Test-Taking Strategies For Reducing Your Test Anxiety

For many students the thought of taking an exam in school brings with it anxiety including headaches and panic symptoms. There are several strategies that students can use to help minimize their anxiety. Knowing what type of questions that will be on the test will help you implement effective test-taking strategies to increase your confidence and minimizeize anxiety.

Prior to taking the test there are several things you can do the night before and on the day of the test.
1. Do not wait until the last minute to study as this will increase your anxiety.
2. Overstudy, it is better to be overprepared than underprepared.
3. Try to study in a study group with other students.
4. Ask your instructor to clarify any information that is confusing during lecture.
5. Read the instructions carefully.
6. Check your answers.
7. Do not leave any questions blank. Make an educated guess even if you do not know the answer.
8. Do not cheat off of another student's paper (the other student may not know as much as you think they do!).

The most common types of questions that appear on test include matching, true-false, multiple choice and fill in the blank.

Matching Questions- Strategies
1. Count the choices for each column.
2. Read all of the choices in each column.
3. Cross off choices as you go along to prevent you from using the same choice more than once.

True-False Questions- Strategies
1. Read the statement / sentence carefully.
2. Identify key words in the statement / sentence.
3. Make an educated guess if you do not know the answer. With true-false questions you have a 50-50 chance of guessing correctly.

Multiple Choice Questions- Strategies
1. Read the question and all of the choices carefully before answering.
2. Eliminate the choices that are obviously wrong.
3. Select the BEST answer from the remaining choices.

Fill in the Blank Questions- Strategies
1. Read the question / statement carefully.
2. Put your choice (s) for the question out to the side.
3. Reread the statement with your answer and make a selection.

How Powerful Is The Unconscious Mind?

Did you know there are two of you? Two of me? Two of old Fred Bloggs down the street? Oh yes, there are, but it's all in the mind. Or more accurately, our conscious and unconscious minds.

The person who always likes to be in control of everything, tends to use the wrong part of his or her mind. People like this often find it difficult to sleep, being happy at parties or organizing office meetings. In fact, they can be very difficult at the latter. They not only want to control themselves, but everyone else around them.

Basically, they find themselves unable to relax. Even sexually they can have a difficult time, because to them, they're losing control. They must control their partner and not allow their other half to give them the pleasure that could so easily be enjoyed by them.

Now there are lots of things that happen in your body over which we have no control whatever. More accurately, sometimes, we simply never think about them. Our digestive system, flow of blood and all the workings of our bodies about which we never think – except something goes wrong.

But all this is governed by our unconscious mind. You'd probably drive yourself mad were you to try to govern these consciously.

So how powerful is the unconscious mind? What are its limits? You are able to lower or raise your blood pressure. Not through your conscious mind, of course, but by gently appealing to your unconscious. Hypnosis can lower or raise blood pressure, as we've just seen.

You may feel your feet becoming warmer or colder, and you'll find yourself relaxing more and more.

Pain is another thing that can be turned off by your unconscious mind through hypnosis. Do not forget it is the unconscious mind to which you're appealing now. Let's consider one of the most common forms of pain, the headache.

You can lie down and allow your conscious mind to wander where it will. It's the unconscious part of your mind that's in the spotlight now.

Think of your head as a ball of fire, if you like, or should it be a dull ache, then as a heavy weight. Let's say a heavy weight. You lie down, and there it is, throbbing away, your conscious mind saying;

"I wish you'd get rid of this wretched headache."

But here your unconscious creeps in. You imagine the weight as a lump of cast iron, but slowly it changes to aluminum. The pain will tend to decrease. From aluminum, it becomes a piece of wood, then some feathers.

Like most things that you try for the first time, you may well have trouble ridding yourself of the headache. Do not give up. The more you practice, the easier and more fluent it becomes. I fear it's human nature all too often to simply say;

"Oh, that did not work. What's the point? That man was talking rubbish."

As a rather silly analogy, suppose you started eating for the first time and something stuck in your throat.

"What's the point," you'd say.

But you'd end up in trouble trouble if you no longer ate!

Chinese Drywall Testing Techniques and Technologies

Chinese drywall testing involves analyzing samples for known marks that are indicative of defective drywall. Although several less expensive alternatives are being marketed, but FTIR and XRF are the future of accurate drywall testing.

Unequivocally, FTIR and XRF testing have been proven by the Consumer Products Safety Commission to be the most reliable drywall tests, demonstrating a reliability of 98% and 99%. These tests analyze drywall samples for carbonate sulfide and strontium respectively.


Each of these tests provides near perfect accuracy. A drywall test that utilizes both technologies in tandem overcomes any sampling contamination and allows for a complete picture of the home's composition. Drywall compound, or mud, can show up in FTIR analysis as a false positive for drywall. That compound, however, does not affect XRF Chinese drywall testing.

It should be noted that these technologies, when used properly, do not produce false negatives in testing.

Why are not all inspectors offering Chinese drywall testing that includes FTIR and XRF?

These technologies are not new. FTIR has been the backbone of material analysis for quite some time. This technology is readily admitted in a court setting as evidence. Several labs in the United States even offer to analyze drywall samples as part of a test. The problem is that, in this setting, each sample costs $ 150 to $ 200 for analysis on just one of the two machines. Analysis on the second will involve another $ 150 to $ 200. An average home contains upwards of 150 boards of drywall. In this environment, comprehensive Chinese drywall testing would involve $ 45,000 in testing fees alone. Add to that the cost of collecting samples and the insurance policy premium, and testing could cost $ 50,000.

Obviously, that is not price that the vast majority can afford. That cost is not a feasible option. Our testing protocol is the only affordable and insurable option on the market today.

What does FTIR testing involve?

FTIR, or Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy, relates on the measurement of infrared light that either passes through or is reflected by a sample. The resulting spectrum is compared against a library of known molecular fingerprints. No two compounds will produce the same results under FTIR analysis, creating a powerful tool for identifying unknown compounds at a molecular level.

As it relates to Chinese drywall testing, FTIR is used to identify carbonate sulfide, a marker that the CPSC has identified as unique to defective drywall.

FTIR has been central to laboratory analysis for nearly seventy years. This technology is well established and is respected and accepted within a court room setting. The fact that this technology is so reliable and well established further reinforces its use for such high stakes testing.

What does XRF testing involve?

XRF, or X-Ray Fluorescence, drywall testing involves bombarding a sample with X-Rays and measuring the effects. Each element produces a different energy under this condition and the results are used to identify the various compounds in a sample.

As it relates to a Chinese drywall test, XRF is used to identify strontium, which the CPSC has identified as a unique marker of Chinese drywall .

Who determined that these technologies are reliable for this testing?

The Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC) has concluded in their most recent report that these technologies are the most reliable Chinese drywall testing equipment.

"Using both FTIR and XRF measurements of carbonate and strontium, respectively, was there before determined to be the most sensitive and specific marker of imported drywall."

– Draft Final Report CPSC Drywall and Indoor Environmental Quality Assessment. November 18, 2009. Pg. 104 of 128.

"Results from this study indicate that the concentrations of Strontium measured by XRF and carbonate ion (carbonate) using FTIR, determined that drywall can be used in combination to reliably identify suspect drywall."

– Draft Final Report CPSC Drywall and Indoor Environmental Quality Assessment.November 18, 2009. Pg. 1 of 128.

How to Make Your Friends Jealous of Your Nails

It's been said that in the way a woman dresses, shoes are always the smallest detail that makes all the difference. The same thing can be said about nails for the general beauty. You can wear a perfect make-up and have the perfect hair, if your nails are not taken care of, surprisingly, this will be one of the first things to be noticed. On the other hand, even without a great outfit, exceptional beautiful nails will always attract admiration and positive jealousy from women and interest from men. The hands and nails are to be considered one of the sexiest sides of women.

Women's taste is variants ot in the way they like their nails to be done, short or long, simple or extravagant, plain colored or with special designs. Longer nails are generally considered to be sexier as they seem to somehow make a difference between a girl and a woman. But girly can be sexy also and very long nails are sometimes not quite aesthetic.

No matter the size or shape, any nail look can be consistently improved by just a couple of simple actions.

1. Always keep your nails clean. Clean the nails and the area under your nails any time it's needed. If using colored nail polish, do not forget to wipe it off and reapply it every time it starts looking not so fresh. Nails with half pealed nail polish look bad and sends the wrong massage.

2. Push back or cut your cuticles every 2-3 days. These procedures make the nail look much cleaner and longer on the finger, ignoring its full aesthetic potential.

Whether you chose to just push the cuticle back or to push them back in order to cut them, do it gently and without putting too much pressure on the nail. Pushing on the nail makes future nail growth wavy.

If you chose to cut them, always do it with a clean, special, thin and sharp scissors, investing allot of care and patience. Wounds look bad for a couple of days and they are also a high risk for the area to get inflamed, or even infected. Also, if you cut them, it's better to do it pretty often, before they get to grow too much. When cutting grown cuticles the remaining of the skin has the tension to shred and lift in small pieces, an effect that does not appear when they are regularly cut.

Use cuticle oil or hand cream at least once a day, nicely rubbing it on the nail area. This makes the cuticles and the skin around the nails softer and more flexible, preventing the skin from lifting and the edges dryness.

3. Use transparent top or colored nail polish on your nails. Even the shortest, simplest nail will look cleaner and better with a transparent nail polish on top. Also, there is a very large range of transparent nail polish type of products that will help you keep your nails healthy. The colored nail polishes are the ones to bring it on though.

We have to admit that, most of the women if not all are fascinated with colors and our nails give us the perfect opportunity to play with them.

The general rule says for short nails more natural colors to be used and sets no limits for the long ones. But not everyone agreements with this rule. Strong colors on short nails are very sexy and states a strong personality. They bring to you the Tomboy style of a tough, sexy woman.

So, in the world of colors, anything is allowed. What to do with so much freedom?

The best of all is one step forward, mixing them and getting an artistic design on your nails.

4. Get a surprising design on your nails.

It always sounds more complicated than it really is. Sometimes, a simple stripe placed in the middle of the nail or a couple of dots arranged in the shape of a flower can make a world of a difference and does not take too much of a talent or time. There are also a lot of tools on the market that will help you to achieve such creativity with almost no effort. There are special colors for nail art, more dense and with a narrow brush or a small pipe (like a pen), that offers you a pretty high precision in applying the nail polish colors.

If you want an even more complex design you still do not need to be a specialist to do them, a very easy way is using one of the smART nails design templates. The result looks like you've done it yourself, only with no mistakes, and you are also free to use any of your old nail polishes in the process. It also gives you the freedom of multiple combinations and personal adding.

No matter the method you used in adding the nail art spice to your nails, after you got it all dry, apply a transparent coat on top, to cover and protect your creation.

If you want to make your friends really jealous about the way you look, just do not forget about your nails!

Ankle Sprains – Grade I, II and III – Using Braces to Help a Sprained Ankle

Has your ankle ever sustained an injury? Is your ankle sprained now? What is it like for you?

Ankle Sprains

Injury to an ankle is most often a sprain. When the ligaments of the ankle stretch and are torn, a sprain occurs. Playing sports may be the most common cause of a sprain, but it can also happen to anyone. Various conditions can stretch or tear the ligaments, like stepping off a curve or walking on uneven ground.

Rolling the foot inward and under the body is often the cause of a sprain. A "pop" or "snap" is often said to accompany the injury. After this sort of sprain, walking can be difficult and there will be pain and swelling in the affected area.

A visit to your doctor is needed to determine the exact nature of the injury. The most important tool in examining your ankle is an X-ray, which will indicate if the injury is a sprain or a fraction.

Ankle Sprain Grades

Ankle sprains are graduated according to their severity, and there are currently three grades: Grades I, II, and III. Following are the descriptions and some symptoms for each grade.

Grade I sprain

  • It is the mildest type of sprain
  • Joint stiffness, nominal swelling, and pain can occur
  • There is a minor tear of the ligament, usually the anterior talofibular
  • The use of a brace will allow normal activity to resume

Grade II sprain

  • Pain is more severe, with joint stiffness and swelling
  • The ligament is torn
  • There is some loss of function, difficulty walking, and difficulty raising toes
  • Full strength and stability may be gained after three months

Grade III sprain

  • There is severe pain
  • Major swapping and stiffness are present
  • The ligament has ruptured completely
  • Most often, absolute restriction of movement is necessary for healing
  • Some people may need surgery for their injured ankle. However, noninvasive methods are now far more common
  • It could take four months or more to recover completely from the injury

Support Using Braces

Whether an ankle sprain is mild or severe, a good investment for you to think about is an ankle brace. Braces have varied types and styles, including colors and patterns that appeal to both the young and the young at heart. Through a brace, your pain may be reduced, stability may increase, and healing may improve.

* This is health information. Remember to speak with your physician regarding your particular situation.

Most Common Symptoms of Mold Exposure

1. Headaches

If you aren’t used to headaches and recently began to experience them in your home, you may have a mold problem. If you are experiencing headaches in your home like this, try testing it for a week or so. Keep track of when your headaches begin, when they stop, and where they occur.

2. Coughing and Sneezing

Coughing and sneezing could just as easily be a result of dust in your home as mold, but they are both mold exposure symptoms nonetheless. If there is mold in a certain part of your home, you should experience the coughing and sneezing more in that area of the home. You will most likely also experience a sore throat in that area.

3. Rash

It is a common misconception that you can only get a rash from mold if direct contact is made. However, you can actually get rashes from mold just by being exposed to its pores in the air. If the rash remains for more than an hour and gets worse, you should see a health care professional and call a mold expert in immediately.

4. Drowsiness

You may begin to experience occasional drowsiness for no apparent reason if there is mold in your home. This can be very harmful to your family in the evenings when your children should be paying attention to their homework, and you are feeling out of it.

5. Red Itchy Eyes

This is another mold symptom that is often misconceived. With allergies arriving in the Spring and Autumn, a lot of people experience red, watery, dry, and itchy eyes. However, if you are experiencing these symptoms exclusively in your home, it may be the result of mold exposure, not allergies.

6. Muscle and Joint Stiffness

Feeling sore in your muscles and joints may be more than a tough day at the gym, it could mean mold in your home. Much like drowsiness experienced by mold exposure, you will feel most sore and stiff when in your home around the mold-affected area.

7. Nose Bleeds

Experiencing multiple nosebleeds a month in your home is certainly not normal. If you are getting nosebleeds out o the blue in your home, definitely see a doctor and call a mold specialist. While short-term mold exposure is not usually harmful, mold can go undetected for years, and long-term exposure can be very harmful.

8. Bruising Easily

Bruising or scarring easily could be a symptom of a number of conditions or diseases, but it is also on the long list of mold symptoms. If your skin is bruising from mold exposure, you will probably be experiencing the rash symptom as well, and should see a healthcare professional.

9. Profuse Sweating

Mold exposure may also cause you to sweat even in a room at a reasonable room temperature. This may also mean night sweats, chills, or drooling in your sleep. A combination of these symptoms may also lead to ongoing insomnia, which could lead to other health issues.

Diagnosis Sleep Apnea And Snoring Problems With Radiology

For years, in part due to the significance and frequency of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA), and also in part due to frustrations of eliminating optimal treatments for selected patients, imaging techniques have been used to attempt to gain insights into the disorder. In hopes of defining the exact site of obstruction in a selected patient, a therapy could be tailor to that person.

Some of the more standard imaging techniques that have been used include x-ray cephalometry which measures the cranio-facial dimensions in relationship to oro-pharyngeal diameters (the area behind the tongue) on a person's head and neck. This attempts to predict OSA in patients by selecting those with reduced diameters in the throat area. Unfortunately these measures are low in both sensitivity and specificity for the disorder. Cephalometry has also been combined with CT scanning of the posterior tongue and soft palate to predict this better, but again this has been limited in defining the population at risk. Another option is to have videoendoscopy with Muller's maneuver. This is where an otolaryngologist inserts a laryngoscope (flexible optical fiber) down one nostril into your nasal / throat area. You then plug the other nostril and mouth and try to breathe in. This creates a vacuum and can show how much your airway collapses. This has been more effective in predicting patients with OSA if the area behind the palate is less than 0.8cm squared in males and less than 0.54 cm squared in females.

More recent attempts have included performing nasopharyngoscopy under sedation, and having the patient's jaw advanced during the procedure to assess if visualized obstruction and snowing improved. If so, these patients were either fitted with a dental appliance advancing the mandible, or underwent surgical mandibular advancement. This seems to have some beneficial results in small population studies. Also MR techniques are being studied to assess the anatomical risks of patients who may have OSA, but to date pre-and post-operative tests by MRI have not been able to show consistent changes that allow predictability of success or failures of various treatments.

Perhaps the future will find more secure diagnostics for imaging in real-time imaging techniques. One currently being investigated is anatomical optical coherence tomography which can be performed without sedation. A small probe is passed from the nose to mid-esophagus, and within this an optical probe is inserted. As it passes down it directly visualizes and measures the anatomy of the upper airway by creating images from the phase characteristics of light that bounces back from the surrounding tissues. This procedure still has limitations, but may hold the key for both better therapeutics and diagnostics since construction is being measured real-time.

Pancreatic Duct Blockage

To understand pancreatic duct blockage you first have to understand what the organ is and how it works. The pancreas is a small, six to ten inch long spongy organ located in the abdomen behind the stomach that is an important part of the digestive process. It produces some of the enzymes that the body uses to break down foods in order to digest them and also produces insulin to aid in how the bodies glucose or sugar level is regulated.

The insulin that is produced is secreted directly into the bloodstream while the enzymes are released into the small intestines when needed to help digest food. Each performances an important function in how our body digests foods then stores and uses the energy produced.

When we eat, the partially digested foods called chyme are released by the stomach into the beginning of the small intestines. That area of ​​the small intestines is called the duodenum. It is also in this area that the pancreatic enzymes are added through a duct that can become blocked. This duct runs along the entire length of the pancreas and is connected to a similar duct that comes from the liver, delivering bile to the small intestines.

Pancreatitis is a disease that can be either acute or chronic and is an inflammation of the pancreas. This inflammation is often caused by pancreatic duct blockage that occurs when the main duct is blocked resulting in the juices that would normally flow through the pancreas getting blocked up inside the organ. In worst cases these juices can actually start to break down the pancreas.

This main duct can be blocked due to gallstone's, tumors, defects, surgery, or some other sort of trauma. Once a duct is blocked it usually requires immediate medical attention. Patients generally stop eating solid foods and are given nourishment through intravenous means until the blockage passes and the inflammation eases. In extreme cases surgery may be required to remove the blockage. Once the infection eases, or cools, the patient is slowly reintroduced to a liquid diet. If there are no problems the diet is increased to include bland foods, then ever a normal diet.

Pancreatitis can be caused by the heavy use of alcohol, for heredity reasons, defects in the organ, trauma caused by surgery or accident, tumors, or gallstone's. There is also a small number of people, around 14% for what the actual cause is never found.

Food Lectins in Health and Disease: An Introduction

In recent years it appears there is a rising epidemic of people suffering from chronic digestive and autoimmune conditions. Food intolerance or sensitivities may lie at the root of the problem. Most people, including doctors, have little clue how foods they eat may be contributing to their chronic illness, fatigue and digestive symptoms.

There are, however, a lot of clues in the medical literature and the lay public's experience about how foods are causing and / or contributing to the current epidemic of chronic illness and autoimmune disease. There are several diets being used by many people with varying success to improve their health despite a general lack of iron clad scientific proof for their effectiveness. One of the clues to the cause and relief of food induced illness may lie in proteins known as lectins that are present in all foods.

Animal and plant sources of food both contain complex proteins known as lectins. These proteins typically have the ability to attach to sugars or carbohydrates on the surface of human cells. Some of these proteins can cause clumping of human red blood cells, a process that is called agglutination. The process of agglutination occurs when someone receives the wrong blood type during a blood transfusion. In fact, red blood cell agglutination specific to each person or groups of people is the basis for testing for blood types. There is some data that blood types may influence how people respond to certain foods though a blood type specific diet appears to have been disproven. The attachment or binding of certain food lectins can initiate a variety of cell specific effects. These reactions may mimic hormones or cause changes in cells. This is termed molecular mimicry.

Most plants contain lectins, some of which are toxic, inflammatory, or both. Many of these plant and dairy lectin are resistant to cooking and digestive enzymes. Grain lectins, for example, are quite resistant to human digestion but well suited for ruminants like cattle who have multi-chambered stomachs. Therefore, lectins are present in our food and are often resistant to our digestion and some have been scientifically shown to have significant GI toxicity in humans. Others have been shown to be beneficial and maybe even cancer protection. Either way plant and animal proteins are foreign proteins to the body and are treated with by digestion and our immune system in a positive or negative manner.

The human digestive system was created to handle a variety of plant and animal proteins through the process of digestion and elimination. Some plant and animal proteins or lectins are strictly toxic to humans and can not be eaten without causing death like those in Castor beans and some mushrooms. Other foods must be prepared before they are safe to be ateen. Preparations may include pealing, prolonged soaking and cooking like kidney beans. Other foods may be poorly tolerated because of genetic genetic predisposition or undering pre-existing food allergy or intolerance. Others are tolerated to some degree or quantity but not in large amounts or on a frequent basis. People who are intolerant to the milk sugar lactose, because of inherited or acquired deficiency in lactase enzyme, may tolerate small amounts but may have severe bloating, gas, abdominal pain and cramps with explosive diarrhea when a large amount of lactose containing foods are eaten. Foods can become intolerable to some people after their immune system changes or gut is injured from another cause.

Of the food lectins, grain / cereal lectins; dairy lectins; and legume lectins (especially peanut lectin and soybean lectin) are the most common ones associated with reports of aggraphation of inflammatory and digestive diseases in the body and improvement of those diseases and / or symptoms when avoided. Recent research by Loren Cordain PhD., Has suggested that these lectins may effectively serve as a "Trojan horse" allowing intact or nearly intact foreign proteins to invade our natural gut defenses and enter behind the lines to cause damage well beyond the gut, commonly in joints, brain, and skin of affected individuals. Once damage occurs to the gut and the defense system is breached the result is what some refer to as a "leaky gut". Moreover, many people who develop a "leaky gut" not only have symptoms such as bloating, gas, diarrhea, and abdominal pain but also other symptoms beyond the gut, or extra-intestinal symptoms. Commonly affected areas are the brain or peripheral nerves, skin, joints, and various body glands. With continued exposure of the gut by these toxic food lectins a persistent stimulation of the body's defense mechanism in a dysfunctional manner, occurs, ie autoimmune disease.

Wrong types or levels of good and bad bacteria in the gut, or intestinal dysbiosis, may contribute to this process of abnormal stimulation of the immune system. Research supports the strong potential that such stimulation may be accentuated by interaction of the bacteria with food lectins. It is believed by some that this may further worsen gut injury and autoimmune disease. This latter concept is gaining acceptance and recognition by doctors in one form as the hygiene theory. It is speculated that our gut bacteria have become altered by increased hygiene and over use of antibiotics and that this phenomenon may be playing a significant role in the rising incidence of autoimmune diseases such as diabetes, arthritis, and chronic intestinal diseases like Crohn's disease and irritable bowel syndrome.

Lectins as a cause however are largely being ignored in the US because the field of lectinology and lectins role in disease is more accepted internationally. Avoidance of certain food lectins may be helpful in achieving health and healing of chronic gut injury. Healing of a "leaky gut" and avoidance of abnormal abnormal stimulation of the immune system by toxic food lectins and bacteria in the gut is the basis for ongoing research and probable success of several popular diets such as the paleo diet, carbohydrate specific diet and gluten -free / casein-free diet. More research is needed in this exciting but often neglected area. The Food Doc, LLC features a website http://www.thefooddoc.com that will provide physician authorized information on food intolerance, sensitivity and allergy such as lectin, gluten, casein, and lactose intolerance with dietary guidance that will feature in the near future an online symptom assessment and diet-diary.

Copyright 2006, The Food Doc, LLC. All rights reserved. http://www.thefooddoc.com

Intrauterine Contraceptive Devices – Is It for You?

Intra-uterine contraceptive devices, or IUCDs, are a means of contraception generally used by women who, for medical reasons, are unable to use hormonal contraceptive methods (eg oral contraceptives), or in those who not motivated or prefer not to use such methods.

IUCDs are small devices that are inserted by your doctor into your uterus. They work by preventing implantation.

There are numerous type that have been developed over the years, the more common ones being:

• Multi-load Copper 250
• Copper T
• Nova T
• Lippes Loop
• Mirena Intrauterine System

The Mirena intrauterine system is a hormone impregnated IUCD. It acts locally by making the mucous of the cervix much thicker, so preventing the sperms from getting through. It also makes the lining of the endometrium thinner, thereby preventing implantation.

General failure rates of common contraceptive methods (Failure rate of women using the method for 1 year):

• Mirena Intrauterine system: 1 per 1000
• Normal IUCD: 10 per 1000
• Ligation: 4 per 1000
• Oral contraceptive pills: 20 per 1000
• Depo injections: 10-15 per 1000

Are You Suited To Use IUCDs?

Whilst the IUCD may appear to be a very convenient and hassle-free method of contraception, it is not without its side effects, and not all women are suitable for using it.

1. Absolute Contraindications (those who absolutely should not use IUCDs):

• Known or suspected pregnancy
• Active pelvic infection (including known or suspected gonorrhoea or chlamydia infections)
• Genital bleed which has yet to be diagnosed
• Genital cancers

2. Relative Contraindications (those who should preferably not use IUCDs):

• Those at increased risk of STDs (eg. Those with multiple sex partners, or those who partner has multiple sex partners)
• Recent or recurrent pelvic infections
• Single pelvic infection, in women who wish to get pregnant subsequently
• Lower immunity, such as due to diabetes, AIDS etc.
Menstrual bleeding of unknown cause
• History of ectopic pregnancy
• Presence of conditions which predispose to ectopic pregnancy
• Endometriosis
• Endometrial polyps
• Uterine fibroids
• Anaemia

What Are The P impossible Complications?

Women using IUCDs may experience some side effects and potential complications. These are some of which you should be aware of:

Increased menstrual bleeding: many women experience slightly longer and heavier menstruation.

Painful periods: menstrual pain is usually increased in the first few cycles, then slightly improved.

Intermenstrual spotting: light spotting between periods is fairly common with IUCDs, regardless of type.

Pelvic infections: IUCDs increase the risk of pelvic infections, especially in the first few months. See your doctor immediately if you develop any signs of pelvic infection (increased vaginal discharge, lower abdominal pain, together with a fever).

Pregnancy: as with all contraceptive methods, there is a failure rate. If you have an IUCD in place, and become pregnant, see your doctor to have the IUCD removed immediately (there is about a 20% risk of abortion by removing the IUCD, but if not removed, the risk of abortion is about 50%) .

Ectopic pregnancy

Expulsion of the IUCD

Serious complications immediately following IUCD insertion: vasovagal reaction and perforation of the uterus.

Dermoid Cysts

What is a dermoid cyst? Maybe you did not hear about this type of cyst before, but actually is very common for women age between 20 and 40. Also it can not only appear on fabrics, but also on the face, neck or skin.

A dermoid cyst looks like a teratoma, a kind of tumor with tissue and organ. It can develop hair, can have all kinds of organs growing inside including a teeth (for example you can get develop inside the tissue bones, fat, thyroid glands, nails, sebum glands, etc.).

The good news regarding this type of ovarian cyst is that that is not cancerous in most of the cases. Actually, it is only in one or two percent of dermoid cysts cases and usually for women over 40 years old. The bad news is that it can hurt and you may want to use surgery for removing it. However, you can be fertile and give birth to a child even if you choose to keep them.

The main symptoms of dermoid cysts on ovaries are abdominal pain and pelvic pain. In time they can grow bigger and they can create you very bad pain, infection, rupture and cancer. The best thing you can do is to surgical remove them. The two types of surgery: normal surgery and laparoscopy.

Most of the persons think that there is no danger having dermoid cysts, including ovarian dermoid cysts and they do not go to the doctor to check them if they are malign or not. As I said earlier, there is a small chance that they are and you should better prevent than say sorry.

Hepatitis C – Fact Or Fiction

I have a very good friend who contracted Hepatitis C and lived with the disease for over 20 years. I am not sure that I even understand the disease and I am a physician. 80% of people with Hepatitis C do not even have symptoms. The disease affects the liver and there can be a significant damage by the time symptoms appear. The problem with this disease is the symptoms can come and go. The symptoms can be very mild and can be associated with the flu or a viral illness.The symptoms can last for weeks or months and because of the variable can often be missed.

One of the more common symptoms is nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite or chronic fatigue.Chronic Hepatitis C can lead to cirrhosis, a disease which is more commonly associated with alcoholism.

So what types of symptoms should be concerned about?

If you have come in contact with a person who you know has Hepatitis C, you certainly should be concerned about unusual illnesses. If you think you might have been exposed to the disease and then get ill, you need to seek medical attention. The symptoms usually appear within five to twelve weeks of exposure. Nausea and vomiting for more than 2 days should concern you. If your skin or the whites of your eyes take on a yellowish tinge or your urine changes to a dark-brown color, you should seek medical attention.

There are a lot of books on the topic of Hepatitis C. I have information on my website about Hepatitis C.

Antioxidants Help the Liver Carry Out Its Cleansing Processes

The most common cause of liver disease is excess alcohol. Aside from consuming alcohol, learn which other factors – such as obesity and malnutrition – can play a role in developing this potentially life-threatening disease. Accumulated toxins in the body place a constant drag on the immune system, setting the stage for auto immune diseases and cancer. Once the liver is damaged, it's very difficult to maintain a healthy defense system to combat diseases.

Milk Thistle

Milk Thistle is an example of a potent standardized herb that contains a minimum of 80% silymarin, the active nutrient that gives milk thistle its great effect for the treatment of hepatitis or cirrhosis. Milk Thistle (Silybum maianum) seeds are approved as a natural treatment for damaged, inflammatory, pain conditions and liver diseases such as cirrhosis, hepatitis, and fatty liver disease caused by alcohol and other toxins.

Furthermore, according to the recent clinical research in Germany, the seeds of milk thistle help avoid liver disease. Physicians have prescribed milk thistle, one of the best herbs for liver disease, for hepatitis treatment to keep down infection, for cirrhosis treatment to soften the liver, for liver cancer to aid in liver detoxification, and for many dysfunctions of the gall bladder system.


Dandelion has also been used to treat poor digestion, water retention, and diseases of the liver such as alcohol hepatitis. Many herbalists view the dandelion as an effective treatment for liver disease, even in extreme cases such as cirrhosis. It protects against free radical damage because it is a strong liver antioxidant, reduces inflammation and protects from alcohol liver disease, cancer pain, and a number of toxic compounds. It's best herbal remedy and natural medicine for upset liver, liver pain relief and disorder against alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease.


Studies have led the way in understanding how various antioxidants have the potential to prevent or treat the damage associated with free radical induced oxidative stress. Antioxidants not only help the liver carry out its cleansing processes, but they also serve to protect the liver from excessive free radical damage.

The high levels of antioxidants in a high quality green food are the front line of defense in the war on destructive free radicals that will destroy cells ability to repair, renew, and rejuvenate.

  • Fruits and vegetables contain a wide variety of nutrients, including antioxidants, phytochemicals, and carotenoids, that can be beneficial to both general health and liver health.
  • Spinach, tomatoes, and beets contain antioxidants, B vitamins, and carotenoids that enhance the efficiency of Phase I detoxification.
  • Garlic contains methionine, which is necessary for detoxification, and also contains selenium, which is an antioxidant that plays a role in Phase I detoxification.
  • The antioxidant activity of beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium is also recommended. Improving your diet and exercise is a DEFINITE must for long-term health.


Exercise stimulates blood circulation and when blood circulates better, all organs function better. Exercise keeps your body and liver strong and better able to defend itself against viruses, disease, and pollutants. Not only does exercise reduce the amount of blood sugar, but it also increases blood circulation to all parts of the body, including the brain.

Stretching and deep breathing exercises early in the morning provide the most benefit for anyone with sluggish liver. Early morning exercises help to bring the blood out of the liver into the circulating system. The benefits of a regular exercise routine are proven and plentiful, including lowering the risk of heart disease, increasing energy levels, lowering both high blood pressure and cholesterol levels, and combating depression.


Maintain liver health is integral to healthy living. It is essential for body maintenance and regeneration. Liver health is the result of a healthy diet, maintaining a healthy lifestyle, and supplementing with at least the antioxidant nutrients to decrease the toxic burden the liver has to deal with each day. Since the liver is the chief detoxification organ in the body, maintaining liver health is very important for everyone. Maintain liver health is integral to healthy living. It is essential for body maintenance and regeneration. Find out more about Antioxidants and Liver cleansing processes.

Sialoliyhs – Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Sialoliths are salivary gland stones. Sialolithiasis refers to the process of formation of non-cancerous stones in the salivary glands. Sialoliths are usually made of calcium phosphate and carbon. They have tracks of other minerals. Sialoliths are not related to kidney stones.

Sialoliths affect about 1 out of 100 adults. Men are affected twice as often as women.

Most salivary stones are single; however multiple stones may be present. There are three pairs of major salivary glands: (i) the parotid glands, (ii) the sublingual glands, and (iii) the submandibular glands. In addition to these major glands, there are hundreds of minor salivary glands that are scatter through the mouth and throat. Most sialoliths – up to 9 out of 10 – occur in the submandibular salivary gland, where stones can obstruction Wharton's (sub-mandibular gland's) duct. They also can occur in the parotid, sublingual and minor salivary glands. The higher frequency of sialolithiasis in the submandibular gland is associated with several factors: the pH of saliva (alkaline in the submandibular gland, acidic in the parotid gland); the viscosity of saliva (more mucous in the submandibular gland); and the anatomy of the Wharton's duct (the duct of the submandibular salivary gland opening into the mouth at the side of the frenum linguaean is an "uphill course").


The most common symptom is a painful swilling of the salivary gland. But in about 3 out of 10 cases, the swilling is painless. Pain and swelling usually get worse when people eat since chewing promotes release of saliva, symptoms tend to increase during meals. A palpable lump or visible swelling in the area of ​​the gland is often noted. The pain is caused by a back-up of saliva behind the stone. This can lead to infection. If left untreated for a long time, it may also destroy the gland's tissue.


Diagnosis is usually made by characteristic history and physical examination. Diagnosis can be confirmed by x-ray (80% of salivary gland calculi are visible on x-ray), or by sialogram or ultrasound. But some stones (at least 2 out of 10 submandibular stones and 5 out of 10 parotid stones) will not show up on an X-ray. Ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) scans are typically used in these cases. The dentist may try to squeeze saliva from the gland to see if it is blocked.

Treatmen t

For small stones, hydration, moist heat, NSAIDs incidentally, and having the patient take any food or beverage that is bitter and / or sour. Sucking on citrus fruits, such as lemon or orange, may increase salivation and promote spontaneous expulsion of the stone.Some stones may be massaged out by a specialist. Stones near the end of a salivary gland duct often can be removed by squeezing them out by hand. Deeper ones require surgery. The entire salivary gland may need to be removed. Sometimes stones are smashed with shock waves. This procedure is known as lithotripsy. This is similar to a process used for kidney stones. However, this procedure has side effects, and not everyone is a candidate for it.

Surgical removal of stones is done by making a small incision near the stone to remove it. In some cases when stones continually reoccur the offending salivary duct is removed.

For more on salioliths click here: Hey Dentist- Sialoliths

Eating Disorders Like Anorexia Or Bulimia Affect All Ages

Eating disorders like anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa affect all age groups. The people who are most commonly affected are those who are in their college student years (teenagers to early twenties).

Statistics published by The Massachusetts Eating Disorders Association relating to eating disorders in college students believe that 40% of female college students and 15% of women suffer from eating disorders and that it is increasing in male college students.

Early diagnosis and consequent treatment increases the chances of recovery. Still, countless college students only seek help after the illness is advanced. Experts suggest that college students endeavor to hide their disorder, that they and their friends may be in denial or are just unaware of the warning signs of anorexia or bulimia.

Anorexia or bulimia can cause damage to the brain, liver, kidneys, heart, pancreas, skin, bones and teeth (just about every body system or organ if left untreated). These eating disorders may cause heart, kidney and liver failure, osteoporosis, ulcers and death.

Anorexia drives college students to extreme measures so as not to eat and many exercise fanatically (well past optimal health requirements), weigh themselves regularly, frequently restrict social or pleasant activities and have few friends. Notwithstanding this, most are well aware of nutrition and calorie requirements for people in their age group.

Signs of anorexia include broken nails, thinning hair, denial of hunger feelings, fear of becoming fat, avoidance of situations involving food consumption or preparation, increased depression, irritability or anxiety.

Bulimia is a 'binge and purge' procedure (when a person consumes large amounts of food in a short time followed by forced vomiting) although it can also be a condition of only binge eating and no purging. Some students attempt to compensate the binging through excessive exercise and laxatives.

Students may actually maintain normal body weight, however they severely restrict calorie intake between binges. Physical signs include degeneration of the teeth from regular contact with stomach acid, certain types of hand calls from coercing vomiting, broken blood vessels around the eyes, swollen glands and stomach pain. Anorexic or bulimic women often stop menstruating. Further signs are hiding food, use of diuretics, excessive rigid exercise schedule, frequently smelling of vomit and evidence of large numbers of food wrappers and containers.

If this is familiar to any person reading this or someone they know, then take action without delay – the longer any eating disorder goes untreated the more advanced and critical the illness becomes. Full recovery may not be possible and anorexia or bulimia in college students (and other people) can mean death and is not to be fooled around with. Get professional help!