What Is Edema And How Can It Affect Me?

People from all walks of life, whether healthy or unhealthy, need to be informed regarding what is edema, what its effects can be on the body, how to stave it off – and what to do if someone has this condition. This is because, as will be discussed, anyone can get it, even someone who is healthy.

An edema is, in short, the buildup of fluid in the body – fluid that can either be drain out of the body extremely slowly, or may not be draining out at all. This buildup can take place rapidly or gradually, and it can occur in a certain area like the feet, arms, hands or legs alone (more likely due to the effects of gravity, which pulls fluid downwards until it pools in the lower extremities), a phenomenon called localized edema; or, in severe cases, practically the entire body can be filled with extra fluid. Other symptoms can include tingling sensations in swollen areas, puffiness and redness, and a very sudden weight gain in some cases.

After determining what is edema, it is next important to find out the causes of this condition. There is a range of potential causes, and it is important to realize that even healthy people can develop temporary edema due to some of these causes.

First we will take up the less serious or debilitating ones. Edema can be caused by lengthy periods in which someone is moving minimally or not at all, such as while during office work or in an airplane. Fluids can pool naturally in one’s extremities if this is the case. This kind can be relieved and even avoided entirely by taking the time to get up and stretch every so often. Pregnant women can also suffer certain sorts as a side effect of their pregnancy, and these may go away and recur from time to time until they carry their children to term. Edema may even be caused by dehydration. Should the body feel that it is not getting enough water, its tendency is to retain the water already stored in it, which in many people leads to this condition as the water and fluids can end up pooling in various areas and extremities.

Other causes of this condition may be far more serious. People who are overweight may experience bloating, which can occur as a consequence of poor circulation and waste fluids from cells accumulating in open spaces within the body. As is obvious, quite apart from the fact that this is uncomfortable, it is not at all good as these waste products can wreak havoc if they are not removed. Organ failure that results in circulation slowdown or breakdown is a more serious cause of edema, as it can lead to someone’s death if it is not treated immediately.

Finally, now that we know what is edema, we can discuss how it can be treated. Any kinds of edema not caused by something serious can be treated by anti-edema medication, diet modifications such as salt reduction (since salt causes the body to hold on to water), taking natural diuretics such as certain kinds of herbal tea, and even exercise (which, as shown above, can help by increasing circulation and sweat rate).

Scalp Laxity Paradox – Scar Size After Hair Transplants

It is surprising to find that, after a hair transplant, patients with tight scalps and snug donor closures often heal with fine scars, whereas patients with loose scalps and easy to approximate wound edges occasionally heal with unacceptably wide scars. This seems contrary to the basic surgical dictum that non-tension closures heal better than those that are tight.

After seeing a patient with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome several years ago, we began to think that connective tissue integrity was possibly more important than scalp laxity per se, in determining whether or not a primary closure would heal with a fine scar. It would help to explain the apparent “Scalp Laxity Paradox” – the sometimes-inverse relationship seen between scalp laxity and donor scarring (i.e. the better the laxity, the worse the scarring).

Case Study

A 26 year-old white male with male pattern alopecia presented to our office after having 6 hair transplant procedures between 1995 and 1999. Other than an unnatural, pluggy-looking frontal hairline, his first 4 procedures were uneventful. His 5th and 6th procedures healed with slightly widened donor scars. Our goal was to remove some of the larger grafts and re-distribute them as individual follicular units, in order to soften the appearance of his frontal hairline. In addition, we planned to excise the widest scar hoping to reduce its size and, in the process, harvest a small amount of hair to transplant to the frontal scalp. Since only some of the scars were wide, and the scalp was still lax, our clinical impression was that the widened donor scars were most likely technique dependent. The patient had no other abnormal scars on his body and he had a negative skin pull for Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome. Although we weren’t considering the diagnosis of EDS at the time, we perform this test routinely on all patients presenting with widened donor scars.

We harvested a 12.5 x 0.7 cm donor strip that yielded 235 follicular units from the periphery of the excised scar. These grafts were placed at the frontal hairline and in the anterior scalp. We closed the donor wound, without tension, using a 4-0 Monocryl running stitch. The procedure was uneventful. Post-operatively the patient developed mild but persistent erythema and edema along the suture line. There was no response to oral antibiotics. At 8 weeks post-op, with the symptoms persisting, our clinical impression was that the patient was possibly experiencing a hypersensitivity reaction to the Monocryl sutures (although the incidence of this is extremely low). We treated the area with a small amount of intralesional triamcinolone acetonide 10mg/cc injected along the suture line. At 10 weeks post-op, the scar had returned to its original width and we entertained a diagnosis of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome.

The patient’s history was taken in greater detail. It revealed a number of symptoms that were not indicated by the patient in the history questionnaire or picked up by the doctor at the initial consultation. These included: 1) slow healing from testicular surgery in childhood, 2) back pain from kyphosis, 3) mitral valve prolapse, 4) chronic periodontal disease, and 5) undiagnosed chronic arthritis. On re-examination the patient was noted to have hyper-extensible joints and was able to touch his nose with his tongue (Figures 2 & 3). The patient was sent to the Department of Genetics at Schneider Children’s Hospital for further evaluation. Based upon his history and clinical findings, he was felt to have a diagnosis most consistent with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: Benign Hypermobile (Type III). There are no specific biochemical tests available for this type of EDS. Skin biopsies were taken from the patient for biochemical testing of cultured fibroblasts. Type I & III pro-collagen and collagen were examined by protein gel electrophoresis to rule out the more severe forms of EDS. These tests were normal.


Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome is a group of inherited disorders of connective tissue characterized by one or more abnormalities of joint hyper-mobility, skin hyper-extensibility, poor wound healing, abnormal scarring and easy bruising. There are 11 clinical variants, or subtypes, that arise from a variety of abnormalities of collagen structure, function, synthesis, and/or catabolism. Six subtypes have known biochemical abnormalities of collagen. The incidence of EDS in the general population is 1:440,000 with approximately 12% having EDS Type III.

Although our patient developed a widened donor scar, it was interesting that he did not have the classic “cigarette paper” wrinkled scarring seen in many cases of EDS, nor was he positive for the skin distensibility test (stretching the skin on the ventral forearm and measuring the elevation). We routinely use this extensibility test on all patients presenting with wide scars. The tests negativity possibly contributed to our not considering the diagnosis of EDS initially. The wide range of clinical symptoms of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome raises the question of how many cases may actually go undiagnosed. One can certainly postulate that a forme fruste of EDS may be the cause of some of the unexplained cases of wide donor scars seen in surgical practices and may be a partial explanation for the Scalp Laxity Paradox seen in hair transplantation. It may also help to explain the “mush dermis” condition described by Dr. Dow Stough and why direct follicular unit extraction from the donor area is not possible in every patient.

Dr. Gerard Seery’s excellent commentary in the Forum4 on Cary Feldman’s article on “Tissue Laxity,” gives additional insight into the Scalp Laxity Paradox. Dr. Seery describes two distinct contributors to scalp laxity: Glidability – the ability of the scalp to slide or glide over the underlying pericranium (related to the fibroareaolar layer of the scalp) and Extensibility – the ability of the scalp to stretch (related to the elastin content of the dermis). He states that these two factors, Glidability and Extensibility, are independent phenomena. Dr. Seery concludes that: “Some scalps are highly elasticized and reasonably wide strips can be removed purely by undermining and stretching, but this is relatively much more detrimental to tissue viability than sliding.”

There is another implication of this differentiation that can be of great importance to hair restoration surgeons. When scalp laxity is due to Glidability, one can be confident that a loose scalp will result in a fine donor wound. However, if scalp laxity is due to Extensibility, then “Surgeon Beware.” An extensible scalp may give the false impression that an easily closing wound will heal with a fine scar. Instead, it may be a signal that there might be excessive post-operative stretching and a cosmetically unacceptable result. In addition, the extensible scalp may be a sign of underlying connective tissue defects – or possibly EDS. If only we could differentiate between the two before the hair restoration surgery begins!

Dr. Feldman devised a means to determine “scalp elasticity” by injecting saline into the subcutaneous space and then assessing how much the tissue “balloons” as a result. Dr. Feldman implies by the term “scalp elasticity,” that he is actually measuring Extensibility as defined by Dr. Seery (i.e. the ability of the scalp to stretch due to the elastin content of the dermis). Dr. Seery describes a simple way to measure Glidability. “This is easily determined by simply placing the pulps of the examining fingers on the scalp and moving it on the underlying pericranium.”

So there you have it: we now have easy ways of measuring the two components of scalp laxity – well, not so fast! How do we know that Dr. Feldman’s test is not really measuring Glidability and Dr. Seery’s is not actually measuring Extensibility? Or that both are measuring a combination of the two; by assessing tissue laxities, but not differentiating which is the responsible component? I don’t think that we can really tell from these tests! How can we tell, for example, that the tissue “distension” measured by the balloon is due to skin stretch rather than from movement in the subcutaneous space or that when the skin is “moved” with the finger tips, it is simply gliding over the pericranium and not stretching a little into its new position?

Distinguishing between Glidability and Extensibility may be of more than academic importance. In clinical practice, the contribution of each may not be so easy to ascertain, but an accurate differentiation between these two causes of laxity may allow the surgeon to determine which patients may truly be at risk to form wide donor scars. It is possible that biochemical evaluations on patients with loose scalps may uncover a spectrum of conditions characterized by borderline defects in connective integrity and may serve an adjuvant to the clinician managing patients with wide scars. A deeper knowledge of the structure and function of connective tissue in patients without overt clinical syndromes may be the real key to understanding the Scalp Laxity Paradox.


1. Pinnell SR McKusick VA. Heritable Disorders of Connective Tissue with Skin Changes. In: Fitzpatrick et al., eds. Dermatology in General Medicine, 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1987.

2. Demis DJ. Ehlers Danlos Syndrome. In: Clinical Dermatology, 21st Revision. 1994; (1) 4-3.

3. Rassman WR, Bernstein RM et al. Follicular Unit Extraction: Minimally invasive surgery for hair transplantation. (Submitted to Dermatologic Surgery)

4. Seery G. Commentary #1. Hair Transplant Forum International 2001; 11(6): 179-180.

5. Feldman CS. Tissue Laxity based on Donor Tissue Ballooning. Hair Transplant Forum International 2001; 11(4): 119.

The Availability of Nuvaring Information on Stroke

Lawsuits versus the entire Oganon entities, makers of Nuva Ring, maintain that the company withheld information regarding its potential side effects like Nuva ring stroke. Injuries that involve blood clot leading to strokes are the cudgels that class suits pound against Nuva Ring. Since readers particularly the users of Nuva Ring have a vague idea of how a contraceptive can cause bodily injury, this article will attempt to provide detailed Nuvaring information about Nuva ring stroke.

Nuvaring information presents Nuva Ring as third generation contraceptive.  It carries a hormone called desogestrel which is a synthetic derivative of the second generation hormone progestin.  This renders Nuva Ring as a third generation contraceptive. Focus of the blood clotting causes is centered on the synthetic hormone.

Desogestrel is said to be resistant to anti-coagulant proteins thereby causing nuva ring stroke or blood clots to form. The occurrence of blood clot is most often referred to in lawsuits as the cause of death or scientifically known as “venous thromboembolism”.  For this matter, blood clots may also result to, but not limited to stroke, heart attack, deep vein thrombosis, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accidents, pulmonary embolism and death.

A medical doctor expressed opinion in an article confirming that third generation pills are indeed not suitable for all women. Use of this hormone as medication requires medical counseling not only about the risks involved but also about its benefits.  However, this same doctor emphasized that the resistance to anti-coagulation protein resulting to blood clots is true in all birth control contraceptives and not just on third generation contraceptives.

The FDA also issued a statement to this effect, wherein their course of action is to work out with the manufacturers to update the information contained in their product labels and pamphlets. FDA maintained that they do not recommend women to stop using products that contain desogestrel or to change their contraceptives. Instead, more emphasis should be given on the proper medical consultation that these women should get before making their choice of contraceptive. Considerations should be made about health, age, lifestyle and present conditions before deciding and self-administering a contraceptive third generation or otherwise.

In order to combat the real issue, there are a lot of Nuvaring information provided online.  Nuvaring provides information sheets regarding the use of their product. Users are enjoined to comprehend both benefits and possible side-effects.  Nuvaring information is contained in an FDA approved information pamphlet.  This contains a comprehensive description of Nuvaring and its hormonal component detailing how it works as a birth control pill and its possible risks and side-effects such as Nuva ring stroke.

As a summary, it was gathered that all birth control causes high risk blood clotting leading to stroke, heart attack, high blood pressure and other major ailments. FDA and other medical experts do not discourage the use of third generation contraceptives but instead instills proper medical consultation be fore deciding to use them.  For that matter, a would–be user of Nuva Ring should gather enough Nuvaring information to learn possible side effects such as Nuva ring stroke.

Dealing With a Heart Attack

Copyright (c) 2008 Kevin Reilly

For anyone who has suffered a heart attack, you’ll know how difficult it can be to get back on your feet. Not only do you have to make lifestyle changes to prevent the risk of another heart attack, there are emotional as well as physical demands on your body. It’s not just a matter of surviving a heart attack; it’s the effects a heart attack has on your life that can be just as big a problem.

Depending on the severity of a heart attack, the options open to someone will be very different. A major heart attack will mean some huge changes to your current day-to-day routine, while a milder heart attack will offer a bit more leeway. However, any kind of heart attack is a serious warning about your overall health, and the need to make life changes to prevent one from happening again.

Medical Aftercare One of the first things that will happen is that you will need to go for more regular check-ups at your doctor or family physician’s. Here you will get advice about how to reduce the chances of a follow-up heart attack – unfortunately, people who suffer a heart attack are 50% more likely to have another one within 12 months if they don’t make changes to their lifestyle.

You’ll be encouraged to give up smoking if you haven’t already; what to eat, and what to avoid, will also be covered; and you may even have to go on a heart attack prevention course of medication. These can include drugs to control blood pressure, as well as anti-stress medication. Anything that controls the symptoms of a heart attack will be covered with your medical follow-up.

Normal Activities Although you’ll probably want to get back to normal as quickly as possible, the very fact that you’ve suffered a heart attack will prevent this to some degree. Depending on the severity of the heart attack, it’s likely that you will be fine for walking after a week or so. However, other day-to-day activities such as sexual intercourse or driving may have to wait a few weeks more, to make sure there are no complications or follow-up chest pains.

Changes to the Family Life Perhaps the biggest hurdle anyone that suffers a heart attack needs to overcome is the emotional and psychological effect it has. This isn’t just on you, either – your family and loved ones will have gotten just as big a scare as you by your heart attack. So it’s only natural that they may act differently around you – more refrained, for example.

You need to ensure that they know that you realise it’s been a shock, but together you can ensure that it’s less likely to happen again. By getting everything in the open, and discussing the reasons for your heart attack, it will make sure that everyone is in a better position to help you prevent what caused the heart attack in the first place.

Talking about it will also enable you to get back to normality quicker. One of the biggest problems after a heart attack is depression, and fear that you’ll suffer another heart attack. Having the love and support of your closest friends and family will help you through this difficult period, and hopefully prevent future symptoms or heart attacks from happening again.

Heart Disease – Easy to Prevent and One of Easiest to Reverse

According to the American Heart Association (americanheart.org), over 70 million Americans currently have some type of heart disease. (Note: This does not include the tens of millions of people who are in the process of developing heart disease). The cost of treating heart disease (also know as cardiovascular disease, or CVD), in both direct and indirect costs is estimated to be over $400 billion annually.

Individuals need to take more individual responsibility to prevent Cardiovascular disease in the first place both for themselves and for their loved ones. Heart disease results in tragically reduced quality of life for those affected, for family and caregivers as well as adding enormously to the high cost of health care in this country. Individuals can help prevent heart disease most importantly through healthy eating, better lifestyle habits including regular moderate exercise, the proper use of nutritional supplements, regular medical check ups and working with their doctor.

Since the heart is a muscle, it can become weakened for many reasons including:

1. lack of regular exercise, often resulting in being overweight which causes the heart to work harder and more inefficiently

2. being subject to the abuse of too much stress, being

overworked or over-exercised, overweight, too little sleep

3. abused from the use of drugs, alcohol, smoking, too much caffeine

4. not receiving enough oxygen due to poor circulation or poor lung health

5. too much systemic (bodily) infection or inflammation often caused by viruses, infections, high fat and high sugar diets, high homocysteine and high C-reactive protein levels

6. a poor diet and not receiving enough broad spectrum nutrients from a healthy diet and proper nutritional supplementation, (not getting or taking enough Omega 3’s (Fish Oil), Vitamin D, a high quality daily multi-vitamin, Co-enzyme Q10, potassium, calcium and especially magnesium

7. from improperly prescribed medication(s) or reactions to medications and their often harmful side effects.

Drug Health Warning: Current research shows that a harmful side effect of taking statin drugs to lower cholesterol is that most statin drugs lower the body’s and the heart’s natural production and use of Co-enzyme Q10 (CoQ10). CoQ10 is one the heart’s required primary nutrients, shown to be critical in helping the mitochondria of the heart provide enough energy so the heart beats properly. However, by the time a person is 70 years old, their body may be producing 70% less CoQ10. Most ‘knowledgeable’ nutritionally inclined doctors will recommend that any patient taking a statin drug, as a minimum, take at least 50 to 100 mg of CoQ10 daily. CoQ10 is better taken in the newer, up to 8 times more highly absorbable Ubiquinol CoQ10 form (as opposed to the older less absorbable CoQ10 ubiquinone form). CoQ10 supplementation may also be highly beneficial for anyone over 40 who desires a longer cardiovascular healthy life.

Remember, ask your doctor if there are alternative methods to avoid having to take statin drugs in the first place, which may carry other long term negative side effects. Alternatives to statin drugs usually include adopting a better diet and lifestyle, weight loss, better stress-relieving techniques, nutritional supplements and of course, regular moderate exercise. Additional circulatory beneficial nutrients and supplements include: Omega 3’s, Vitamin D, CoQ10, L-carnitine, magnesium, nattokinase, ribose and natural based K2 (menaquinone: MK-7). MK-7 is the highly absorbable form of Vitamin K2, that helps keep excess calcium from circulating in the blood stream which may cause plaque build up in the blood vessels, restricts blood flow and causes heart valve restrictive calcium build up. MK-7 also helps keep more calcium to be retained in bones. Many of these above circulatory nutrients are now also being recommended by many more enlightened alternative and preventive health inclined physicians.

I particularly like the well balanced and comprehensive blood vessel support nutrients in the products: Circulatory Support and CoQ10 Supreme (in Ubiquinol form) found at http://www.doctorgreens.comHere’s to your better Cardiovascular Health by becoming more proactive and practicing better heart disease prevention through diet, lifestyle, nutrition, regular Dr. check ups and regular exercise habits.


What Should you Know About Tuberculosis?

Tuberculosis is a germ infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis which generally affects the lungs, but it can also affect kidneys, lymph nodes, spine, intestinal tract and brain.

Tuberculosis is spreading by air, if an infected person coughs sneezes or shouts, the germs spreading into the air. By inhaling them other people get infected.

At the thoracic X-ray appear granulomas (granular tumors) in the lungs.

Most people’s immune system contains the primary infection, but some do not have this particularity, and so, the disease may occur within weeks after the primary infection.
Some people shed the TB germ into their lungs for years and at some moment the germs could activate and the infection could manifest.

The easiest to infect are the children and people who have a weakened immune system (those undergoing chemotherapy, those who had an organ transplant and now take immunosuppressive drugs, and those infected with HIV).

To prevent TB in children doctors give them shots of the bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccine.

The risk of catching TB increases with the frequency of contacting other infected people, with miserable living conditions and with poor nutrition.

Lately there has been noticed an increase of TB cases in US, probably because of the increased number of people infected with HIV, the increased number of homeless people and of the appearance of drug resistance (caused by an incomplete TB treatment).

In US there are 10 cases of TB per 100000 people and those infected with AIDS are among them, due to their weakened immune system.

Some of the TB symptoms are cough for a long period of time, fever, night sweats, loss of weight and appetite, chest pains and breathing difficulties.

To diagnose the infection with TB there are some tests to be done.
One way to diagnose TB is by performing a skin test called the intra-dermal reaction of tuberculin. The person that is suspected to be or to have been infected with TB is considered to have developed a hypersensitivity to the TB germ.

The test consists in injecting into the skin a purified protein derived from the TB germ. After more then 48 hours the skin area will present a bump. If the bump is large, the test is considered to be positive, meaning that the TB infection has occurred.

Even if the test is negative, it should be repeated after a while, because the test is not a 100 percent accurate.

Another method of diagnosing TB is performing a thoracic X-ray that will show the affected lung areas.

And last, but not the least, is the sputum test. If the suspected person coughs, doctors take the sputum and with the help of the microscope they search for the TB germs in it.

Also doctors can perform a Bronchoscopy, a Thoracocentesis and rarely, biopsy of the affected tissue.

For the treatment to be effective, patients must take their prescribed dugs during all the period of time they were advised by the doctor, otherwise they could get multiple organ complications and even die.

By following all the doctor’s indications, one can cure in about 6 to 9 months of TB and get back to its normal life.

So, if you want to find more about tuberculosis or even about pulmonary-tuberculosi please click this link http://www.tuberculosis-center.com

Hair Loss News – A New Way to Cure Hair Loss Naturally

Make sure you read this article to learn the best tips and methods you can put into use today and start getting almost immediate results and improvement over your current hair loss condition.

As you can probably see, the effects are very severe to your current condition. For this reason, make sure you supply your diet with sufficient amount of biotin every day. Biotin can be found in foods like eggs, brown rice, cereals and malts. It is also recommended that you take a good biotin supplement if your daily diet doesn’t consist of these foods mentioned.

Saw Palmetto and Nettle are two natural botanical ingredients that help to inhibit DHT formation. Saw Palmetto is from an extract of the fruit of Serenoa reopens, which is rich in phytosterols and fatty acids and promoted prostate health. The historical use of saw palmetto can go all the way back to certain groups of people example – the Mayans who use it as a tonic.

Avert excessive tension. Stress stimulates hormonal imbalances that may double up the production of DHT.

Use the brilliant power of herbs like nettle roots and pygeum. Natural remedies like herbs are probably the most effective treatment for treating hair loss. While shampoos for damaged hair do promise to restore the natural moisture to the hair, these claims are hardly true. Shampooing the hair does allow you to get rid of the dirt, however the chemicals in shampoos strip the hair of its natural oils. It is thus essential to condition the hair using conditioners that glue the cuticles back to the shaft, add moisture to the damaged hair follicles, and prevent frizziness. Mayonnaise is one of the best natural conditioners that add shine to the hair and improve the manageability.

A blend of nutrients including vitamin B6, Biotin, zinc and magnesium lay a solid foundation for encouraging new growth while boosting your immune system and circulation.

Soy bean is one of the best sources of protein and it contains a lot of iron and vitamin E. All of these are essential in combating hair loss. Iron is required to produce hemoglobin to transport oxygen to the hair roots. Vitamin E on the other hand helps the body to absorb oxygen and increase blood flow to the scalp. Both of these are great benefits that can help promote healthy growth and volume of hair.

What Does Ovarian Cancer Look Like on an Ultrasound

Ovarian cancer varies in seriousness from slow growing to aggressively invasive. They may be solid, fluid-filled or a combination of both. Ovarian tumors may be primarily cystic, solid, or mixed. This cancer is difficult to detect because it remains symptomless until fairly late in the disease process. Symptoms associated with ovarian cancer are very non-specific and by the time a patient develops these symptoms, the ovarian cancer has frequently spread to distant sites. There are ways to test for the presence of ovarian cancer. This includes blood tests and ultrasound. Let us see what does ovarian cancer look like on an ultrasound. The ultrasound examination you are advised may be an abdominal ultrasound or a transvaginal ultrasound. Both types of ultrasound tests may be used to help diagnose ovarian cancer. It can help to show whether the ovaries are normal in size. The ultrasound also tells us if the ovaries have a normal surface texture and whether there are cysts within the ovaries. The ultrasound can help to show whether a cyst has any solid areas as it is more likely to be cancer.

What does ovarian cancer look like on an ultrasound is not an easy question to answer. There are different ultrasound scoring systems which can predict whether there is a malignancy or not. Some characteristics may point to increased chance of malignancy. These include cysts which have multiple septations within them, a thick-walled cyst, a solid mass, mixed cystic and solid masses, large amount of free fluid in the pelvis or abdomen and masses which are gradually enlarging. Transvaginal ultrasound scanning has been used, with some success, to identify ovarian cancer. By the time the changes of ovarian cancer are detectable by ultrasound, most ovarian cancers are well beyond the early stage of the disease. In cases of ovarian cancer, ultrasound usually reveals complex cysts on one or both ovaries, multiple solid masses, nodule on the bowel or excess pelvic and/or abdominal fluid.

Ovarian cancer cannot be diagnosed with certainty by ultrasound. What does ovarian cancer look like on an ultrasound can at best identify characteristics that make it more likely to be malignant or benign. There are many benign pelvic conditions that can appear on ultrasound and are mistaken for cancer. These include benign ovarian cysts, hemorrhagic ovarian cysts, endometriosis, dermoid cysts, ovarian fibroids, uterine fibroids,swollen, fluid-filled faloppian tubes, pelvic abscesses and adhesions. If you have a large cyst and are in your menopausal years or you have a cyst that shows signs that it may contain cancer cells, your doctor will recommend that surgery to have it removed and looked at in the pathology lab. If the specialist cannot be sure whether an abnormality on ultrasound is cancer or not they may ask you to have a CT scan or an MRI scan to observe the ovaries more clearly. Sometimes though, it is not possible to diagnose ovarian cancer for certain without an operation. In such cases surgical exploration of the pelvis and a subsequent pathological examination of the specimen will help ascertain the presence of cancer.

Triggers and Causes of Pneumonia

Pneumonia is the inflammation of the lungs usually triggered by viruses, bacteria or fungi. It can result as a complication of an earlier infection of the respiratory system and usually goes off when the body’s immune system is weakened by common viral infections such as those caused by Influenza.

There are many clinical types of pneumonia according to the localization of the infection; when the illness only affects one pulmonary lobe it is called lobar pneumonia, when the pneumonia involves the bronchia, it can affect both lungs.

Pneumonia associated or caused by the virus Influenza is known to be the seventh cause of death among the population of the USA. Most affected by pulmonary infections are elder persons of 65 and over; about 715000 cases of pneumonia are registered in female patients every year in America while the male number of pneumonia patient is about 680000 per year.

The most often encountered cause of fungal pneumonia is triggered by Pneumocystis carinii and is mostly seen in persons with a weak immune system very often due to the HIV infection. Some related disease of the pulmonary system like tuberculosis can also be responsible for the occurrence of pneumonia. An also commonly encountered cause of pneumonia is the inhalation of food, gases, liquids or even dust.

In spite of the mentioned triggers, the most common cause of pneumonias all over the world is viruses affecting especially young persons. Viral infections are usually due to the respiratory syncitial virus and have similar symptoms with conditions caused by the virus Influenza. The usual symptoms of viral pneumonia are fever, headaches, dry cough, muscle pains, weakness and increasing breathing difficulties.

Most of the bacterial-linked cases of pneumonia are triggered by Streptococcus Pneumoniae especially active when the body’ immune system is weakened. This type of pneumonia can produce major damages to the entire organism due to the high potential of the bacteria to multiply and spread to the brain causing meningitis or to the bloodstream causing bacteriemia. The onset of bacterial pneumonia can be sudden or prolonged and will debutate with symptoms like chills, chest pains, cough with rust colored or greenish mucus, tachycardia and increased breathing rate. Also causing pneumonia are small Mycoplasmas evolving with violent attacks and sparse whitish mucus.

Most of the pneumonia cases have no actual treatment; bacterial ones can be cured with antibiotics but a developing resistance is also possible after the ant biotherapy. A vaccine against bacterial pneumonia is also available but its action is only guaranteed for about 80% of the healthy population. Influenza vaccination is also recommended as the two illnesses are linked with each other in many cases.

Great resources can be found regarding walking pneumonia, walking pneumonia symptoms and many moreby visiting http://www.pneumonia-center.com/

Ringo Starr's Childhood Friend Marie Maguire talks to David Bedford

Born in The Dingle, Marie Crawford, nee Maguire remembers the young Ritchie Starkey well. Her family moved into 10, Madryn Street in June 1943, immediately opposite Elsie and Ritchie’s house.

Recently interviewed by David Bedford, she was asked:

What do you remember about The Dingle?

“It was a lovely place to grow up: not the squalid slums that some writers portray it as, especially when they’ve never been near the place. I remember that you could walk in and out of each other’s houses, with your door being open all the time. Everyone knew everybody else. You knew who your neighbours were and we helped each other out. That was what it was like, and why I was happy to help out. Ritchie’s dad had moved out when Ritchie was only three, and so Elsie had to work to pay the rent.

“When our family moved to Madryn Street, we lived opposite the Starkeys who lived at number 9. Mum became good friends with Elsie Starkey, and I was regularly called in, and trusted, to baby-sit young Ritchie. This would often entail going to Ritchie’s grandparents’ house at the bottom of Madryn Street where I would collect him—often fast asleep. I would carry him home and put him to bed.

“Mum and Elsie became good friends and I spent a lot of time with young Ritchie. When he was near his seventh birthday, his appendix burst and he contracted peritonitis and was very ill. On 7 July 1947, Elsie was called into the hospital, as they weren’t sure if he was going to make it. I remember that day, because it was the day my father died. But mum still went with Elsie and sat with her through the night, even though she had lost her husband that same day: she wanted to stay with her in her time of need”.

If you want to know what growing up in a community like The Dingle was like, then this selfless act sums it up. For those who don’t know the area, then it is hard to describe. Those who do understand Liverpool will not be surprised. Ritchie went to St. Silas School but Marie went to Mount Carmel, the local Roman Catholic School. However, this brought up an interesting point about the clash of religion.

“I was brought up a Catholic by my mum, and Elsie was a member of the Orange Lodge—staunch Protestants who normally hate the Catholics. However, mum and Elsie celebrated the 12 July (Orange

Lodge celebration) and 17 March (St. Patrick’s Day for the Irish Catholics). They would sing the songs together and enjoy the day, and proved that not all Protestants and Catholics had to hate each other”.

Ritchie became ill again and most books say it was pleurisy. Marie disputes that long-held belief.

“Ritchie contracted tuberculosis (TB) which of course was serious. At the time, there was a terrible stigma attached to having TB, and so the family said it was pleurisy. He was at the convalescent home in Heswall on the Wirral. That is when I took him Eric Delaney’s record, ‘Bedtime for Drums’, which he loved”.

While convalescing, children with TB would spend a lot of time in bed, often outside in the sunshine and fresh air. Part of the therapy to relieve boredom was to give the boys some ‘noise time’. This consisted of giving them a toy drum or tambourine to bang and crash while sitting on their beds. It was here that Ritchie developed his love for drumming, helped along by Marie’s simple but memorable gift.

The other Beatles moved their parents out of Liverpool when they became famous. John moved Mimi to Poole in Dorset; Paul moved Jim to Heswall and George moved Harry and Louise to Appleton near Warrington. Elsie didn’t want to move too far, so Marie helped Ringo to find a house for his mum and stepfather.

“Elsie wanted to be close enough to come back to see her friends. Admiral Grove was surrounded by fans twenty-four hours a day, which was awkward, particularly as the toilet was still in the yard. So I went and found three houses which I thought could be acceptable. She and Harry chose the bungalow in Heath Hey in Woolton, which was a lovely house”.

Marie and Ritchie moved on in their adult lives. Marie has been a leading tour guide in Liverpool for many years. She has fond memories of the young boy who went on to become one of the most famous men on this planet. Her viewpoint is refreshing: no dirt, no scandal, just great memories of a special area that produced a famous son—a lad who grew up to become Ringo Starr. But to Marie he will always be Ritchie.

Copyright David Bedford, Liddypool 2009


Acid Reflux and Chest Pain – it Could Already be a Heart Attack

Acid reflux and chest pain can present some form of danger to a heart patient. The chest pains are quite common, some individuals are not aware that what they are suffering is no longer acid reflux and chest pains but already the onset of a heart attack.

Before going any further, let us first identify what acid reflux is and its relation to chest pain.

Acid Reflux – What Causes the Heart Burn or Chest Pains?

Acid Reflux or GERD (Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease) mainly affects a person’s esophagus. Esophagus to aptly describe it is that passage where the food passes on from the mouth to the stomach, under normal digestion processes. In some instances during the digestion process, the stomach will go into some form of regurgitation.

Regurgitation here means some food were not digested but instead will be moved back up from the stomach to the throat, passing once again the esophagus. However, the regurgitated food gets stuck in this passage causing discomfort in the form of chest pains.

As the regurgitated food remains stuck in the esophagus, the latter now becomes inflamed because some of the acid that was used during the digestion processes is now affecting the lining of the esophagus. The acid being the most harmful substance found in a regurgitated liquid is now causing the person to suffer from GERD, acid reflux or heartburn. 

While suffering from acid reflux, chest pains which come as a burning sensation will be felt and can last for a couple of hours. Although in some cases, chest pains aren’t always evident in the sufferer’s condition. Still, the presence of the acid in the esophagus if left untreated or neutralized will eventually result to bleeding ulcers.

Some individuals may choose to lie down as they get to feel the weakening effect of acid reflux and chest pains. However, they should be prevented from doing so since this will only worsen his or her condition. Lying down will present an opportunity for the burning sensation to move up to the throat, leaving the person’s throat dry and parched or even tastes as if the undigested food has reached the throat. 

When Heart Attacks are Mistaken for Acid Reflux Chest Pains

Some people may treat acid reflux and chest pains as dismissible and can easily be remedied by antacids. The problem now lies with the similarity between acid reflux – chest pains as against the chest pains that are onsets to a heart attack. Thus, there is the real need to know the underlying differences between these two conditions since the latter could prove to be fatal if ignored. 

This could be quite tricky since both heart attacks and acid reflux, may take place right after a sumptuous meal. In fact, it is even possible to have both acid reflux and heart attack simultaneously. While experiencing acid reflux chest pains, the esophagus is now causing some nerves to impair blood flow to the heart.

How to Differentiate Acid Reflux Chest Pains from Chest Pains leading to a Heart Attack

To avoid the dangers of mistaking chest pains leading to heart attacks as  mere acid reflux chest pains, persons who are prone to suffer from these ailments should take note of the following distinctions:

The burning sensation or chest pains of acid reflux usually last for 10-12 hours, which means if the chest pain you are suffering is that of a heart attack, you won’t get to last that long. The longer the chest pain in a heart attack sufferer, the more symptoms will become evident. It is a must therefore that the heart patient should be more aware of other symptoms that may arise from the chest pains. For this matter, hereunder are the immediate symptoms of a heart attack: 

• Breaking into a cold sweat.

• Pain is moving from the chest to the jaw, shoulder or arms. The pain increases when effort is exerted.

• There is fatigue and shortness of breath.

• The chest pains did not respond to antacids.

• Nausea and possible vomiting

• Sufferer has become pale.

In the event that all of these symptoms are present or if within 10 to 15 minutes of taking an antacid or H2 blocker you are still suffering from heart burn or chest pain, ask someone to call 911.

Alvin Hopkinson is a leading health researcher in the area of natural remedies and acid reflux treatment. Discover how you can get rid of your heartburn for good using proven and effective acid reflux natural remedies, all without using harmful medications or drugs. Visit his site now at http://www.refluxremoval.com

Treating Bronchitis At Home – 6 Ways To Get Back To Normal

Bronchitis is a disorder wherein there’s inflammation of bronchial tubes. If the condition worsens further, mucus developed due to the swelling of these bronchial tubes.

The signs of bronchitis might bring uneasiness, irritability and pain too. Hence while bronchitis cause’s you discomfort, there are suggested cures for the above said disorder.

Drink lots and lots of fluids.

It’s recommended to drink fluids without caffeine like water and natural fruit juices which are extracted from very fresh fruits. The juice of orange is recommended very much for drinking as it helps in alleviating the symptoms and signs of bronchitis. Taking high amount of fluids might help you to make your mucus thin. Thus, you’ll have a very easy while breathing.

It’s best to avoid cool drinks as it will definitely worsen the passage of air.

Raid your kitchen to get many other remedies which are highly natural.

Ginger is known to be a very effective cure for bronchitis which would be found commonly within your house. Ginger might be made as a drink like tea or it might also be licked mixed with honey. For obtaining maximum relief, take some ginger preparation like mentioned above at least thrice a day without fail.

You may find onions in all kitchens. It’s believed that onions become a very good alternative which aids to eradicate bronchitis. Extract juice from the onion and have it. It’s very effective if it is taken as a first thing every morning. Onions make your phlegm soft. Also, it stops the formation of the dangerous phlegm.

Almond is also an effective aid in eradicating bronchitis. You may prepare the “almond medicine” by using a minimum of 7 kernels of natural almonds. Once you’re done, mix the mixture with any fresh fruit juice of your choice. It’s best to have the mentioned remedy before you go to bed.

A very natural expectorant shall be found with the “spinach mix.” You have to prepare very fresh spinach leaves, water and some ammonium chloride with some honey. Mix these ingredients and drink the mixture.

Asparagus is another cure for curing bronchitis. You must have a can full of asparagus. Add it with the aid of a blender. Later, Refrigerate it. It’s recommended to have an “asparagus drink” once during the morning and once before bedtime comes.

Quit Smoking.

If you’re a smoker, you should put off smoking. It deteriorates the lungs which would lead to the enhancement of the difficulty in respiration. Also, smoking worsens the bronchial tube infection which would be present if you’re infected with bronchitis.

Also, if you aren’t a smoker you must prevent people in your place from smoking. Tell to your family why they have to quit smoking. If you’re on public places and conveyances, it’s best if you stay away from all types of smokers.

Regularly Exercise.

Medical findings reveal that doing exercise regularly helps the treatment of bronchitis. It’s recommended to perform outdoor exercises instead of doing indoor exercises as you’re most likely to inhale very fresh air while you’re outside. In Addition to this, an outdoor workout is very best if done in the dawn.

It’s suggested that you should carry out many other exercise forms like cleaning callisthenics, exercises for correcting body postures and also breath-holding exercises.

You need not immediately rush to the doctor or go to the nearest medicine store while the symptoms and signs of bronchitis occur. The above-said steps might temporarily relieve anyone from pain and the discomfort which bronchitis may bring.

Minimally Invasive Hip Replacement In India At Affordable Low Cost

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Minimally Invasive Hip Replacement

Minimally Invasive Total Hip Replacement in India

Total hip replacement is a common orthopaedic procedure. As the population ages, it is expected to become even more common. Hip replacement surgery involves removing the head of the thighbone (femur) and replacing the ball-and-socket mechanism of the hip with artificial implants. This relieves pain and improves mobility…

Osteoarthritis and Hip Replacement

Osteoarthritis of the hip is the most common reason for a hip replacement. Osteoarthritis is caused by the wear and tear of aging. It causes the cartilage covering the joint surfaces to wear out, resulting in pain and stiffness….

Symptoms of Hip Replacement

Hip arthritis typically causes pain that is dull and aching. The pain may be constant or it may come and go. Pain may be felt in the groin, thigh, and buttock, or there may be referred pain to the knee. Walking, especially for longer distances, may cause a limp…

Treatment for Osteoarthritis

A  ]   Nonsurgical Treatment

For hip arthritis, the first treatment a doctor may recommend is over-the-counter, anti-inflammatory medications, such as ibuprofen. Some nutritional supplements, including glucosamine, may also provide some relief. Short-term physical therapy may help improve strength and reduce stiffness…

B  ]   Surgical Treatment

Surgical options include : –

Arthroscopy : – Arthroscopy of the hip is a minimally invasive, outpatient procedure that is relatively uncommon. The doctor may recommend it if the hip joint shows evidence of torn cartilage or loose fragments of bone or cartilage….

Osteotomy : – Candidates for osteotomy include younger patients with early arthritis, particularly those with an abnormally shallow hip socket (dysplasia). The procedure involves cutting and realigning the bones of the hip socket and/or thighbone to decrease pressure within the joint. In some people, this may delay the need for replacement surgery for 10 to 20 years….

Types of Hip Replacement

Traditional Hip Replacement : –

Traditional hip replacement surgery involves making a 10- to 12-inch incision on the side of the hip. The muscles are split or detached from the hip, allowing the hip to be dislocated.

Once the joint has been opened up and the joint surfaces exposed, the surgeon removes the ball at the top of the thighbone, or femur….

Minimally Invasive Hip Replacement : –

Minimally invasive hip replacement surgery allows the surgeon to perform the hip replacement through one or two smaller incisions. Candidates for minimal incision procedures are typically thinner, younger, healthier, and more motivated to have a quick recovery compared with patients who undergo the traditional surgery….

Technique of Minimally Invasive Total Hip Replacement

The artificial implants used for the minimally invasive hip replacement procedures are the same as those used for traditional hip replacement. Specially designed instruments are needed to prepare the socket and femur and to place the implants properly…

Benefits of Minimally Invasive Total Hip Replacement

Reported benefits of less invasive hip replacement include : –

  • Less pain
  • More cosmetic incisions
  • Less muscle damage
  • Rehabilitation is faster
  • Hospital stays are shorter

                                                                                          And many more……………..


Research on the Horizon

Extensive study and development are now underway to determine the long-term benefits of minimally invasive hip replacement. New technology for imaging and computer-assisted implant placement has been developed.

Surgical technique continues to be modified as experience with minimally invasive hip surgery grows. This will allow more precise reconstruction of the hip with less direct visualization. In addition, new implant designs and materials are being developed to facilitate hip surgery and prolong the lifespan of replacements…

Please log on to : www.indiahospitaltour.com

Send your query : Get a Quote

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We have a very simple business model that keeps you as the centre.

Having the industry’s most elaborate and exclusive Patient Care and Clinical Coordination teams stationed at each partner hospital, we provide you the smoothest and seamless care ever imagined. With a ratio of one Patient Care Manager to five patients our patient care standards are unmatched across the sub continent.

Brazilian Hedge Funds, Family Offices and Fofs Say Bric Has Been Reduced to Brazil, Expect Surge of New Managers Set Profit From Current Dislocation

span lang=”EN-GB”>Brazil has enough foreign reserves to pay down all the public foreign debt. This is the first time the country is in such a condition. In the last crisis in 1998, China was the only country which had sound fundamentals and they could maneuver their monetary policy to keep the country growing, despite the fact that all of the economies in the region were going down by 10% or 15% in GDP. Managers believe that this time Brazil has exactly the same characteristics.

Opalesque, the world’s largest subscription-based publisher covering the alternative investment industry, has once again united leading hedge fund managers and investors in its Brazil Roundtable, which took place Oct. 22nd 2008 at the Sao Paolo office of Bulltick Brokerage, who also sponsored the event.

Highlights from the Opalesque Brazil Roundtable – download here:

http:// www.opalesque.com/index.php?act=static&and=RoundtableBRAZIL

l Hedge fund managers forecast 3% or more growth in Brazil – will the money flow back into the country? Which strategies will benefit first?

l No systemic risk: banking and corporate sector unleveraged, efficient regulation ensures banks are well capitalized

l But: while retail lending is still completely open and set for a 10-15% growth – no bank has reduced the credit lines and the amount of money available for retail investors – corporations are in a classic liquidity trap with funds being locked in at the bank level

l Brazilian family offices and FoFs expect a surge of new managers to set up shop to profit from current dislocations

l The global hedge fund industry is now a buyers’ market and no longer a sellers’ market. What does this mean for managers and investors?

l The concept of hedge funds as “absolute return” vehicles or “alpha machines” has been disproved. What is the future?

l A continuation of the liquidity discussion (see http:// www.opalesque.com/index.php?act=static&and=RoundtableNORDIC)

The following experts participated at the Roundtable:

1. Luiz Felipe Pinheiro de Andrade, managing director of UAM
2. Mauricio Levi, founding partner of Fama Investimentos
3. Luiz Fernando Figueiredo, founding partner of Mauá Investimentos
4. Walter Maciel, partner, Quest Investimentos
5. Sergio Goldman, Bulltick partner and head of equity research
6. Patrick de Picciotto, partner of M Square
7. George Wachsmann – partner at multi-family office BAWM Investments
8. Otávio de Magalhães Coutinho Vieira, Director of Investments at Safdié Private Banking
9. Antonio Martin, partner at multi-family office GPS

Background on the Brazilian hedge fund industry:

Latin America accounts for 8% of the world’s GDP and 8.5% of the world’s population. The majority of Latin American hedge funds are focused on Brazilian markets, where most of the assets and managers are based.

Latin America is still under-represented within the global hedge fund industry. With an estimated US$45bn of assets and 169 hedge fund managers, it represents less than 2% of the total universe. However, contrary to most other hedge fund jurisdictions, Brazil has developed a diverse and well regulated onshore hedge fund industry.

About 75% of the hedge fund assets run by Brazilian managers are in the multimercado funds, the onshore vehicles. According to GFIA, ANBID and Eurekahedge, 87 Brazil based hedge fund firms manage 225 onshore funds with $29,399m of assets. Meanwhile, 43 Brazil based hedge fund firms manage 68 offshore funds with $10,187 m of assets (as of end July 2008).

Strategy breakdown for all (on and offshore) Brazil funds, as of August 2008 in % of assets:

l Macro/multistrategy: 50.4%

l Long-short equities: 23.0%

l Event-driven: 14.7%

l Fixed income: 9.5%

l Relative value: 1.7%

l Others: 0.7%

Transparency and Regulation:

Brazil’s hedge industry was really started by the mutual funds industry, which means that a very transparent and regulated industry has been created. Many funds publish the NAV on a daily basis.

The purpose of the Opalesque Roundtable Series is to provide a catalogue of intelligence on the world’s most important hedge fund centres and introduce some of the relevant local players of each jurisdiction. New York, London, Geneva, Stockholm, Moscow, Singapore, Hong Kong, Tokyo, Sydney, and Auckland are already covered (see the Roundtable archive: www.opalesque.com/index.php?act=archiveRT).

The Opalesque Brazil Roundtable can be downloaded here:

http:// www.opalesque.com/index.php?act=static&and=RoundtableBRAZIL

All other previously published Opalesque Roundtable Scripts can be accessed here:


About Opalesque:

In 2003, with the publication of its daily Alternative Market Briefing, Opalesque successfully launched an information revolution in the hedge fund media space: “Opalesque changed the world by bringing transparency where there was opacity and by delivering an accurate professional reporting service.” – Nigel Blanchard, Culross. This hybrid financial news service, which combines proprietary industry news stories and filtered third party reports, has been credited by many industry insiders with delivering precise, accurate, and vital information to a notoriously guarded audience.

Each week, Opalesque publications are read by more than 500,000 industry professionals in over 100 countries. Opalesque is the only daily hedge fund publisher which is actually read by the elite managers themselves (http://www.opalesque.com/op_testimonials.html).

About Opalesque Publications:

Alternative Market Briefing is a daily newsletter on the global hedge fund industry, highly praised for its completeness and timely delivery of the most important daily news for professionals dealing with hedge funds. Alternative Market Briefing offers both a quick overview and in-depth coverage. Subscribers can also access the industry’s largest news archive (29,000+ articles) on hedge funds and related topics.

A SQUARE is the first web publication, globally, that is dedicated exclusively to alternative investments. A SQUARE’s weekly selections feature unique investment opportunities that bear virtually no correlation to the main stream hedge fund strategies and/or distinguish themselves by virtue of their “alternative” motive – for instance, social or behavioral strategies or those focused on natural resources or sustainable/environment-related investing.

With its “research that reveals” approach, fast facts and investment oriented analysis, A SQUARE offers diversification and complementary ideas for private, high net-worth and institutional investors, pension funds and endowments, portfolio and hedge fund managers.

Technical Research Briefing delivers a global perspective/overview on all major markets, including equity indices, fixed Income, currencies, and commodities. Opalesque Technical Research is unique compared to most available research which is fundamental in nature and not technically (chart) oriented.

Sovereign Wealth Funds Briefing offers a quick and complete overview on the actions and issues relating to Sovereign Wealth Funds, who rank now amongst the most important and observed participants in the international capital markets.

Commodities Briefing
is a free, daily publication covering the global commodities markets. The Opalesque Commodities Briefings follow the popular Opalesque “Briefing” format and offer a quick and complete oversight on commodities and commodity-related news and research in 26 detailed categories.

The daily Real Estate Briefings offer a quick and complete oversight on real estate, important news related to that sector as well as commentaries and research in 28 detailed categories. The service can be subscribed as daily email newsletter or by RSS feed.

The Opalesque Roundtable Series unites some of the leading hedge fund managers and their investors from specific global hedge fund centers, sharing unique insights on the specific idiosyncrasies and developments as well as issues and advantages of their jurisdiction. Matthias Knab, Director of Opalesque Ltd, moderates the Opalesque Roundtables. Matthias Knab is an internationally recognized expert on hedge funds and alternatives.

Through the series, hedge fund investors looking for new talent, a hedge fund interested in diversifying its investor base, or service providers looking for new clients will all get to know some of the leaders in each hedge fund center and will find invaluable information and intelligence without any travel involved.

For more information, please go to http://www.opalesque.com

Fractured Jaw Accident Claims

If you fracture your jaw you will damage the way your teeth fit together. You will not be able to open your mouth wide and your jaw will shift to one side when you open or close your mouth. Most fractures occur in your lower jaw, known as mandible.

Only the lower jaw bone moves. The two parts of the jaw bone are connected to the skull by a joint in front of the ears (temporomandibular joint). Strong muscles run from the jaw to the skull.

The jaw bone is the second most commonly broken bone after the nose. It is the largest bone in the lower part of the face.

Fractures of your upper jaw (maxilla) can have serious consequences. You may experience double vision as muscles of your eye attach nearby. It may cause numbness in your skin below the eye and irregulation in your cheekbone.

A force that is strong enough to fracture your jaw may also injury your spine at the neck. You could suffer concussion or bleeding within your skull. Fractures to your jaw can also cause internal bleeding and/or airway obstruction. If you suspect that you have fractured your jaw, you need to hold your jaw in place, either with your hands or a bandage until you receive medical help.

Before you receive any treatment you will most likely have an x-ray done to rule out spinal damage. The treatment that you will receive is your upper and lower jaws will be wired together and remain wired for up to six weeks to allow the bones to heal correctly. During this six week period you will only be able to drink liquids through a straw. However many fractures can be repaired surgically by inserting a plate (a piece of metal is screwed into the bone on each side of the fracture). In this case you are only immobilised for a few days.

When is comes to unwiring your upper and lower jaws it can hurt with a pain that resembles having a brace taken off. It takes about an hour to unwire as the wires have to be cut and the bands pulled off. You won’ be able to open your mouth very wide for about the first week but this soon get better as long as you don’t over do it. You should be able to eat normally after about two months but you will experience soreness when you visit the dentist for a while after. You should make sure you visit your dentist after having your jaws unwired so that they can clean your teeth and measure your bite as well as examining your mouth alignment.

There several factors that can be the cause of a fracture to your jaw, such as:

• Falling from height
• Road traffic accidents
• A blow to the face
• Sports injury

The healing time for a jaw fracture can take up to several months meaning if you were involved in an accident that resulted in your jaw being fractured you could be out of work for a long time whilst it heals. By being out of work you are losing money, making your everyday expenses hard to cover.

If you are suffering as a result of a fractured jaw you could be entitled to compensation. After you have received medical treatment you should get in touch with a personal injury solicitor and find out about claiming compensation today.

Helen Cox is the web master of Accident Consult; specialists in accidents resulting in Injury to your Jaw.