickenpox. Calamine lotion has also been used to treat blisters and acne areas that have a weeping or oozing symptom.

Calamine lotion is a very easy to use, but it is recommended to follow the directions on the back of the bottle. The lotion needs to be shaken before it can be used. This mixes all the ingredients together evenly so you can get the full effect of the lotion. To apply the lotion, you should use a cotton ball. Most bottles tell the user to apply the lotion to the cotton ball and then dab onto the rash. Once the medicine is on the skin, it will take about 30 minutes to fully dry.

Once the Calamine lotion is dry you should feel the full benefits of the lotion almost immediately. There have been cases of people having side effects to Calamine lotion. Most of the time the side effects are minor, but in certain cases the allergic reaction has been more severe. When you have a question about the side effects or uses of Calamine lotion, always contact your doctor or pharmacist. All in all Calamine lotion is a great product, from relieving chicken pox itches to poison ivy.

In life, don’t look for one product that will solve everything. That just isn’t the case. The root of the problem needs to be analyzed, whether it is about rashes, respiratory problems, mood disorders or chronic exhaustion. It’s important to not simplify things and expect there to just be one way to handle it.

The mind loves a simple solution but the reality is that the underlying factors of a situation need to be observed and an appropriate solution needs to be applied. Don’t just think that you can use calamine lotion for every rash.

How to Treat Cold Sores

Cold sores are painful, fluid-filled tiny blisters that appear on the lips and around the nose. They usually appear in association with a cold-hence the name. It is caused by one of two highly contagious viruses:Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2. When the body is stressed, or its immune system is compromised, the body becomes an easy attack of this virus.

The first episode of cold sores can be so painful that you may have difficulty eating, drinking, and sleeping. A child who has a fever and many mouth sores may need to be encouraged to drink water and other fluids to prevent dehydration.

Adults and older children who have a painful first episode of cold sores may sometimes need a prescription-strength medicated mouth rinse to reduce pain.

Also, good hand washing when a sore is present will help prevent the spread of the infection and will also help prevent the sore from becoming infected with bacteria, which may make the sore last longer.

Skin protectants and lip moisturizers with allantoin, dimethicone, cocoa butter, white petrolatum or glycerin provide moisturization to keep the cold sore moist as well as a mechanical barrier to guard the skin and lips from irritants

Cold sores — also called fever blisters — are quite different from canker sores, a condition people sometimes associate them with. Cold sores are caused by the herpes simplex virus, and they’re contagious. Canker sores, which aren’t contagious, are ulcers that occur in the soft tissues inside your mouth, places where cold sores don’t occur.

Suppression therapy, taking medication every day to prevent outbreaks, is not yet FDA-approved. Studies have shown that people who have more than six recurrences or more per year can benefit from taking acyclovir 400 mg twice daily by reducing the number of recurrences and decreasing viral shedding. Other possibilities are famciclovir 250 mg twice a day or valacyclovir 500 mg once a day.

Cold sores will usually start to heal on their own within a few days. But if they cause pain or make you feel embarrassed, they can be treated. Treatment may include skin creams, ointments, or sometimes pills. Treatment may get rid of the cold sores only 1 to 2 days faster, but it can also help ease painful blisters or other uncomfortable symptoms.

If your cold sores are particularly severe, or you have a damaged immune system (which can be caused by factors such as undergoing chemotherapy, or having HIV), you may be at risk of further complications, including encephalitis (swelling of the brain) or a spread of your infection to other parts of your body, such as your eyes.

After the initial attack there is a strong chance that later instances will not be as severe and may also reoccur less frequently. Some sufferers who have recurring cold sores claim to feel a tingling or slight itching of their lip 1 or 2 days before the blister appears. This can be really beneficial to help stop, or slow down the effects the cold sore before it gets established. Usually the application of a topical treatment is essential if you feel a cold sore forming.

Psoriasis treatments

Psoriasis treatment

What is Psoriasis, Causes and Types of Psoriasis

Psoriasis:-

Psoriasis is a chronic autoimmune disease that appears on the skin. It occurs when the immune system sends out faulty signals that speed up the growth cycle of skin cells. Psoriasis is not contagious.[1] There are five types of psoriasis: plaque, guttate, inverse, pustular and erythrodermic. The most common form, plaque psoriasis, is commonly seen as red and white hues of scaly patches appearing on the top first layer of the epidermis (skin). Some patients, though, have no dermatological symptoms.

In plaque psoriasis, skin rapidly accumulates at these sites, which gives it a silvery-white appearance. Plaques frequently occur on the skin of the elbows and knees, but can affect any area, including the scalp, palms of hands and soles of feet, and genitals. In contrast to eczema, psoriasis is more likely to be found on the outer side of the joint.

The disorder is a chronic recurring condition that varies in severity from minor localized patches to complete body coverage. Fingernails and toenails are frequently affected (psoriatic nail dystrophy) and can be seen as an isolated symptom. Psoriasis can also cause inflammation of the joints, which is known as psoriatic arthritis. Ten to up to 40 percent of people with psoriasis have psoriatic arthritis.[2]

The cause of psoriasis is not fully understood, but it is believed to have a genetic component, and local psoriatic changes can be triggered by an injury to the skin known as the Koebner phenomenon,[3] see Koebnerisin. Various environmental factors have been suggested as aggravating to psoriasis, including stress, withdrawal of systemic corticosteroid, as well as other environmental factors, but few have shown statistical significance.[4] There are many treatments available, but because of its chronic recurrent nature, psoriasis is a challenge to treat. Read More

Classification

The symptoms of psoriasis can manifest in a variety of forms. Variants include plaque, pustular, guttate and flexural psoriasis. This section describes each type (with ICD-10 code [5]).[6]

Psoriasis is a chronic relapsing disease of the skin that may be classified into nonpustular and pustular types as follows

Pustular

Pustular psoriasis appears as raised bumps that are filled with noninfectious pus (pustules). The skin under and surrounding the pustules is red and tender. Pustular psoriasis can be localised, commonly to the hands and feet (palmoplantar pustulosis), or generalised with widespread patches occurring randomly on any part of the body. Types include:

  • Generalized pustular psoriasis (pustular psoriasis of von Zumbusch)
  • Pustulosis palmaris et plantaris (persistent palmoplantar pustulosis, pustular psoriasis of the Barber type, pustular psoriasis of the extremities)
  • Annular pustular psoriasis
  • Acrodermatitis continua
  • Impetigo hepetiformis

Other

Additional types of psoriasis include

  • Drug-induced psoriasis
  • Inverse psoriasis (flexural psoriasis, inverse psoriasis)(L40.83-4) appears as smooth inflamed patches of skin. It occurs in skin folds, particularly around the genitals (between the thigh and groin), the armpits, under an overweight stomach (pannus), and under the brests(inframammary fold). It is aggravated by friction and sweat, and is vulnerable to fungal infections.
  • Napkin psoriasis
  • Seborrheic-like psoriasis

Guttate psoriasis (L40.4) is characterized by numerous small, scaly, red or pink, teardrop-shaped lesions. These numerous spots of psoriasis appear over large areas of the body, primarily the trunk, but also the limbs and scalp. Guttate psoriasis is often preceded by astreptococcal infection, typically streptococcal pharyngitis. The reverse is not true.

Nail psoriasis (L40.86) produces a variety of changes in the appearance of finger and toe nails. These changes include discolouring under the nail plate, pitting of the nails, lines going across the nails, thickening of the skin under the nail, and the loosening (onycholysis) and crumbling of the nail.

Psoriatic arthritis involves joint and connective tissue inflammation. Psoriatic arthritis can affect any joint, but is most common in the joints of the fingers and toes. This can result in a sausage-shaped swelling of the fingers and toes known as dactylitis. Psoriatic arthritis can also affect the hips, knees and spine (spondylitis). About 10-15% of people who have psoriasis also have psoriatic arthritis.

Psoriasis is an autoimmune disorder of the skin results in hyper proliferation of the skin. It is a chronic skin disease characterized by dry skin and raised, rough, red areas on the skin covered with fine silvery scales. Psoriasis non-infectious and it is often seen in people between 15 to 40 yrs of age.

There are different types of psoriasis. They are :

  • Plaque psoriasis – Patches of raised, reddish skin covered by silvery-white scale
  • Psoriatic arthritis – Which causes inflammation of the joints.
  • Guttate psoriasis – Small, red spots on the skin
  • Pustular psoriasis – White pustules surrounded by red skin
  • Inverse psoriasis – Smooth, red lesions form in skin folds
  • Erythrodermic psoriasis – widespread redness, severe itching, and pain

Causes of Psoriasis

The exact cause of psoriasis is not known. It is believed that a combination of several factors contributes to the development of this disease.

Some common causes of psoriasis are the following:

  • Psoriasis occurs when the immune system overreacts, causing inflammation and flaking of skin.
  • Abnormality in the mechanism in which the skin grows and replaces itself causes psoriasis.
  • Psoriasis develops when the immune system tells the body to over-react and accelerate the growth of skin cells.
  • Heredity also plays a role in the development of psoriasis
  • Environmental factors such as trauma, sunlight, infection, emotional stress, climatic changes etc also causes.

he cause of psoriasis is not fully understood. There are two main hypotheses about the process that occurs in the development of the disease. The first considers psoriasis as primarily a disorder of excessive growth and reproduction of skin cells. The problem is simply seen as a fault of the epidermis and its keratinocytes. The second hypothesis sees the disease as being an immune-mediated disorder in which the excessive reproduction of skin cells is secondary to factors produced by the immune system. T cells (which normally help protect the body against infection) become active, migrate to the dermis and trigger the release of cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha TNFα, in particular) which cause inflammation and the rapid production of skin cells. It is not known what initiates the activation of the T cells.

The immune-mediated model of psoriasis has been supported by the observation that immunosuppressant medications can clear psoriasis plaques. However, the role of the immune system is not fully understood, and it has recently been reported that an animal model of psoriasis can be triggered in mice lacking T cells.Animal models, however, reveal only a few aspects resembling human psoriasis.

Compromised skin barrier function has a role in psoriasis susceptibility

Psoriasis is a fairly idiosyncratic disease. The majority of people’s experience of psoriasis is one in which it may worsen or improve for no apparent reason. Studies of the factors associated with psoriasis tend to be based on small (usually hospital based) samples of individuals. These studies tend to suffer from representative issues, and an inability to tease out causal associations in the face of other (possibly unknown) intervening factors. Conflicting findings are often reported. Nevertheless, the first outbreak is sometimes reported following stress(physical and mental), skin injury, and streptococcal infection. Conditions that have been reported as accompanying a worsening of the disease include infections, stress, and changes in season and climate. Certain medicines, including lithium salt, beta blockers and theantimalarial drug chloroquininine have been reported to trigger or aggravate the disease. Excessive alcohol consumption, smoking and obesity may exacerbate psoriasis or make the management of the condition difficult or perhaps these comorbidities are effects rather than causes. Hairspray, some face creams and hand lotions, can also cause an outbreak of psoriasis.[citation needed] In 1975, Stefania Jablonska and collaborators advanced a new theory that special antibodies tend to break through into the lower layers of the skin and set up a complex series of chemical reactions.

Individuals suffering from the advanced effects of the human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV, often exhibit psoriasis.[23] This presents a paradox to researchers, as traditional therapies that reduce T-cell counts generally cause psoriasis to improve. Yet, as CD4-T-cell counts decrease with the progression of HIV, psoriasis worsens.[24] In addition, HIV is typically characterized by a strong Th2 cytokine profile, whereas psoriasis vulgaris is characterized by a strong Th1 secretion pattern. It is hypothesized that the diminished CD4-T-Cell presence causes an overactivation of CD8-T-cells, which are responsible for the exacerbation of psoriasis in HIV positive patients. It is important to remember that most individuals with psoriasis are otherwise healthy, and the presence of HIV accounts for less than 1% of cases. The prevalence of psoriasis in the HIV positive population ranges from 1 to 6 percent, which is about three times higher than the normal population.[26] Psoriasis in AIDS sufferers is often severe, and untreatable with conventional therapy.[27]

Psoriasis occurs more likely in dry skin than oily or well-moisturized skin, and specifically after an external skin injury such as a scratch or cut (see Koebner phenomenon). This is believed to be caused by an infection, in which the infecting organism thrives under dry skin conditions with minimal skin oil, which otherwise protects skin from infections. The case for psoriasis is opposite to the case of athlete’s foot, which occurs because of a fungus infection under wet conditions as opposed to dry in psoriasis. This infection induces inflammation, which causes the symptoms commonly associated with psoriasis, such as itching and rapid skin turnover, and leads to drier skin, as the infecting organism absorbs the moisture that would otherwise go to the skin. To prevent dry skin and reduce psoriasis symptoms, it is advised to not use shower scrubs, as they not only damage skin by leaving tiny scratches, but they also scrape off the naturally occurring skin oil. It is recommended to use talc powder after washing, as that helps absorb excess moisture which would otherwise go to the infecting agent. Additionally, moisturizers can be applied to moisturize the skin, and lotions used to promote skin oil gland functions.

Symptoms of Psoriasis

The symptoms of psoriasis vary from person to person. Some of the common symptoms of psoriasis are the following:

  • Raised, red patches of skin topped with loose, silvery scales, usually on the knees or elbows
  • Thick, red patches known as plaques, and dry, silvery scales appearing on the scalp, face, elbows, knees, palms, and soles of the feet.
  • Dry, cracked skin that may bleed
  • Joint swelling, tenderness, and pain
  • Thickened, pitted or ridged nails

Herbal treatment and Ayurvedic medicines for Psoriasis

Ayurveda believes that impurities in the blood associated with emotional factors are the cause of the disease. According to Ayurveda Psoriasis can be considered as the vitiation of Vata and Kapha.

Ayurvedic treatment for Psoriasis

Ayurveda suggests Panchakarma for the treatment of psoriasis. This is because detoxification of the body is very essential for the treatment of psoriasis.

Natural Herbal Treatment for Psoriasis

There is no treatment for psoriasis that can guarantee 100% result. A natural psoriasis treatment that may help one person may have no effect on another person. Psoriasis treatment requires strict dietary restictions and life style practives.

Some effective natural psoriasis treatment, Precautionary tips and natural cure for psoriasis

  • The use of curd in the form of buttermilk has proved useful in psoriasis and the patient should drink it in liberal quantities.
  • Do not control natural urges like vomiting, urination, bowel emptying etc.
  • Avoid taking spicy food and consume only easily digestable food.
  • Do not eat too much of salty, sour or acidic foods
  • Avoid consuming opposite foods
  • Include more fruits, vegetable, fruit juices in your diet. Bitter gourd, curd, boiled vegetables, pumpkin etc… are good psoriasis diet.
  • Avoid animal fats, eggs, processed canned foods from your diet.
  • Application of avocado oil gently on the effected part is found to be an effective treatment.
  • Cod liver oil, lecithin, linseed oil, vitamin E, and zinc fasten the healing process.
  • Apply moisturizing cream or gel at regular intervals to maintain the moisture level of the skin.
  • Avoid using soap while taking bath instead use gram flour and use a herbal scrubber.
  • Avoid pricking, peeling and scratching skin
  • Use separate, clean clothes and towel for your use.
  • Taking bath in sea water is found to be very effective in psoriasis treatment.
  • Drinking fresh bitter gourd juice mixed with one teaspoon of lime juice on an empty stomach is an effective psoriasis treatment
  • Applying aloe vera cream thinly to irritated skin and rubbing lightly is effective.
  • Mental health is absolutely necessary for an effective treatment of psoriasis. Try deep breathing and relaxation exercise to reduce stress.
  • Exposing to mild sunlight daily for 30 minutes will improve the texture of the affected area of the skin.

Self-care for psoriasis

  • Avoid all factors which trigger psoriasis.
  • Reduce stress levels through meditation and Yoga .
  • Do not prick, peel or scratch skin. This may trigger psoriasis.
  • After bath or wash pat dry the skin. Do not rub the towel vigorously on skin.
  • Avoid soap. Instead use gram flour (besan flour) as soap dries the skin.
  • After washing, pat the skin dry, don’t irritate it by rubbing vigorously.
  • Apply moisturizing creams liberally on affected areas after
  • Opt for cotton clothes over synthetic ones.

Changes that occur on skin during psoriasis

It takes 27 days for skin to replace itself with new mature skin cells. But the regions of skin affected by psoriasis the skin replace itself within 3-4 days with plenty of immature skin cells forming thick psoriatic patches.

According to ayurveda principles the vitiated vata dries the water element of skin and also initiate rapid growth of skin tissue. The vitiated Kapha dosha causes itching on the affected skin. The blood which is affected by vata and kapha adversely influences healing process.

In children

Psoriasis can affect children. Approximately one third of psoriasis patients report being diagnosed before age 20. Self-esteem and behavior can be affected by the disease. Bullying has been noted in clinical research

Living well with psoriasis

Living well with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis is more than treating your disease. It means taking an active role in your care and developing habits and routines that support your well-being.

Developing a healthy lifestyle is important for everyone, but particularly for people with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. Psoriatic diseases affect not just the skin and joints, but other parts of the body as well. Research shows that psoriasis is associated with other serious conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, obesity, depression, and other health diseases.

Because psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis are whole-body conditions, a good disease-management plan incorporates treatment with a healthy diet, regular exercise, stress reduction, and a strong support network.

Antifungal Melaleuca Oil Treatment for Toenail Fungus

Treatment for toenail fungus varies greatly. Many people suffer with a condition called toenail fungus or onychomycosis. In fact, an estimated 48% of people residing in the United States suffer with toenail fungus in at least one toe by the time they reach 70 years old.

Onychomycosis is a very common ailment that occurs more frequently as a person ages. Toenail fungus is known to be easily transmitted and it is difficult to combat. Today there are some reliable, safe and natural toenail fungus treatment options that can address the problem.

Onychomycosis is a serious condition that causes disfiguration as well as discoloration, eventually destroying the nail. Toenail fungus is caused by a fungi referred to as dermatophytes; which is fueled by a moist warm environment.

These Dermatophytes are destructive because they invade and feed on keratin which is what the hard surface of toenails is constructed from. When the toenails become infected by the fungus you will see them turn yellow or brown. These infected toenails will thicken and become malformed. The nail can become so thick that it makes it uncomfortable to wear shoes. Untreated toenails can eventually fall off which is why toenail fungus treatment is so important.

Known factors actually promote the outbreak and growth of toenail fungus. Wearing dank, dirty shoes and walking across moisture laden floors put you at risk for developing fungal breakouts. The places where you are most likely to contract onychomycosis include public settings such as gyms, showers, pools and restrooms. These environments are all places where the disease is rampant and easily spread.

Developing toenail fungus is also linked to a lack of care in personal hygiene. If you are not drying between the toes regularly, keeping your feet clean and changing your shoes, socks and stockings as necessary you will be more likely to develop this problem. Those individuals who have chronic health ailments and immune disorders are also have a higher risk of getting fungus on their toenails.

Using natural home remedies to treat toenail fungus has proven to be effective. These home remedies include eating a diet with a high level of beneficial bacteria or probiotics, warm water and natural apple cider vinegar, oregano and olive oil or Listerine mouthwash.

One highly effective, natural toenail fungus treatment option is tea tree oil. This essential herbal oil is favored by physicians and homeopathic practitioners because it is cheap, easy to use, and has no side effects. Tea tree oil has some excellent antifungal properties and is only to be used for topical toenail fungus treatment. 100% tea tree oil is best if you are going to try this solution for your problem.

The oil must be carefully applied on the surface of the toenail and any surrounding tissue which is also affected by the fungus. Make certain that this toenail fungus treatment plan includes washing your feet several times a day with a formula made from either tea tree oil soap or shampoo. When you decide to use this herbal therapeutic regimen consult your doctor first and be wary of overusing the product which can create irritation.

Proven Toenail Fungus Treatment

Allergic To Red Meat

Question:

Over the past four years, I have become allergic first to red meat and now chicken. If I eat it, my gums and tongue become swollen and very painful. The doctor and dentist say there is no such thing as an allergy to meat. What is your opinion, and what do you suggest I do?

Answer:

 Allergy comes form the Greek words for ‘other’ and ‘energy’. An allergic response warns of the invasion of an unwelcome substance in the body. A classic or ‘true’ allergy (as opposed to an intolerance or sensitivity) involves the immune system, which acts as a filter for foreign bodies (allergens), reflecting or imprisoning them. Allergens may include pollen, food stuff such as peanuts, tree nuts, gluten and shellfish, drugs including antibiotics, chemicals such ac monosodium glutamate, and dust mites. Which living bodies, such as bacteria, enter the body it reacts by forming pus at the shit of entrance, or by forming antibodies that neutralise the bacteria and stop them multiplying.

Allergies are the body’s way of defending itself, but they can be very uncomfortable and, perversely, life-threatening. A common allergic reaction is immediate hypersensitivity, such as hay fever and some forms of asthma attack. Cytotoxic reaction happen when living cells encounter incompatible chemicals, in washing powder or skincare, for instance this creates a reaction that is toxic to the cells.

Reaction to food can be a ‘true allergy’, where the entire body goes into an immediate, often violent response, known as anaphylactic shock, and the condition can be fatal. More common is food intolerance – a slower onset reaction, leading to diarrhoea sickness, itchy throat swollen tongue, extreme fatigue, inflammation of the bowels, and so on.

For allergies to occur, that body must be ‘sensitised’, that is, it must have previous experience of the allergen. Which bees first attack someone, the stings cause swelling pain, itchiness and sometimes fever. Shortly after that the body’s immune system registers the bee-sting venom as ‘dangerous’. If you are stung later, the body remembers the ordeal and immediately goes on full alert, resulting in anaphylactic shock.

It sound as if you have developed an intolerance to meat and chicken which means that you develop a local reaction such as you describe. Unlike some other patients I have seen with (rare) intolerances to meat sausages, rice and fish, the rest of your body is not reacting by giving you diarrhea.

Here are my recommendations:

Diet

Stay away from meat and chicken for at least a year and substitute proteins such as fish and eggs. Avoid the following:

* Yeast and fungal products, including yeast-bread, pitta, naan, pizza, Marmite, beer, Guinness, mushrooms, blue cheeses and vinegar, as they may lead to candidiasis. This attacks the gut wall, making small holes that can allow toxins into the bloodstream, sensitising the body and causing other allergic reactions, including hives and eczema.

* Citrus fruits, which cruse excess stomach acid and seriously disrupt digestion.

Supplements

* Take Detox Powder (Integrated Medical Centre): soak half a  teaspoon in a cup of hot water at night. Strain and drink in the morning on an empty stomach for four months. This helps the liver and any candidiasis encouraging the body to respond to immunological imbalance.

* Take one 17. mg zinc tablet daily for two months

Alternative treatments

* Contact Dr Ray Choy for details of desensitisation therapy at the Nightingale Allergy & Nutrition Clinic, tel 020 7436 2135.

* Homeopathy and acupuncture can be useful. For a qualified practitioner, contact the British Acupuncture Council, tel 020 8735 0400 (wwwacupuncture.org.uk) or the British Homeopathic Association tel:0870 444 3950 (www.trusthomeopathy.org).

* Have neck massages to build energy and help blood flow to the pituitary gland in the brain, the controller of allergy.

Learning About Elderly Body Changes

Most of us don’t have time to feel irritability, depressed, less energy, difficulty sleeping and more. We need all the energy we can get to get all the things we have to do in that one single day.

Most people know that women experience menopause, but did you know that some men go through a kind of male menopause? For men who believe they are going through the proverbial midlife crisis, it’s been said that you may actually be experiencing a form of male menopause called andropause.

Surprising as it may be for some men, andropause, is becoming more recognized and accepted by people today, for the changes many middle aged men experience from losing energy to depression to loss of libido to sexual dysfunction. Andropause is distinguished by a loss of testosterone which is a hormone that makes men, men. For most men their testosterone levels drop as they age. These are testosterone, thyroid, human growth hormone, and DHEA. Male hormones start to decrease in the mid twenties and effects can usually be felt by the age 35. As many as 25 million American males between 40 and 55 are experiencing some degree of male andropause today.

Many symptoms of andropause are decrease mental quickness, decrease in energy, decrease in desire for activity and exercise, decrease in muscle tone, increase in body fat, night sweats and trouble sleeping, mild to moderate irritability, depression, decrease in sex drive and decrease in sexual function.

Menopause affects every woman. It’s the time in a woman’s life when her period stops. It usually occurs naturally, most often after the age 45. Menopause happens because the woman’s ovary stops producing the hormones estrogen and progesterone. A woman has reached menopause when she does not have her period for a whole year. Premature menopause symptom may include irregular periods or hot flashes. Other signs would include night sweats, weaken your energy, sleep difficulties, and irritability. A woman will only go through menopause when her ovaries stop making estrogen.

Visible changes with menopause may include a thickening at the waist, loss of muscle mass and increase in fat tissue, or thinning and loss of stretchiness in the skin. Some people think women may be more moody, irritable, or depressed around the time of this. There might be a connection between changes in the estrogen level and your emotions.

Now days, we work in a challenging environment that requires a lot of us to be awake during the hours we are suppose to be asleep. Also, we are usually responsible to work for long periods of time while dealing with circulating shifts and then try to sleep while the rest of the world is awake.

It’s the end of the day and you need a boost. To increase youthful energy for men going through andropause and women going through menopause years, trying Middle Age Energy booster will help with that. This is for people who need an increase in energy, zest and vitality. By increasing energy, many men and women also regain their libido as a side benefit.

Panic Attacks, Depression, Anxiety In Female- The Art Of Tackling

The female sex is scientifically proven to have been affected with more panic attacks than their opposite sex. Depression, anxiety, tension are the usual factors associated with panic attacks. Even one has an adverse effect on the person, leading to a panic attack much to the misery.

A female is known to go through a lot more hormonal changes through a month. These hormonal changes even affect their behavior and mood from time to time. Small things such as these cause anxiety in them. Any stressful, worried thought might lead to anxiety and other devastating problems one will need to encounter. You cannot help but accept the hormonal changes in your body, which also can cause you some anxiety during it’s time. Depression is soon to follow in such cases making things more difficult to cope up with.

Depression is the most frequent follow up to anxiety problems. It bogs you down so much that you lose faith in yourself and the confidence to live any longer. It, in a way, increases the tension and intensifies anxiety. You do not get good sleep and peaceful things running in your mind during depression. Food habits start to change and life becomes very hard to deal with. The more you sleep, the better your body responds but depression will prevent you from having a good sleep. Panic attacks are a result of these things put together. It might either come in stages or attack you with a bang. Panic attacks usually are the ones to follow after severe increase in depression and anxiety. It affects you physically and psychologically to a great deal. Everything that time would be related and that fear and worry might overcome your life totally. Heart problems, sweating and twitching are related symptoms of a panic attack.

A healthcare professional’s help might be sought if you feel hormonal changes are causing your anxiety. A proper hormonal treatment can ensure you some good health. Psychotropic medication too can aid you to good health. While anti-depressants are used, these days, by females who are under depression and anxiety, it is often not desired. But they have been proven to be quite effective over the years. The most effective and successful anti-depressants found in the market are: Benzodiazepines and Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs). SSRIs include Zoloft, Paxil, and Prozac while the benzodiazepines include Valium, Canax, Klonopin and Ativan. These medications certainly help fighting panic attacks, anxiety and depression in females. It is, anyway, very important to contact your doctor or physician when such panic attacks are feared. The doctors are the best people to help you out with your problem. Good medication will help you save tackle these panic attacks at its early stages and thus preventing the misery one have to go through.

Erase The Phobias In Your Life Through Hypnotherapy

Do you worry darkness to such an extent that even a 20 second expertise in the dark can leave you breathless and terrorized? Have you ever not stepped out into a street for the last 2 years because you were too petrified of the crowds? Does the sight of a spider make you scream in horror? If any of these examples relate to you, then you would possibly be tormented by a phobia even while not knowing it.

There are all sorts of phobias in the world. Phobia of injections, phobia of flying; phobia of public speaking, and phobia of creepy crawlies, folks are inflicted with a surprisingly large range of phobias. However most of us get through our lives dismissing these phobias as fears. However, there is a vital difference between concern and a full blown phobia. While worry could be a rational feeling which originates out of our survival instinct; phobia is essentially irrational. A fear can keep you from being harmed; a phobia on the opposite hand will cripple your existence.

How will you successfully tackle your phobia? Is there a way out? Yes there is, and it’s referred to as hypnotherapy. Hypnotherapy has had a protracted standing record in successfully eliminating phobias from folks’s lives, and the good news is that hypnotherapy is offered in High Wycombe and Buckinghamshire. Hypnotherapy can help you overcome your irrational concern of things and things by creating your subconscious awaken to the irrationality. A professional hypnotherapist can take you on a journey back to your past to get where the phobia originated. It might are a childhood incident that your conscious mind has forgotten, however your subconscious has survived to.

Hypnotherapy encompasses a selection of techniques to assist you with your situation. Through visualizations and NLP ways, not solely can you determine the cause behind your phobia, however additionally learn to accommodate it in your gift life. It will teach your subconscious mind to adopt a totally different pattern of behavior, so that when you are faced with your phobia, you’ll be able to handle it during a fearless fashion. Hypnotherapy teaches you to relax and be calm underneath stressful situations, and you’ll be shocked with the results.

The results which you’ll achieve with Hypnotherapy are effective and long lasting. You’ll be able to keep reverting back to the techniques of self hypnosis at any point in time to tackle a phobic situation. You’ll auto recommend your mind to be brave and fearless. Go ahead; give hypnotherapy a attempt to treat your phobias. Hypnotherapy in High Wycombe and Buckinghamshire has brought respite from phobias nearer home.

Anxiety Panic Attacks Symptoms – the 10 Most Common Anxiety Panic Attacks Symptoms!

Anxiety & Panic Attacks are very common in today’s society and many people in every country suffer from them. The severity of the anxiety and panic attacks can differ from person to person and in a lot of cases can completely control lives. Many sufferers do not even believe or know that they even suffer from anxiety and panic attacks which can lead to the ailment really running out of control. So when it actually comes down to it what are the 10 most common Anxiety Panic Attacks Symptoms?

1. Nausea – A feeling of Nausea can come on quite quickly in certain situations and is one of the most common symptoms of Anxiety & Panic Attacks

2. Shaking – Shaking is also another of the most common and can be uncontrollable both on the inside and on the outside.

3. Fear – The fear of losing control or a feeling of “Going Crazy” is also another common symptom for anxiety attack sufferers.

4. Stomach Cramps – Stomach cramps can tie in with the feeling of Nausea and are quite commonly linked with Panic Attacks.

5. Depersonalization – Another feeling of not being in control when you can have an out of body experience.

6. Numbness – Numbness and Tingling especially within the face can be another common symptom amongst Panic Attack sufferers.

7. Hot Flushes – Chills and hot flushes effect almost all Anxiety disorder sufferers and are one of the first signs that an attack is about to happen.

8. Palpitations – A rapid heart beat and palpitations within the chest during before, during and after an attack are very common.

9. Shortness Of Breath – Chest tightening can be a common symptom in Anxiety sufferers resulting in shortness of breath.

10. Skin Colour – Your skin can also lose colour during an attack and is common in most sufferers.

These 10 Anxiety Panic Attacks Symptoms above are generally most common but are just scratching the surface. There are many symptoms that are not as noticeable as the ones above and can creep on at a moments notice striking fear in any sufferer, however severe.

Does Acupuncture Help With Insomnia ?

Acupuncture is an ancient Chinese method to combat sleeplessness. To treat Insomnia, people sometimes use acupuncture. It is the best source of treating insomnia for many ages. Insomnia is a disorder in which the sufferer has poor sleep which prompts them to get up many times during the course of the night.

Anti depressant medication also helps a lot, but mostly these medications contain some side effects. They usually interfere with your sleep, cause some drowsiness, and if taken in extra doses may rebound the insomnia. Acupuncture has an extremely soothing effect on the nervous system. With their use, you may alter the imbalance caused by the insomnia with no side effects.

Apart from the improved sleep, those who have used acupuncture treatment have obtained a good feeling of their well-being and feel considerable improvement in their health. Acupuncture is a technique in which very fine needle is inserted into the body points. With these needles, surface points of the body are stimulated that produce both physical and mental changes essential for your body.

Insomnia is a disorder that can cause disharmony in the cycle of the body. When you don’t get enough sleep, your body produces the stress hormones causing you to drink more tea, coffee, which in turn stimulate more Insomnia.

Insomnia problem can be solved, if you start sleeping in your natural manner. For that, memory foam mattress may contribute substantially to make you sleep better. In addition to it, if you have attended a few sessions of acupuncture for insomnia treatment, you may notice some distinguished results to get better and sound sleep at night.  

Once you go for the insomnia treatment, the consumption of caffeine is completely stopped. You may also opt for specially designed herbal medicine and also bring some changes in your life style. After attending several sessions of insomnia treatment via acupuncture, you no longer be in need of relying on anything. Also, acupuncture treatment for insomnia is often specific according to the needs of an individual.

Thus, acupuncture treatment is a safe alternative to this sleep disorder of Insomnia. People using this method can find a permanent solution to their sleeping problems. With acupuncture, you can significantly reduce your stress hormones, and bring balance to the nervous system.

Toenail Fungus – Tips For Treatment

The medical term for toenail fungus is “onychomycosis,” pronounced on * EE * ko * my * ko * sis. Despite the commonly used term “fungal toenails”, onychomycosis describes both fungus and yeast infections in the nail. The prevalence in America is about 2-3%, but some have reported it as high as 13%. Even at a low estimate of 2%, this accounts for 6 million Americans with toenail fungus. Toenail fungus affects men twice as often as it affects women.

The prevalence among elderly individuals and diabetics is 25%. In the 1800s, fungal toenails were very rare. The increased prevalence is linked to the increased exposure to fungus through the use of showering facilities in gyms, the use of hot tubs, saunas and public pool areas. There is an increase in occlusive footwear, an increase in sporting activities, an increase in diabetes and increase in age of the general population.

The risk factors for developing toenail fungus are increasing age, male gender, nail trauma, sweaty feet, poor circulation, poor hygeine, foot fungus and a compromised immune system.

Athlete’s tend to have a higher rate of fungus infection than non-athletes. The moisture in the shoe combined with repeated nail trauma increases the chance of infection. Hikers, runners, backpackers, soccer, basketball and tennis players, athletes wearing loose fitting shoes that allow jamming of the nails against the shoe and any individual wearing shoes that toe tight are at risk for developing toenail fungus.

There are a number of treatments for onychomycosis. The most aggressive and effective way to treat the fungus is with oral anti-fungal medications. The most common oral anti-fungal medications are Itraconazole (Sporonox ®) and Terbinafine (Lamisil ®). Both medications can be quite expensive as they need to be taken once daily for 3 months. The effectiveness of the medications ranges from 60 to 80%, with a recurrence rate of 15%. Lamisil® appears to be more effective and has fewer drug interactions than Sporonox®.

With both medications there is a long list of benign side effects including nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, rash, headache, taste disturbances and dizziness. Serious adverse events are very rare, less than 0.5%, but do include hepatitis and acute hepatic necrosis.

There are many other options besides oral anti-fungal medications. Unfortunately, they are not very effective. The most effective topical medication is Ciclopirox (Penlac ®) lacquer. Some studies have shown cure rates up to 60%, but in my experience the effectiveness is about 10-15%. Side effects occur in less than 2% of patients and include burning and redness around the nail.

This medication is only available by prescription and is also quite expensive. A few other prescription medications that help decrease the thickness of the fungal nails are Carmol® 40 and Keralac® Nail Gel. I would not expect to see complete cures with these products, but they can decrease the thickness and discoloration of the nail in some cases.

There are many home remedies and over the counter products that you can purchase. Some home remedies that can be used include bleach, tea tree oil, grapeseed extract, and Vics VapoRub®. With any home remedy or non-prescription topical, you must understand that the effectiveness of the treatment is fairly low, less than 10%. If you do try one of these therapies make sure to use it every day. Roughen up the nail surface with a file and apply the medication with a q-tip. Bleach can cause skin irritation and some individuals have had skin reactions to the Vics VapoRub®. In general these treatments are considered very safe.

Combination therapy can help increase the effectiveness of the treatment. If you choose to take an oral medication, make sure you use a topical anti-fungal agent as well. Nail removal is also an option. Once the nail is removed, the topicals can reach the nail bed and they become more effective. The nail will grow back in over a period of 8-10 months. Permanent nail removal is reserved for those with chronic ingrown nails, ulceration under the nails or pain from the fungal nails.

The best form of treatment is prevention and preventing the fungus from spreading to other toenails may be the best treatment option. I recommend choosing a topical that you feel comfortable with and use it once a week. No matter which treatment option you choose, you should take the following steps to avoid re-infection.

1. Make sure you rotate your shoes often and keep them in a cool dry place.

2. Change your insoles frequently, and make sure they dry out between use.

3. Place an anti-fungal powder or spray in the shoes to help fight off the fungus.

4. Bleach out the shower on a weekly basis and wash your shower mat regularly in hot water.

5. Make sure your athletic shoes fit well to prevent jamming at the toes. Jamming at the toes leads to microtrauma at the nails and increases the chance for fungal infection.

6. If you belong to a gym or health club, wear sandals in the locker room and don’t walk around barefoot.

7. Don’t keep your shoes in the gym locker where they cannot dry out.

8. If your feet sweat excessively, try using an antiperspirant spray on your feet before your workout.

9. Cut your toenails straight across. Don’t cut too short and cause breaks in the skin. This will increase the chance for fungal infection. Don’t let the toenails grow too long or they will jam against the shoe and cause bleeding under the nail, again increasing the chance for fungal infection.

The bottom line is that treating onychomycosis is very difficult. If you have fungal toenails that cause pressure, pain or infection, consider talking to your doctor about prescription medications or nail removal. Make sure you take precautions to prevent re-infection and take multiple approaches to eradicate the problem. If your fungal toenails are only unsightly and don’t cause any discomfort, try a weekly application of an over the counter topical along with methods to prevent re-infection.

Vicks For Toenail Fungus

A sort of infection by fungi on the nail is known as nail fungus. Normally this fungal infection occurs on both finger nail and toe nail. The infection occurs in and around the nails. The toe nail fungus is the serious issue and makes more pain, occurs as white and turns the nail color to yellow and makes nail much harder and brittle and even makes difficult to treat.

These infection on nail are usually occurs due to continuous exposure to warm moist condition like as in your shoes and in swimming pools other reasons may be unusual pH level of the skin keeping your feet always wet. These grow under the nails spreads over the surface of the nails.

There are many varieties of fungal treatment products in the global markets consisting of various chemical products which may induce several side effects to nail and toes. The social welfare had proven the occurrence of side effects due to these products. So it is well recommended to treat the toenail fungus with effective home remedies. Even though, toe nail fungus are very difficult to treat and takes longer period to get normal, but home remedies makes possible to treat these completely and quickly.

One of the most cheapest and effectual home remedy for treating toe fungus is Vicks for toe nail fungus. Take a pinch of Vicks vapor rub and rub the affected nail thoroughly, continue for twice a day. Results in gradual decrease in nail discoloration relief from pain even it blocks the regeneration of fungus on toe nails without any side effects.

The key ingredient for treating toe nail fungus is Thymol. Thymol is a natural product and so it doesn’t have any side effects while treating toe nail fungus. Its antibacterial property kill off the fungus and removes the dead cell completely out from affected area. Vicks for toenail fungus consists plenty of thymol and treat toe nail fungus effectively and quickly. Many people affected by toe nail fungus had tried Vicks vapor rub and get completely out from irritating experience from toe nail fungus.

Since Vicks for toenail fungus deeply penetrates into the nail and decreases the fungi growth gradually. The exploration of heat produced by rubbing Vicks softens the dead nail cell and removes it thoroughly by burning the fungi. The regular application of Vicks turns the affected nail to normal and to its natural color. Keeping rubbing toe nails with Vicks for toenail fungus for certain period(not more than a week according to your infection rate) even after it gets cure so that can avoid the retain of fungus in deep inside the toe nails.

To avoid return of infection keep your toes always dry, wear cotton shocks which can absorbs the toe sweats and keep your toe dry. Don’t keep direct contact with wet floors especially in swimming floors, refresh rooms and in shower floors better wear sandals in home. Keep your toes always clean. Since prevention is better than cure.

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How to Heal Ankle Sprain?

Sprained ankles are one of the leading causes of athletes to miss games during the season. Many times they are taped up & rushed back to the field without proper rehabilitation. More often than not, the ankle gets re-injured or worse, they end up with a knee, hip or low back injury. These injuries can be prevented by providing the proper healing time and rehabilitation. The same premise holds true for non-athletes.

Ankle sprains occur in runners mainly because they are chatting away as they are on a long run and are simply not paying attention. How often do you see a runner fall just because they fell of the curb or in a hole while running? Lots…Pay attention to where you are going and you can prevent this type of injury. If you know you are a klutz, run on an even surface, like a track, when you are tired or distracted.

You should stay off of your feet as much as possible. Using crutches for any necessary walking will reduce the pressure on the injured ankle. You should ice the ankle immediately and as often as possible. This will help to decrease swelling and minimize the pain. Compression helps push swelling away from the ankle. An elastic support or ankle brace is ideal for this. Elevation Supporting keeping the ankle above the heart will help reduce swelling and lessen the pain of the sprained ankle.

The best advice for how to deal with an ankle sprain can be remembered through the acronym price. This is an easy way of remembering the regime ‘Protect, Rest, Ice, Compress, Elevate’. Ankle supports and ankle braces offer a range of benefits. They can alleviate pain and also help the ligaments to heal as they aid compression and bring welcome rest to the affected ligaments. Ankle supports also help protect your ankle. These days, ankle supports and ankle braces are usually made from elasticated material or neoprene. This aids with the degree of compression and helps support the joint, increasing stability. For the most serious ankle sprains, rigid ankle splints are used.

To treat an ankle injury in the most effective way possible, you need a program that addresses pain reduction, heals the ankle efficiently, and – most importantly – strengthens the ankle to reduce the risk of recurring neuromuscular damage to the ankle and to other parts of the body as well. That’s brings us to the new H.E.M. system and why it is so revolutionary. Instead of months, you can expect to be walking again in just days. Not only that, the healing results will be significantly better than on R.I.C.E. You can expect your ankle to be more flexible, stronger, and at much lower risk for future injury. We have come to accept that it should take months to heal a sprained ankle, but the reality is you can heal your ankle much more fully in a much shorter period of time.

The vast majority of ankle sprains can be treated by taping the ankle or using an ankle brace and ibuprofen or other anti-inflammatory medication followed by a comprehensive sprained ankle rehabilitation program. An ankle sprain injury may take a few weeks to many months to fully heal but with an advanced aggressive rehab protocol, 85% rehab is possible in as little as 7-10 days.