How to Prevent Nail Infection From Eating Away Your Nails

The first sign of a nail infection is the discoloration of your nails. From their pinkish white color, nails usually turn to yellow. And eventually when the infection is already in its advanced stage, nails become brown or black. But probably because of nail polish or simply ignorance, a lot of individuals really do not realize that they have nail problems until such time when the nails chip off and the infection has spread.

Many who have experienced fungal nail infection will tell you that it is truly hard to eliminate. Furthermore, if left untreated, it will spread to other nails and create more havoc. Unless you think that having brittle and yellowish or brownish nails is a good fashion statement, you could really be in for a lot of frustrations because common nail fungal medications usually take weeks or even months to bring back the health of your nails.

The best way to deal with such infection is to prevent it. If you do not ever want to suffer from nail fungus, then you ought to read on and follow the tips below.

Never Treat Your Nails Like Tools

A lot of people have been guilty of using their nails as tools every now and then. Since healthy nails are a bit strong, they won’t break or chip when used to scrape of stickers from bottles, remove staples from papers or even scratch hard surfaces. In fact, some people even try to open bottles with their nails. Although there may be no visible sign of wear and tear, your nails actually chip or break a little every time you use them as tools. These tears or breaks, no matter how microscopic, are just what bacteria or fungi need to start a full-grown infection.

Regularly Trim And Clean Your Nails

Nails are really easy to maintain. The only thing that they require from you is that you clean and trim them regularly. It will help you a lot if you have a system or schedule in trimming and cleaning your nails. Make sure that the areas under your nails are free from dirt because this is where bacteria and fungi could lurk. By the way, your fingernails are not the only things that need to be taken care of, you also need to make sure that your toenails are also looked after.

Medicate At First Sign Of Injury

Do not dilly-dally when it comes to wounds and cuts on your nails. At first sign of injury, you need to find a medication or treatment, even natural remedies, to help abate the problem. Again, if these wounds are left untreated, they could cause bacterial or fungal infections.

Be Extra Careful When You Wear Artificial Nails

If you are wearing artificial nails, you ought to be extra careful with your natural nails because they are doubly susceptible to infection. Before you put on artificial nails, you need to be aware that the bonding agents used to fit your artificial nails on your real ones are made of chemicals which can damage your soft tissues. As mentioned earlier, slight wounds and cracks can allow fungus and bacteria to penetrate your skin.

Once you have artificial nails, you need to be extra cautious with how you handle things. If there is slight damage to your nails, you have to go to a nail technician to have it fixed. Never attempt to fix them yourself because this can just make things work.

If you already are suffering from nail fungus, you have to boost your immune system too. Learn to eat healthy diet and exercise regularly. Moreover, use a nail fungal infection system that is all natural and safe, just like Somasin. To know more about how fast and effective this anti-fungal system is, simply visit

Can You be Allergic to Chinchillas?

Chinchillas are very adorable and provide many years of companionship for the owner but can you be allergic to chinchillas? A little known fact is that chinchilla do discharge proteins that make a person allergic. It is expulses in the form of urine and saliva and in addition to, they shed their fur once every few months.

The reason a person becomes allergic to chinchillas is primarily due to the hay and dust from the chinchillas. If you happen to be allergic to hay and dust, then buying a chinchilla as pet is out of question. It is a noted fact that most warm-blooded animals that release protein have fur in their body. Furry animals like to lick their fur and the saliva, once dried will set of the protein hovering about on different fabric in the home.

Some who might not be aware of such things will have to contend with their allergies and eventually give away their pet chinchilla. It is not just the owner who has to put up with the inconveniences but the poor chinchilla as well. They will have to forego their hay and dust bath and then sooner or later they have to be re-homed. It can be traumatic for the pet chinchilla, not just for the owner who is suffering from the allergy.

You can get allergic just by getting close to the chinchilla and rubbing your eyes and skin is common. One relevant detail that we need to know is that allergy might takes weeks, months or even years to occur and there are instances that some owners might require inhaler to cure their breathing problem. If you are one such person who eventually becomes allergic to the hay and dust, then re-homing is obligatory for your pet.

To prevent yourself from developing long term allergies from the hay and dust, there are many methods and cover the cage of your chinchilla with a sheet by keeping it in a room with closed door is one of them. If there is a need to apply dust, keep the fans away, then wrap it with a sheet and close the door to the room for a little more than ten minutes as it will allow the dust to clear up.

Asides from the necessary safety measures, you can buy for your pet chinchilla certain variety of bath sands that reduce the impact of the dust from flying around. Although it is effective to reduce the dust, it is not cost effective for those who are on a budget. The measures you take to minimize the allergies from your pet chinchilla are all indispensable steps but if you do eventually develop allergies or are severely allergic to fur and dust, then re-homing is the best alternative.

Natural Cure for Stress, Depression and Anxiety

Stress is a common problem that all age group suffers from. First of all, let’s look at some of the common symptom of stress, both physical and emotional.

Physical signs of stress

• Pain/tension in the back, neck and shoulders
• Headache/migraine
• General aches and pains
• Fatigue/excessive tiredness
• Insomnia
• Constipation

Emotional signs of stress

• Anxiety
• Depression
• Lack of confidence
• Irritability/lack of concentration
• Aggressiveness

Some stress can be productive and give you drive and energy. It helps you to achieve goals, but too much is detrimental. A healthy attitude to stress is to recognize it and try to reduce its effect on your health and well-being. This is where you can turn to the gentle healing of aromatherapy.

Aromatherapy is particularly helpful for stress, depression and anxiety related conditions. This article focuses on how aromatherapy can be helpful in treating stress, depression and anxiety. Just read this article and discover an amazing natural cure for these conditions.


These essential oils can help you in anxiety:

• Lavender
• Clary sage
• Neroli
• Jasmine
• Marigold
• Vetivert

You can add up to 10 drops of whichever oil you think smells best to your bath then soak in it for at least 15 minutes. Or inhale neat oil. You can also make up a blend using up to 12 drops of oil in 4 fl oz (100 ml) of carrier oil. Massage it into your solar plexus (just between your ribs) in an anti-clockwise direction. This is very calming.


These essential oils can help you in depression:

• Clary sage
• Marjoram
• Camomile
• Sandalwood
• Lavender
• Frankincense
• Ylang-ylang

You can use them in the bath up to 10 drops in a full tub. Or inhale them neat, or use in a burner or vaporizer. You can also add 12 drops to 4 fl oz (100 ml) of carrier oil for massage. A blend of lavender, clary sage and camomile is good for massage.

Disclaimer: This article is not meant to provide health advice and is for general information only. Always seek the insights of a qualified health professional before embarking on any health program.

Read more about aromatherapy, ayurveda, yoga and massage therapy at Natural cures website – a health guide to make you and your family live better, fit and healthy. Also read the benefits of anti-aging herb Shilajit and stress relieving herb Ashwagandha.

Depression Test

As depression has the ability to affect our lives badly, there should be early warning symptoms that can indicate whether we do have some form of depression disorder. We need to be able to differentiate between normal depression which passes in a few days to depression disorders which last for sometimes months or years on end. There are a number of depression test sites that you can investigate on the internet.

While these tests can indicate if you are suffering from depression, they can’t replace proper medical diagnosing. As these depression tests are conducted online, the level of information regarding your possibility of depression will be gleaned from the answers that you will be providing. Also your emotional and mental states during what might be a depression attack will not be evaluated. Therefore you must remember that any depression test can only help you, they can’t provide the necessary medical aid that you may need.

In order for the depression test to work properly you should read the question and click an answer that best indicates your feelings and emotional state for the past few days. You should have an answer for each of the questions that are asked. Any question on the test that you are unable to answer, because you are not quite sure of what to indicate, needs to be guessed at.

The questions that will be asked are aimed at your emotional state, your mental condition and your physical fitness level. An example of what sort of question that you might be asked is – I get very frightened or panicky feeling for no good reason at all. For all of the questions on the depression test there are four possible responses that you can choose from on the questionnaire. They are No, not at all; No, not much; Yes, sometimes; and Yes, definitely.

Once you have completed the depression test you will need to click the Calculate Score button that is located at the bottom of the test. When the score has been tallied, you will be informed whether you have the potential for depression or not. Should the results of the test is not acceptable to you, you can click the reset button to take the test again.

Even though your depression test may confirm if you are suffering from depression you should seek medical aid and advice as soon as possible. The reason is that a correct diagnoses needs to be made so that the right treatment, medications and therapy can be administered to you. Taking a depression test therefore is only the first step towards curing your depression once and for all.

Social Anxiety Disorder Treatment – A Natural Cure

Social anxiety is the fear of social situations and the interaction with other people that can automatically bring on feelings of self-consciousness, judgment, evaluation, and criticism. Put another way, social anxiety is the fear and anxiety of being judged and evaluated negatively by other people, leading to feelings of inadequacy, embarrassment, humiliation, and depression. If a person usually becomes anxious in social situations, but seems fine when they are alone, then “social anxiety” may be the problem.

Rated as the third largest psychological disorder in the United States, social anxiety disorder or social phobia, is more common an issue for many people than previously known.  No one should feel inadequate or alone if suffering from this condition, as millions of people across the world face this traumatic problem everyday of their lives.  Someone may face one, some or all of the common conditions associated with social phobia or from a more generalized social phobia.  With the right social anxiety disorder treatment these phobias can be overcome.

If searching for a natural cure, Panic Away and the Panic Away One Move Technique would be your solution.  Before spending money on expensive medications, various books or even psychiatrist appointments, panic away is a must look option.

In further explanation and understanding of social anxiety the following should be understood.  A specific social phobia would be the fear of speaking in front of groups, whereas generalized social anxiety indicates that the person is anxious, nervous, and uncomfortable in almost all (or the majority of) social situations.

Social Anxiety Disorder Symptoms:

  • Meeting new people
  • Fear of criticism or being teased
  • Drawing attention; being center of attention
  • Feeling like you are being watched while doing something or fearing you may be watched
  • Intimated by people of authority
  • Staying away from social situations with strangers
  • Being reserved at parties and fearing starting small talk with others
  • Performing on stage
  • Public speaking
  • Being called on in class
  • Going on a date

These are some of the more common symptoms associated with social anxiety disorder, but not a complete list.

What you may feel physically when facing social anxiety?

  • Racing heart
  • Intense feelings of fear
  • Dry throat and mouth
  • Red or flush face
  • Difficulty swallowing
  • Muscle stiffness or twitching
  • Trembling
  • Overwhelming, constant feeling of anxiety

People with social anxiety disorder know that their anxiety is irrational and does not make “head” sense. Nevertheless, “knowing” something is never the same as “believing” and “feeling” something. Thus, in people with social anxiety, thoughts and feelings of anxiety persist and show no signs of going away.

There are treatments available for social anxiety, as well as the other anxiety problems.  To read or hear that someone with social phobia is just going to “learn to live with it”, is completely ridiculous.  No one has to live with this condition, there is help available.

A natural program such as panic away, teaches you how to break the fear of the anxiety cycle, which then may lead to frequent panic attacks.  The technique does this by teaching you to reverse your mental state, from the irrational to the rational part of the brain.  The irrational part takes over upon the uprising of an anxiety causing situation.  You can switch your brain back to the rational side, preventing the attack from happening and controlling your anxiety.

Social Anxiety Disorder Treatment

Getting over social anxiety disorder is not an easy task; yet many thousands have already done it. While you’re in the middle of the problem, it feels as though you’ll never ever get better. Life is just one stomach turning anxiety problem after another. This can be stopped, controlled, and reduced in a relatively short period of time.  You must find an established, reputable and continually supportive program that can help your social phobia.  Panic Away is just that program.

The most important elements in conquering social phobia are:

  1. An understanding and awareness of the problem.
  2. A commitment to carry through the issues even when it seems difficult.
  3. Practice, practice, practice to get that information deep down into your brain so that it becomes automatic.
  4. Participation in supportive, understanding groups in which they help you work on problems that cause you anxiety in the real world.
  5. Being with others that have similar phobias, but have used specific strategies to conquer there anxiety causing situations.

You may have a need to take social anxiety disorder medication, but before you do consider a more natural remedy such as Panic Away.

Social Anxiety Disorder Medication

Medication is sometimes used to relieve the symptoms of social anxiety, but it’s not a cure for social anxiety disorder or social phobia. If you stop taking medication, your symptoms will probably return full force. Medication is considered most helpful when used in addition to therapy and other self-help techniques that address the root cause of social anxiety disorder.

Types of medication used to treat social anxiety disorder (social phobia):

  • Beta blockers – Beta blockers are used for relieving performance anxiety. They work by blocking the flow of adrenaline that occurs when you’re anxious. While beta blockers don’t affect the emotional symptoms of anxiety, they can control physical symptoms such as shaking hands or voice, sweating, and rapid heartbeat.
  • Antidepressants – Antidepressants can be helpful when social anxiety disorder is severe and debilitating. Three specific antidepressants—Paxil treatment, Effexor, and Zoloft—have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of social phobia.
  • Benzodiazepines – Benzodiazepines are fast-acting anti-anxiety medications. However, they are sedating and addictive, so they are typically prescribed only when other medications for social phobia have not worked.

Detailed description of these medications:

Social Anxiety Treatment Medication

The bottom line is this.  If you’ve tried every social anxiety disorder treatment around or are just starting to look for solutions, you need a proven method.  I understand that not every option works for every person, but panic away has helped over 60,000 people and can help you too.

Panic Away is an effective, proven, depression treatment.  Stop feeling depressed over your social anxiety which makes you even more reserved and trapped in your own mind.  This course is also an alternative panic disorder treatment, using all natural techniques, aiding in the dissolving of your anxieties which lead to recurring panic attacks.

The One Move Technique taught, will also serve as an agoraphobia treatment and generalized anxiety disorder treatment.  Stop the endless days of self judgment, negative projective thoughts you perceive others are thinking, and start experiencing the world around you.

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A Panic Attack Cause: Drink Lots Of Water And Stop Panic Attacks

One widely ignored panic attack cause that is hardly ever talked about is dehydration. Panic attacks can be caused by a persons eating and drinking habits. If you don’t put healthy stuff in your body, how do you expect to be healthy? On of the best preventative measures against panic attack causes is to drink plenty of water. Water is healthy, it quenches your thirst, and it has been shown to reduce anxiety.

Your body has a real tough time functioning to its fullest potential when it is lacking in water. Almost everything your body does relies on water. Water helps nutrients get to where they need to be and helps keep your vital organs health and in good shape. When you don’t supply enough water to your body it cannot function correctly. When this happens your body sends out a distress signal. This stress is often misinterpreted as anxiety. This anxiety can lead to panic attacks.

People still have a hard time considering dehydration as a panic attack cause. Think about what happens after you wake up after a long night of drinking and partying. How does the morning usually go for you? Are you awake, alert and chipper? I’m going to guess that’s probably the opposite of how you feel. People have a tendency to feel out of it and a little jittery when they are hung over. Dehydration plays a major part in that.

A hang over is a good example of how dehydration is a panic attack cause. When you wake up with a hangover you are extremely dehydrated. You wake up tired, moody, jittery, and you feel ill. Imagine how being dehydrated on a daily basis can affect you…

Dehydration is a panic attack cause because most of the times people do not even know that they are dehydrated. Studies have shown that 75% of American are dehydrated on a regular basis. Do you try to drink 8 glasses of water every day? You probably should. If you’re like most people you just let that slide. It gets a little tricky with only drinking when you’re thirsty because oftentimes people do not even realize that they are thirsty and they mistake their thirst for hunger.

Lack of water in your diet is a panic attack cause. The great thing about this is that there is a REALLY easy fix. I bet you can guess it… Drink more water! Drink a lot of water and drink it often. Do not wait until you are thirsty… when you are thirsty you are already dehydrated. Just keep a slow and steady pace and drink water all throughout the day and you should stay hydrated.

Insomnia – A Chi Imbalance

Do you toss and turn every night, have vivid disturbing dreams or are unable to either fall asleep or stay asleep?

It could be that you are suffering from a Chi energy imbalance.

Restful sleep is a sign of internal Chi balance. Sleep, like healthy eating and exercise is a vital and important part of well-being. Regularly disturbed sleep reduces your energy levels and your mental abilities, it negatively affects your moods, increases the time it takes to recover from illnesses and makes you more susceptible to anxiety and depression.

Types of Insomnia
When looking at insomnia, TCM believes that there are four main types and each one has a different cause and therefore a different treatment approach.

Dream-disturbed sleep: Do you dream constantly? Do your dreams affect the quality of your sleep? If you find that you have nightmares, then you could have a gall-bladder meridian imbalance. If you find that you can’t sleep because your mind is constantly on overdrive, then you may have a spleen meridian imbalance.

Difficulty falling asleep: Do you lie awake, tossing and turning for hours? You may have a liver meridian imbalance.

Waking up easily: Do you fall asleep easily, but then wake up and find it difficult to go back to sleep again? This may indicate a spleen imbalance.

Waking up at a specific time every night: Do you find that no matter what time you go to sleep, you wake up at the same time during the night? In TCM theory, the body’s Chi circulates through the twelve main meridians at a specific time of day and spends 2 hours in each one. Each meridian relates to an internal organ and each organ relates to specific emotions.

* 11pm – 1am: represents gallbladder imbalance
* 1am – 3am: represents liver imbalance
* 3am – 5am: represents lung imbalance
* 5am – 7am: represents large intestine imbalance

Causes of Insomnia
From a TCM perspective, insomnia originates as a disharmony of the heart meridian and the Shen. The Shen (a type of Chi) can be thought of as your spirit or psych while the heart is responsible for ‘housing the Shen.’ A disruption in the ability of the heart to hold the Shen or an aggravation of the Shen itself can lead to insomnia.

The following meridian systems and Chi imbalances can affect the ability of the heart to house the Shen or disrupt the Shen directly:

Yin/Yang Imbalance
Insufficient tranquillity (deficient Yin energy) or excess stimulation (excess Yang energy) can aggravate the Shen. This yin/yang imbalance can be addressed by increasing Yin energy through meditation, ChiYo, breathing exercises or listening to relaxing music and decreasing Yang energy through avoiding excess mental stimulation especially before sleeping.

Spleen Meridian Imbalance
Overwork, physical or mental exhaustion, excessive worry and over-thinking, irregular diet, excessive intake of cold and raw food can all damage your spleen Chi. As the spleen is responsible for blood production, if the spleen is weak it the heart and Shen.

Kidney Meridian Imbalance
The kidneys, like all the body’s organs, store energy. When the kidney’s ability to store energy is compromised, by anxiety and fear, traumatic experiences, ageing, major illnesses, the cold and overworking, and it’s Yin energy is depleted, it will not be able to nourish or support the heart, so the Shen cannot rest.

Liver Meridian Imbalance
Anxiety, anger, irritability, frustration, resentment, repressed emotions, excessive stress, fatty foods and alcohol impair the normal functions of the liver meridian, resulting in liver Chi stagnation. This liver Chi stagnation results in reduced blood flow to the heart, reducing the ability of the heart to house the Shen. Overtime, this stagnation causes heat which rises up and disrupts the heart and the Shen.

Stomach Meridian Imbalance
Overindulgence in greasy or sweet foods can result in the retention of fluids and phlegm in the stomach, causing heat which disrupts the Shen.

How To Cut Your Toenails

Picture this: you are all set for the much awaited party. Your ball gown is prepared so are your accessories and jewelries to match. Your salon appointment is set and your make-up and hairstyle planned. But alas, your toenails hurt that even walking around makes it almost unbearable, more so when wearing stilettos. Perfectly planned activities like this and lot others are ruined just because of that little problem in your toes. Let in not happen again by following these simple foot care tips.

Fred Beaumont of the Institute of Chiropodists and Podiatrists’ first advice is on how to cut your toenails properly. Cut it just across and not too short. You are sure that you did such properly if your toenails’ shape is slightly square. Cutting toenails the wrong way is the most common mistake people make. And because of that, painful ingrown toenails develop and sometimes lead to toenails’ infection. Wrongly-cut toenails are the primary culprit for painful ingrowns because as the nails grow back, they tend to pierce your skin, and eventually cutting it.

Next advice is on what cutting material to use. Would it be nail scissors or a clipper? The clipper is the runaway winner as they are designed more to clip toenails thus avoiding tearing it. Nail scissors have this disadvantage because they are more likely to twist and cause nail tearing and cause further harm to nails. Soaking of your nails before cutting prove to be a disadvantage too as wet nails are more brittle and are prone to tearing.

But what if you now have an infected toenail that is ruining your day? Never play an expert when it comes to do-it-yourself scissor surgery. This can just complicate your problem as the scissor’s sharp end has the tendency of cutting through skin and leading to osteomyelitis (which is more known as bone infection). Seeing an expert is the best way to deal with it.

Having healthy feet is important. While more attention is given to skin, face and the body, the feet should also be cared for with same importance as the other parts of the body. Cutting toenails is just one way of caring for your feet. Cleaning it thoroughly and keeping it dry is another. Also, avoid wearing tight fitting shoes and polyester stockings as socks make your feet sweaty, leading to yet another problem of fungal infection like yellow toe fungus. Follow these simple tips to avoid asking for yellow toe help


Toenail Fungus Laser – Effective or Not?

If you have toenail fungus, you may have seen advertisements for laser treatment of this nail infection. Unfortunately, there is a lot of misinformation and confusing claims being made about these treatments. This article should help you determine if it is worth it for you to consider laser treatment of your fungal toenails.

There are currently two companies competing in the market of lasers for treatment of fungal toenails. The first company – Patholase – already has their Pinpointe laser on the market . The second company Nomir Medical Technologies should have their unit on the market within a few months.

Dr. Larry Huppin and Dr. Doug Hale at the Foot and Ankle Center of Washington in Seattle have been keeping a close eye on this technology. This article is designed to help you determine whether you should consider laser therapy and, if so, which one to choose.

Although the Pinpointe laser came to market first, we are very skeptical of the claims they make of being able to cure fungus in toenails. We have not seen any good data that supports the claims that this unit can cure fungal toenails. In addition, this laser has not been approved by the FDA for treatment of fungal nails (onychomycosis) in the United States. Finally, the Pinpointe laser uses high energy UV radiation (heat). This means that a potential complication of this treatment would be burns to surrounding tissue. Due to the lack of data showing it’s effectiveness and the high cost associated with treatment, we are advising our patients to avoid this treatment for now.

We are much more impressed with the Neovon laser by Nomir Medical Technologies, although we cannot make a strong recommendation until more data is available. Unlike Patholase, Nomir is waiting for FDA approval before bringing their laser to the market. We are also more impressed with the studies that have so far been released. Based on the data released so far, the Neovon laser appears to be more effective.

The Neovon laser technology is also more impressive. The Noveon uses two wavelengths of low energy near infrared beams that eradicate the fungus in the toenail by using light rather than heat as with the Pinpointe laser. This prevents damage to the surrounding tissue. Dr. Huppin feels that this allows for more effective treatment of nail fungus with better outcomes and less chance of complication. Light energy is used to kill the nail fungus without creating damaging heat. The surrounding skin and tissue is left uninjured due to the unique controlled technology used by the Noveon laser.

If you do have toenail fungus, we recommend delaying laser treatment until the Neovon laser is available. Both laser treatments are likely going to cost you about the same – probably between $750 and $1200, depending on the number of nails to be treated. We feel the Neovon is the superior treatment and are advising our patients to wait until that therapy is available. The procedure causes no pain. Most patients will undergo three treatment sessions with each one lasting about 20 minutes or less. For more information you can sign up on the Foot and Ankle Center of Washington website for monthly updates on laser technology for treatment of toenail fungus.

Ankle Sprain Physiotherapy Treatment

Sprained ankles are very common and repeated sprains can lead to a swollen, painful ankle, problems walking on rough ground and the risk of re-injury. The physiotherapist begins with asking: How did the injury occur? Was there a high level of force involved? What happened afterwards – could the patient walk or did they go to hospital? Was there an x-ray?

The amount of pain the patient suffered after the injury is extremely important and if the level of pain is very high or if it doesn’t settle, there might be a fracture. Pain should settle with time and if not the physio will refer the patient back to the orthopaedic doctor. The areas of pain should match the mechanism of injury, indicate which structures might be injured and should be tested by the physiotherapist later.

Special questions are asked about the past medical history and previous injuries, any drugs the patient is taking, their appetite level, whether they are losing weight, their sleep quality and pain in the morning, their bladder and bowel normality and any relevant family history. This is to clear the patient of any serious underlying condition so that treatment can be safely performed.

How Physiotherapists examine a sprained ankle

The physiotherapist will note any oedema, change of colour or abnormality of circulation. Ankle movements when not weight bearing are assessed by the physio, dorsiflexion is pulling the ankle upwards, plantarflexion involves pushing the foot down, eversion is turning the foot outwards and inversion turning the sole of the foot inwards. The physiotherapist assesses movement of the ankle as pain can limit movement and the readiness of the patient to engage in rehabilitation.

Depending on pain the physio may manually test the strength of the ankle muscles. This can occur on the plinth or up on their feet if the injury permits it. Once the active movements have been recorded, the physiotherapist performs passive movemenst of the joint, pushing carefully with their hands to explore stretch of the joint structures in each direction. The physio may manually palpate the area to test which structure is at fault, noting swelling or tenderness

Treatment protocols for Physiotherapy

Physiotherapy treatment starts with PRICE, which stands for protection, rest, ice, compression and elevation. Protection involves using a brace to prevent abnormal movement of the joint and further damage. Rest is important for damaged structures and allows the part to settle without stress. Cryotherapy or cold/ice treatment is useful to reduce pain and swelling.

A compression dressing such as a joint sleeve reduces or prevent swelling or effusion occurring as swelling can interfere with normal joint movement, and the joint is kept up to prevent swelling due to gravity. A walking aid such as a stick or elbow crutches may be useful if pain is severe and normal weight bearing gait is not possible. The physio’s hands can test for stiffness or pain in the ankle and allow improvement of the joint gliding movements to normalize joint mechanics. Reducing stiffness of the joint loosens it and eases pain which allows exercises to start in weight bearing. Less dynamic exercises are used initially, progressing to active exercises without support.

In proprioception or the sense of joint position the brain monitors the position of the ankle, quickly coordinating the muscle response to prevent risky positions. Rehab involves balance work by standing on one leg and progressing to working with balance on a wobble board. Balance and coordination are retrained until the joint can perform well on rough ground and in running and jumping. Good movements, little pain, good strength, normal balance and walking mean that the ankle has recovered.

Glomerulonephritis – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment Methods

Glomerulonephritis (glo-mer-u-lo-nuh-FRI-tis) is a type of kidney disease. It is caused by inflammation of the internal kidney structures (glomeruli). Also called glomerular disease, glomerulonephritis can be acute, referring to a sudden attack of inflammation, or chronic, which comes on gradually. Kidney disease of diabetes, IgA nephropathy, and lupus nephritis are some types of glomerulonephritis. IT is characterized by inflammation of the glomeruli. It may be asymptomatic, or present with hematuria and/or proteinuria (blood resp. protein in the urine ). Glomerular lesions in acute glomerulonephritis are the result of glomerular deposition or in situ formation of immune complexes. There are many recognised types, divided in acute, subacute or chronic glomerulonephritis. Acute glomerulonephritis is currently described as a clinical syndrome that frequently manifests as a sudden onset of hematuria, proteinuria, and red cell casts. Acute glomerulonephritis refers to a specific set of renal diseases in which an immunologic mechanism triggers inflammation and proliferation of glomerular tissue.

Glomerulonephritis may be a temporary and reversible condition, or it may get worse. Chronic glomerulonephritis represents the end-stage of all glomerulonephritis with unfavorable evolution. During glomerulonephritis, the glomeruli become inflamed and impair the kidney’s ability to filter urine. Chronic glomerulonephritis is often associated with an autoimmune reaction, when the body attacks various parts of itself. It can be a complication of streptococcal infections, including strep throat, particularly in children ages 6 to 10. Less often, it results from other bacterial or viral infections, especially measles, mumps, mononucleosis and HIV. When the kidney is damaged, it cannot get rid of wastes and extra fluid in the body. If the illness continues, the kidneys may stop working completely. Progressive glomerulonephritis may result in destruction of the kidney glomeruli and chronic renal failure and end stage renal disease. Glomerular disease can be part of a systemic disease, such as lupus or diabetes, or it can be a disease by itself – primary glomerulonephritis. Treatment depends on the type of glomerulonephritis you have.

Causes of Glomerulonephritis

The common causes of Glomerulonephritis include the following:

Too much protein and other substances to leak from the blood into the urine.

Polyarteritis nodosa group – an inflammatory disease of the arteries.

Specific problems with the body’s immune system.

It may develop after survival of the acute phase of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis.

Hypersensitivity vasculitis encompasses a heterogeneous group of disorders featuring small vessel and skin disease.

Some problems with the immune system (especially those involving immunoglobulin A antibodies), systemic lupus erythematosus, and inflammation of the kidney’s blood vessels.

Symptoms of Glomerulonephritis

Some sign and symptoms related to Glomerulonephritis are as follows:

Blood in the urine (dark, rust-colored, or brown urine).

Decreased sensation in the hands, feet, or other areas.

Need to urinate at night.


Weight gain.

Abdominal pain.

Easy bruising or bleeding.

Lack of appetite.

Nausea and vomiting.

High blood pressure (hypertension).

Fluid retention (edema) with swelling evident in your face, hands, feet and abdomen.

Treatment of Glomerulonephritis

Here is list of the methods for treating Glomerulonephritis:

Streptococci ertensive medications may be used to attempt to control high blood pressure.

Bed rest.

Bacteria are usually destroyed with antibiotics such as penicillin.

Various antihyp


If glomerulonephritis progresses to end-stage renal failure, treatment options include dialysis and a kidney transplant.

Take calcium supplements.

Although use of diazoxide and hydralazine often is described, neither commonly is employed.

Corticosteroids, immunosuppressives, or other medications may be used to treat some of the causes of chronic glomerulonephritis .

Chronic Pancreatitis Treatment In India at Affordable Cost-Pancreatitis

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Chronic Pancreatitis Treatment In India


About chronic pancreatitis

Your pancreas is a 15 centimetres (six inches) long organ which is part of your digestive system. It’s found just in front of your spine (back bone), behind your stomach, at the level where the two sides of your rib cage join together. It’s connected to the duodenum (small bowel) by a tube called the pancreatic duct.

Your pancreas produces enzymes (digestive juices) which break down food, particularly fatty foods. These digestive juices pass down the pancreatic duct into the duodenum which contains food to be digested. The pancreas also produces insulin – a hormone that helps to keep the level of sugar in your blood constant…


There are a number of symptoms of chronic pancreatitis, including : – 

  • persistent or recurrent pain around the upper part of your abdomen (tummy) and/or back which may be better when you sit forwards
  • vomiting
  • feeling weak
  • jaundice, which is when the whites of your eyes and your skin look yellowed
  • pale, fatty, smelly faeces that are difficult to flush away
  • unexplained weight loss
  • thirst and passing large amounts of urine (diabetes)
  • long-term health problems…

Q. What causes chronic pancreatitis ?

The most common cause of chronic pancreatitis is long-term excessive alcohol consumption. There is a direct relationship between the amount of alcohol consumed and the risk of developing chronic pancreatitis.

Other causes include : – 

  • high levels of calcium in the blood
  • abnormalities in anatomy which are usually present at birth
  • cystic fibrosis
  • high blood fats (hypertriglyceridaemia)
  • in rare cases, some drugs can cause pancreatitis
  • in a number of cases no specific cause can be identified, a condition known as idiopathic pancreatitis…


Your GP will examine you and ask you about your symptoms. They may take a blood test and refer you to a gastroenterologist, a doctor who specialises in conditions of the digestive system, for tests which may include the following.

  • Further blood tests may be taken which will be sent to a laboratory for testing.
  • A faeces sample test may be required. This will be sent to a laboratory for testing.
  • You may have an abdominal ultrasound which uses high frequency sound waves to produce an image to look for any changes. This is sometimes done using an endoscope.
  • A biopsy may be taken from the pancreas with a needle. A biopsy is a small sample of tissue. This will be sent to a laboratory for testing…


Treatment of chronic pancreatitis depends on the cause of the disease, severity of the associated pain and effectiveness of former treatment approaches. The first step of treatment focuses on relieving pain and eating a diet that is high in carbohydrates and low in fat. It is essential to stop drinking alcohol entirely…


There are a number of surgical procedures available for patients whose pain is not relieved by medications or other approaches. Surgery may involve removing stones from the pancreas, draining blocked ducts, or partial or entire removal of the pancreas…

Signs and tests

Tests for pancreatitis include : – 

  • Fecal fat test
  • Serum amylase
  • Serum lipase
  • Serum trypsinogen
  • Inflammation or calcium deposits of the pancreas may be seen on :
    • Abdominal CT scan
    • Abdominal ultrasound
    • ERCP…

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Anabolic Steroid Side Effects

The action of testosterone can be in ways both beneficial and detrimental to the body. On the plus side, this hormone has a direct impact on the growth of muscle tissues, the production of red blood cells and overall well being of the organism. But it may also negatively effect the production of skin oils, growth of body, facial and scalp hair, and the level of both “good” and “bad” cholesterol in the body [among other things]. In fact, men have a shorter average life span than women, which is believed to be largely due to the cardiovascular defects that this hormone may help bring about. Testosterone will also naturally convert to estrogen in the male body, a hormone with its own unique set of effects. As we have discussed earlier, raising the level of estrogen in men can increase the tendency to notice water retention, fat accumulation, and will often cause the development of female tissues in the breast [gynecomastia]. Clearly we see that most of the “bad” side effects from steroids are simply those actions of testosterone that we are not looking for when taking a steroid. Raising the level of testosterone in the body will simply enhance both its good and bad properties, but for the most part we are not having “toxic° reactions to these drugs. A notable exception to this is the possibility of liver damage, which is a worry isolated to the use of c17-alpha alkylated oral steroids. Unless the athlete is taking anabolic/androgenic steroids abusively for a very long duration, side effects rarely amount to little more than a nuisance. One could actually make a case that periodic steroid use might even be a healthy practice. Clearly a person physical shape can relate closely to one overall health and well being. Provided some common sense is paid to health checkups, drug choice, dosage and off-time, how can we say for certain that the user is worse off for doing so? This position is of course very difficult to publicly justify with steroid use being so deeply stigmatized. Since this can be a very lengthy discussion, we will save the full health, moral and legal arguments for another time. For now I would like to run down the list of popularly discussed side effects, and include any current treatment/avoidance advice where possible.


Rampant acne is one of the more obvious indicators of steroid use. As you know, teenage boys generally endure periods of irritating acne as their testosterone levels begin to peak, but this generally subsides with age. But when taking anabolic/androgenic steroids, an adult will commonly be confronted with this same problem. This is because the sebaceous glands, which secrete oils in the skin, are stimulated by androgens. Increasing the level of such hormones in the skin may therefore enhance the output of oils, often causing acne to develop on the back, shoulders, and face. The use of strongly androgenic steroids in particular can be very troublesome, in some instances resulting in very unsightly blemishes all over the skin. To treat acne, the athlete has a number of options. The most obvious of course is to be very diligent with washing and topical treatments, so as to remove much of the dirt and oil before the pores become clogged. If this proves insufficient, the prescription acne drug Accutaine might be a good option. This is a very effective medication that acts on the sebaceous glands, reducing the level of oil secreted. The athlete could also take the ancillary drug Proscar®/Propecia® [finasteride] during steroid treatment, which reduces the conversion of testosterone into DHT, lowering the tendency for androgenic side effects with this hormone. It is of note however that this drug is more effective at warding off hair loss than acne, as it more specifically effects DHT conversion in the prostate and hair follicles. It is also important to note that testosterone is the only steroid that really converts to dihydrotestosterone, and only a few others actually convert to more potent steroids via the 5a-reductase enzyme at all. Many steroids are also potent androgens in their own right, such as Anadrol 50® and Dianabol for example. As such they can exert strong androgenic activity in target tissues without 5a-reduction to a more potent compound, which makes Propecia® useless. Of course one can also simply take those steroids [anabolics] that are less androgenic. For sensitive individuals attempting to build mass, nandrolone would therefore be a much better option than testosterone.


Aggressive behaviour can be one of the scarier sides to steroid use. Men are typically more aggressive than women because of testosterone, and likewise the use of steroids [especially androgens] can increase a person’s aggressive tendency. In some instances this can be a benefit, helping the athlete hit the weights more intensely or perform better in a competition. Many professional power lifters and bodybuilders take a particular liking to this effect. But on the other hand there is nothing more unsettling than a grown man, bloated with muscle mass, who cannot control his temper. A steroid user who displays an uncontrollable rage is clearly a danger to him and others. If an athlete is finding himself getting agitated at minor things during a steroid cycle, he should certainly find a means to keep this from getting out of hand. Remembering to take a couple of deep breaths at such times can Be very helpful. If such attempts prove to be ineffective, the offending steroids should be discontinued. The bottom line is that if you lack the maturity and self control to keep your anger in check, you should not be using steroids.

Anaphylactic Shock

Anaphylactic shock is an allergic reaction to the presence of a foreign protein in the body. It most commonly occurs when an individual has an allergy to things like a specific medication [such as penicillin], insect bites, industrial/household chemicals, foods [commonly nuts, shellfish, fruits] and food additives/preservatives [particularly sulfur]. With this sometimes-fatal disorder the smooth muscles are stimulated to contract, which may restrict a person breathing. Symptoms include wheezing, swelling, rash or hives, fever, a notable drop in blood pressure, dizziness, unconsciousness, convulsions or death. This reaction is not really seen with hormonal products like anabolic/androgenic steroids, but this may change with the rampant manufacture of counterfeit pharmaceuticals. Being that there are no quality controls for black market producers, toxins might indeed find their way into some preparations [particularly injectable compounds]. My only advice would be to make every attempt to use only legitimately produced drug products, preferably of First World origin. When anaphylactic shock occurs, it is most commonly treated with an injection of epinephrine. Individuals very sensitive to certain insect bites are familiar with this procedure, many of who keep an allergy kit [for the self administration of epinephrine] close at hand.

Birth Defects

Anabolic/androgenic steroids can have a very pronounced impact on the development of an unborn fetus. Adrenal Genital Syndrome in particular is a very disturbing occurrence, in which a female fetus can develop male-like reproductive organs. Women who are, or plan to become pregnant soon, should never consider the use of anabolic steroids. It would also be the best advice to stay away from these drugs completely for a number of months prior to attempting the conception of a child, so as to ensure the mother has a normal hormonal chemistry. Although anabolic/androgenic steroids can reduce sperm count and male fertility, they are not linked to birth defects what taken by someone fathering a child.

Blood Clotting Changes

The use of anabolic/androgenic steroids is shown to increase prothrombin time, or the duration it will take for a blood clot to form. This basically means that while an individual is taking steroids, he/she may notice that it takes slightly longer than usual for a small cut or nosebleed to stop seeping blood. During the course of a normal day this is hardly cause for alarm, but it can lead to more serious trouble if a severe accident occurred, or an unexpected surgery was needed. Realistically the changes in clotting time are not extremely dramatic, so athletes are usually only concerned with this side effect if planning for a surgery. The clotting changes brought about by anabolic steroids are amplified with the use of medications like Aspirin, Tylenol and especially anticoagulants, so your doctor should be informed of their use [steroids] if undergoing any notable treatment with these types of drugs.


Although it is a popular belief that steroids can give you cancer, this is actually a very rare phenomenon. Since anabolic/androgenic steroids are synthetic version of a natural hormone that your body can metabolize quite easily, they usually place a very low level of stress on the organs. In fact, many steroidal compounds are safe to administer to individuals with a diagnosed liver condition, with little adverse effect. The only real exception to this is with the use of C17 alpha alkylated compounds, which due to their chemical alteration are somewhat liver toxic. In a small number of cases [primarily with Anadrol 50®] this toxicity has lead to severe liver damage and subsequently cancer. But we are speaking of a statistically insignificant number in the face millions of athletes who use steroids. These cases also tended to be very ill patients, not athletes, who were using extremely large dosages for prolonged periods of time. Steroid opponents will sometimes point out the additional possibility of developing Wilms Tumor from steroid abuse, which is a very serious form of kidney cancer. Such cases are so rare however, that no direct link between anabolic/androgenic steroid use and this disease has been conclusively established. Provided the athlete is not overly abusing methylated oral substances, and is visiting a doctor during heavier cycles, cancer should not be much of a concern.

Cardiovascular Disease

As mentioned earlier, the use of anabolic/androgenic steroids may have an impact on the level of LDL [low density lipoprotein], HDL [high density lipoprotein] and total cholesterol values. As you probably know, HDL is considered the “good” cholesterol since it can act to remove cholesterol deposits from the arteries. LDL has the opposite effect, aiding in the buildup of cholesterol on the artery walls. The general pattern seen with steroid use is a lowering of HDL concentrations, while total and LDL cholesterol numbers increase. The ratio of HDL to LDL values is usually more important than one total cholesterol count, as these two substances seem to balance each other in the body. If these changes are exacerbated by the long-term use of steroidal compounds, it can clearly be detrimental to the cardiovascular system. This may be additionally heightened by a rise in blood pressure, which is common with the use of strongly aromatizable compounds.

It is also important to note that due to their structure and form of administration, most 17 alpha alkylated oral steroids have a much stronger negative impact on these levels compared to injectable steroids. Using a milder drug like Winstrol® [stanozolol], in hopes HDL level changes will also be mild, may therefore not turn out to be the best option. One study comparing the effect of a weekly injection of 200mg testosterone enanthate vs. only a 6mg daily oral dose of Winstrol® makes this very clear. After only six weeks, stanozolol was shown to reduce HDL and HDL-2 [good] cholesterol by an average of 33% and 71% respectively. The HDL reduction [HDL-3 subfraction] with the testosterone group was only an average of 9%. LDL [bad] cholesterol also rose 29% with stanozolol, while it actually dropped 16% with the use of testosterone. Those concerned with cholesterol changes during steroid use may likewise wish to avoid oral steroids, and opt for the use of injectable compounds exclusively. We also must note that estrogens generally have a favorable impact on cholesterol profiles. Estrogen replacement therapy in postmenopausal women for example is regularly linked to a rise in HDL cholesterol and a reduction in LDL values. Likewise the aromatization of testosterone to estradiol may be beneficial in preventing a more dramatic change in serum cholesterol due to the presence of the hormone. A recent study investigated just this question by comparing the effects of testosterone alone [280 mg testosterone enanthate weekly], vs. the same dose combined with an aromatase inhibitor [250mg testolactone 4 times daily] Methyltestosterone was also tested in third group, at a dose of 20mg daily. The results were quite enlightening. The group using only testosterone enanthate showed no significant decrease in HDL cholesterol values over the course of the 12 week study. After only four weeks the group using testosterone plus an aromatase inhibitor displayed a reduction of 25% on average. The methyltestosterone group noted an HDL reduction of 35% by this point, and also noted an unfavourable rise in LDL cholesterol. This clearly should make us think a little more closely about estrogen maintenance during steroid therapy. Aside from deciding whether or not it is actually necessary in any given circumstance, drug choice may also be an important consideration. For example, the estrogen receptor antagonist Nolvadex® does not seem to exhibit ant estrogenic effects on cholesterol values, and in fact often raises HDL levels. Using this to combat the side effects of estrogen instead of an aromatase inhibitor such as Arimidex® or Cytadren® may therefore be a good idea, particularly for those who are using steroids for longer periods of time. Since heart disease is one of the top killers worldwide, steroid using athletes [particularly older individuals] should not ignore these risks. If nothing else it is a very good idea to have your blood pressure and cholesterol values measured during each heavy cycle, being sure to discontinue the drugs should a problem become evident. It is also advisable to limit the intake of foods high in saturated fats and cholesterol, which should help minimize the impact of steroid treatment. Since blood pressure and cholesterol levels will usually revert back to their pre-treated norms soon after steroids are withdrawn, long-term damage is not a common worry.


Steroid use will obviously have an impact on hormone levels in the body, which in turn may result in a change in ones general disposition or mood. On the one hand we might see very aggressive behaviour, but the other extreme of depression also exists. Depression usually occurs at times when an individual androgen/estrogen levels are significantly off balance. This is most common with male bodybuilders, at times when anabolic/androgenic steroids are discontinued. During this period estrogen levels may be markedly elevated [from the aromatization of steroids], which is often coupled with a deeply suppressed endogenous testosterone level. Once the steroids are no longer present in the body, the athlete may suffer with a low androgen level until the body catches up. Depression may also occur during the course of a steroid cycle, particularly with the sole use of anabolics. Although these compounds are mild in comparison to androgens, many can still suppress the endogenous Production of testosterone. If the testosterone level drops significantly during treatment, the administered anabolics may not provide enough of an androgen level to compensate, and a marked loss of motivation and sense of well-being may result. The best advice when looking to avoid cycle or post-cycle depression is to closely monitor drug intake and withdrawal. The use of a small weekly testosterone dose might prove very effective if added to a mild dieting/anabolic cycle, warding off feelings of boredom and apathy to training. And of course a strong steroid cycle should always be discontinued with the proper use of ancillary drugs [Nolvadex®, Arimidex®, HCG, Clomid® etc.]. Although tapering schedules are very common, they are not an effective way to restore endogenous testosterone levels.


Gynecomastia is the medical term for the development of female breast tissues in the male body. This occurs when the male is presented with unusually high level of estrogen, particularly with the use of strong aromatizing androgens such as testosterone and Dianabol. The excess estrogen can act upon receptors in the breast and stimulate the growth of mammary tissues. If left unchecked this can lead to an actual obvious and unsightly tissue growth under the nipple area, in many cases taking on a very feminine appearance. To fight this side effect during steroid therapy, many find it necessary the use some form of estrogen maintenance medication. This includes an estrogen antagonist such as Clomid® or Nolvadex®, which blocks estrogen from attaching to and activating receptors in the breast and other tissues, or an aromatase inhibitor such as Proviron®, Cytadren® or Arimidex©, which blocks the enzyme responsible for the conversion of androgens to estrogens. Arimidex® is currently the most effective option, but is also the most costly.

It is worth noting however, that many believe a slightly elevated estrogen level may help the athlete achieve a more pronounced muscle mass gain during a cycle [see: Estrogen Aromatization]. With this in mind many athletes decide to use antiestrogens only when it is necessary to block gynecomastia. It is of course still a good idea to always keep an antiestrogen on-hand when administering an aromatizable steroid, so that it is readily accessible should trouble become evident. Puffiness or swelling under the nipple is one of the first signs of pending gynecomastia, which is often accompanied by pain or soreness in this region [an effect termed gynecodynea]. This is a clear indicator that some type of antiestrogen is needed. If the swelling progresses into small, marble like lumps, action absolutely must be taken immediately to treat it. Otherwise if the steroids are continued at this point without ancillary drug use, the user will likely be stuck with unsightly tissue growth that can only be removed with a surgical procedure.

It is also important to mention that progestins seem to augment the stimulatory effect of estrogens on mammary tissue growth. There appears to be a strong synergy between these two hormones here, such that gynecomastia might even be able to occur with the help of progestins, without excessive estrogen levels being necessary. Since many anabolic steroids, particularly those derived from nandrolone, are known to have progestational activity, we must not be lulled into a false sense of security. Even a low estrogen producer like Deca can potentially cause gyno in certain cases, again fostering the need to keep anti-estrogens close at hand if you are very sensitive to this side effect.

Hair loss

The use of highly androgenic steroids can negatively impact the growth of scalp hair. In fact the most common form of male pattern hair loss is directly linked to the level of androgens in such tissues, most specifically the stronger DHT metabolite of testosterone. The technical term for this type of hair loss is androgenetic alopecia, which refers to the interplay of both the male androgenic hormones and a genetic predisposition in bringing about this condition. Those who suffer from this disorder are shown to posses finer hair follicles and higher levels of DHT in comparison to a normal, hairy scalp. But since there is a genetic factor involved, many individuals will not ever see signs of this side-effect, even with very heavy steroid use. Clearly those individuals who are suffering from [or have a familial predisposition for] this type of hair loss should be very cautious when using the stronger drugs like testosterone, Anadrol 50®, Halotestin® and Dianabol.

In many instances the renewal of lost hair can be very difficult, so avoiding this side effect before it occurs is the best advice. For those who need to worry, the decision should probably be made to either stick with the milder substances [Deca-Durabolin® most favoured], or to use the ancillary drug Propecia®/Proscar® [finasteride] when taking testosterone, methyltestosterone or Halotestin. Propecia® is a very effective hair loss medication, which inhibits the 5-alpha reductase enzyme specifically in the hair follicles and prostate. This item offers us little benefit with drugs that are highly androgenic without 5alpha reduction however, the most notable offenders being Anadrol 50® and Dianabol. We must also remember also that all anabolic/androgenic steroids activate the androgen receptor, and can likewise all promote hair loss given the right dosage and conditions.


Athletes sometimes report an increased frequency of headaches when using anabolic/androgenic steroids. This seems to be most common during heavier bulking cycles, when an individual is utilizing strongly estrogenic compounds. One should not simply take an aspirin and ignore this problem, as it is may indicate a more troubling side effect of steroid use, high blood pressure. Since high blood pressure invites with it a number of unwanted health risks, monitoring it on a regular schedule is important during heavy steroid use, especially if the individual is experiencing headaches. Some athletes choose to lower their blood pressure in such cases with a prescription medication like Catapres, but most find this an appropriate time to discontinue steroid use. Milder anabolics, which generally display little or no ability to convert to estrogen, are also more acceptable options for individuals sensitive to blood pressure increases. Less seriously, many headaches are due to simple strain on the neck and scalp muscles. The athlete may be lifting with much more intensity during a steroid cycle, and as a result may place added strain on these muscles. In this case a short break from training, and general rest, will often take care of the problem. Of course if anyone is experiencing a very serious or persistent headache, a visit to the doctor may be in order.

High Blood Pressure/Hypertension

Athletes using anabolic/androgenic steroids will commonly notice a rise in blood pressure during treatment. High blood pressure is most often associated with the use of steroids that have a high tendency for estrogen conversion, such as testosterone and Dianabol. As estrogen builds in the body, the level of water and salt retention will typically elevate (which will increase blood pressure). This may be further amplified by the added stress of intense weight training and rapid weight gain. Since hypertension [high blood pressure] can place a great deal of stress on the body, this side effect should not be ignored. If it is left untreated, high blood pressure can increase the likelihood for heart disease, stroke or kidney failure. Warning signs that one may be suffering from hypertension include an increased tendency to develop headaches, insomnia or breathing difficulties. In many instances these symptoms do not become evident until BP is seriously elevated, so a lack of these signs is no guarantee that the user is safe. Obtaining your blood pressure reading is a very quick and easy procedure [either at a doctors office, pharmacy or home]; steroid-using athletes should certainly be monitoring BP values during stronger cycles so as to avoid potential problems.

If an individual blood pressure values are becoming notably elevated, some action should/must be taken to control it. The most obvious is to avoid the continued use of the offending steroids, or at least to substitute them with milder, non-aromatizing compounds. It is also of note that although aromatizing steroids are typically involved, nonaromatizing androgens like Halotestin® or trenbolone are occasionally also been linked to high blood pressure, so these are perhaps not the ideal alternatives in such a situation. The athlete also has the option of seeking the benefit of high blood pressure medications such as diuretics, which can dramatically lower water and salt retention. Catapres [clonidine HCL] is also a popular medication among athletes, because in addition to its blood pressure lowering properties it has also been documented to raise the body output of growth hormone.

Immune System Changes

The use of anabolic/androgenic steroids has been shown to produce changes in the body that may impact an individual immune system. These changes however can be both good and bad for the user. During steroid treatment for instance, many athletes find they are less susceptible to viral illnesses. New studies involving the use of compounds like oxandrolone and Deca-Durabolin® with HIV+ patients seem to back up this claim, clearly showing that these drugs can have a beneficial effect on the immune system. Such therapies are in fact catching on in recent years, and many doctors are now less reluctant to prescribe these drugs to their ill patients. But just as a person may be less apt to notice illness during steroid treatment, the discontinuance of steroids can produce a rebound effect in which the immune system is less able to fight off pathogens. This most likely coincides with the rebound activity/production of cortisol, a catabolic hormone in the body, which may act to suppress immune system functioning. When the administered steroids are withdrawn, an androgen deficient state is often endured until the body is able to rebalance hormone production. Since testosterone and cortisol seem counter each other activity in many ways, the absence of a normal androgen level may place cortisol in an unusually active state. During this period of imbalance, cortisol will not only be stripping the body of muscle mass, but it may also cause the athlete to be more susceptible to colds, flu etc. The proper use of ancillary drugs [antiestrogens, testosterone stimulating drugs] is the most common suggestion for helping to avoid this problem, which will hopefully allow the user to restore a proper balance of hormones once the steroids are removed.

We also cannot ignore the other-hand possibility that steroids could actually increase cortisol levels in the body during treatment. Termed hypercortisolemia, this effect is a common occurrence with anabolic/androgenic steroid therapy. This is because anabolic/androgenic steroids may interfere with the ability for the body to clear corticosteroids from circulation, due to the fact that in their respective pathways of metabolism these hormones share certain enzymes. When overloaded with androgens competing for the same enzymes cortisol may be broken down at a slower rate, and levels of this hormone will in turn begin build. Due to their strong tendency to inhibit the activity of the 3beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme, oral c17 alpha alkylated orals may be particularly troublesome in regards to elevated cortisol levels, as again this is a common pathway for corticosteroid metabolism. Though an elevated cortisol level is not a common concern during most typical steroid cycles, problems can certainly become evident when these drugs are used at very high doses or for prolonged periods of time. This of course may lead to the athlete becoming “run-down” and more susceptible to illness, as well as foster a more over-trained and static [less anabolic] state of metabolism.

Kidney Stress/Damage

Since your kidneys are involved in the filtration and removal of byproducts from the body, the administration of steroidal compounds [which are largely excreted in the urine] may cause them some level of strain. Actual kidney damage is most likely to occur when the steroid user is suffering from severe high blood pressure, as this state can place an undue amount of stress on these organs. There is actually some evidence to suggest that steroid use can be linked to the onset of Wilms Tumor in adults, which is a rapidly growing kidney tumor normally seen in children and infants. Such cases are so rare however, that no conclusive link has been established. Obviously the kidneys are vital to ones heath, so the possibility of any kind of damage [although low] should not be ignored during heavy steroid treatment. If the user is noticing a darkening of color [in some cases a distinguishable amount of blood], or pain/difficulty when urinating, kidneys strain might be a legitimate concern. Other warning signs include pain in the lower back [particularly in the kidney areas], fever and edema [swelling]. If organ damage is feared, the administered steroidal compounds should be discontinued immediately, and the doctor paid a visit to rule out any serious trouble. Since kidney stress/damage is generally associated with the use of stronger aromatizing compounds such as testosterone and Dianabol [which often raise blood pressure], individuals sensitive to high blood pressure/kidney stress should such compounds until health concerns are safely avoided. If steroid use is still necessitated by the individual, it may be a good idea to avoid the stronger compounds and opt for one of the milder anabolics. Primobolan®, Anavar and Winstrol® for example do not convert to estrogen at all, and likewise may be acceptable options. Also favorable drugs in this regard are Deca-Durabolin® and Equipoise, which have only a low tendency to convert to estrogen.

Liver Stress/Damage

Liver stress/damage is not a side effect of steroid use in general, but is specifically associated with the use of c17 alpha alkylated compounds. As mentioned earlier, these structures contain chemical alterations that enable them to be administered orally. In surviving a first pass by the liver, these compounds place some level of stress on the organ. in some instances this has led to severe damage, even fatal liver cancer. The disease peliosis hepatitis is one worry, which is an often life threatening condition where the liver develops blood filled cysts. Liver cancer [hepatic carcinoma] has also been noted in certain cases. While these very serious complications have occurred on certain occasions where liver-toxic compounds were prescribed for extended periods, it is important to stress however that this is not very common with steroid using athletes. Most of the documented cases of liver cancer have in fact been in clinical situations, particularly with the use of the powerful oral androgen Anadrol 50® [oxymetholone]. This may be directly related to the high dosage of this preparation, as Anadrol 50® contains a whopping 50mg of active steroid per tablet. This is a considerable jump from other oral preparations, most of which contain 5mg or less of a substance. With one Anadrol 50® tablet, the liver will therefore have to process [roughly] the equivalent of 10 Dianabol tablets. This obvious stress is further amplified when we look at the unusually high dosage schedule for ill patients receiving this medication. With Anadrol 50®, the manufacturer recommendations may call for the use of as many as 8 or 10 tablets daily. This is of course a far greater amount than most athletes would ever think of consuming, with three or four tablets per day being considered the upper limit of safety. It is also important to note that the actual number of cases involving liver damage have been few, and have not been a significant enough of a problem to warrant discontinuing this compound. Methyltestosterone, this first steroid shown to cause liver trouble, is also still available as a prescription drug in this country. The average recreational steroid user who takes toxic orals at moderate dosages for relatively short periods is therefore very unlikely to face devastating liver damage.

Although severe liver damage may occur before the onset of noticeable symptoms, it is most common to notice jaundice during the early stages of such injury. Jaundice is characterized by the buildup of bilirubin in the body, which in this case will usually result from the obstruction of bile ducts in the liver. The individual will typically notice a yellowing of the skin and eye whites as this colored substance builds in the body tissues, which is a clear sign to terminate the use of any c17 alpha alkylated steroids. In most instances the immediate withdrawal of these compounds is sufficient to reverse and prevent any further damage. Of course the athlete should avoid using orals for an extended period of time, if not indefinitely, should jaundice occur repeatedly during treatment. It is also a good idea to visit your physician during oral treatment in order to monitor liver enzyme values. Since liver stress will be reflected in your enzyme counts well before jaundice is noticed, this can remove much of the worry with oral steroid treatment.

Prostate Enlargement

Prostate cancer is currently one of the most common forms of cancer in males. Benign prostate enlargement [a swelling of prostate tissues often interfering with urine flow] can precede/coincide this cancer, and is clearly an important medical concern for men who are aging. Prostate complications are believed to be primarily dependent on androgenic hormones, particularly the strong testosterone metabolite DHT in normal situations, much in the same way estrogen is linked to breast cancer in women. Although the connection between prostate enlargement/cancer and steroid use is not fully established, the use of steroids may theoretically aggravate such conditions by raising the level of androgens in the body. It is therefore a good idea for older athletes to limit/avoid the intake of strong 5-alpha reducible androgens like testosterone, methyltestosterone and Halotestin, or otherwise use Proscar® [finasteride], which was specifically designed to inhibit the 5-alpha reductase enzyme in scalp and prostate tissues. This may be an effective preventative measure for older athletes who insist on using these compounds. Drugs like Dianabol, Anadrol 50® and Proviron, which do not convert to DHT yet are still potent androgens, are not effected by its use however. It is also important to mention that not only androgens but also estrogens are necessary for the advancement of this condition. It appears that the two work synergistically to stimulate benign prostatic growth, such that one without the other would not be enough to cause it. It has therefore been suggested that non-aromatizable compounds may be better options for older men looking for androgen replacement than lowering androgenic activity in the prostate. It is easier to accomplish, and should be accompanied with less side effects. It would also be very sound advice, regardless of steroid use, for individuals over 40 to have a physician check the prostate on somewhat of a regular basis.

Sexual Dysfunction

The functioning of the male reproductive system depends greatly on the level of androgenic hormones in the body. The use of synthetic male hormones may therefore have a dramatic impact on an individual sexual wellness. On one extreme we may see a man libido and erection frequency become extremely heightened. This is most commonly seen with the use of strongly androgenic steroids, which seem to have the most dramatic stimulating impact on this system. In some instances this can reach the point of becoming a problem, although more often than not the athlete is simply much more active and aggressive sexually during the intake of steroids.

On the other extreme we may also see a lack of sexual interest, possibly to the point of impotency. This occurs mainly when androgenic hormones are at a very low. This will often happen after a steroid cycle is discontinued, as the endogenous production of testosterone is commonly suppressed during the cycle. Removing the androgen [from an outside source] leaves the body with little natural testosterone until this imbalance is corrected. The loss of its metabolite DHT is particularly troubling, as this hormone may have a strong affect on the reproductive system that may not be apparent with other less androgenic hormones. It is therefore a very good idea to use testosterone-stimulating drugs like HCG and/or Clomid®/Nolvadex® when coming off of a strong cycle, so as to reduce the impact of steroid withdrawal. Impotency/sexual apathy may also occur during the course of a steroid cycle, particularly when it is based strictly on anabolic compounds. Since all “anabolics” can suppress the manufacture of testosterone in the body, the administered drugs may not be androgenic enough to properly compensate for the testosterone loss. In such a case the user might opt to include a small androgen dosage [perhaps a weekly testosterone injection], or again to reverse/prevent the androgen suppression with the use of medications like Clomid® or HCG.

It is also interesting to note that it is not always simply an androgen vs. anabolic issue. People will often respond very differently to an equal dose of the same drug. While one individual may notice sexual disinterest or impotency, another may become extremely aggressive. It is therefore difficult to predict how someone will react to a particular drug before having used it.

Stunted Growth

Many anabolic/androgenic steroids have the potential to impact an individual stature if taken during adolescence. Specifically, steroids can stunt growth by stimulating the epiphyseal plates in a person long bones to prematurely fuse. Once these plates are fused, future liner growth is not possible. Even if the individual avoids steroid use subsequently, the damage is irreversible and he/she can be stuck at the same height forever. Not even the use of growth hormone can reverse this, as this powerful hormone can only thicken bones when used during adulthood. Interestingly enough it is not the steroids themselves, but the buildup of estrogen that causes the epiphyseal plates to fuse. Women are shorter than men on average because of this effect of estrogen, and likewise the use of steroids that readily convert to estrogen can prematurely suppress/halt a person growth. In fact, the use of steroids like Anavar, Winstrol® and Primobolan® [which do not convert to estrogen] can actually increase ones height if taken during adolescence, as their anabolic effects will promote the retention of calcium in the bones. This would also hold true for non-aromatizing androgens such as trenbolone, Proviron® and Halotestin®. It is of course still good common sense to advise adolescents to avoid steroid use, at least until their bodies are fully mature and steroid use will have a less dramatic impact.

Testicular Atrophy

The human body always prefers to remain in a very balanced hormonal state, a tendency known as homeostasis. When the administration of androgens from an outside source causes a surplus of hormone, it will cause the body to stop manufacturing its own testosterone. Specifically this happens via a feedback mechanism, where the hypothalamus detects a high level of sex steroids [including androgens, progestins and estrogens] and shuts off the release of GnRH [Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone, formerly referred to as luteinizing hormone releasing hormone]. This in turn causes the pituitary to stop releasing luteinizing hormone and FSH [follicle stimulating hormone], the two hormones [primarily LH] that stimulate the Leydig cells in the testes to release testosterone [negative feedback inhibition has been demonstrated at the pituitary level as well]. Without stimulation by LH and FSH the testes will be in a state of production limbo, and may shrink from inactivity. In extreme cases the steroid user can notice testicles that are unusually and frighteningly small. This effect is temporary however, and once the drugs are removed [and hormone levels rebalance] the testicles should return to their original size. Many regular steroid users find this side effect quite troubling, and use ancillary drugs like Clomid®/Nolvadex® or HCG during a steroid cycle in order to try to maintain testicular activity [and size] during treatment. The more estrogenic androgens [testosterone, Anadrol 50® and Dianabol] are of course most dramatic in this regard, and are therefore poor choices for individuals who seriously want to avoid testicle shrinkage. Non-aromatizing anabolics would be a better option, however be warned that all steroids should have an impact on the production of testosterone if taken at an anabolically effective dosage [yes, even Anavar and Primobolan®].

Water and Salt Retention

Many anabolic/androgenic steroids can increase the amount of water and sodium stored in body tissues. In some instances steroid induced water retention can bring about a very bloated appearance to the body [hands, arms, face etc.], which will also reduce the visibility of muscle features [loss of definition]. Athletes often ignore this side effect, particularly during bulking cycles when the excess water stored in the muscles, joints and connective tissues will help to improve an individual overall strength. With the use of many strong androgens, water retention can account for much of the initial strength and body weight gain during steroid treatment, with “water-weight” sometimes amounting to ten or more pounds. Although water retention may not be the most unwelcome side effect during a bulking cycle [greater strength and mass], it can lead to dangerous problems such as high blood pressure and kidney damage. The body is clearly under more strain when dealing with an unusually high level of water, so athletes should not simply ignore this. Water retention is most specifically associated with the presence of estrogen in the body, and is therefore common with the use of aromatizing compounds [such as testosterone and Dianabol]. If water retention becomes an obvious problem during a cycle, the use of an antiestrogen [Nolvadex®, Proviron®] may help minimize it. The antiaromatase Arimidex® is in fact the most effective option, which inhibits the conversion of testosterone to estrogen. Sometimes the athlete will alternately option for a diuretic, which can rapidly shed the water so as to achieve a more comfortable/attractive physique in a very short time. This is a common practice when preparing for a competition, as diuretic use allows the user a great level of control over water stores. Of course discontinuing the offending compounds, or substituting them with a milder anabolic would be the simplest option for recreational steroid users.


Since anabolic/androgenic steroids are synthetic male hormones, they can produce a number of undesirable changes when introduced into the female body. This includes the possibility of “virilization”, which refers to the tendency for women to develop masculine characteristics when taking these drugs. Virilization symptoms include a deepening or hoarseness of the voice, changes in skin texture, acne, menstrual irregularities, increased libido, hair loss [scalp], body/facial/pubic hair growth and an enlargement of the clitoris. In extreme cases the female genitalia can become very disfigured, and may actually take on a penis-like appearance. Women must clearly be very careful when considering the use of steroids, especially since most virilization symptoms are irreversible. The stronger androgenic compounds should obviously be off-limits, with cautious female athletes restricting themselves to the use of only mild anabolics such as Winstrol®, Primobolan®, Anavar and Durabolin® [the shorter acting nandrolone]. Nandrolone is actually the preferred hormone, as it displays the lowest level of androgenic to anabolic activity. Since even these milder anabolics have the potential to cause problems however, users should additionally remember to be conservative with drug dosages and duration of intake. After each cycle of course a notable break from treatment would be a good idea as well, so that the body has sufficient time to re-establish a hormonal balance.

Getting Rid Of Sinus Fungus

Once it makes contact with the sinuses, it can stick around for months or years until an effective treatment has been administered. Some of the symptoms to watch out for are headaches, chronic nasal congestion, pain and pressure in the infected sinuses.

Sinus fungus can be classified as invasive or non-invasive. Invasive sinus fungi, although quite rare, cause severe problems among those who are infected with it. These invade and penetrate the mucosal tissues lining the sinuses, the blood vessels near the sinuses and in some cases, the bone of the sinuses.

In non-invasive sinus fungi, on the other hand, the mucus becomes the ‘host’ for the pathogen. Patients of asthma, allergic rhinitis, nasal polyps as well as chronic sinusitis are known to harbor this type. From these two classifications come the other four types of fungal sinus conditions.

Fungal ball – Usually occurring in the maxillary sinuses, this type presents symptoms similar with bacterial sinusitis. The culprit is the sinus fungus called Aspergillus, a pathogen that comes from the common bread mold family.

Treatment for fungal ball typically involves the removal of the fungal ball formation using endoscopic sinus surgery.

Allergic fungal rhinitis – The most common among the four types, allergic fungal rhinitis is caused by pathogens from the Dematiaceous family. Again, the symptoms that may result from this type of infection are somewhat similar with those presented by patients of bacterial sinusitis with the addition of thick nasal discharge and the formation of nasal polyps.

The treatments for allergic fungal rhinitis often involve the use of endoscopic sinus surgery which targets the removal of the fungal elements as well as the creation of a hole within the route of the mucus drainage to promote better nasal discharge. Other treatments such as topical and systemic steroids, antibiotics, nasal irrigations, antihistamines, and anti-fungal medications can also be administered.

Acute or Chronic Invasive Fungal Sinusitis – This is the least common and the most serious type of fungal sinusitis. It is characterized by the penetration of the fungi into the tissues, muscles and bones of the infected sinuses. The acute type poses worse risks to the patient as it tends to develop much faster than chronic fungal sinusitis.

If you have a compromised immune system, you are more likely to be affected with acute invasive fungal sinusitis. Otherwise, if your immune system is normal, you are likely to suffer from chronic invasive fungal sinusitis. Either way, you are exposed to an often-fatal condition.

A combination of surgical intervention and medications that fight off the sinus fungus or fungi will bring about relief from symptoms.

Additional Tips on Treating Fungal Sinusitis

•           The first line of defense against invading pathogens is a healthy body. Always ensure that your immune system defenses are fortified.

•           Corticosteroids, according to clinical evidence, have been shown to effectively reduce the recurrence of fungal sinusitis after surgery.

•           If you are suffering from any type of fungal sinusitis, avoid blowing or irrigating your nose. Doing so will aid the fungi to spread to the inner parts of your sinuses.

Best Fertility Centre in India for Fertility Enhancing Laparoscopic Surgery

Ain’t you deciding you to be a parent – a mother of lovely and miraculously blessed and beautiful kids? You along with your spouse have the power to complete your family. What if your preliminary scan shows that you cannot become a mother – your spouse father and your in-laws grands? What if a miscarriage happens soon after pregnancy? Such conditions are common across females with serious abdominal anomalies that may occur irrespective of age and healthiness. This is where the importance of fertility enhancing laparoscopic surgery comes into view. Let’s first learn some basics about this type of surgery and then some of its benefits so that you can understand why it should be chosen by any reason.


What is Fertility Enhancing Laparoscopic Surgery?

It is a type of keyhole surgery (MIS/bandaid) performed on the female abdomen suffering from pelvic adhesions, fibroids, cysts, myoma, endometriosis, tubal blockage, uterine septum, UTIs, and other problems. These problems may be collected by patients due to miscellaneous reasons under various circumstances. The fertility enhancing laparoscopic surgery is then carried out on the patient for diagnosing as well as treating a condition.

The surgery involves the thorough side-by-side examination through a laparoscope (an advanced instrument attached with a HD camera connected with a video monitor) and operation through surgical tools. There includes around 3-4 small incisions in abdomen to examine and operate any unfavorable condition for successful conceiving.


Benefits of Fertility Enhancing Laparoscopic Surgery-

Now that you are well versed with laparoscopic surgery for fertility enhancing, let’s get to know its benefits also.

  • The most advanced and precise method to treat abdomen abnormalities
  • Less blood loss
  • Speedier recovery
  • No chances of horrified scars on abdomen
  • Shorter stay at hospital
  • Improved fertility chances
  • Fully safe and highly improved results post-op
  • Improved health
  • Cost-effective


If you are in the need of the laparoscopic surgery for fertility enhancing, only the best fertility centre in India should be consulted with. Discussed here are the qualities of the best services of the centre that you should consider before submitting to them.

  • The best hospital for fertility treatments in India would have the cutting-edge diagnostics and surgical treatment technologies and procedures including fertility enhancing laparoscopic surgery on-board.
  • The hospital of repute would have a team of laparoscopic specialists, consultants, oncologists, and skilled and experienced workforce for the precise and effective treatment results.
  • The centre would be excellently enough to carve itself a niche in the neighborhood and PAN India for infertility treatment and fertility enhancing technologies.
  • The centre would have adequate infrastructure for accommodating patients, providing ICU and emergency services, carrying out surgical treatments, performing biopsies, studying blood tests and lab samples, providing pre-natal and post-natal care, and other high-tech treatments and diagnosis.
  • Check with the hospital for its patient testimonials, patient records, success rate of treatments, treatment cost, patient services, journal of frequently asked questions (FAQs), social awareness and activity in fertility and natal care related researches and latest developments etcetera.