Constipation – When the Bowels Won’t Move!

If a child passes less than 3 stools per week and there is associated difficulty in passing them, then it is called constipation. Some normal breastfed babies pass soft stool on the 2nd or 3rd day without difficulty. This is not constipation because there is no associated difficulty in passing stool. A child may pass stool daily but if there is accompanying difficulty in passing it (due to hard consistency or size) then also it is called constipation.

Initial constipation may be due to:

o Change in routine diet

o Various illnesses

o Stressful events

o Unavailability of toilets (travel etc.)

o Child’s busy schedule (morning school)

Leads to large, hard stools

These cause pain during defecation

May lead to fissures or cuts near anus

More pain during every subsequent passage of stool

Stool-withholding due to fear of pain

Stools become drier, firmer, and larger

Further increase in constipation

Most of the cases of constipation (almost 95%) are precipitated and perpetuated by these events. Other causes of constipation in children are:

o Spinal cord lesions

o Cerebral palsy

o Congenital megacolon (Hirschsprung’s disease)

o Anal stenosis

o Hypothyrodism

o Diabetes insipidus

o Hypercalcemia

o Codeine containing cough syrups

o Anti epileptic drugs

o Anti psychotic drugs

Once the viscous cycle of constipation – painful defecation – stool withholding – constipation sets in the child refuses to sit on the toilet, rises on his toes, holds his legs and buttocks stiffly and often rocks back and forth, holds on to a furniture, screams, turns red until the stool is passed. With time, such withholding behaviour becomes an automatic reaction.


Most children with constipation will benefit if proper treatment plan is implemented under the guidance of a Paediatrician with active involvement of parents.

A. Disimpaction (Clearing of retained stools).

In a child having constipation a hard mass may be felt in the lower abdomen due to impaction of fecal matter (stool). Sometimes multiple, small, hard, masses may be present. The first thing to do in such cases is to disimpact (remove) the retained stool.

In an infant glycerine suppository (a medical preparation which melts in the rectum) is used for disimpaction. This is pushed in after lubricating the anus. It melts inside and facilitates the passage of impacted stools. Bisacodyl suppository, 5 mg for under-twos and 10 mg for children over 2, is available in the market (Junifree, Dulcolax) and in quite effective. Enemas and lavage solutions should be avoided in infants.

In older children Polyethyleneglycol (PEG) solution is given orally or by naso-gastric tube (25ml/kg/hour) till the imparted stool is cleared. As the amount of solution is large, Reglan or Perinorm is given 15 to 30 minutes prior to giving PEG solution to reduce nausea and vomiting.

Another approach is to give Phosphate enema (proctoclysis) to disimpact the stools. Some doctors recommend normal saline enema for this purpose, but our experience is that phosphate enema (available as Proctoclyss) works better.

Once the impacted stools have been cleared, maintenance therapy should be initiated to prevent re-accumulation. This is done by the use of laxatives, toilet training and dietary modification.

B. Laxatives.

The commonly used laxatives in children are:

1. Lactulose

2. Sorbitol

3. Milk of magnesia (magnesium hydroxide)

4. Mineral oil (castor oil)

All of these are equally effective and are given in a dose of 1-3 ml/kg/day. Mineral oil and milk of magnesia are not palatable.

Lactulose is the most commonly used laxative but is expensive. Various market preparations (Duphalac, Laxose, MT – Lac) cost is the region of Rs.100/- for a bottle of 100 ml, which lasts for roughly 10 days.

The most important thing to remember regarding the use of laxatives is that they need to be continued for prolonged periods (sometimes several months). An early stoppage of laxatives invariably leads to recurrence of constipation.

C. Toilet Training.

Too early and too strict toilet training is detrimental to the child. The ideal age to impart toilet training is 2 years. Initially the child should be encouraged to sit on the toilet for 5 to 10 minutes, 3 to 4 times a day. Gradually the habit of going to toilet once daily in the morning can be developed.

Parents should neither threaten, nor punish the child for not going to toilet at the appointed hour. This can make the child tense or stubborn. In both cases the problem of constipation will worsen. Instead the parents should follow a reward system. The child should be rewarded for regular sitting on the toilet. This will act as a positive reinforcement for the child.

Older children with constipation should be encouraged to maintain a daily record of bowel movements, pain or discomfort, consistency of stool and the laxative dose. This helps to monitor compliance and to make appropriate adjustments in the treatment program.

D. Dietary Changes.

Most children with constipation consume a low fiber diet. Many of them are predominantly milk fed. Foods low in roughage (fiber) are – meat, gelatin, white bread, starches, potatoes, rice, macaroni, noodles, ice cream, cheese and of course milk.

The daily requirement of fiber is: Age + 5 = grams/day. For a five year old child it will be 5 + 5 = 10 grams/day. The fiber content of the diet can be increased by giving fruits like apples, pears, prunes and plums. Raw, leafy vegetables should be introduced. Figs, raisins, apricots contain lot of fiber. Peas, beans, sprouts, whole-wheat flour chapattis, should be added to the diet. These children should be encouraged to drink lot of fluids.

Constipation often can be a difficult problem to tackle, because instituting dietary change in children is easier said than done. On top of it parents are liable to stop the prescribed laxatives early due to the fear of habit formation. The treating doctor must allay parents’ fear and also involve a dietician wherever necessary.

Massage and Contraindications

Being massage therapists, we usually tell people about the benefits a massage can give you. Nevertheless, there are instances where getting a massage is not the best treatment a person may need. They are usually called massage contraindications, meaning that a person may have a condition where a massage on a single part of the body or the whole body would not be beneficial to the individual.

Sometimes these contraindications can be so absolute that a massage is not appropriate at all. There may even be other conditions that the massage therapist should know about the negative side effects that the massage could cause but are contraindicated massage techniques even though modified massage applications can have very positive effects.

When a client partakes in his or her first interview, the therapist will ask pointed and specific questions about the client’s health to deduce whether or not they have any contraindications. If that particular client is under strict care from a physician then the therapist should consult with the doctor before undergoing any massage treatment for the client.

Some of these major contraindications would be:

An Abnormal body temperature: if the presenting client has a fever greater than 37.5°C, the massage should not be given. Mostly, fevers mean that a person body is trying to locate and dispose of an invading organism. The human body will activate its defensive measures so it can isolate and take of the ailment. A massage may halt or hinder this process.

Infectious and acute disease: Cliental that have contracted any infectious diseases like typhoid, influenza, or any other sort of severe cold should not be administered massage treatment. A client who receives a massage while they have an acute viral infection may have their illness intensified, whilst there is also a risk that the therapist may contract the virus.

Inflammation: This type of situation is very common. If an individual has some acute inflammation, a massage will only add to the irritation and further the spread of the inflammation. If, for examaple, you have recently sprained your ankle or strained your back then you should adopt first aid principles of RICE (Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation).

It is also advisable at this point to make a call to your doctor. Receiving a massage to an inflamed area will only cause you more harm.

(nb, you should apply ice in fifteen-minute intervals- homemade ice packs of ice cubes and a towel will work as well as a commercial one. You do not want to put the ice pack directly to the skin or let it sit on the area for long periods.)

Even though massaging directly on that are will be contraindicated, it may be very beneficial to a person to massage not on the area but around that area so that you can relax the muscles and prompting the body to naturally heal itself. After a person has had the inflammation subside after 72-96 hours, having a massage can dramatically help a person’s mobility of joints as well as helping reduce scar tissue forming.

Varicose veins: When the valves of your veins have a break down it is due to backpressure causing the veins to stick out and bulge. You can usually see this happen in your legs because of gravity, this occurs when the legs or crossed or are put in other sitting positions that hinders blood circulating to your legs. Standing for a long time will also do this and add to it. Women in pregnancy can experience this from pressure on the veins of the pelvic region and can cause varicose veins.

Massaging legs which have large bulging varicose veins has the risk of releasing blood clots in the body’s circulatory system and massaging these areas is contraindicated.

Osteoporosis: This condition in its later stages can cause bones to become extremely brittle which can easily be broken or cracked. Before you start massaging a person afflicted with this condition it is advisable that the client speak with their doctor on this matter to see if this would worsen their condition or not.

High Blood Pressure: If a client presents who has or has had high blood pressure, then it may well be appropriate to consult that person’s doctor prior to getting a massage. Massage therapy can actually help reduce some of the hypertension that usually accompanies high blood pressure. You will usually not have to worry about massaging a person with a low blood pressure but you will want to be careful since this can cause some clients to feel dizzy after the therapy because of a drop in their blood pressure

Other contraindications: There are a plethora of different contraindications for getting a massage. The guidelines for this are straightforward enough- you do not want your therapist administering the massage to worsen any medical condition you may have, and you do not want to give anything contagious to your massage therapist. Please consult your doctor before receiving masasge therapy if you are at all unsure on this issue.

Other conditions can include:

1. Fracture, burns, or bleeding

2. Blood Clots

3. Opened sores or lesions

4. Systemic infections

5. Cancer

There have been cases with women during their period that have received massage therapy within the first few days of their menstruation noticing the flow of blood a lot heavier than normal.

There is some debate on the issue of massage therapy being contraindicated during the first trimester of pregnancy. Normally, if there are no underlying medical issues, there is no history of miscarriage and the pregnancy is proceeding satisfactorily, then obtaining a massage from a suitably trained therapist is ok. Please take up any doubts on this issue which your doctor or health care professional.

The Seven Basic Types Of Demonologist

Have you ever done a search on the internet hoping to find someone like the late “Ed Warren” and you Get someone like “Aleister Crowley”?

(This can happen even when you seek “Demonology” course material too beware!)

Part of the problem is the term “Demonologist” can mean different things.

Consider there IS a GRAVE difference between ones who conjures demons, and ones who seek to rebuke them.

It is a professional courtesy to be clear as to what you do, and who you really are. Rather than to tag “Demonologist” and let people assume.

But here we let you define those who tag themselves as “demonologist”, by the knowledge, practices, habits, affiliations… etc.

1) STUDENT DEMONOLOGIST – One who studies a form “demonology”, is a novice or apprentice of a form of Demonology. A “Demonologist” in the field, is not “one who merely studies them”, avoid taking on such titles as to not confuse people. “Apprentice Demonologist”, “Student Demonologist”, and “Student of Demonology” for example are appropriate labels. The ‘prefix’ is key so as to not confuse the ‘learner’ with the “Veterans”, and people who are considered to be top names, and experts in the field. The mainstream public will contact a guy calling himself a “demonologist” not realizing he/she is merely a “student”, “in training”, who is NOT a well seasoned Veteran, and is unduly wearing that label.

People are being mislead and confused.

2) DEMONOLOGY HISTORIAN – A historian, or a “scholar” on the topic. The historian is more the engineer” not apply the knowledge to practical application and solution.

Where #6 and #7 are the “Technicians”, encompassing both knowledge and practical application and problem solving. – Dr. William Bradshaw ph.d, could also be rightfully called a “Historian Demonologist.” My Father Gerald retired form the field work when I was in third Grade


Typically those of Protestant Denominations – This is one who has primarily learned from the KJV Bible as their source of information on “Demons” – This knowledge applies more towards “Spiritual warfare” in temptation stages. Controversially, they often share a belief that “all ghost are demons”, which they cite is scripturally based, although it is not shared with their catholic and orthodox brothers and others. Such individuals often go on to study separately under a “Historian”, and “Religious demonologist”, or a “Catholic or Christian Demonologist”. As to better understand the process of and the ‘legwork’ relating to ‘field investigations’ for cases of paranormal activity, in potential hauntings, infestations and possessions. This is essential because the bible is vague about many facts in spiritual warfare. Many “Biblical Demonologist” also consider themselves an “Exorcist” by default, typically this is more common with individuals who do not belong to a valid and organized (larger) Denomination of faith. As an “Independent” Christian Denomination, it is easy to award oneself such titles without an overseer or church hierarchy, as they are their own ‘Bishop’ or ‘Pope’ and can do what they please…

For those of the Catholic/Orthodox – Along with their Orthodox bibles, this is also including “Sacred tradition”, and the writings of the Saints for their resources. And such individual are considered by the church as a “spiritual warfare ‘counselor”, or a “Spiritual warfare specialist” if they only work to educate the people. They do not use the word “Demonologist”.

John Labriola, Author of “Onward Catholic Solder” Is an example

4) NECROMANCER – Well as you know, this is one who conjures demons to do their own bidding, the black arts practitioners, etc.. This is the more common definition for “demonologist” prior to the introduction of the title “demonologist” into the mainstream before 1990 in reference to a “Ghost Buster”.

5) “SOLOMONITES” – Be especially aware of people teaching this material in their “Demonology course”! OK “Solomonities is my own word for them but, these are ones whom consider the Gnostic text The “Keys of Solomon”, as legit, and expect to do work in spiritual warfare calling demons to do battle against demons. Anything with the likes of “Aleister Crowley”, or “Goetia” associated with it is to be avoid. And are considered as #4, as “Necromancers”. Fans and followers of the book by Michael Laimo. “These Demonologists”, are not “Who ya gonna call”? or want to call… There is a certain level of ignorance in people learning this Demonology from the perspective of the enemy. Yet they believe it applies to Exorcism and Deliverance. Wrong!

“A house divided against itself cannot stand,”” -Abraham Lincoln/Matthew 12:25

“How can Satan drive out Satan?” Jesus (Matthew 12:25-rwefering to exorcism)

“You can not appease one demon, and expect to rebuke another”

The big note about these “Types” are they some of them think they are doing “The Work” from God, but they are really doing it from the perspective of the enemy.

6) RELIGIOUS DEMONOLOGIST – This is the more mainstream title people expect in a “demonologist”. This specific one is the title Gerald Brittle created to describe the unique work that the late Ed Warren did for his book “The Demonologist”. Ed, who was a “Roman Catholic”, wore many hats, as he was an investigator, Parapsychologist, Ghostologist, Demonologist, and was also skilled in interviewing the victims and witnesses. But he also was known to occasionally do house “cleansings” (i.e. forms of “deliverance”). And practice a controversial tactic known as “religious provocation” in order to gather needed evidence to justify a church approved Exorcism. This title more so has passed with Ed’s departure in 2006, however some individuals now tend to use “Religious demonologist” to make them “Non-denomination” Christian. A “Religious Demonologist” typically covers all aspects up to, but not including the actual Deliverance/Exorcism. This is where they then typically enlist in the proper personal, in clergy.

7) Denominational – Specific to a particular faith or legit / organized and known denomination working directly through their church and coming from a perspective related to that faith/denomination. (i.e. “Christian Demonologist”, “Roman Catholic Demonologist”) This individual may or may not also practice what is considered “Religious Demonology” as #6, or merely be an adviser for “demonology” and such related info. Or it may be an embodiment of all 5 of the types listed here. Which does includes #1, because for everyone, the ‘studies never cease’. I have not found that any other of the larger known denominations have practiced using this word “demonologist” prior to 1980. That is, until it became more popular in the mainstream. I think they avoided it as to not be associated with the “Necromancer”, or “Solomonites”, and rightfully so…

a) Roman Catholic Demonologist – All though they might handle cases abroad, the prefix dictates they are under the authority of the church doctrine of their Roman Catholic church and magistrate (i.e. Bishop). (Which means they will not be using “sage”, conducting 3am séances or using other practices against church teachings) It is assumed by default such individuals are somehow recognized by their local diocese in the least their own parish church, although it may not be publicly. The Roman Catholic Demonologist, is what a Religious demonologist is and more. Since he can still move forward in performing to a “deliverance” or (aka minor exorcism) over a person, place or thing. Then they will go to enlist in specially appointed Catholic Clergy “Exorcist”, to take the baton as it is needed. This is usually when it is determined that a higher church authority is needed or the “Roman Ritual” will best serve the situation. Also it is imperative that “Catholic demonologist” need to understand ALL Christian denominations, as to be more effective and to not limit the client based to only the “choir”. NOTE: Currently there is still NO official title in the Roman Catholic church known as a “Demonologist”. The church may only refer to such individuals whom might duly use that title. But that’s about it.

b) Other Denominations – Through their own church they might be a member of a “deliverance team” or prayer group that works with such cases of infestation, possession. Typically led by an ordained minister, for the title “Christian Demonologist”, it is a title used by few. They may sport such titles such as “Deliverance” Minister”, “Faith Healer”, and more recently “Exorcist”. To summarize, these ministers are more often what is describe here as ‘biblical demonologist’ in their knowledge and skills. We also note that they can not represent all denominations, if they so choose, since they do not have access to the sacraments and the Catholic church, which can limit their client base.

Sadly the larger denominations usually stick with their own. So you don’t see a need to be so diverse, they prefer to “preach to the choir”. When going outside the more organized and well recognized churches, it’s a take of good and bad. The good is more diversity, the bad is a question of validity. And many fly-by-night denomination that are spawn every day from ‘Universal Life Church’ bring no more authority of the Jesus/ the church than you or I would have as ‘Laity’.


As in the medical field, we will always be learning new things, sure!

In life we are always learning, but does that mean we are never to grow up? Or that children should label themselves as a “parent” and act as such with another child? Name Titles keep it proper perspective for “Others”… OK bad metaphor, but is it not a dangerous thing for a med school student to begin to handle patients like an MD?

and… There is a Real problem with the Novice immediately hurling his/herself into a “demonologist’s” field of work.

A kid in bible college or in training is not ready to handle cases alone. He/she simply does not have the knowledge or experience. Especially working on cases of Hauntings involving children and potential possession cases because of the possibility of mental health. (And.. all true demonic cases are dangerous)

It should be understood that people *DO NOT* consider a “demonologist” is one who merely “studies” demonology plain and simple. That might be a Wikipedia definition, but it is not what the mainstream understands. So we have to look at it from the majority perspective, the popular public view. Not from Webster’s dictionary.

Saying “nothing” helps to confuse and mislead people seeking help or advice as to who is the novice or the veteran.

So, in short, the followers of “Crowley”, should not be confused with followers of “Christ”. To all of you out there. Be forthcoming and honest as to your ‘type’, when the label “demonologist” is applicable. Prefix it with the appropriate word so people will not be confused in what you are or claim to be.

© 2013-2105 Kenneth Deel/ Swords of Saint Michael

The Advantages of "Minimal-Repair Technique" in the Treatment for Hernia

Modern medicine has known a rapid progress in the last decades and many traditional forms of treatment have been replaced by new, improved medical techniques. While in the past open surgery was the only option available for most patients diagnosed with hernia, nowadays the surgical treatment for hernia is a lot simpler and involves fewer risks. Thanks to the modern medical equipment available these days, the surgical treatment for hernia is safer and involves a shorter period of post-operative hospitalization.

Until recently, open surgery was a very common form of medical treatment for hernia. This type of surgery involves wide abdominal incisions, exposing the patients to a high risk of developing complications (internal bleeding, post-operative infections). In addition, patients who suffer traditional surgery recover slowly and require up to a few weeks of hospitalization. From an esthetical point of view, traditional surgery also leaves patients with pronounced, slow-healing abdominal scars. Due to these undesirable effects of “open surgery”, most medical professionals have recently replaced it with modern, more reliable surgical procedures, such as the “Minimal-Repair Technique”.

The “Minimal-Repair Technique” is a revolutionary surgical procedure in the treatment for hernia. Initially intended for correcting inguinal hernia, the “Minimal-Repair Technique” can nowadays be performed in the treatment of various other forms of hernia. This new approach in the surgical treatment for hernia is aimed at locally correcting the physiological defects caused by the disorder, thus requiring fewer and smaller incisions.

By repairing only the affected regions of the groin and by leaving the healthy tissues intact, this new form of surgery has revolutionized the medical treatment for hernia. The “Minimal-Repair Technique” is faster, more reliable and very safe. This procedure leaves no visible scars and it considerably speeds up the patients’ post-operative recovery. While patients who suffer traditional hernia surgery require a long period of hospitalization, most patients treated through this new medical procedure can leave the hospital a few hours after the operation. Furthermore, the “Minimal-Repair Technique” enables patients to recover completely within 14 days after the surgery.

The “Minimal-Repair Technique” has been embraced by doctors worldwide and it is now considered to be among the safest and most reliable options in the treatment for hernia. This new medical approach in the surgical treatment for hernia is especially recommended to professional athletes, who are now able to continue their practice within only a few days after surgery. The “Minimal-Repair Technique” provides remarkable results and has proved to be a very safe alternative to open surgery, as the risks of post-operative complications have been virtually eliminated.

Thanks to its advantages, the “Minimal-Repair Technique” is nowadays preferred by both patients and medical surgeons in the detriment of traditional surgery. This new approach in the treatment for hernia has become very popular lately and it is nowadays rated as one of the best forms of surgery.

How Can I Get Rid Of The Mucus In My Throat?


I have mucus at the back of my throat all the time, which is unpleasant I’m 58 and have had this problem for three years.


Postnasal drip, as this mucus problem is medically called, is a common symptom of draining sinuses. The main sinuses are located behind your forehead, above the eyebrows, with tiny ones either side of the bridge of your nose between the eyes, and another bigger pair under the cheekbones. Sinuses are hollow caves in the skull and their main function is to discharge small amounts of mucus from their linings into the nasal passage to   moisten it and protect it from infection and invaders. Sinuses also add acoustic value to our voices, as sound resonates in these chambers.

Sometimes, however, too much mucus is discharged into the sinuses. The main trigger, perhaps surprisingly, is the gut and primarily constipation. This is because toxins are unable to be eliminated normally, so they get reabsorbed into the bloodstream, and the body tries to get rid of them via mucus in the sinuses. Other gut problems, including diarrhoea, digestive problems such as irritable bowel syndrome, and consumption of certain foodstuffs (particularly daily) can lead to an increase of mucus in the body. This means that excess mucus is accumulated in the sinuses and phlegm in the respiratory tract. Other causes of sinus problems are allergies such as asthma and hay fever, allergic reactions to certain foods, and, of course, smoking.

If the mucus production is continuous and it drains well from the sinuses, it comes into the throat as a discharge or postnasal drip. This is uncomfortable rather than painful, but it often makes the tonsils or the throat get inflamed, resulting in a sore throat.

More seriously, the mucus may not drain well and the sinuses become blocked. Congested sinuses cause a lot of discomfort and pain (as do polyps growing in the nose, so your doctor should check to see if this is the problem). The face hurts and the  forehead throbs because there is pressure on the mucus packed into the cavities. You can have surgery to drain the sinuses, which does bring great relief from the pain.

Try the following treatments for a few months before thinking about surgery

* Don’t consume very cold foods and drinks.

* Avoid dairy products such as milk, cream, cheese and yoghurt, as well as sugary foods, citrus fruits and juices, curries, bananas, mangoes, canned food, alcohol and coffee.

* Do not smoke.

* Use a nasal douche, which, in India, is called a jal neti pot. Fill the neti pot with lukewarm water and add half a teaspoon of table salt. Tilt your head to the left and, breathing through the mouth, pour the saline water through the nozzle into the right nostril. It will drip in a fine stream out of the left nostril. Repeat on the other side. After that do a cleansing breath (see below) to dry any droplets of liquid left in the nostrils.

* Use Dr Ali’s Sinus Oil  or sesame oil: close one nostril then put two drops in the other, open the nostril and sniff up. Repeat in the other nostril. Do this before going to bed. This helps to drain the mucus and give instant relief.

* Take the Ayurvedic supplement Khamira Nazli: half a  teaspoonful daily for one month. This will help reduce the excess mucus discharge.

* Massage the sensitive points with your thumbs at the inner ends of the eyebrows, using a little peppermint balm or white tiger balm. Do this for one minute, morning and evening. This will help the excess mucus drain out.

 Yoga exercises to cleanse the breath

* Standing, look ahead and then up. Now breathe out forcefully ten times making a whooshing sound, while contracting your diaphragm. Look straight ahead and repeat ten times, then look down and repeat ten times.

* Alternate nostril breathing will help clear your nose. Make sure the nasal tract is dry. Place your right thumb over your right nostril, your right first finger over your left nostril. Lift the thumb slightly and breathe in through your right nostril to a slow count of three. Lower the thumb on to your right nostril and raise the finger on your left, then breathe out through your left nostril counting slowly to six. Then repeat, but in through your left and out through your right.

Dry Eye- Openers

I suffer from dry eyes, my left in particular, which is difficult to open first thing in the morning. I’ve tried eye drops, to no avail.

The most common cause of dry eye is lack of tears. In order to stimulate tears, cut up a raw onion and let the vapours rise into your eyes for a couple of minutes. At bedtime and in the morning, rub the palms of your hands against each other and place the balls of the palms on your eyes. Repeat ten times. Also use pure rose-water drops one in each eye at bedtime. Twice a day, massage the inner corners of the eye sockets very gently with your thumbs to help stimulate the tear glands.

Sterilization Equipment: 2 Types Of Autoclaves

According to reports published in the Pr-Inside.Com, the overall sales of sterilization equipment in the US were approximately $1 billion in 2009. This figure is expected to increase to $1.2 billion by 2014. Health care professionals and patients are increasingly becoming concerned about the spread of deadly diseases and complications caused by the transmission of pathogens via medical instruments. More and more health care providers are focusing their attention on infection control.

Proper sterilization can prevent microbial contamination of medical instruments and protect patients and doctors from various infectious diseases. Instruments can be sterilized with the help of high pressure, heat, irradiation and chemical solutions.

Sterilization Equipment: Different Types of Autoclaves

An autoclave is a type of sterilization equipment that is used to sterilize instruments used in hospitals, clinics, beauty parlors, tattoo parlors and piercing stores. The basic function of the device is to kill pathogenic microorganisms.

Pathogens are killed by applying extreme heat, pressure and steam to the instruments placed inside the sterilization chamber. The pressure maintained inside the chamber is usually 15 pound (lb)/inch2 in excess of the normal atmospheric pressure. However, the total time taken to attain complete sterility depends on the volume of the articles and type of material used in them. The two different types of autoclaves are:

Downward Displacement

The downward displacement autoclave sterilizer is also known as a gravity displacement unit. It uses a heating element to heat up the water and produce steam. The steam, which is lighter than air, forces the air inside the sterilization chamber to move downward. Eventually the air moves out through the drain hole of the sterilization chamber. Once the temperature in the chamber is sufficient, the hole is automatically closed and the sterilization process is started.

Positive Pressure Displacement

This sterilization equipment is an improved version of the downward displacement autoclave. It uses a separate chamber to create and hold steam. Once sufficient amount of steam is accumulated, it is released into the sterilization unit in a pressurized blast. This forces the air to move out through the drain hole and starts the sterilization process.

Other autoclaves available in the market today include the negative pressure displacement, triple vacuum, type “N” unit and type “B” unit autoclaves.

To purchase superior quality sterilization equipment at the most competitive, visit The company offers a wide range of sterilization supplies including autoclaves, disinfectants, instrument cleaners, lubricants, sterilizing solutions and infectious waste bags.

How to Give an Erotic Massage: Massage Oils

Why massage oil?

A lot of people think grabbing some hand cream or body lotion would do just fine for a massage, or worse (shudder) doing a “dry” massage. If you want this erotic massage to actually reach the erotic point, you need real massage oil; something that will absorb a bit into the skin, soften it, but also allow you to keep smooth, steady movements with your massage.

You also want your massage oil to be something that you use only for erotic massage. You want to get to the point where you can take a whiff of the oil and have your body ready to rumble. You want to walk into the room the next day, catch the merest leftover scent of the massage oil, and smile at the memory of what you did in that room the night before. You want to put one small drop of that massage oil behind your ear, so that when you and your partner are out on the town, at a party or a business meeting, maybe in a restaurant, he’ll catch the scent as it wafts past him, and drive him insane until he can get you alone. Lubriderm cream is not going to do that for you!

But let’s back up a bit here, take a step back and look at the bigger picture.

A Brief History

Oils and aromatherapy have been around for a long time. Just look in the Bible. Remember when Mary Magdalene anointed Jesus’ feet? Not only was she applying essential oils, but was doing so through massage. Mary knew the power of massage. It’s a way to relax, relieve stress, show interest, and “rev the motor”, so to speak.

Oils have been around a lot longer than Biblical times, though. About 2700 years before the birth of Christ, the Chinese were using herbs and burning oils.

The Egyptians used oils in the mummification process, then eventually applied the same herbs and oils to everyday life. In fact, Cleopatra used the exotic and erotic Jasmine oil to distract Marc Antony during business meetings (Ladies, take note!).

In India, practitioners of ayurveda, a form of medical therapy, employed the use of aromatherapy and massage. Greeks used oils for aromatherapy, cosmetics, and medicine. Romans utilized the oils after baths, and the Aztec had a vast array of herbs and plants. In 980 AD, in the Far East, the art of distilling alcohol led to the development of more modern-day perfumes.

I believe it wouldn’t be too far-reaching to say that nearly every culture at one time or another took advantage of nature’s resources and used oils and massage.

How Do They Work?

Essential oils work in at several ways. First, and probably most obvious, is scent. The nose is an incredible organ. Ever notice how a fleeting aroma wafting across the street can take you back in time 20 years, to when you first encountered that smell? You can recall that instant in time in vivid detail; much more detail, in fact, than a photograph could bring back. Have you ever encountered a scent that reminded you of a particular person? Have you ever found yourself attracted to someone and not known why, only to find out later it was the scent he or she was wearing that aroused your interest? There are good reasons for that. The nose is directly hardwired to the brain.

When a scent is inhaled, the particles of the aroma are picked up by nerve endings at the back of the nose. The signal is then passed up to the brain, specifically to the limbic system.

The limbic system is home of the hypothalamus, which in turn houses the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland, among other things, is responsible for hormone release. See where I’m going with this?

Nose – to – limbic system – to – hypothalamus – to – pituitary gland – to – hormone release

There are different neurochemicals that are triggered by smell and cause mood changes. The first one is familiar to just about everyone- endorphine. Endorphin is the body’s natural high. Endorphines are most commonly associated with pain control. Everyone has heard of the person who is shot and doesn’t know it, or the person who has broken a limb and feels no pain. Thank the great hormone endorphine for that! Endorphines are actually stronger than morphine, which is probably why the word breaks down as “endo”, which means “within”, and “phin”, which means “morphine”; literally the word means “the morphine within.”

But pain control isn’t the only job of endorphines. Elevated levels of this hormone is seen after exercise and sex, as well. It’s associated with feelings of invicibility, satisfaction, calmness, and attunement with the body.

The other neurochemical triggered by smell is serotonin. Serotonin is a calming hormone. It is associated with sleep, mood, locomotion, feeding, and anxiety.

Is it any wonder that aromatherapy is a great way to relax, calm, and entice?

So, now the nose has picked up on the scents of the oil and has triggered a mad rush of hormones through the body. That, you may say, is a temporary state. One could get used to the scent of the oil and it will have less impact, or over the course of an evening the effects of the hormones will dissipate. But there’s more. The oils are also absorbed in the fat cells, and when essential oils are used in massage, whether erotic or not, the medicinal components of the herbs are also availed. Combine that with the effects of the massage itself -stimulation of circulation and heat production, not to mention relaxation of tense muscles – and you have an excellent vehicle through which to completely spoil your partner with luxury.

Introduction to Essential Oils

I personally believe that massage using essential oils is one of the most erotic feelings in life. As I said before, the massage itself, along with the scents, is magical enough, but what I think really makes massage with essential oils so special is the care that is being shown by the masseuse.

When you partner takes the time to select, mix, and then apply oils to your body, he or she is telling you that you are worth the time. Your partner is telling you that you’re worth spoiling, worth pampering, and that he or she thinks you’re beautiful.

Psychologically, essential oils and massage do as much for the soul as the actually physical benefits, which are no small things.

The main focus of this composition is information on essential oils used for massage. Keep in mind that all these oils are used for other medicinal reasons and in other ways than massage. For our purposes, though, I will try to keep the information on massage oils, erotic and otherwise.

At the end of this report you’ll find a small guide to different oils, their basic scents, and their attributes in regards to massage, as well as good base oils to use in your mixture.

A Word of Caution

My favorite base oil is almond oil, but there are a surprisingly large number of people allergic to nuts. DO NOT USE ALMOND OIL WITH ANYONE WHO HAS A NUT ALLERGY! You want to send your partner into throes of passion, not the emergency room with anaphylactic shock.

When choosing the essential oils for your massage oil:

• Pick just a few; you don’t want a mishmash of aromas.

• Make sure the essential oils, as well as the base oil, are not only edible, but tastes good and are not harmful to mucous membrane.

• Be aware of the properties of the essential oils you use. Some may heat up, which can be a lot of fun, but might be a little intense for some people. Some are astringent, some can raise blood pressure, and some just taste horrible.

• This may sound like a “duh” statement, but find out what your partner likes. If your partner absolutely hates mints, then massage oil made with peppermint is not going to put him in the mood for love.


There are a few things to keep in mind when blending oils. First and foremost is many essential oils have medicinal properties and should be used with caution, especially during pregnancy.

After the list of oils and their attributes at the end of this narrative, there will be a list of oils to avoid during pregnancy, some of which may not be listed in the list of oil attributes.

The second thing to keep in mind is that oils should never be applied directly to the skin, unless you have been instructed to do so by an experienced aromatherapist. Base oil must always be used. You want to use about 5 to 6 drops of essential oil for every 10 mL of base oil you use. That comes out to about 15 or so drops of essential oil per liter of base oil.

Oils should be stored in a dark glass bottle – never plastic. You will usually find oils stored in amber-colored bottles or blue ones. Avoid rubber stoppers for your oil bottles. The oils can eat through the rubber.

And speaking of oils eating through rubber, latex condoms will degrade in the presence of oil. Again, your Jimmy hat will not be of any use if you use oils as a sexual lubricant, which is bound to happen during an erotic massage. There are condoms made from plastics that can withstand the presence of oil, so read labels before you buy! Okay, I’m going to reiterate, since I don’t want anyone blaming me if Junior is born 9 months from now: DO NOT USE LATEX CONDOMS WITH OIL LUBRICANTS, AS THE OIL CAN CAUSE THE CONDOM TO BREAK!

Moving on…..

Store the oils in a cool dry place. If stored correctly, the oils should last a year or so.

After mixing your oils, let your mixture sit for a day or so, or at least a few hours, and then go back and smell it again. You might find that the finished product smells a little different from when you first put it up. You can adjust your mixture accordingly. Play around with the oils, find a mixture that smells good to you and experiment with it. If you added 3 drops of sandalwood and 1 drop of chamomile one time, the next time you might want to try 2 drops of each, instead.

By the way, the combination of sandalwood and chamomile is an excellent relaxing oil mixture.

In general, men tend to enjoy spicy, woody smells, while women are known for favoring floral scents. A blend of both, then, would be an ideal massage oil that would please both partners in a heterosexual relationship. This, however, is a general statement. I’m a woman, and I prefer the spicy aromas over the floral ones, and I know some men who love the scent of some flowers. Regardless, for him/her relationships try a mixture of jasmine and sandalwood (both very erotic oils), or rose and frankincense.

Men like scents such as cinnamon, ginger, clove, nutmeg, and coriander. Women seem to lean towards aromas such as rose, jasmine, nerolis, and ylang-ylang. But, like I said before, this is a generality and the real fun comes from finding what you and your partner enjoy.

My all-time favorite massage oil is a combination of lavender oil, clove oil, cinnamon, peppermint, and rosemary oil, in a base of sweet almond oil. This blend not only smells awesome, but also produces just a touch of heat that can really drive you wild. It also tastes great!

You might want to try these other combinations:

– For relaxation try clary sage, lavender, and lemon. Chamomile is excellent for sleep, so try a mixture of chamomile and sandalwood, or chamomile and lavender to help you relax.

– Ginger and, believe it or not, black pepper, are great for sore, achy muscles.

– For an uplifting massage, try a blend of lemon, mint, and geranium. How about bergamot, peppermint, and lemon? Lavender, orange, and peppermint is a very cooling combination, as well, and gives a nice floral scent.

– For romance there are several mixtures you can try. Bergamot, sandalwood, and jasmine for one. The Kama Sutra recommends jasmine and grapefruit. Ylang-ylang, lavender, grapefruit, lemon, and neroli are also great together. If you’re really ambitious, go for a combination of rosewood, neroli, lavender, thyme, and cinnamon or clove.

– Trouble sleeping? Try lemon, marjoram, and vetiver.

Essential Oils

Please keep in mind that all these oils have many attributes, and this is by no means a complete list of essential oils. I’ve picked these oils for their relaxing, sensual, or refreshing qualities. An asterisk after an entry means that that particular essential oil is not recommended for use during pregnancy.

In general, it is a good idea to always consult with an herbalist, doctor, midwife, aromatherapist, or other healthcare practitioner before using any essential oil medicinally. There will be a more complete list of oils to avoid after this entry.

Essential oils that are underlined are particularly known for their sensual attributes. If you notice, most of the “aphrodisiac” essential oils have euphoric and calming effects. This makes sense, as a calm and content state of mind is essential for a good sensual encounter. Combine these erotic oils with those promoting muscle relaxation, and you have a massage partner that is calm, relaxed, and ready for more action.

– Bergamot – Citrus bergamia – This oil has the aroma of bergamot orange that is slightly floral. A very refreshing scent. It is also known as Oswego tea and bee balm. This oil is good for depression, tension, and stress.

– Bos-de-Rose – Aniba rosaeodora – A sweet, floral, woody scent that relieves stress, headache, and depression.

– Cedarwood* – Cedrus atlantica – You will find this a scent that is dry, woody, and sweet. It soothes and calms. Great for arthritis and stress.

– Chamomile* – Matricana chamomila – This oil has a fruity, herbal essence with a myriad of uses. Not only is it great for your hair, it is also wonderful for insomnia, anxiety, neuralgia, burns, pain of rheumatism, gout, sores, sprains, inflamed skin, strains, stress, and nerves, and gives a sense of peace and calm.

– Cinnamon* – Cinnamonum zelanicum – I’m sure everyone has smelled the comforting aroma of cinnamon in apple pie, but I bet you didn’t know it is a wonderful essential oil for exhaustion, stress, and rheumatism. Cinnamon may be a mucus membrane irritant, as are the other spices, so keep that in mind when making oils intended for erotic massage. You might want to use just a small amount in you blend.

– Citronella* – Cymbopogon nardus – This oil has a lovely citrus odor. I’m sure everyone is familiar with its insect-repellent attributes, but it’s also a great tonic for headache and fatigue.

– Clary Sage* – Salvia sclarea – This oil with a nutty fragrance helps fortify a debilitated nervous system. It is also a euphoric and has sensual properties. Some sources site clary sage as being a uterine stimulant, so this must be kept in mind in the case of pregnancy.

– Clove* – Eugenia caryophyllata – Clove is a wonderful analgesic; just ask anyone who’s used it for a toothache. It also has antiseptic properties and is excellent for arthritis pains, as well as sprains and strains. This oil may cause mucus membranes irritation, so again, be wary. In my own personal use of this essential oil, I’ve not found it to be irritating to mucus membranes, but everyone is different and perceives sensations differently.

– Cypress – Cupressus sempervirens – A woody aroma that helps with mental and emotional resolve, as well as rheumatism and varicose veins.

– Frankincense – Buswellia thurifera – This gift from the magi has a heady, spicy aroma. It encourages feelings of peace and wellbeing, calms, deepens breathing, and eases nerves and tension. I liked to use this oil or the resin itself when my children are fearful of boogey men and monsters. When I burn frankincense, I can feel it in my spine. The aroma evokes feelings of safety, and may even chase away evil spirits!

– Geranium* – Pelargonium graveolens – An essential oil with a floral scent. It’s good for depression and nerves; helps to relax. It also benefits the nervous system and women who suffer from PMS.

– Ginger – Zingiber officinale – Ginger has a spicy aroma that for me calms and soothes. My midwife uses ginger in boiling water during births to soothe the laboring mother. She also uses the ginger water to relax the skin. Ginger improves circulation; it’s great for cold hands and feet, so try it in a tub or footbath. It helps with muscle aches and pains, as well as arthritis.

– Grapefruit – Citrus paradisi – This oil, with an obvious citrus aroma, is used for depression and migraine, and as a tonic aid in drug withdrawal. It is a good choice if you’re looking for a refreshing scent.

– Hops – Humulus lupus – Hops is the ingredient in beer that acts as a sedative. Marijuana, which also causes sedation, is a relative of hops. Hops is an analgesic and helps neuralgia, nervous tension, bruising, and insomnia. It’s also a skin softener.

– Jasmine – Jasminum officinale – This oil has an erotic floral scent. This night-blooming flower eases anxiety and lethargy, while relaxing and calming.

– Juniper* – Juniperus communis – With an earthy, woody scent, juniper clears the emotions and relaxes. It’s also good for cellulitis and rheumatism.

– Lavender – Lavendula augustiform – This oil has a warm floral aroma. It is a relaxant, easing nervous tension, headaches, neuralgia, and muscle aches and pains from rheumatism, and gives a sense of tranquility. It also works wonders on burns, though I do not recommend using the undiluted oil on damaged skin, and before using any oil medicinally, it’s a good idea to check with an aromatherapist, herbalist, midwife, or naturopath.

– Lemon – Citrus limonum – A lemony aroma, of course, that refreshes and cools. It’s great for nerves, varicose veins, and high blood pressure. Anyone who has had a tall glass of ice water with a twist of lemon on a hot summer’s day or while feverish can attest to the cooling, soothing qualities of lemon.

– Lemongrass – Cymbopogon citratus – Citrus. Wonderful for muscle aches, headaches, and stress.

– Lime – Citrus aurantifolia – Another oil with a sweet citrus odor. Great for high blood pressure, rheumatism, depression, anxiety, insomnia, and varicose veins. It revitalizes, too.

– Mandarin – Citrus noblis – An oil with a fruity citrus essence that relieves stress and nervousness, as well as eases insomnia with its tranquilizing effects.

– Marjoram* – Origanum marjorana – This essential oil has a spicy, woody aroma that is helpful with bruises, PMS, anxiety, insomnia, muscle aches, circulation, neuralgia, rheumatism, sprains, and strains.

– Melissa – Melissa officinalis – Also known as lemon balm, it calms nerves and lifts spirits. Its sedative affect helps with depression and insomnia. It’s also good for eczema.

– Myrrh* – Commiphora myrrha – This aroma is woody and earthy, and has wonderful calming affects. It is also used as gargles and mouth rinses for those suffering from gingival problems, but this should be done only under the direction of any herbalist, and the oil never applied directly to the mucus membranes.

– Neroli – Citrus bigaradia – This oil has the essence of blossom of bitter orange. It eases depression, anxiety, and hysteria, as well as nervous tension. It promotes peace and encourages sleep, but is also known for its seductive qualities.

– Nutmeg* – Myristica fragrans – This woody, spicy oil works wonders for arthritis, aching muscles, neuralgia, rheumatism, and poor circulation.

– Orange – Citrus aurantium – Bitter orange, with its citrus aroma, is good for depression, anxiety, stress, dull skin, and muscle spasms.

– Palmarosa – Cymbopogon martini – This refreshing, floral aroma helps with exhaustion, skin infections, and dull skin.

– Patchouli – Pogostemon patchouli – With its musky odor, it lends itself as a sensual essential oil. It is also useful for skin inflammation, fatigue, mature skin, stress, and hair care.

– Peppermint – Mentha piperata – A cooling, refreshing minty aroma is the characteristic of this oil. It is also known for its benefits for inflammation, and migraine, and where it is applied it has an anesthetic affect that increases blood flow. Like the other mints, though, it may cause mucus membrane irritation.

– Rose – Rosa gallica officinalis – A light floral aroma helps to ease tension, depression, and anxiety. It is a “love oil” that is also an excellent tonic for the reproductive organs. Rose also aids in the treatment of eczema and mature skin.

– Rosemary* – Rosmarinus officinalis – This oil has an herbal, woody aroma. It, too, is a “love oil”, but also helps with headaches, fatigue, muscle aches, sprains, nerves, and rheumatism. This is one of the best oils for your hair.

– Rosewood – Aniba Rosaeodora – This floral scent promotes comfort and eases depression. It relaxes sore muscles. It is also known as lemongrass.

– Sandalwood – Santalum album – This wood-scented oil is known as a sexual stimulant. It helps the user to focus on the here and now, enjoying the moment rather than worrying about what could have been; enabling the user to fully enjoy his or her present situation and partner. It is also a sedative that helps with depression and PMS.

– Thyme* – Thymus vulgaris (as well as T. serpyllum and T. pulegioides) – This plant possesses a fresh, herbal aroma. It strengthens nerves, eases exhaustion and rheumatic pains, and soothes muscle aches and arthritis. – Ylang-ylang – Canagna odorata – This oil has an exotic, floral odor that eases stress, anxiety, and high blood pressure. It’s a general tonic that is also well known for its sensual properties.

Base oils

– Sweet Almond – This oil can be used 100%. This is my favorite oil to use as a base. It’s light in texture and color, and has the added benefit of helping with itching, dryness, soreness, and inflammation.

– Apricot Kernel – This oil, too, can be used undiluted. It’s good for sensitive skin and dry skin.

– Avocado – This oil should be used at only 10% (90% should be another oil, such as sweet almond). This base oil is rather heavy and leaves a waxy feel on the skin.

– Avocado Pear – Again, though this oil is good for dry skin, it should be used at 10% and mixed with another base oil.

– Borage Seed – Another 10% oil that should be mixed. It’s good for premature aging, stimulation and regeneration of skin, multiple sclerosis, menopause, heart disease, and eczema.

– Cocoa Butter – This needs to be warmed, as it is solid at room temperature, but it is excellent for dry skin.

– Corn Oil – This oil can be used 100% and is good for all skin types. It’s rather heavy, but also soothing.

– Hazelnut – This oil can be used undiluted and on all skin types. It is also an astringent.

– Jojoba – This base should be diluted to 10%. It’s a wonderful help in psoriasis, acne, and inflamed skin, but can be used on all skin types. It’s also good for the hair.

– Peanut Oil – Edgar Casey sang the wonders of this oil. He recommended it for all types of ailments. Peanut oil can be used undiluted and on all skin types, but be aware that it has a very strong aroma of peanuts and can feel quite heavy on the skin.

– Safflower – This can be used undiluted and for all skin types.

– Sesame Oil – This should be diluted to 10%, but is wonderful on all skin types. It is especially useful for psoriasis, eczema, and arthritis. It also has a strong aroma, though, so smell it before trying it. – Soya Bean – Another oil that can be used undiluted and on all skin types. – Sunflower oil – Again, another oil that can be used undiluted and on all skin types.

– Wheat germ – While good for psoriasis, prematurely aging skin, and eczema, as well as all skin types, it should be used at 10%.

Remember, use only 5 to 6 drops of essential oil per 10 mL of base oil. This is the total amount. You can combine oils, of course, but in total your essential oils should not exceed the 5 to 6 drops mentioned above.

Pregnancy and Essential Oils

Some essential oils may be uterine stimulants or have other effects that are contraindicated in pregnancy. While this list is pretty close to complete, there’s no way I can be sure I got everything down. In any case, when pregnant, it is always good to check with a midwife, herbalist, or aromatherapist before using any particular essential oil. While some oils are not advised during early pregnancy, some may actually be beneficial in the last trimester or during labor.

• Angelica

• Aniseed

• Basil

• Camphor

• Cedarwood

• Chamomile

• Cinnamon

• Citronella

• Clary sage

• Clove

• Cypress

• Fennel

• Geranium

• Hyssop

• Juniper

• Marjoram

• Myrrh

• Nutmeg

• Oregano

• Parsley

• Peppermint

• Rosemary*

• Sage

• Thyme

*Some sources site rosemary as being contraindicated in pregnancy, while others claim there is no reason it can’t be used. All I can say is to research the herb yourself, talk to some herbalists, and make your own decision.

Other Precautions

If allergic to nuts, avoid base oils that contain nuts, such as sweet almond oil, hazelnut oil, and peanut oil. This may seem an obvious thing to do, but there are some people that will assume because the oil is not being ingested, that it is safe. Unless you’ve had an anaphylactic reaction to nuts, you couldn’t possible understand the need to be extremely careful with these oils.

If you suffer from high blood pressure, avoid hyssop, rosemary, sage, and thyme. Licorice is also known to elevate the blood pressure, but it’s not often used as a massage oil!

Diabetics should avoid angelica.

For those of you who enjoy tanning beds or outdoor tanning, you should avoid bergamot, lemon, grapefruit, ginger, lime, orange, and the other citruses. These can make you hypersensitive to ultraviolet waves.

Oils to be avoided in general are:

• Bitter almond

• Boldo leaf

• Calamus

• Deadly nightshade

• Horseradish

• Jaborandi leaf

• Mugwort

• Mustard

• Pennyroyal

• Rue

• Sassafras

• Savin

• Southern wood

• Stinging nettle

• Tansy

• Thuja

• Wintergreen

• Wormwood

• Yellow camphor


In closing, I want to encourage you all to experiment with essential oils and erotic massage. The skin is the largest human organ; take full advantage of it!

As you experiment with more and more combinations, finding the ones that are right for you in each particular circumstance, you will not only find that you are pleasing you partner in much deeper ways, but you are also learning something about yourself. To honestly enjoying giving pleasure to your partner is what will make you a good lover, and a memorable one. When I think about my lover, it’s his hands that come to mind before anything else. Even as I type I can feel his hands on my neck, massaging the stress of computer work away!

Slow down, enjoy your senses, and enjoy each other.

“And in the end, the love you make is equal to the love you take.”

The Beatles

Acute Bronchitis Symptoms, Cause And What Can Be Done

Acute bronchitis is a fairly common ailment which is typically assumed to be caused by a viral infection. Acute bronchitis symptoms are typically observed 2-3 days after the actual infection of the respiratory passage has happened and some of the symptoms may continue to be present for 2-3 weeks. Acute bronchitis is spread via airborne droplets when the infected individual sneezes or coughs. This post will tell the medical symptoms, causes and how this condition is treated at home and in the doctor’s office.

Acute Bronchitis Symptoms And Causes

There are two varieties of bronchitis. The acute condition is recognized by symptoms that last up to 90 days. The chronic type of this problem is identified by indications lasting longer, often for months or years.

Indications of acute bronchitis are varied and often existing as a uncomplicated cold or flu. Patients may discover elevated exhaustion or shortness of breath, fevers, runny nose, soreness in the throat, and a general feeling of exhaustion or illness. One of the more common signs that an sickness has switched into bronchitis is the appearance of a chest cough, that may generate yellow or green mucus. The upper body and chest may also feel limited and tight or uncomfortable.

Causes & Development of the acute form of bronchitis is generally the outcome of a virus that attack the lining of the bronchial tree and change into an infection.

Acute Bronchitis Diagnosis and Therapies

The diagnosis of this problem can be considerably difficult due to the many conditions it resembles. A physical examination, that may incorporate sputum culture or blood tests can be performed and quite possibly chest x-rays to help rule out the existence of pneumonia.

Remedy can need a good amount of rest. Good home treatments consist of humidifying the air with humidifiers, gently breathing in steam vapors, getting extended showers, and consuming a good amount of water or non-caffeinated and non-alcoholic beverages.

Symptom aid can be aided with the use of OTC cough suppressant medicine (for cough with out sputum), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and decongestants if sinus or nasal congestion are also current.

Treatment For Pain – Sciatic Nerve Pain Can Immobilize You – Strike Back With Potassium! Here’s How!

Today we will be looking at how you can free yourself from the pain that accompanies sciatica through the use of potassium as a treatment for pain, sciatic nerve pain, and sciatica.

While you cannot neglect your doctor’s advice and instructions, you cannot afford to leave everything to him or her alone either. What that means is that you must try to be proactive with your own treatment for pain, sciatic nerve problems and sciatica.

This is where potassium comes in handy. Muscle contractions can be regulated by incorporating potassium into your daily diet. Potassium eases severe muscle pain which is often associated with sciatica. Potassium is necessary for you to have so that you can have protection from those random and painful spasms which come with sciatic nerve pain.

As a general rule, the expression, “garbage in, garbage out”, is also true with our bodies. What that implies is that you cannot expect your body to give or produce what you did not put into it. Concerning treatment for pain, sciatic nerve pain or sciatica, these can be warded off by eating foods rich in potassium.

Having said that, it is important to note here that your body can become overloaded with excess potassium therefore it is important that you regulate your potassium intake by adhering to the required dosage.

The recommended daily consumption gram for adults is 4.7 grams. This is the same even if you are a pregnant woman. But if you are breastfeeding then you need to up the grams to 5.1 grams daily.

This is a fine place to note that you should try taking potassium for about a minimum of two weeks for changes to begin to be noticeable. To keep note of the quantity of potassium consumed, the food source via which you got the potassium, and how you are reacting to it, it is advisable to get a journal.

Included below you will find the recommended intake of potassium per meal which will give you the required effect. Where treatment for pain, sciatic nerve pain, and sciatica are concerned, these foods have been found to be extremely beneficial:

(1.) 1 ounce of dry, roasted, unsalted Peanuts

(2.) Tomato products

(3.) 1 raw Pear

(4.) 10 halves of dried Apricots

(5.) Bananas, 1 cup

(6.) 8 ounces of Skimmed Milk

(7.) 1 baked Potato

(8.) Beets, cooked, 1 cup

(9.) 1 medium raw Kiwi

(10.) 1 cup of plain Yogurt

(11.) 1 ounce of Avocado

(12.) 1 raw Nectarine

(13.) Honeydew Melons, 1 cup

(14.) Orange Juice, 1 cup

(15.) Cantaloupe, 1 cup

(16.) Oranges, raw, 1

(17.) Lima Beans, 1 cup

(18.) Winter Squash, 1 cup

FACT: Most conventional treatments for sciatica only work as a temporary band aid solution; they all fail to work in the long run!

Natural Knee Pain Remedy For your Troubled Knee

Do you have problems of your knee? Have you been looking for ways to relieve the knee problem? Examining the possible reasons of knee problem will allow you to find the right knee pain remedy.

Factors that Causes Knee Pain

There are many reasons that can cause knee problem. Dislocated kneecap, broken patella tendon, rupture or sprain in the hamstring are just some of the many reasons of knee problems.

Knee problems can be the result of accidents and sports activities. Muscle stress and overworked joints are common causes of knee problems. Increasing age also cause the degeneration of the bones adding problem to the knee. The rare knee problems are Plica Syndrome, Gout, Bone Tumor and etc.

Tenderness, lack of stability and inflammation are just one of the common effects of knee pains. Intense pains during rest may happen if the person is suffering from ligament injuries. Popping of the bones may happen if the person is suffering from ligament injuries.

Arthritis sufferers have problems over the constant grinding of the bones causing much pain. Dislocation of the knee caps is another pain producing situation. Feverish knee problem can be septic or rheumatic arthritis.
Some of the Natural Home Remedies Medication to Knee Pains

• One of the effective home remedy is ice and cold compress.
· Steam baths can also be your alternative to solve the problem. You need to do it regularly to aid the problem.• Wintergreen, Ginger and Boswellia are some of the effective herbs that you can try.
· Coconut, mustard or warm olive oils are great massaging elements to solve the knee problem.• Knee exercises can help keep the knee ready. Yoga and acupuncture are also common alternatives to keep your knee in good shape.

There is a link between your diet and treatment for knee pain. Fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds are some of the foods that you can have. Fenugreek, spinach, grapes, dates, garlic, and banana should be part of your diet.

Say goodbye to unhealthy foods. To overweight people, try to lose weight to aid the knee problem. You can also rest your knee by elevating it.

Baby Neck Problems

Babies’ necks can look ridiculously short. Some babies can rest their chins on their chests without even trying, which makes you wonder if some parts are missing. To determine whether or not your baby’s neck is normal, all you have to do is see if it moves normally. Short necks that have some abnormality always have limited flexibility, whereas the normal newborn’s neck can be turned 80 degrees to the right or left, can be bent 40 degrees toward either shoulder, and will allow the back of the head to be brought back until it touches the neck. If your baby’s neck can do all that, it’s normal; if it can’t, X rays should be taken to see if all the vertebrae are formed normally. Normal short necks present problems only for the physician. They make it something of a challenge to carefully examine all parts of the neck.


Babies can be born with a wry neck for several reasons. At one time, the twist was thought to result from the sort of difficult delivery that involves a great deal of pulling and tugging on the neck. We now know that injury to the baby’s neck is just as apt to occur before delivery as during it. The injured part of the baby’s neck is always the large muscle responsible for turning her head to the side, the sternocleidomastoid (SCM). Whether the SCM is injured by tearing or pressure, it heals by scarring, and as the scar contracts, the muscle shortens. As a result of this shortening, the baby’s head can’t turn toward the injured side or bend away from it. Her head is tilted toward the bad side and the chin is rotated toward the good side. She looks as if she were trying to face the sun coming over her shoulder.

If you feel the injured muscle right after birth, it will usually be tighter than the opposite one. Sometimes when the baby is about two weeks old, a walnut-sized swelling will appear in the middle of the injured SCM. This is scarred muscle and represents the healing phase of the injury. This swelling is commonly referred to as a tumor, bur when a baby has torticollis, it isn’t a worrisome growth and doesn’t need to be biopsied.

Torticollis acquired while still in the womb is usually accompanied by one or more of the other features of crowding, such as oblique modeling of the head and face and distortion of the ears. Torticollis that results from trauma at delivery isn’t accompanied by all these other features of being squeezed into too small a space.

The SCM “tumor” disappears in eight to ten weeks and, with gentle stretching and encouraging the baby to turn toward the affected side, most torticollis disappears by the time the baby is six months old. Releasing the tight muscle by surgical means generally isn’t necessary, but if after several years stretching hasn’t worked, you should consider surgery.

An Overview of Kernicterus: Clinical Stages and Consequences


Kernicterus is a chronic neurologic condition caused by the neurotoxic effects of bilirubin on the brain tissues of neonates. This occurs when bilirubin, a byproduct of the breakdown of red blood cells, is present in abnormally elevated levels in the newborn. Kernicterus is preventable as jaundice, the term used to describe the clinical presentation of yellow skin and eye sclera, can be treated. Additionally, risk factors for development of this devastating neurologic condition can be identified and should prompt close surveillance of total bilirubin levels in the serum of the infant who is at risk for development of one of the acute clinical phases of neurologic damage that comprise the syndrome of bilirubin induced neurologic dysfunction.

Kernicterus is a relatively rare cause of severe lifelong disability in infants who are otherwise normal, but it can be prevented. Severe or extreme levels of bilirubin in the serum cause an encephalopathy and bilirubin has been long recognized as a neurotoxin that results in the death and destruction of brain cells.

Acute Bilirubin Encephalopathy

Acute bilirubin encephalopathy is characterized by elevated bilirubin that has crossed the blood-brain barrier. When diagnosed clinically, the presentation of symptoms is wide-ranging and includes feeding problems, lethargy, hypo-or hypertonia, opisthotonus, fever, seizures, a high-pitched cry and spasmodic torticollis.

Acute bilirubin encephalopathy has three clinical phases that each has distinct characteristics. The first phase occurs with a few days after birth and symptoms include stupor, hypotonia, and poor sucking. The second phase is characterized by hypertonia, with arching of the trunk (opisthotonos) or retrocollis, which is backward arching of the neck. Infants who reach this stage develop chronic bilirubin encephalopathy. The third phase occurs after a week and the hypertonia disappears. There is rigidity of the muscles, paralysis of upward gaze, periodic oculogyric crisis, and, in the terminal phase, irregular respirations are prominent. At this third phase, four percent of affected infants die.

Chronic Bilirubin Encephalopathy

Chronic bilirubin encephalopathy is also known as kernicterus. The term refers to the lifelong disability resulting from bilirubin induced neurologic dysfunction. Kernicterus is characterized by poor feeding in the first year. A high-pitched cry is another characteristic of kernicterus.

Infants with kernicterus will have hypotonia but will retain good deep tendon reflexes. There is presence of a tonic neck reflex and righting reflex. Motor skills are delayed, with some children walking at age 5.

After the first year of life, clinical features that are prominent in children with chronic bilirubin encephalopathy include extrapyramidal disorders such as tremors, dysarthria, athetosis and ballismus. There is damage to the cochlear nuclei in the brainstem that results in hearing loss, and there is usually a limitation of upward gaze. Athetosis usually develops at sometime between the age of 18 months and 8 years. Some children only experience hearing loss and have no other symptoms.

Imaging Studies in Diagnosis of Kernicterus

When kernicterus is investigated, high serum bilirubin levels are present in most cases. Imaging studies that are most useful are MRI. On magnetic resonance imaging, there is often increased signal intensity in the globus pallidus.

How Common is Kernicterus?

In the United States, there is a voluntary kernicterus registry and 90 cases were reported during the time period from 1984 to 2001. Since all cases are not reported, the true incidence is not known.

Kernicterus is Preventable

Kernicterus is very preventable when high-risk infants are closely monitored and treated aggressively. Without treatment, however, jaundice from elevated bilirubin can result in permanent brain damage and some children may develop cerebral palsy, dental enamel hypoplasia and mental retardation as a result. Unfortunately, although neonatal jaundice is common, extreme hyperbilirubinemia is less common and the assessment of this condition has frequently been inadequate.

Recommendations by JCAHO in their Sentinal Event Alert of 2001

JCAHO is the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations and in April of 2001 they issued a ‘Sentinel Event Alert’ on kernicterus. They compiled a root cause analysis and identified four patient care processes that failed in cases that resulted in the development of kernicterus. These included:

– Patient assessment

– Continuum of care

– Patient and family education

– Treatment

With respect to patient assessment, JCAHO noted the failure to measure bilirubin levels in jaundiced infants within the first 24 hours, failure to recognize jaundice or its severity based upon visual assessment, and unreliability of visual assessment of jaundice in newborns with dark skin. The continuum of care was inadequate in cases of discharge before 48 hours without follow up within 1 to 2 days, particularly in infants less than 38 weeks gestation. Failure to provide early follow-up and physical assessment of infants with jaundice prior to discharge and failure to provide continuing lactation support to maintain adequacy of intake in breast fed newborns were also identified as problems in the continuum of care. Patient and family education was found inadequate in cases when appropriate information was not provided to parents about jaundice and when physicians failed to respond to parental concerns about a jaundiced newborn, problems with lactation or changes in the activity and behavior of the newborn. Treatment failures occurred by failure to recognize, evaluate and treat total bilirubin levels that were rapidly rising and by failure to treat severe hyperbilirubinemia aggressively and quickly with intensive phototherapy or exchange transfusion.

Recommendations of the American Academy of Pediatrics

The Clinical Practice Guideline Management of Hyperbilirubinemia in the Newborn Infant 35 or More Weeks of Gestation was published in Pediatrics in 2004 and key recommendations included support of successful breastfeeding, establishment of protocols within the nursery for identification and evaluation of hyperbilirubinemia, measurement of total serum bilirubin or transcutaneous bilirubin levels in infants who present with jaundice within the first 24 hours of life, and recognition that visual assessment is inadequate. Additionally, the Academy recommended that all bilirubin levels be interpreted using a nomogram which allowed an interpretation based upon the hours of life, that infants born at less than 38 weeks’ gestation were at higher risk of development of severe hyperbilirubinemia and that those infants who were breastfed were at higher risk. The Academy recommended that a systematic assessment should be performed on all infants before discharge to determine the risk of severe hyperbilirubinemia and that parents be provided with both written and verbal information about neonatal jaundice. Follow-up should be arranged at the time of discharge and risk assessment and newborns should be promptly treated when treatment indications are evident, using phototherapy or exchange transfusion.


Adherence to these clinical practice guidelines can prevent lifelong disability and although kernicterus is relatively rare, newborn jaundice is common and should be thoroughly assessed in light of risk factors and measurement of total serum bilirubin or transcutaneous bilirubin. Prompt treatment is essential.

Sports Rehabilitation for Lisfranc Injuries

One of the recent trending injuries in the athletic world especially in among football players which require sport rehabilitation is the lisfranc injury. Lisfranc injuries will require sports rehabilitation because of the prevalence of the injury. The injury occurs because of the ever-increasing speed of the game coupled with the size of the competing athletes, Although most other injuries occur from coincidence, lack of training, the lisfranc injury will require extensive time in NJ physical therapy.

The lisfranc joint is the mid-foot joint complex formed between the metatarsals and the tarsals. The metatarsals are the long bones of the mid-foot while the tarsals are the smaller bones closer to the heel, which comprise of the Lisfranc’s joint. The key reason for the challenge of recovering from a lisfranc injury is because the key bones are located in the middle of the foot and there are few body movements in athletic physical therapy that are solely concentrated on the foot.

The foot has many unique properties that are assessed by NJ Physical therapy. One of which is that are no ligaments connecting the base of the first and second metatarsals. These bones are the innermost of the five long bones in the mid-foot. In sports rehabilitation, it is important for recognize the configuration and tight fit of these bones is the substitutes for the ligaments in providing stability to the foot region. This prevents side-to-side movement of dislocation of the bones in this region. Recovering from the injury at a physical therapy center, the athlete would need to regain the stability and pressure on planting the foot to the ground. Unless the athlete has a second metatarsal, which is generally the longest, the bone is fractured and will require sports physical therapy. The reason it is vulnerable is because the injury is generally at or near the base of the mid-foot. With a fracture, the other inter-metarsal joints may become dislocated and completely separated from each other. The recovery will require surgery followed by spending time in sports therapy.

Though it does not simply connect one bone to another, the primary stabilizer of the joint between the base of the first and second metatarsals is Lisfranc’s ligament. The ligament is taken into careful consideration when post-surgical treatments occur in Sports physical therapy. The ligamentfor the mid-foot is a strong fibrous tissue that extends from the bottom of the foot at a bone closer to the heel. Also taken into consideration during sports physical therapy is the medial, or innermost cuneiform. It is the tarsal bone and it runs diagonally to the bottom of the inner aspect of the second metatarsal.

During sports therapy the combination of at home development with the guidance of a New Jersey Physical Therapist and treatments at the physical therapy center are both needed for the recovery from lisfranc surgery. The New Jersey physical therapist will focus on the increasing the active range of motion while in sports therapy the athlete will work on strength development. Strength development in sports physical therapy will encompass the use of machines and callisthenic training. The end goal is full recovery from the lisfranc injury and open range of motion.

Understanding the Causes of Strep Throat

Strep throat is an infection with group A streptococcus bacteria that causes inflammation, soreness and swelling of the throat and tonsils. Strep throat can be accompanied by fever, fatigue, nausea, abdominal pain and distress. Strep throat can either have moderate or serious symptoms and it needs special care and attention in order to prevent the development of complications.

The bacteria responsible for strep throat are very contagious. Streptococcus bacteria can be easily contracted through sneezing and coughing. The bacteria are airborne and therefore good hygiene can’t effectively prevent strep throat from occurring. It is possible to get strep throat simply by breathing the same air with an infected person. Children and teenagers are often confronted with strep throat but the illness can occur in adults just as well.

It is important to note that not all sore throats are strep throats. Sore throats are caused by infection with viruses and they tend to heal very quickly. In most cases, people with sore throat don’t need any kind of medical treatment at all. Strep throat, however, needs special care and attention, as the illness can become serious. The symptoms of strep throat are usually more intense than those of sore throat and they may sometimes spread throughout the entire body (generalized state of fatigue, body weakness and muscular pain). Strep throat also needs specific medical treatment with antibiotics.

The symptoms of strep throat don’t occur right after contracting the bacteria. Streptococcus bacteria have an incubation period of around 3-4 days. Only after this amount of time the symptoms of strep throat will become noticeable. The symptoms of strep throat are usually painful and irritated throat, difficulty swallowing, inflammation and swelling of the tonsils, tenderness and swelling of the lymph nodes (the glands on both sides of the neck), fever, headache, muscular pain, fatigue, stomach pain and distress. People with strep throat have poor appetite and they feel very weak.

Serious symptoms that require immediate medical help are high fever, rash (a sign of infection with powerful bacteria), difficulties in swallowing, difficulties in breathing, intense throat pain, throat swelling and throat bleeding. If you detect the presence of these symptoms in your child, it is strongly recommended to pay a visit to a physician.

Strep throat in children requires extra parental care. The illness can cause serious complications if it is not discovered in time. Also, an appropriate treatment needs to be administered until the full remission of the illness. Even if the symptoms of strep throat may disappear in the first few days of treatment, it doesn’t mean that the infection is completely overcome. Follow the doctor’s directions and administer the suggested doses of antibiotics to your child. Make sure that you don’t stop the treatment prematurely. In order to efficiently fight bacterial infections, antibiotics should be administered for at least ten days. It is important to respect your doctor’s indications in order to prevent the recurrence of strep throat right after interrupting the treatment.

Broken Toes: Traumatic and Stress Fractures

Yes, believe it or not, stubbing your toe can result in a serious fracture.  In fact, broken toes (also known as fractured metatarsals) are a fairly common injury.  Many people believe that since there is nothing a doctor can do about a broken toe (in the majority of cases, fractured toes are not put in casts or operated on), a toe injury is not worth a trip to a doctor.  After all, if you can still walk on it, then the toe must not be broken.  
Unfortunately, this is not the case.  Fractured toes that are left untreated can lead to serious foot problems in the future, such as deformities or arthritis.

Fractured metatarsal bones can be divided into two categories: traumatic fractures and stress fractures.  With traumatic fractures, the need for a doctor’s visit will be obvious.  Often you will hear the bone break.  The traumatic fracture can be displaced, meaning that the toe bone is dislocated and will require a doctor to “pop” the bone back into its proper position.  Displaced traumatic fractures of the toes sometimes require surgery.  Swelling and bruising often accompany both displaced and nondisplaced traumatic toe fractures.  

Stress fractures are less easy to identify.  It can be difficult to know whether your toe is simply bruised or broken.  These small, hairline breaks are common among athletes and can result from repeated stress on the foot.  They can be identified by pain in the area of the fracture.  Often the pain comes and goes depending on the activity of the injured person (i.e., a stress fracture may flare up on a run only for the pain to disappear a few hours later once the foot has rested).  Stress fractures are usually accompanied by swelling but NOT bruising, which is a sign of a traumatic fracture.  

Toe fractures should not be confused with toe sprains, and both conditions should be treated seriously.  The easiest way to distinguish fractures from sprains is to identify the location of the pain.  If the pain can be pinpointed to a particular spot (a “pinpoint” pain), then the injury is most likely a fracture.  Sprains usually result in more general pain that affects the entire injured area.  

Even if you can still walk on your injured foot, localized pain in your toes should not be ignored.  A podiatrist can provide a diagnosis and course of treatment appropriate for your injury.