How Do Children Get Cerebral Palsy?

There are estimates that as many as 700 out of every 100,000 babies that are born in the US have suffered from some type of harm during labor and/or delivery. Birth injuries, sometimes referred to as birth traumas, can vary in severity.

Unfortunately, in some instances, birth traumas are caused by the negligence of the medical team; the very people who are responsible for the well being of both mother and child.

Although there are many types of birth injuries, one of the most common is cerebral palsy. It can result from abnormalities or injuries in the brain. It can also be the result of brain damage that was caused during child birth and is often caused by trauma or low levels of oxygen.

When Will the Signs of Cerebral Palsy Appear?

Every year approximately 1,200 to 1,500 preschool children and 8,000 infants are diagnosed with cerebral palsy in the United States. More than 80% of cerebral palsy cases develop within a child’s first month. However, they may appear until a child is three years of age.

Cerebral is a term that refers to the brain. Palsy refers to a lack of being able to control your body. It is a type of paralysis.

Cerebral palsy is not a disease. It is a number of chronic conditions that affect learning, thinking, muscle condition, and body movement. A person stricken with cerebral palsy usually will have a difficult time maintaining their balance and moving.

Nonetheless, there are many treatments now available. One of the most vital tools available to treat these conditions is physical therapy.

Children afflicted with cerebral palsy usually find it difficult to walk and have challenges using the bathroom. However, with early intervention and continual treatment their locomotive limitations can often be substantially reduced.

Physical therapy for kids with this condition focuses on improving their skeletal and muscular movement as well as their coordination. The goal of the therapy is to help children become more mobile and to become more independent. This is accomplished with exercise, massage, the use of certain devices, and applications of heat and cold.

With proper therapy and devices such as braces, crutches, walkers, and wheelchairs, children can learn to be more mobile.

It can be very expensive for a family to care for a child struck with cerebral palsy. Seven years ago the average lifetime cost of caring for one person who was struck with cerebral palsy was approximately $921,000.

If the medical team that was involved with the labor and delivery of a parent of a child who developed cerebral palsy was responsible for the condition they can be held accountable.

Do You Have Trading Analysis Paralysis?

A man has been going to the horse races for 25 years.  Before he goes, he researches everything he can find about the horses and the jockeys – their age, weight, wins, and losses.  He knows what the weather will be and if the condition of the track will be affected.  He knows the odds on each race.  Confidently, he places his bet.  Next to him is a young man who is attending his first horse race.  In fact, he just arrived 15 minutes ago.  Placing his bet next to the old timer, he picks a horse from random.  Lo and behold, the new kid’s horse wins.  The old timer, with a tone of frustration mutters, “Beginner’s Luck.”

As a novice trader, you probably have had your fair share of “lucky breaks.”  You’ve probably also had times when you have pored over endless amounts of market information and made a “sure trade” – and then lost your investment.  Either way, it’s not a good way to approach the game of trading.  There needs to be a healthy balance of analysis and just trading.  Sure, if you make a mistake, you can lose your money – on that trade.  But if you are a prepared trader, those losses should be rare, and besides, a loss helps you learn for the next time.

Analysis paralysis is an informal phrase applied when the opportunity cost of decision analysis exceeds the benefits.  When your hard-earned money is on the line, there’s a strong urge to be extremely careful.  But, if you constantly search for more statistics, reports, studies, evaluations and data, you will come to little real decision-making because more “study” or “research” always needs to be done!

One trader we know says, “For a while I couldn’t come up with a trading plan because at first I was making it too simple and I thought there was more to it.  Well I found out that being simple was right to begin with.  I know that I am a good technical analyst and I know that I am right a good portion of the time.  I have begun to embrace uncertainty and admit that I don’t need to know where the market will go next.  If I stick with my trading plan and setups then I will survive.  There are thousands of tools ranging from market profile, to candlestick analysis that will aid me to figure out what will happen next but at the end of the day it could be one trader that changes all of it and makes me wrong.  The more I accept this reality the clearer I see the markets and the opportunities presented to me every day.” 

Most traders are not worried about losing all of their money, but instead have a fear of being wrong.  They expect perfection of themselves, and when they do not achieve it (as they never will), they feel like a failure. 

Research has shown that it is actually detrimental to fall into “analysis paralysis” when making a decision.  Dr. David Armor and Dr. Shelly Taylor found that it might be wise to just quickly choose an alternative and focus all your energy on achieving an objective.

So when you start to see yourself over-analyzing and becoming paralyzed, stop!  Just make the trade.  You will feel free, and will trade more profitably in the end.

In the mean time, Good Luck on your journey to success…

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Hiatal Hernia Symptoms – nicole wilsone

Hiatal hernia is a dysfunction which happens within the body when an organ protrudes past the muscle walls which are responsible for holding that organ in place and inside the body. This protrusion emerges within the upper section of the stomach into the thorax from a tear in the diaphragm. A hiatal hernia can be caused by birth defect, accident or injury and by pressure from being overweight or pregnant. And those with GERDs disease seem to be at a higher risk level of developing a hiatal hernia. However it can also be caused by obesity or pregnancy, which creates extra pressure on the stomach. Others causes include injury or accidents.

In some cases patients are unaware they have had a hiatal hernia and it is only discovered by a doctor performing an xray. Others seek out help due to painful symptoms. Most people do not have symptoms and no treatment is needed. If symptoms do occur, initial treatment may include medication to control acid reflux (GERD), and a change in diet. Weight loss is often recommended as a means of reducing the pressure on the hernia. Many sufferers can benefit from exercise, not only to build strength around the area, but to aid digestion and metabolic rate as well as boosting the immune system and improving overall health.

Preventing hiatal hernia symptoms and treatment that is safe can come in many forms that you may never have thought of. Luckily there are many safe and effective natural remedies for hiatal hernia symptoms and treatment. This abnormal condition may then cause further complications. While hiatal hernia symptoms may vary amongst patients, there is always a chance for a patient to suffer from heartburn, chest pain and regurgitation. Most hernias, if monitored correctly, are relatively harmless, with the most severe symptoms being those of acid reflux and gerd, which you can easily manage with diet and lifestyle changes. There are a number of practices that can increase the possibility of getting a hiatal hernia.

As time progress you may experience more symptoms including abdominal discomfort. This abdominal pain can also venture into your chest. This happens because the stomach becomes trapped above the diaphragm. Herbs and spices that can either be used in cooking or by themselves including; ginger, basil, mint, licorice root and fennel seed. Honey. Honey can be used to combat symptoms of hiatal hernia either by itself or drinking it with herbal teas. These signs and symptoms tend to become worse when you lean forward, strain, lift heavy objects or lie down, and they can also worsen during pregnancy. Unfortunately surgery and drugs mean dangerous side effects and possible complications.

However, just because you have heartburn does not automatically mean you have a hernia, and so you are strongly advised to ensure that you keep a close eye out for other hiatus hernia symptoms so that you can more readily identify whether or not you are indeed suffering from this. The next step down the line is surgery especially in cases of a strangulated hiatal hernia (complication of a hiatal hernia when part of the stomach that is herniated becomes twisted or pinched by the diaphragm).

Austin Orthopedic Surgery: Your Options

In Austin, orthopedic surgery is the best option for severe bone- and joint-related problems. With technological advancements in the medical field, orthopedic doctors can carry out effective surgical procedures to help you get rid of discomfort permanently. In Austin, orthopedic surgery uses a number of procedures to treat your condition, whether you are suffering from hand and wrist ailments, back and neck ailments or hip and knee problems.

Austin Orthopedic Surgery: Dealing with Upper Body Ailments

Here are some of the common upper body orthopedic ailments and surgery procedures for their treatment.

Hand, Wrist and Elbow: Orthopedic surgical procedures can help treat a number of hand and wrist conditions, such as flexor tendon injuries, finger conditions like trigger finger, swan neck and bouttoniere, hand dislocations, ganglion cysts, wrist fracture, carpal tunnel syndrome and radial tunnel syndrome. Elbow conditions, such as cubital tunnel syndrome, pitcher’s elbow and tennis elbow, can also be effectively treated through orthopedic surgery. Some of the common surgical procedures for hand, wrist and elbow conditions include arthroscopy, open release carpal tunnel surgery, endoscopic carpal tunnel surgery and joint replacement.

Neck and Back: Neck and back ailments include degenerative joint disease, coccydynia or tail bone pain, herniated discs, pinched nerves, sciatica, scoliosis, spinal stenosis, stress fracture, slipped vertebrae and facet joint syndrome. Some of the non operative procedures for neck and back pain treatment include epidural injections, lumbar radio frequency neurotomy and costovertebral block, while some of the surgical procedures include spinal lumbar fusion, lumbar disectomy, laminectomy and anterior cervical disectomy and fusion (ACDF).

Shoulder: Conditions of the shoulder, such as bicep tendon tear, rotator cuff tear, shoulder dislocation, shoulder separation, shoulder impingement syndrome, frozen shoulder and SLAP tear, can be effectively treated in Austin with orthopedic surgery procedures. Some of the treatment procedures are rotator cuff tear repair, arthroscopy, shoulder impingement syndrome repair, reverse shoulder replacement and total shoulder replacement.

Austin Orthopedic Surgery: Lower Body Ailments and Treatment

Here are some of the orthopedic surgery procedures for lower body orthopedic problems.

Hip and Knee: Austin orthopedic surgery procedures can help treat conditions of the hip and knee, such as hip fracture, meniscus tear, knee ligament tear, patellofemoral syndrome, hamstring muscle injuries and snapping hip. Effective treatment procedures include direct anterior hip surgery, minimally invasive hip replacement, hip fracture open reduction internal fixation and total hip replacement.

Ankle and Foot: Conditions of the foot and ankle, such as Achilles tendon tear, bunionette, plantar fasciitis, heel spurs, LisFranc dislocation, and a number of other conditions can be successfully treated with surgical procedures, such as arthroscopy and joint replacement procedures.

Motorcycle Construction


The chassis of a motorcycle includes the frame and suspension, along with the front forks, of the vehicle.


Main article: Motorcycle frame

The frame is typically made from welded aluminium or steel (or alloy) struts, with the rear suspension being an integral component in the design. Carbon fibre and titanium are used in a few very expensive custom frames.

The frame includes the head tube that holds the front fork and allows it to pivot. Some motorcycles include the engine as a load-bearing (or stressed) member; this has been used all through motorcycle history but is now becoming more common.

Oil-in-Frame (OIF) chassis, where the lubricating oil is stored in the frame of the motorcycle, was used for Vincent motorcycles of the 1950s, and for a while during the 1970s on some NVT British motorcycles. It was widely unpopular and generally regarded as a bad idea at the time. Today it is a used on some “thumpers” (single-cylinder four-strokes) that usually have dry-sump lubrication requiring an external oil tank. It has since gained some cachet in the modern custom bike world too because of the space savings it can afford and the reference to an earlier era.

Buell motorcycles employ a similar design the oil is held in the swingarm, while the fuel is held in the frame.


Main article: Suspension (motorcycle)

Plunger design suspensions, as on this BSA Bantam, were superseded by the swinging arm

Modern designs have the two wheels of a motorcycle connected to the chassis by a suspension arrangement, however ‘chopper’ style motorcycles often elect to forgo rear suspension, using a rigid frame.

The front suspension is usually built into the front fork and may consist of telescoping tubes called fork tubes which contain the suspension inside or some multibar linkage that incorporate the suspension externally.

The rear suspension supports the swingarm, which is attached via the swingarm pivot bolt to the frame and holds the axle of the rear wheel. The rear suspension can consist of several shock arrangements:

Dual shocks, which are placed at the far ends of the swingarm

Traditional monoshock, which is placed at the front of the swingarm, above the swingarm pivot bolt

Softail style suspension, where the shock absorbers are mounted horizontally in front of the swingarm, below the swingarm pivot bolt and operate in extension.

Front fork

Main article: Motorcycle fork

A motorcycle fork is the portion of a motorcycle that holds the front wheel and allows one to steer. For handling, the front fork is the most critical part of a motorcycle. The combination of rake and trail determines how stable the motorcycle is.

A fork generally consists of two fork tubes (sometimes also referred to as forks), which hold the front wheel axle, and a triple tree, which connects the fork tubes and the handlebars to the frame with a pivot that allows for steering.


Main article: Motorcycle engine

Almost all commercially available motorcycles are driven by conventional gasoline internal combustion engines, but some small scooter-type models use an electric motor, and a very small number of diesel models exist (e.g., the USMC M1030 M1 version of the Kawasaki KLR650 and the Dutch-produced Track T-800CDI).

Opposed twin engine on a Ural

The displacement is defined as the total volume of air/fuel mixture an engine can draw in during one complete engine cycle. In a piston engine, this is the volume that is swept as the pistons are moved from top dead centre to bottom dead centre. To the layperson this is the “size” of the engine. Motorcycle engines range from less than 50 cc (cubic centimetres), commonly found in many small scooters, to 5735 cc, a Chevrolet V8 engine, currently used by Boss Hoss in its cruiser style motorcycle.

Motorcycles have mostly, but not exclusively, been produced with one to four cylinders, and designers have tried virtually every imaginable layout. The most common engine configurations today are the single and twin, the V-twin, the opposed twin (or boxer), and the in-line triple and in-line four. A number of others designs have reached mass production, including the V-4, the flat 6-cylinder, the flat 4-cylinder, the in-line 6-cylinder, and the Wankel engine. Exotic engines, such as a radial piston engine, sometimes appear in custom built motorcycles, though two firms Megola and Redrup put radial engined motorcycles into production.

A Sok 1000 V-twin engine

Engines with more cylinders for the same displacement feel smoother to ride. Engines with fewer cylinders are cheaper, lighter, and easier to maintain. Liquid-cooled motorcycles have a radiator which is the primary way their heat is dispersed. Coolant or oil is constantly circulated between this radiator and the cylinder when the engine is running. Air-cooled motorcycles rely on air blowing past fins on the engine case to disperse heat. Liquid cooled motorcycles have the potential for greater power at a given displacement, tighter tolerances, and longer operating life, whereas air cooled motorcycles are potentially cheaper to purchase, less mechanically complex and lighter weight.

An air cooled engine contracts and expands with its wider temperature range, requiring looser tolerances, and giving shorter engine life. The temperature range of an air cooled two stroke is even more extreme and component life even shorter than in an air cooled four stroke.

As applied to motorcycles, two-stroke engines have some advantages over equivalent four-strokes: they are lighter, mechanically much simpler, and produce more power when operating at their best. But four-stroke engines are cleaner, more reliable, and deliver power over a much broader range of engine speeds. In developed countries, two-stroke road-bikes are rare, becausen addition to the reasons aboveodifying them to meet contemporary emissions standards is prohibitively expensive. Almost all modern two-strokes are single-cylinder, liquid-cooled, and under 600 cc.

In November 2006, the Dutch company E.V.A. Products BV Holland announced that its diesel-powered motorcycle, the Track T-800CDI, achieved production status. The Track T-800CDI uses a 800 cc three-cylinder Daimler Chrysler diesel engine. Other manufacturers, including Royal Enfield, had been producing diesel-powered bikes since at least the 1980s. Also, Intelligent Energy, a British alternative-fuel company, is developing a motorcycle powered by a detachable hydrogen-powered fuel cell, which it calls an Emissions Neutral Vehicle (ENV). According to reports, the vehicle can sustain speeds of 50 mph (80 km/h) while making virtually no noise, and can run for up to four hours without refueling.


The transmission on this 1921 ABC motorcycle is located behind the engine and shifts by a long hand-operated lever on its right side.

A typical 5-gear, foot-shift transmission on an HD Sportster

Modern motorcycles (excepting scooters) all change gears (of which they will increasingly have five or six) by foot lever. The weight of the largest touring motorcycles (sometimes in excess of 360 kg or 800 lbs) is such that they cannot effectively be pushed backwards by a seated rider, and they are fitted with a reverse gear as standard. In some cases, including the Honda Gold Wing and BMW K1200LT, this is not really a reverse gear, but a feature of the starter motor which when reversed, performs the same function. In earlier times pre WWII, hand-operated gear changes were common, a lever was provided to the side the fuel tank. British and many other motorcycles after WWII used a lever on the right but today gear-changing is standardised on a foot-operated lever to the left.

All two-wheelers use a sequential gearbox. On a motorcycle either first or second gear can be selected from neutral, but higher gears may only be accessed in order – it is not possible to shift from second gear to fourth gear without shifting through third gear. A five-speed of this configuration would be known as “one down, four up” because of the placement of the gears with relation to neutral. Neutral is to be found “half a click” away from first and second gears, so shifting directly between the two gears can be made in a single movement.

Traditional scooters still have manual gear-changing by a twist grip on the left hand side of the handlebar, with a clutch on a lever also rotating. Increasingly they may be fitted with a continuously variable transmission or CVT instead, a kind of automatic transmission (as once used in the DAF car) that is stepless. Step-through motorcycles often have a three-speed foot change, but the clutch is automatic.

The clutch is typically an arrangement of plates stacked in alternating fashion, one geared on the inside to the engine and the next geared on the outside to the transmission input shaft. Whether wet (rotating in engine oil) or dry, the plates are squeezed together by a spring, causing friction build up between the plates until they rotate as a single unit, driving the transmission directly. A lever on the handlebar exploits mechanical advantage through a cable or hydraulic arrangement to release the clutch spring, allowing the engine to freewheel with respect to the transmission.

Final drive

A shaft final drive is housed within a rear swingarm of a BMW R1200GS

Power transfer from the gearbox to the rear wheel is accomplished by different methods.

Chain drive uses sprockets and a roller chain, which requires both lubrication and adjustment for elongation (stretch) that occurs through wear. The lubricant is subject to being thrown off the fast-moving chain and results in grime and dirt build up. Chains do deteriorate, and excessive wear on the front and rear sprockets can be dangerous. In a chain drive the power is transmitted into the real wheel via a cush drive. Virtually all high performance racing motorcycles use chain drive.

A belt drive is still subject to stretch but operates very quietly, cleanly, and efficiently. However, belt drives are limited in the amount of power they can transmit. A toothed belt is frequently used.

A shaft drive is usually completely enclosed; the visual cue is a tube extending from the rear of the transmission to a bell housing on the rear wheel. Inside the bell housing a bevelled gear on the shaft mates with another on the wheel mount. This arrangement is superior in terms of noise and cleanliness and is virtually maintenance free, with the exception of occasional fluid changes. However, the additional gearsets are a source of power loss and added weight. A shaft-equipped motorcycle may also be susceptible to shaft effect.


The wheel rims are usually steel or aluminium (generally with steel spokes and an aluminium hub) or mag-type cast or machined aluminium. At one time, motorcycles used spoke wheels built up from separate components, but, except for dirtbikes, one-piece wheels are more common now. Performance racing motorcycles often use carbon-fibre wheels, but the expense of these wheels is prohibitively high for general usage.

A wire wheel and pneumatic motorcycle tyre on a Ural

Wire wheels have a central hub connected to the rim of the wheel via spokes made of wire. These spokes are generally quite solid and will not easily bend as would typical wire cord. Nevertheless, they mechanically function as wires under tension, holding the rim true and providing strength to the wheel. Cast magnesium disks, produced by one-step hot forging from magnesium alloys ZK60 and MA-14, are also used for many motorcycle wheels.


Main article: Motorcycle tyres

Motorcycles mainly use pneumatic tires. However, in some cases where punctures are common (some enduros), the tyres are filled with a “mousse” which is unpunctureable. Both types of tyre come in many configurations. The most important characteristic of any tyre is the contact patch, the small area that is in contact with the road surface while riding. There are tyres designed for dirtbikes, touring, sport and cruiser bikes.

Dirtbike tyres have knobbly, deep treads for maximum grip on loose dirt, mud, or gravel; such tyres tend to be less stable on paved surfaces. Touring tyres are usually made of harder rubber for greater durability. They may last longer, but they tend to provide less outright grip than sports tyres at optimal operating temperatures. The payoff is that touring tyres typically offer more grip at lower temperatures, meaning they can be more suitable for riding in cold or winter conditions whereas a sport tyre may never reach the optimal operating temperature.

Sport/performance tyres provide amazing grip but may last 1,000 miles (1,600 km) or less. Cruiser and “sport touring” tyres try to find the best compromise between grip and durability. There is also a type of tyre developed specifically for racing. These tyres offer the highest of levels of grip for cornering. Because of the high temperatures at which these tyres typically operate, use on the street is unsafe because the tyres will typically not reach optimum temperature before a rider arrives, thus providing almost no grip en route. In racing situations, racing tyres would normally be brought up to temperature in advance by the use of tyre warmers.


Front disk brakes with an ABS sensor ring on a BMW R1200RT

There are generally two independent brakes on a motorcycle, one set on the front wheel and one on the rear. However, some models have “linked brakes” whereby both can be applied at the same time using only one control.

Front brakes are generally much more effective than rear brakes: roughly two thirds of stopping power comes from the front brakeainly as a result of weight transfer being much more pronounced compared to longer or lower vehicles, because of the motorcycle’s short wheelbase relative to its center of mass height. This can result in brake dive.

Brakes can either be drum or disc based, with disc brakes being more common on large, modern or more expensive motorcycles for their far superior stopping power, particularly in wet conditions. There are many brake-performance-enhancing aftermarket parts available for most motorcycles, including brake pads of varying compounds and steel-braided brake lines.

In 1981, BMW introduced an antilock braking system (ABS) on a motorcycle. Other manufacturers have since also adopted this technology, although Harley Davidson only offers it on some police motorcycles and not on civilian motorcycles. ABS is normally found on motorcycles of 500 cc or greater engine capacity, although it is available on motor scooters down to 49 cc.


Most road motorcycles have an instrument panel, usually consisting of speedometer, odometer and tachometer. Fuel gauges are becoming more common, but traditionally a reserve tank arrangement is used with a petcock (petrol tap) on the side of the motorcycle allowing the rider to switch to a reserve fuel supply when the main fuel supply is exhausted. There is not actually a separate reserve tank: The intake for the petcock has two pipes, one extending higher into the fuel tank than the other. When fuel no longer covers the longer pipe the engine will lose power/splutter and the rider switches the petcock to the “reserve” setting, which accesses the shorter pipe. Riders whose bikes lack a fuel gauge (most machines prior to the past few years) usually learn how far they can go with a full tank of fuel, and then use a trip meter if available to judge when they must refill the tank.

See also

Bicycle and motorcycle dynamics

Motorcycle accessories

Motorcycle saddle

Shaft effect


^ “Chassis”. Retrieved 2007-07-03. 

^ Martin Peacock (3 April 2006). “Oil In Frame Triumphs – A Potted History”. The Vintage Motorcycle Club, South Durham Section. Retrieved 2007-05-16. 

^ “The first commercially-available diesel motorcycle”. Gizmag. November 20, 2006. Retrieved 2007-06-28. 

^ “Diesel motorbikes”. Journey to Forever. Retrieved 2007-06-28. 

^ Earth Talk (July 1, 2007). “How Much Pollution do Motorcycles Generate?”. Environment, Health News Digest. Retrieved 2007-07-02. 

External links

How Motorcycles Work by Bill Harris

Motorcycle Glossary – definitions of motorcycle terms

Categories: Motorcycle technology | Motorcycle safety

For Chronic Back Pain Try Neurontin (gabapentin)

For most people, Neurontin (Gabapentin) will work for chronic back pain.

Neurontin is really excreted by the body primarily through the kidneys and not by the liver like most other things. It has also been used for therapy in the treatment of partial seizures in pediatric patients from the ages of 3 to 12.

In the 1990’s, the sale of Neurontin was approved as treatment for epileptic seizures. The FDA has approved this to treat epilepsy only when used with another drug for shingles pain. The recommended dosage is 3 times a day.

The nice part about this medicine is it is easy to use as an add on, due to the fact that it does not interact with other seizure medicines. Gabapentin is indicated for the management of postherpetic neuralgia in adults. It has not been approved to treat severe RLS ( restless leg syndrome) where the legs inadvertently jerk.

Neurontin is expensive and one of the best selling drug in the world used for the treatment of chronic back pain. The average cost is $400/month for 3200mg/day. The effects are good even though it is an expensive drug to treat pain.

Neurontin is the first oral medication approved by the FDA and found in breast milk. It was prescribed for epilepsy. The medicine has also been approved for a few off label uses. One of the biggest selling points is that it has few side effects.

Neurontin is not metabolized by the body. It does not produce any active or inactive metabolites. You can take it orally with or without food. Neurontin is not for pain management. For chronic back pain, it is good for the nerve damage.

Pfizer manufactures this popular drug. Since 2003, in the United States, Neurontin has become one of the 50 most prescribed medicines.

Neurontin is well tolerated, has relatively mild side effects and also opasses through the body unmetabolized. Therefore, is often one of the first drugs prescribed.

Sciatica Symptoms And Causes – What Causes Sciatica

Sciatica is a condition that affects the sciatic nerve. In most cases it will become pinched and you will have pain in the lower back and leg. Here are some ways you know if you have sciatica. Most of the time, sciatica has consistent pain running down the left or right leg. The first common cause of sciatica is called Lumbar Spinal Stenosis.  This can be caused by standing or walking for long periods of time. Due to sciatica hits, older people, it can be from years of doing your job, or not participating in physical activity. If you think you have symptoms of sciatica, it is important that you get proper treatment. The next cause of sciatica is a herniated disk.  This is the most common cause of sciatica. A herniated disc happens when the disc bulge or herniates, causing the disk to compress against the sciatic nerve.  This cause can lead to irritation in the lower back, and also create numbness, tingling feeling, and much more. The last common cause of sciatica is Piriformis Syndrome.  This is due to a muscle hitting the sciatic nerve, thus irritating it.  When your muscle spasms, it can lead to compressing the scat nerve.  Not only is this serious, but it could lead to other complications if left untreated.  As you can see, there are many different types of sciatica and how to obtain it. If you think you have any of these, you should see treatment before it is too late. Sciatica needs to be treated when it starts, or complications could increase as you age. 

Sciatica is a condition that affects the sciatic nerve. In most cases it will become pinched and you will have pain in the lower back and leg. Here are some ways you know if you have sciatica.

Most of the time, sciatica has consistent pain running down the left or right leg. The first common cause of sciatica is called Lumbar Spinal Stenosis.  This can be caused by standing or walking for long periods of time. Due to sciatica hits, older people, it can be from years of doing your job, or not participating in physical activity. If you think you have symptoms of sciatica, it is important that you get proper treatment.

The next cause of sciatica is a herniated disk.  This is the most common cause of sciatica. A herniated disc happens when the disc bulge or herniates, causing the disk to compress against the sciatic nerve.  This cause can lead to irritation in the lower back, and also create numbness, tingling feeling, and much more.

The last common cause of sciatica is Piriformis Syndrome.  This is due to a muscle hitting the sciatic nerve, thus irritating it.  When your muscle spasms, it can lead to compressing the scat nerve.  Not only is this serious, but it could lead to other complications if left untreated. 

As you can see, there are many different types of sciatica and how to obtain it. If you think you have any of these, you should see treatment before it is too late. Sciatica needs to be treated when it starts, or complications could increase as you age. 

Strep Throat – Causes and Treatment

Strep throat accounts for between five and ten percent of all sore throats. Although anyone can get strep throat, it is most common in school age children. People who smoke, who are fatigued, run down, or who live in damp, crowded conditions are also more likely to become infected with strep throat. Children under age two and adults who are not around children are less likely to get strep throat.

Causes of Strep Throat

The bacteria that cause strep throat are highly contagious and spread through saliva or mucous droplets. Being around anyone who is infected and who is coughing or sneezing makes you susceptible. Strep bacteria can live on surfaces, anything from a doorknob to utensils, a bathroom towel or a remote control or cell phone. It’s important to regularly disinfect these things if someone is contagious.

Viral Sore Throat

Approximately 90% of sore throats are caused by viral infections. There is no simple way to distinguish a viral sore throat from a bacterial sore throat. Viral sore throats are quite contagious. They can be spread by personal contact and by coughing or sneezing. Cold and flu viruses are the main culprits. When a stuffy-runny nose, sneezing, and generalized aches and pains accompany the sore throat, it is probably caused by virus. For a viral infection, no antibiotic is usually needed and the infection can be expected to run a four to six day course.


Visit your physician as soon as you notice any of the symptoms of strep throat. The physician will conduct a physical examination of your throat and if strep throat is suspected, a rapid strep test will be performed. This is usually sufficient for the physician to be sure of the bacterial presence, but if the test is not conclusive a throat culture could be done. Throat culture results take time, so if your physician suspects strep throat based on physical examination and the symptoms, medication could be started immediately.

Even though the sore throat usually gets better on its own, people who have strep throat SHOULD take antibiotics to prevent more serious complications of this infection, including rheumatic fever. Penicillin has been traditionally recommended and is still very effective. There has been resistance reported to azithromycin and related antibiotics.

Antibiotic treatment will reduce symptoms, minimize transmission, and reduce the likelihood of complications. Treatment consists of penicillin (oral drug for 10 days; or single intramuscular injection of penicillin G). Erythromycin is recommended for penicillin-allergic patients. Second-line antibiotics include amoxicillin, clindamycin, and oral cephalosporins. Although symptoms subside within 4 days even without treatment, it is very important to complete the full course of antibiotics to prevent complications.

Be aware that most sore throats are caused by viruses, not strep. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends AGAINST treating sore throats with antibiotics unless the strep test is positive. Strep cannot be diagnosed by symptoms or a physical exam alone. Gargling with warm salt water (one half teaspoon of salt in a glass of warm water) several times a day may also help.

Tonsilloliths 101 – Quick Relief For Tonsilloliths

Tonsilloliths, or also generally known as tonsil stones, are unpleasant whitish or yellowish coloured, foul smelling bumps on your tonsils. They spring from the accumulation of sulfur producing bacteria, food particles, post nasal drip, overactive salivary glands, mucous and other mouth debris that build up and lodge near the throat.

A tonsillitis caused by a bacterial infection can be handled with the employment of antibiotics. Penicillin is one of the most typical prescribed antibiotics. [**] there are some natural cures that can ease the pain and redness. One example is drinking boiled milk added with turmeric and powdered pepper or you may also try lime juice in warm water.
These evil chunks aren’t contagious and can not be moved to another person even if kissing or coughing them up.

Tonsilloliths or also known as tonsil stones or tonsil rocks are formed by deposits of mucous, sulfur producing bacteria, food particles, dead white blood cells, post nasal drip, and other debris in the mouth which gather in the tonsils. While they are irritating and cause halitosis, they aren’t necessarily damaging. There are different ways to cancel and win the skirmish against these nasty, whitish or yellow, foul smelling bumps from your tonsils.

One common nonsurgical treatment is the employment of Waterpik. To get rid of the tonsilloliths, you want to use a Waterpik tough enough to fire or power them out. Other natural choices include gargling with salt and water every morning and every after meal, using an antibacterial non alcohol based mouthwash, sucking them out with the utilization of a cotton swab, curved medicine dropper, q-tip or toothpick, rinsing your mouth after eating and drinking, fast brushing down the throat, and lots more. It’s a favored treatment to stop sore throats and several other throat related issues from reoccurring.

Then follow it with a good oral cleanliness and a regular trip to a dentist or an ENT consultant to prevent tonsilloliths from coming back.


Children’s Health – Brain Development Disorder – Definition and Types

I. Definition

A neurodevelopmental disorder is defined as an impairment of the growth and development of the central nervous system. It effects the child’s brain function in controlling emotion, learning ability and memory as well as social interaction. Today, one in six children is diagnosed with some forms of development and behaviour disorder. It is advised for parent to have their child diagnosed early, if they found that their child is withdrawing from social world, failing to learn the basic communication skill or struggle with emotional regulation, etc.. otherwise, a child may be at risk of becoming serious lifelong disability.

II. Most common types of brain development disorder

1. Autism disorder

Autism is one most common form of brain development disorder and one in 166 child is diagnosed with some forms of autism. It is defined as medical condition in which a child has some of the following impairments

a) Speech
b) Social and communication skills
c) Limited interest
d) Repetitive behaviour

2. Asperger syndrome

Children with Asperger syndrome has no problem with speech development, but have very poor social and communication skills. they may talk a lot, but fail to focus and keep up with the subject. they also have a very narrow interest as they may talk about only one single subject for months or years. Some children with Asperger syndrome may also engage in repetitive behaviour such as flagging hand.

3. Pervasive Development disorder

Children who have developed some or mild forms of autism are considered to have pervasive development disorder. Although some symptoms or important signs of autism are missing, they are likely to diagnoses with autism or Asperger syndrome later in their life.

4. Rett Syndrome

Rett syndrome effects mostly girl, is defined as a condition of which children lose social and communication skills as well as purposely use of their hand. It may also accompany with symptoms of hand repetitive and seizures.

5. Childhood integrative disorder

Children with childhood integrative disorder may gradually lose their language, social communication and self help skills between the period of 2 -4 years old.

6. Sensory integration dysfunction

Sensory integration dysfunction is a condition of which a child fails to react to the information collected from the scene, caused by abnormal brain function in processing information. Typically, most children with sensory integration syndrome may be under sensitive in reaction to pain or noise or over sensitive in reaction to certain environments such as noise, bright light or often both.

7. Auditory processing disorder

Auditory processing disorder is defined as damaging of the neurological structures and pathways of sound perception, therefore children with this disorder are able to hear sounds but have trouble to interpret what they hear.

8. Expressive language disorder

This is defined as a condition of which the children have a limited vocabulary and difficulty in recalling words or expressing themselves by using complex sentences.

9. Speech apraxia

It is caused by the broken down of the inter-reaction between the brain in controlling the speech muscles during speech. Children with speech appraxia know what they want to say, but can not speak through their voice and their words are difficult to understand.

10. Attention deficit hyperactivity

ADHD is defined as psychological condition of which a child has a poor attention skill, impulsive behavior and hyper-activity. The symptoms may appear to be innocent but annoying nuisances to other children. It effects between 3-5% of children globally and most of them are diagnosed later in their childhood life.

11. Attention deficit disorder

Unlike ADHD, children with attention deficit disorder are diagnosed only with symptoms of poor attention skill and impulsive behaviour. Although, the symptoms may appear only annoying to other children, it can inflict the learning ability of the children in the class.

12. Mental retardation

Metal retardation is considered as a generalized disorder. Children with mental retardation normally fail to adapt or adjust to another type of behaviour or situation. They also have a below average IQ ( 70 or lower) and difficulty in performing routine activity.

13. Hearing impairment

Hearing impairment is characterized as a child have a reduce of the ability to detect or understand sounds. Since the children can not hear well, it may interfere with normal progress of social and communication skills causing disruptive behaviour.

14. Seizure disorder (Epilepsy)

Since the normal function of neurons is to generate electrochemical impulses to act on other neurons, glands, and muscles to produce human thoughts, the damage or abnormal function of neurons in case of seizure disorder interferes with sensations, emotions, and behavior, resulting in delay or loss of social and communication skills.

15. Nonverbal learning disorder

The problems of the nonverbal learning disorder are not speech and memory, they may seem normal when they talk and understand what they hear, but in abstracted thinking such as non-verbal problem-solving, daily change of routine and social skills.

16. Traumatic brain injury

Traumatic brain injury normally caused by physical impacts such as car accident or lack of oxygen circulated in their body for a certain amount of time that damage certain areas of the brain in controlling speech, thinking, behaviour and social skills.

17. Fragile X syndrome

Fragile X syndrome is defined as a genetic defect. Children with this syndrome have difficult to control the physical, intellectual, emotional and behavioural aspects in their daily activity as resulting of inherited cause of mental retardation.

18. Tuberous sclerosis

This another type of genetic disease, which causes tumor to be growth in the brain and other organ, leading to seizure, delay development, behaviour problem and sometimes mental retardation.

19. William syndrome

William syndrome is a genetic defect, caused by a deletion of about 26 genes from the long arm of chromosome. Children with William syndrome appear to have unusual language skill and eager for social interaction, but can also be mental retardation and heart problems.

20. Angelman syndrome

This is a condition caused by deletion or inactivation of genes on the maternally inherited chromosome 15. Children with this type of syndrome have severe mental retardation that effect their intellectual and interfere with normal development. The syndrome also accompanies with unexplained smiling and laughing.

21. Prader-Willi syndrome

Prader-Will syndrome is also another genetic defect caused by missing or partial missing of the seven genes on chromosome 15. Children who was born with Prader-Willi syndrome have delay development and feeding difficulty in infancy and develop compulsive eating and food obsession after age one.

22. Phenylketonuria

Phenylketonuria is a genetically metabolic disorder caused by deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase, leading to accumulation of phenylalanine, interfering with development of the brain, causing severe brain damage, mental retardation if it is not controlled by a special diet in their early life.

23. Early-onset childhood bipolar disorder

It is also known as manic-depression. Children who are diagnosed with this disorder have symptoms of frequent mood swing, alternate thinking and behaviour .

24. Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized as a children life is disrupted by unwanted, unnecessary and repetitive thought, as well as an overwhelming need to do certain thing compulsively such as washing their hand many times a day, drinking a cup water before leaving home, etc.

25. Generalized anxiety disorder

It is a kind of anxiety disorder. Children with generalized anxiety disorder always worry about something, restlessness and fear without reason.

26. Selective mutism

Selective mutism is defined as another type of anxiety in which a child who is normally capable of speech is unable to speak or becomes silent in certain situations or in front of specific people.

27. Oppositional defiant disorder

Oppositional defiant disorder is defined as an ongoing pattern of uncooperative, disobedient, hostile and defiant behaviour toward parent and authority.

28. Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder association with streptococcal infection ( PANDAS)

It is defined as a condition in which the immune system attack the child central nervous system, leading to behaviour, thinking and movement problems.

29. Reactive attachment disorder

Reactive attachment disorder is defined as an inappropriate social behaviour caused by severe early experiences of neglect, abuse of parent or caregivers between the ages of six months and three years.

30. Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is described as a mental disorder characterized by abnormalities in the perception or expression of reality caused by inability of a child to cope with the change in the internal or external environment, leading to hallucination and delusion.

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All rights reserved. Any reproducing of this article must have the author name and all the links intact. “Let You Be With Your Health, Let Your Health Be With You” Kyle J. Norton I have been studying natural remedies for disease prevention for over 20 years and working as a financial consultant since 1990. Master degree in Mathematics, teaching and tutoring math at colleges and universities before joining insurance industries. Part time Health, Insurance and Entertainment Article Writer.

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Diabetic Recipes – How to Adapt Recipes for Diabetics and Benefit From the Positives!

One of the best ways to manage your condition if you are diabetic is to watch what you eat. This doesn’t mean cutting out all of your favourite foods and all sugar. Instead it means controlling different food groups you eat, and eating everything in moderation. Cooking your own food is the best way to keep track of everything you eat and is a great way of managing your condition. If you are having a hard time knowing what you should eat, here is some advice on adapting recipes.

You should know firstly that you can still keep eating some of your favourite meals after you have been diagnosed with diabetes. Diabetic recipes that have been specially adapted can be found easily on the internet. These recipes will have reduced amounts of fat, salt and sugar in order to make them a safe choice for diabetics, and should be easy for you to follow.

Using specially adapted recipes if you have diabetes is actually much easier than you think. If you do not know whether certain recipes will taste nice with ingredients modified then just use a ready-made recipe. It may take some patience to try out a few different recipes, but you will soon have a collection of meals that you really enjoy.

In general look for diabetic meals that balance all of the major food groups each day. Try to include good portions of fruit and vegetables, and use low-fat foods (such as low fat margarine) where appropriate. Use diabetic recipes to give you ideas and let you know the kinds of food you can still eat.

Overweight, Obesity and BMI

Hasan A. Yahya, Ph.Ds

 Acoording to AHRO, over the past several decades, the prevalence of obesity among adults and children in the United States has increased dramatically and is reached epidemic proportions. Obesity in adults in the United States was 30.5 percent in 1999-2000. More than twice as many adults (nearly 65 percent) were considered to be either overweight or obese. Some 6 million U.S. adults were considered morbidly obese in 2001. Obesity is more common in  women, but men are more likely to be overweight. It is defined as having a body mass index (BMI, weight in kg/height in m2) of 30 or more. For example, a 5’5” woman weighing 180 pounds or more or a 5’11” man weighing 215 pounds or more would be termed obese. Morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI of 40 or more.

 Overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25 to 29.9 (a 5’5” woman who weighs 150 pounds or more or a 5’11”  man who weighs 180 pounds or more.

 Overweight and obesity are both labels for ranges of weight that are greater than what is generally considered healthy for a given height. Which identify ranges of weight that have been shown to increase the likelihood of health problems.

For assessing someone’s likelihood of developing overweight- or obesity-related diseases, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute guidelines recommend looking for overweight predictors such as the Body Mass Index (BMI), the individual’s waist circumference, and other conditions associated with obesity such as high blood pressure or physical laziness.

The Body Mass Index (BMI) is just one indicator of potential health risks associated with being overweight or obese. For adults, overweight and obesity ranges are determined by using weight and height to calculate a number called the “body mass index” (BMI). BMI is for most people because it correlates with their amount of body fat. For example, an adult who has a BMI between 25 and 29.9 is considered overweight. While an adult who has a BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese. For example, a 5’ 9” height,  weight of 125 lbs to 168 lbs, with BMI between 18.5 and 24.9  BMI, are considered  healthy weight. From 169 to 202 lbs with BMI between 24 and 29.9 are overweight, and from 202 lbs plus, with 30 plus BMI, they are obese.

Other methods of estimating body fat and body fat distribution include measurements of skin-fold thickness and waist circumference, calculation of waist-to-hip circumference ratios, and techniques such as ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

In 2002, an estimated 15 percent of all children aged 6 to 19 years were overweight. For children and teens, BMI ranges above a normal weight have different labels (at risk of overweight and overweight). Additionally, BMI ranges for children and teens are defined so that they take into account normal differences in body fat between boys and girls and differences in body fat at various ages.

It is important to remember that although BMI correlates with the amount of body fat, BMI does not directly measure body fat. In the case of  athletes, they may have a high BMI which identify them as overweight even though they do not have excess body fat. (546 words)

Skin Rashes and Itchiness Information

A rash can also be known dermatitis. A rash is sense as a change in the skin’s appearance, which may include alternations in texture and it colour. A rash may be restricted in one part of the body, or affect all the skin. Rashes may result the skin to change color, itch, become hot, bumpy, dry, cracked or blistered, swell and may be painful. Itching and rashes may mature as the result of infection or irritation or from a reaction of the immune system. Some rashes happen generally in children, whereas others almost always occur in adults. Sometimes an immune reaction is caused by substances a person touches or eats.

Many drugs can result itching, including barbiturates, morphine and aspirin as well as any drug to which a person has an allergy. Skin Rashes come in various different shapes and types. Eczema is one of type of rash. Eczema can result dry, chapped, bumpy areas around the elbows and knees or more serious cases of red, scaly, and swollen skin all whole the body. Irritant contact dermatitis is caused by contact with something irritating, such as a chemical, soap, or detergent. It can be red, swollen, and itchy. Allergic contact dermatitis is a rash caused by contact with an allergen.

Treatment for skin rashes and itchiness is relys on the severity of the condition. Antibacterial cream or oral antibiotic is commonly use this condition. Hydrocortisone cream (1%) is available without a prescription and may relieve many rashes. Try applying little amounts of anti-dandruff shampoo to patches of this scaly rash on your skin. Prevention is better than cure so avoid skin products that contain alcohol. This includes face cleansers, perfumes, and after-shaves. Use baking soda. Add it to your bath water, and apply it instead of deodorant. Leave the affected area exposed to the air as much as possible.

Take short showers or sponge baths. Many natural remedies also cure itch and skin rash. Shea butter is a great agent for revitalizing our skin cells so that they recover their moisture retention capacity. Aloe vera also assits in healing wounds and minor skin irritations such as an itchy skin rash. This plant produces anti inflammatory, anti bacterial, and anti fungal properties. Lavender is the most all-around of essential oils; its ability to revitalize damaged skin cells is remarkable. Wild pansy is a european wild flower that calms and alleviates itching and skin irritations related with eczema.

Three Summer Skin Problems: Cold Sores, Hives and Rashes Due to Heat

As much as we look forward to the summer for relaxing days full of swimming, walks and trips to the park, some people find their skin problems increase this time of year. A few issues during the warm seasons include fever blisters, the prickly heat rash and
cases of hives.

For some people exposure to the sun on the face can result in a cold sore that erupts on the lip area. This can be quite painful and may take from six to eleven days to heal and resolve. Someone with a history of cold sores, recognizes the initial tingle and is aware of the way that this will play out. It is essential to apply a good sun protective factor on the face and lip and try to make it spf 30 or higher. Once you get one on your lip, it can easily return due to sun exposure, so be sure to always cover your lips when you are out even for a walk. Lysine is a good supplement to help prevent eruptions but it is not foolproof. If your immune system is weakened, you may get one. It is a virus that is in your body forever, so take care of yourself.

Prickly heat can lead to red eruptions due to the sweating and perspiration of the body. Moisture gets trapped and can lead to a rash that is annoying and itchy. Many people with a weight issue suffer from this and it can seem like a catch-22 due to the need for exercise. Try to exercise early in the mornings or in an air conditioned gym to reduce this problem. After exercising, be sure to take a shower and dry off. Corn starch is helpful for sweat rashes. Avoid nylon clothing and wear cotton.

Hives can be due to stress, heat or allergic reactions. In the summer, we often try different foods on vacation and this can lead to allergic reactions. Although the summer seems to offer us less stressful conditions due to not worrying about driving in snow or days of shivering, one can get very stressed out about one’s appearance, staying fit and compare oneself to others. Take time to meditate and keep your mind calm.

The summer is a time to relax and by keeping your eye on the causes of various skin problems you can help to control the eruptions.

Causes Of Psoriasis

Psoriasis is not an infectious disease. It is caused primarily because of an individual s genetic structure. A primary reason why Psoriasis occurs in individuals is a trigger factor.

If a person is stressed, it can trigger Psoriasis. Flare-ups are common and can be accompanied by itching sensation as well. Once Psoriasis occurs the person can feel excessively self-conscious and embarrassed, leading to more stress. If the condition is present on the feet and hands, it can disable a person from performing daily chores. The treatment of Psoriasis can be time-consuming and expensive, thereby leading to even more stress in the patient. Some of the methods in which patients can alleviate stress include participation in support groups, attending counseling sessions and meditation and relaxation therapies. Regular exercise can also curtail stress largely.

Weather and climate
The combination of excessive cold outside and the presence of indoor heating agents inside can trigger Psoriasis. Both conditions in combination dry out the skin and can make existing Psoriasis conditions worse. Winter holidays can also entail more work around the house, which maybe curtailed because of Psoriasis. Illness during winter can debilitate the immunity of a person, making them more prone to Psoriasis. Being in the sun can dramatically help improve the condition. However, usage of the air conditioner must be avoided as it dries the skin. Using moisturizers on a regular basis also helps to curtail Psoriasis.

Injuries on the skin
Skin injuries because of acupuncture, certain vaccinations, bruises, bites, chafing of skin, burns, scraping of skin, irritation from chemicals, shaving, excessive pressure over skin, tattoos, using adhesive tapes over the skin, cuts, sunburns, skin peeling treatments, scratching and rubbing of skin can all trigger Psoriasis. This condition is referred to as Koebner effect. As many as half of the total percentage of Psoriasis patients are affected by this condition. Various skin inflictions like Herpes blisters, boils, vitiligo, dermatitis, Lichen planus, scabies etc. can result in flare-ups.

Various infections can also be a trigger factor for development of Psoriasis. Infections include step throat, which triggers Guttate type of Psoriasis. Then, infections in the upper respiratory tract, HIV, skin boils etc. can also trigger Psoriasis. An infection of thrush can make a person susceptible to Inverse kind of Psoriasis.

Medications and drugs
Patients already suffering from Psoriasis, tend to develop more flare-ups when they ingest Lithium. Medications intended to treat high blood pressure can also trigger Psoriasis. Medications such as Inderal worsen existing symptoms of Psoriasis in 25 or 30% of Psoriasis patients. Heart medications like Quinidine also trigger Psoriasis. If a person is taking medication like Indomethacin for an arthritic condition, then Psoriasis can also be triggered by its intake. However, if the patient is suffering from Psoriatic Arthritis then this medicine can curtail these symptoms. Medications to prevent malaria also cause Psoriasis flare-ups. Excessive usage of Corticosteroids or stopping the medication suddenly can also trigger Psoriasis.

Hormonal changes
Typically, once a person is beyond puberty, the overall hormonal concentrations reduce. Symptoms pertaining to Psoriasis show improvement during pregnancy when hormonal levels surge. However, once the child is born, hormonal levels reduce, again triggering Psoriasis.

People who smoke regularly are more prone to developing Pustular Psoriasis. Chain smokers are susceptible to fatal conditions of Psoriasis as well as Plaque kind of Psoriasis. The best way to deal with this is by quitting smoking.

Drinking and consumption of alcohol is also a trigger factor for Psoriasis. In fact, the efficacy of treatments is hampered when alcohol is ingested.

In addition to the above, certain kinds of allergies can also trigger Psoriasis. Changing one s diet to include healthy, balanced meals can help keep Psoriasis at bay.

This article was written by Ashley Broussard, a free-lance writer currently under contract by Q-Based Healthcare. Broussard has written for a number of news journals and is presently working in the medical field.