What is a Herniated Disc?

There are many different terms used to describe spinal disc pathology and associated pain, such as “herniated disc”, “pinched nerve”, and “bulging disc”, and all are used differently by individual healthcare practitioners. Unfortunately, there is no agreement in the healthcare field as to the precise definition of any of these terms. Often the patient hears his or her diagnosis referred to in different terms by different practitioners and is left wondering if there is any consensus on what is wrong.

A herniated disk can affect how you’re able to perform everyday tasks and can cause severe pain that influences almost everything you do. You and your doctor will make decisions about how to best treat your herniated disk (herniated disc), sometimes also called herniated disc, ruptured disk or slipped disk. The bones (vertebrae) that form the spine in your back are cushioned by small, spongy discs. When these discs are healthy, they act as shock absorbers for the spine and keep the spine flexible. But when a disc is damaged, it may bulge or break open. This is called a herniated disc. It may also be called a slipped or ruptured disc.

Disks are soft, rubbery pads found between the hard bones (vertebrae) that make up the spinal column. The spinal canal is a hollow space in the middle of the spinal column that contains the spinal cord and other nerve roots. The disks between the vertebrae allow the back to flex or bend. Disks also act as shock absorbers. Disks in the lumbar spine (low back) are composed of a thick outer ring of cartilage (annulus) and an inner gel-like substance (nucleus). In the cervical spine (neck), the disks are similar but smaller in size.

As the spinal disc becomes less elastic, it can rupture. When the disc ruptures, a portion of the spinal disc pushes outside its normal boundary–this is called a herniated disc. When a herniated disc bulges out from between the vertebrae, the spinal nerves and spinal cord can become pinched. There is normally a little extra space around the spinal cord and spinal nerves, but if enough of the herniated disc is pushed out of place, then these structures may be compressed.

When part of a disk presses on a nerve, it can cause pain in both the back and the legs. The location of the pain depends on which disk is weak. How bad the pain is depends on how much of the disk is pressing on the nerve. In most people with herniated disks, the pain spreads over the buttocks and goes down the back of one thigh and into the calf. Some people have pain in both legs. Some people’s legs or feet feel numb or tingly.

The pain from a herniated disk is usually worse when you’re active and gets better when you’re resting. Coughing, sneezing, sitting, driving and bending forward may make the pain worse.

Most herniation takes place in the lower back (lumbar area) of the spine. Lumbar disk herniation occurs 15 times more often than cervical (neck) disk herniation, and it is one of the most common causes of lower back pain. The cervical disks are affected 8% of the time and the upper-to-mid-back (thoracic) disks only 1 – 2% of the time.Nerve roots (large nerves that branch out from the spinal cord) may become compressed resulting in neurological symptoms, such as sensory or motor changes.

How I Cured My Psoriasis Permanently

Let me first describe my particular case of Psoriasis symptoms:

  • Chronic Scalp Psoriasis
  • Small patches on face and body
  • Increased sensitivity to dry weather
  • Increased sensitivity to smells (perfumes, deodorants and other cosmetic products

I decided to go on a “Blood cleaning Diet”:

Wake up: 2 Glasses of water

Breakfast: Fruit and vegetables only (except citrus or tropical fruit – no kiwi, oranges etc.)

On most mornings I juiced my fruit & vegetables – apples, pears, carrots, cucumbers, beet and celery all found their way to my juicer.

Lunch: Green salads or Steamed veggies (Steamed veggies are better if you have a sensitive stomach) with lemon and olive/sesame oil + Rice (I mixed white and brown rice for a better taste).

Night shade vegetables are not allowed (tomatoes, potatoes, eggplant).

Teas: Green tea or Chamomile (*no sugar, you can put in a little honey)

Snacks: Stewed Apples (*no sugar), Rice cakes dipped in olive oil or almond butter, fruit (no dried fruits since they contain different additives).

Dinner: Fish or Organic farm chicken cooked in lemon, ginger, fresh herbs olive oil or garlic.

+Steamed vegetables.

Alcohol, Dairy, Coffee, Sugar, wheat or Gluten products Are Not Allowed.

Eat at regular times and do not skip meals. Do not let your blood sugar levels drop.

Try to get regular daily exercise (walking is OK)

Drink at least 8 glasses of water a day.

That’s it!

If you follow these guidelines you should see A huge difference after 3 weeks, if not a complete remission of all symptoms.

It’s the Ingredients That Help DermaWound Heal Chronic, Hard-To-Heal Wounds

There are over 5 million people in the United States that suffer from chronic, hard-to-heal wounds. We feel that number is way too high. We would like to offer information on a product that has been healing many of these wounds. DermaWound heals pressure sores, diabetic leg or foot ulcers, venous stasis ulcers, ischaemic ulcers to surgical incisions/wound dehiscence, decubitus ulcers, sickle-cell ulcers and the list goes on…

DermaWound has been on the market for over 17 years helping people heal. The key to DermaWound’s success is the ingredients. They use a patented/proprietary, all natural formulation. We have listed each ingredient and then, more importantly, what each of those ingredients do to aid in the healing of long-standing chronic wounds.

Poly-Saccharide Blend– Sugars have multiple types of healing properties that have contributed to their use in wound care by many diverse cultures over the millennia. Sugars are bacteriostatic, fungistatic and anti-infective, so they do not promote the growth of bacteria or fungus. In addition, the sugars used in DermaWound have an osmotic pressure gradient to them that will pull edema and exudates out of a wound, decreasing any inflammation, while increasing blood flow. Our special poly-saccharide blend is also important in our 12-24 hour odor control guarantee.

Iodine USP– Iodine is anti: fungal, bacterial, viral & microbial. It is a very good broad spectrum anti-infective. To date: no known microbe, virus or fungus has developed a resistance against this time tested-tincture of old-Iodine.

Poly-Mineral Blend– Primarily calcium and magnesium with 73 trace minerals. These are utilized as an external source of nutritional building blocks for the metabolism of the recovering wound bed. We have found our blend to be especially important in ramping up cellular activity and growth.

Citric Acid– A natural preservative.

Dibasic Sodium Phosphate– A stabilizer

Glycerin– Smoothing agent.

Carrageenan– Increases adherence/tackiness of product to the wound surface.

Silica– Promotes wound healing. Absorbed by the body and used as fundamental building blocks in the formation of new tissues.

1-Octadecanol– An alcohol sugar – provides fundamental building blocks and energy for new tissue growth.

1-Hexadecanol – An alcohol sugar – provides fundamental building blocks and energy for new tissue growth.

Benzocaine USP – A topical anesthetic.

Purified Water– Provides a base to blend into a creamy consistency. Slightly alkaline – will contribute to wound healing.

No manufactured ingredients. All ingredients are 100% natural and ready to help your wounds heal.

How to get rid of Sore Throat, Sore Throat Relief

A sore throat is one of the most common of medical complaints. It is an inflammation or infection of the pharynx accompanied with discomfort, pain, or scratchiness in the throat. A sore throat is contagious in most cases and can be spread through coughing and sneezing. There are many ways to get rid of a sore throat.

With a bit of emotional difficulty sickness can creep up on you.You might not notice it because you are fighting or,quietly keeping the peace.The self is not just the mind.It is also the body, it is the spirit and all work together.Sometimes you might want to agree that it is all worth it to feel totally at peace to see why you are in the position you are in.Internally fighting or even making a fuss might both be counteractive.But sometimes you can get a few tips from writers like Sam Horn as to how to deal with out and out bullies.

Most cases of sore throat may be treated at home through such measures as resting, increasing your fluid intake, humidifying the air, and resting your voice. But there are two instances when a sore throat should definitely be seen by a doctor. For persons with HIV open to dangerous infections of the mouth and throat, a sore throat could be a telltale symptom. A sore throat might also be, especially in smokers and alcohol abusers, a symptom of a throat tumor.

First of all, increase your liquid intake as it helps to hydrate dry mucous membranes and keeps your throat coated with moisture. Mild, warm and soothing drinks like ginger n honey tea, holly basil n clove tea, decaffeinated coffee, and warm water with lemon and honey are some of the best natural health remedies for sore throats

Cayenne pepper, another common item in the kitchen can also be used as an herbal remedy for sore throat. Boil water and add cayenne pepper. The ratio of this is 1 cup of water is to ½ teaspoon of cayenne pepper. Mix the ingredients and stir well. Unlike ginger, you will not drink this concoction but gargle it. For it to be effective, it should be gargled while it is still warm.

Apple cider vinegar. This is a popular folk remedy, and doctors suggest it has some basis in fact: the acidity of the vinegar should kill sore-throat-causing bacteria on contact. To use this remedy, mix a teaspoon to two tablespoons (as strong as you can take) of vinegar in with water. Gargle and then swallow two times every hour. Remember to rise your mouth with water after gargling to prevent the acidity in the vinegar from damaging your tooth enamel.

To cleanse the throat and ease the pain, gargle with a quarter of a teaspoon of salt in one quarter cup of warm water. Add a pinch of cayenne pepper to help numb the nerves of the throat. Gargle every hour or as needed.

Hydrocarbon Sensitivity

Hydrocarbon and chemical sensitivity always go hand in hand with food sensitivities. In some patients, the chemical and hydrocarbon sensitivity is more dominant than food sensitivities. In other cases food sensitivities are more important. To date it has been possible to sort out the majority of ecological problems concentrating on foods alone. Sadly this situation is slowly changing and it is becoming necessary to take on the much more difficult task of unravelling patient’s hydrocarbon and chemical exposure in order to achieve a reasonable clinical result. The outlook for the future is bleak, as there are no signs that hydrocarbon, pesticide, insecticide, food preservative, food additive and aerosol propellant pollution is on the decrease; if anything, it is very much on the increase. By far the most important sensitivity in this group is that of hydrocarbon

What are hydrocarbons? Hydrocarbons contain only the elements of hydrogen and carbon. They occur naturally in petroleum and gas and are used in the manufacture of plastics, solvents, synthetic fibers and synthetic rubbers. Commercial petroleum products, such as petrol, kerosene, aviation fuel and lubricating oils, are derived from mixtures of hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons are also contained in the gases manufactured from coal and petroleum.

People with hydrocarbon sensitivity will usually feel ill or very tired when exposed to gas, petrol or diesel fumes. They are usually very sensitive to the smell of these fumes, whereas other people would not notice them. Another common symptom is the syndrome termed by American ecologists as ‘brain fag’. The person’s intellect becomes dulled, his memory is severely affected and often his speech becomes slurred.

Obviously, the hydrocarbon problem is of extreme concern in a world which is so reliant on motor vehicle transportation. However, with care and good management, this problem can be minimized by the sufferer. The obvious things, such as keeping clear of heavy diesel trucks, avoiding self-serve petrol stations and not walking or running near busy roads, can go a long way towards assisting a person, with hydrocarbon sensitivities, to lead a normal life. Because this sensitivity always goes hand in hand with food allergies, often the diagnosis and removal of food allergens will greatly assist the overloaded immune system to cope more efficiently with the remaining chemical/hydrocarbon allergies.

Another major form of hydrocarbon allergy is caused by heating and cooking gas. This can be the most serious of all hydrocarbon problems due to gas appliances, such as fires and cookers, being used in continuous close proximity to the sufferer. Leading American allergist, Dr Theron Randolph, has slated the gas stove as a ‘pernicious device’. In the past twenty-five years, he has made three thousand susceptible families switch to something less potentially allergenic. In the case of very sensitive gas allergies, it is necessary to remove completely all gas appliances, pipes and materials regularly exposed to gas, from the home. The obvious choice for these people is electric cooking and heating. The main hydrocarbon derivatives, which cause people problems are paints, varnishes, solvents, cleaning fluids, lighter fluids, aerosol propellants, sponge rubber, plastics, coal tar soaps, detergents, polishes, wax candles, coal fires, air fresheners, deodorants, disinfectants, substances containing phenol and all tinned foods (as the insides of tin cans are coated with phenol), and cosmetics and perfumes.

How to Know Whether You Have Colon Cancer Or Irritable Bowel Syndrome – Information You Need to Know

If you start noticing a change in your bowel habits, believe it or not you want it to be IBS if it’s going to be an ongoing issue. Colon Cancer and IBS (Irritable Bowel Syndrome) both have closely related symptoms and can leave you in bad shape when it comes to how you feel. The largest difference between the two is obviously that the Cancer will kill you if it’s not taken care of.

Most Doctors will agree that IBS is a diagnosis of exclusion. Basically what this means is that after every other thing has been tested and you are showing to have an otherwise healthy colon, this is the last thing you will be diagnosed with.

Colon Cancer affects over 100,000 new people each year and has roughly a 33% mortality rate each year as well. The key being that you want to find the disease before it has a chance to spread.

IBS is a more common disease that affects your bowel habits and can mimic the same symptoms as the cancer. Loose stools (diarrhea), constipation, pencil thin stools, frequent defecation.

Because these are so similar, many Doctors will run extensive tests to make sure there is no tumors in your large intestine which is mainly done through what is known as a colonoscopy. This is where a long snake like hose is inserted through the rectum and travels through the large intestine in search for abnormalities and other differences in structure.

These are easy procedures to have done as you are normally sedated. The key is to not be scared to talk with your Doctor if you notice any of the symptoms above.

How to Remove Tonsil Stones – Ricky Martin

Before pondering about the ways on how to remove tonsil stones, it is better to understand how and where they are formed and what symptoms they exhibit.  Tonsils are pocket like structures which can range from smooth, shallow ones to deep and rough ones.  If a person is suffering from chronic tonsillitis and if the tonsils present at the back of the throat swell regularly the crypts or pocket opening can get wide and deep.  This enables huge quantities of debris get collected that new tonsil stones too can start to form over the old stones.

The debris in the tonsil crypts or pockets can be made up of dead cells of the mouth linings, food particules, mucous of post nasal drips and microorganisms like viruses and bacteria of various types.  Most often the bacteria that flourish in the tonsil crypts are found to be anaerobic bacteria or oxygen averting bacteria and they are the main reason for the formation of bad smell or breath of the mouth.  All kinds of these debris can get jumbled together to form yellow or white colour cauliflower shape lump which smells and tastes atrocious and horrible.  They feel like a hard rock.

In most instances the tonsil stones get less attention that the sufferers can be surprised to know that they have them.  In lucky persons the tonsils might not be very deep that the tonsil stones formed in them might be of smaller size.  Most often these types can get detached all by themselves after coughing up hardly.  But in some the tonsil stones can be of a bigger size that they can even obstruct the throat region making swallowing of food very difficult.  They might result in sore throat which can persist for a longer time and can produce much tonsillitis.

Without even having the knowledge of how to remove tonsil stones, many try to poke them or scrap them using their finger nail tips, cotton swabs or even tongue cleaners.  Even though it might not cause any serious problems, it might create some unpleasant things like producing rotten smell due to breaking of tonsil stones or strands of cotton getting stuck to the tonsils and so on.  Instead, one can use their toothbrush to gentle brush the tonsil part or can try removing the tonsil stones using water piks that irrigate water with force.  But the pressure of the water pik should be set to the minimum as more pressure can even tear the tonsil tissues.

Home Remedies for Curing Tonsil Stones
Tonsillectomy not only can lead to various health problems later but also does not come at a cheaper price.  The surgery can also hinder day to day activities for some time.  Hence, it is avoided most often. In fact, there are natural and scientifically proven ways to get rid of tonsil stones so they never return. It’s absolutely not necessary to go for a long, drawn out surgery or wasting your money on expensive nasal sprays and tablets. Follow a step-by-step program that will show you exactly how to get rid of your tonsil stones naturally and ensure they never come back! You can learn more about the program that promises a natural cure for tonsil stones from here

Thousands Now Consume Aloe Vera Products to Treat Depression – Here’s Why

Aloe Vera And Depression

Depression is quite common in today’s society. Many people often get depressed for various reasons and causes. Note that there is a fine line between real depression and clinical depression. Real depression happens to all individuals like when a loved one passes away or when suffering from a broken relationship.

Depression may happen to people and lead into anxiety attacks. This is because their minds ponder and focus on their worries and problems too much. There are other instances that a person will feel depressed and lack energy because of health, mainly because of nutritional deficiency.

To alleviate depression, it is common practice for people to consume various kinds of food and beverages to get them into a better mood. Many choose to indulge in food that is high in sugar such as cakes, ice cream and chocolate. There are others that opt to drink alcoholic beverages as a suppressant.

Many doctors prescribe anti-depressant medication. There are a lot of different kinds of anti-depressant medication that can even be bought over-the-counter. Numerous people have become dependent on these kinds of medication to enable them to function normally.

If you are one of the many millions of people that are suffering from depression, take the time to assess why you are depressed and where the depression may be coming from. It is very possible that it may be time to adopt a healthy lifestyle.

Detoxification is a great way to cleanse the body and get rid of the toxins that have been stored for years. It is a known fact that body cleansing aids in mental health and you can get numerous other benefits from regular detoxification. One of the most common ways to detox is to consume specific kinds of food and beverages made from plants.

You can also get better overall health and eliminate any nutritional deficiency by consuming natural health food products. Since these products are made from plants, when it is consumed, it is easily digested and quickly absorbed by the body, giving almost immediate nutrition.

Thousands of people consume Aloe Vera products daily to aid them keep away depression by giving their body it vital nutrition needs. The amino acid content of Aloe Vera is nearly complete for our daily requirements. One vital amino acid that Aloe Vera contains is tryptophan which is a precursor of serotonin, which is used to as preventive treatment for depression and anxiety.

Some of the other amino acids in Aloe Vera stimulates the production stimulates the production of blood cells that balances our metabolism. Aloe Vera is known as a pure plant-food source and can give a body a natural based detox. Aside from the amino acids, Aloe Vera contains a multitude of vitamins and minerals.

Aloe Vera Plant is a safe, natural alternative to dangerous prescription drugs. As always, seek the advice of a medical doctor for accurate diagnosis and treatment.

Feeling Lightheaded While Driving?

If you ever feel lightheaded while driving, you may be one of the millions of people who suffer from something called driving anxiety disorder. This is actually a very common problem for many people, and feeling lightheaded while driving is often times a symptom associated with this condition and may mean that you are suffering from this condition as well.

First of all, if you are experiencing or ever feel lightheaded while driving, you should always seek professional medical treatment first. This may be a sign of a more serious condition that may need medical treatment from a trained professional. The information contained here is not mean to replace the opinion or treatment of a medical professional or to be used as a guide to self diagnose yourself. This information is to be used as a tool to help you better understand what feeling lightheaded while driving may be.

If, however, you do seek medical treatment and the tests come back negative, but you are still feeling lightheaded while driving, you may suffer from driving anxiety disorder and may need to find a form of treatment that will help you overcome this problem before it gets out of hand.

Many people who suffer from this phobia often times never realize that this is the cause of their panic while driving. This often times grows into a problem that completely effects their quality of life. This is why it can be so important for you to understand whether or not you suffer from this phobia, and find treatment before it gets to the point that you are almost completely incapable of driving yourself anywhere and need to rely on other people in order to accomplish basic daily tasks.

There are other symptoms as well that you may experience as well as feeling lightheaded while driving. These include feeling very dizzy, having blurred vision, nausea, and headaches. Many times these symptoms will come on very quickly and suddenly without any warning. Many times you will simply be driving along and suddenly experience these symptoms.

Most commonly these symptoms are experienced at night, however, they may occur during the day time as well. They are almost always experienced when you are driving, and very rarely when you are a passenger in the vehicle. This can often times make it very difficult to continue driving.

Other symptoms people experience in addition to feeling lightheaded while driving include the inability to focus properly, feelings of being overwhelmed or panic, zoned out, or a feeling of virtago or feeling off balance.

Did You Know Diabetes Is One Of The Causes Of Ringing In Ears Or Tinnitus

Could diabetes and Hyperinsulinemia be part of the causes of ringing in ears your experiencing? Well recently, a study from Brazil revealed a directly link among your body’s inability to metabolize sugar from diabetes and sufferers of tinnitus.

In fact, the study showed that between 84 and 92 percent of those individuals studied complaining of tinnitus also had a metabolic disorder called hyperinsulinemia.   (Now, there’s a mouthful of word for you!)

Hyperinsulinemia refers to an elevation of insulin levels in your bloodstream.  This disorder is a pre cursor to diabetes and is a direct consequence of insulin resistance.  In a nutshell, insulin is being transferred properly from the bloodstream to the cells.  This means the pancreas produce more insulin to lower the glucose levels.  In turn, insulin levels rise even more.

This being known then a quick blood test from your family doctor can confirm if your tinnitus is linked back to Hyperinsulinemia. Even so you’ll also want to strengthen your efforts by augmenting your diet with certain nutritional supplements.  A fantastic place to start is with the B-complex of vitamins.  This family of nutrients has been known to help stop the ringing in your ears.

Of these vitamins, choose B12, B6 and B5, actually if you take B6 2-3 times a day. Natural healers say that this helps to stabilize the fluids of your inner ears.

There are natural ways to get a good intake of vitamin b6 just buy eating grains, bananas, eggs and diary products.

B12 is extremely important as well.  Recent research is showing that more people than originally thought are both suffering with tinnitus and deficient in B12.  Not only that, but this deficiency has been reported to be common in people whose tinnitus is caused by the continued loud environment of their workplace.

Vitamin b12 is another great vitamin to take. There is research that showed in a study that a lot of the tinnitus sufferers tested were indeed deficient in vitamin b12 and the deficiency was linked back to workers that worked in noise polluted environments.

Injectable vitamin B12 can only be bought through prescription only.  Unfortunately, no research exists for the oral variety on tinnitus.  Nutritionists suggest that the vitamin can be consumed through eggs, milk fish, poultry and lamb to name a few.

Performance Anxiety For Swingers

Whether you are a swinger or not, it is normal for guys to wonder about their sexual performance. We all want to be good at sex and to be confident that we are giving the ladies maximum pleasure. I am sure I am not alone when I say that I am conscious of my performance whenever I have sex. Not to the point that I am so focussed on that and that I forget about concentrating on the lady I am playing with, but it is in the back of my mind that I want to leave her with a smile on her face after we have finished playing.

A lot of this is in the head and not necessarily caused by something physical. One big key to help you to overcome any form of performance anxiety is to remember is that if you are in a swinging scenario then the lady is obviously into you and likes you enough to allow you to play with her. She has accepted you for who and what you are and wants to take things further with you. So that should give you enough reason to grow in confidence and be able to relax knowing that she is actually into you and is looking forward to continuing. So don’t over think what is happening and what you are doing.

If you are in a swinging situation, swap in a location that is most comfortable for you. Whether it is someone’s house or some other private location where you won’t have to worry about others around who may be watching you. If you are at a swinger’s resort or a swinger’s party where there is sex happening left right and centre then this may also increase your anxiety levels. If you have been with this person before and you are feeling comfortable with her, then you may want to get into the more adventurous scenarios such as having sex in front of others eventually, but don’t just jump straight into the public setting if you think it will add to your performance anxiety.

As much as we would all love to stay hard and erect all night long, we need to accept the facts that guys just cannot keep an erection going for hours and hours on end. Well – there may be a very lucky few who can! We all wish that we could do that but unfortunately that is not going to happen. You want the experience to last so just pace yourself through the encounter and take things slowly. If you are with someone new for the first time then try to get to know her and play the game of trying to work out what she likes and doesn’t like. Use your arsenal of oral and manual tricks and skills and see which ones are working out to be most effective. Treat that as part of the game and the fun of the experience.

Here is a big tip for you guys – go easy on the alcohol! By all means have a drink or 2 to help you to calm those nerves, but stay in control. There are countless stories and occasions of guys who have been unable to perform properly because they had a limp dick due to the excess alcohol. Don’t let the drink be the cause of your poor performance and subsequent apologies!

So there are a few words of wisdom to help you deal with the performance anxiety that we all encounter at some point in our lives.

What To Do When You Can’t Sleep: Honey and Cinnamon

I couldn’t get to sleep last night.

Nothing I tried worked, so I finally gave up and got up. I popped some popcorn and watched a movie.  When I tried again a little after 2:00 am, I still couldn’t sleep.  I don’t know what time it was when I finally dropped off, but I sure wasn’t ready to get up this morning.

An effect of lack of sleep is lack of ambition.  I’ve managed to put off most of the things that I intended to do today – like mowing the lawn.

Lack of concentration can also result from lack of sleep.  I was browsing online – in a forum for Baby Boomers.  I saw a thread entitled “The Elderly and Problems Sleeping”. Now, usually, I would take exception to that word “elderly”.  At 60, I don’t consider myself elderly – except after a night like last night.

My son, whenever he is trying to cajole me into doing something I don’t really want to do, says, “Come on, Mom – you’re only as old as you feel.”  Today, I feel ancient.

Anyway, I thought that I would read the postings about the sleep problems of the elderly, but when I tried to click on the thread, either my concentration or my hand-eye coordination failed, and I ended up clicking on the thread above it.

That one was entitled “The Health Benefits of Honey and Cinnamon.”

Oh, well, some times you have to play the hand you’re dealt or run with the ball that is thrown to you.

It seems that honey and cinnamon have a long tradition as herbal remedies for numerous conditions.  It is said to be beneficial for preventing heart attack and reducing the pain of arthritis.  The dosage is one cup of hot water, 1/2 teaspoon of cinnamon and 2 teaspoons of honey.  Taken every day, it is supposed to reduce inflammation.

Honey and cinnamon not only help the symptoms of stomach problems and the flu, but also have been proven to strengthen the immune system for the prevention of viral and bacterial infections, and greatly help white blood cells fight disease.

Used in combination with a healthy lifestyle, daily usage of 3 or 4 times a day of both ingredients has been recommended to help eliminate many elderly (there’s that word again!) problems, to maintain good health and live a longer life.

Furthermore there is evidence that fat formation is prevented if one teaspoon of honey and cinnamon mixed into a cup of boiled water is routinely taken before breakfast and before bed, as it helps reduce weight – even in obese people!

In some instances, honey and cinnamon have been shown to be an effective anti-cancer agent – this results partly from their ability to strengthen the immune system as well as their cleansing qualities.

Finally, honey used as a paste is helpful in soothing rashes and skin eruptions, from the simple pimple to the more serious eczema and even ringworm.

The only benefit that the thread didn’t mention is that a tablespoon of honey in a cup of warm milk with a sprinkling of nutmeg (but cinnamon would probably work, too) can help you get to sleep.  Imagine that!

Stress as Related to Diabetes and Hypertension. the Role of Antioxidants

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION
Life styles of people have dramatically changed over the years and this has invariably increased the risk of diabetes and hypertension.

1.1 GENERAL PERSPECTIVE
The cause of most disease cannot be enumerated, but factors that enhance the effect of the disease can be typically analyzed. People from different backgrounds have different life styles that can either contribute positively or negatively to their health (Apochi, 2004) A big question is, “How do people manage stress”, and “How often do people eat fruits and vegetable” Stress basically increases the sugar level in blood; sugar are among the basic energy storage molecule in the body (Raven & Johnson 1996). Imperatively, how often do people go for medical check up? Is our environment conducive for living, and have we considered the environmental risk factors responsible for certain ailment like Diabetes and hypertension? Well, Drugs, hectic life style, food type, environmental condition, habits and more could be leading factor linked to high blood pressure, Diabetes and many other infections. Considering Diabetes and hypertension genetics cannot be disregarded as most of such ailment could be inherited (www.bhf.org.uk).
A simple questionnaire containing information that will aid a simple statistical analysis which will further “breed” an hypothesis on whether or what  causes Diabetes, hypertension, stress and effect of antioxidant on these issues. Antioxidants basically are found in fruits and vegetable they help in the reduction of oxidative stress, which may also be a link to both hypertension and Diabetes (Health Monitor, 2006).

Aim of this data collection
The data collection is to aid the processing and derivation of information leading to drawing out a hypothesis relating to lifestyle, feeding habit, as related to stress-linked hypertension and diabetes and or genetically inherited diabetes and hypertension plus the effective role of antioxidant or the principle of antioxidant in curbing such issues. Information regarding genetics as conflicted to causes of hypertension and diabetes will be compared to physical data collection and correlation of this data to brood an effective link/cause of both diabetes and hypertension amongst adult workers.
Facts were drawn from Victoria Island, Ikeja and Gbagada; Bankers, Traders, Doctors, Nurses, Insurance Company workers, Business men & women and more gave information on their life style as related to their health issues. A little bit controversial, people from both angles (Diabetic, hypertensive and non Diabetic and hypertensive) gave information similarly regarding their life style and living conditions. But, with the help of a statistical analysis we will be able to draw a conclusion and simple hypothesis on this issue.

1.2 HYPERTENSION
Experts know that many different factors are linked to high blood pressure, but experts do not still fully understand the exact cause.

Factors that are linked to high blood pressure include:
Aging
Drinking more than 2 alcohol drinks a day for men and more than one alcohol drink a day for women.
Eating a lot of sodium salt
Being over weight or obese
Having high cholesterol
Not exercising
Being under a lot of stress.
Eating Diets low in potassium, magnesium and calcium
Being insulin resistant.

On the generality of this, blood pressure is the measure of the force that the blood applies to the walls of the arteries as it flows through them. It is normal for blood pressure to increase when you exert yourself, or when you feel stressed or anxious. But if your blood pressure is consistently higher than normal at rest, this is high blood pressure, also known as hypertension. Statistics has it that about 3 in 10 adults have high blood pressure in the UK. It is much more common in older people: 7 out of 10 people in their 70s have high blood pressure (www.bpassoc.org.uk). In Gbagada, Victoria Island and Ikeja we will find out the rate at which people have high blood pressure.

Blood is pumped normally around the body by the heart carrying oxygen and nutrients. As a result of the pumping action of the heart and the size and flexibility of the arteries that carry blood, the blood is under pressure. This blood pressure is an essential and normal part of the way the body work.

High blood pressure will develop if:
The walls of your layer arteries lose their elasticity and become rigid.
The small blood vessels become narrower (ww.bhf.org.uk)
It is important for people to do medical check-up on blood pressure regularly. It is very dangerous if it is not properly controlled. How can it be controlled if you don’t check it up to know your blood pressure status? However, blood pressure is measured with a monitor called Sphygmomanometer. This is a digital box attached to a tube with a cuff on the end. The cuff is placed around the upper arm and inflated to a certain level, then deflated slowly. A sensor in the cuff provides information about the blood pressure or a Doctor or Nurse will listen to the blood flow using a stethoscope. The result is expressed as two numbers such as 120/80 mm GH (“One Hundred and Twenty over Eighty Millimeters of Mercury”).The top figure is the systolic blood pressure: A measure of pressure when your heart muscle is contracting and pumping blood. This is the maximum pressure in your blood system. The bottom figure is the diastolic blood pressure, this is the pressure between the heart beats when the heart is resting and filling with blood. This is the minimum pressure in your blood system. If you suffer from diabetes is even more important that your blood pressure is lower than this- ideally less than 130/80mmh.

Types of High Blood Pressure
Primary hypertension and Secondary hypertension.
Primary Hypertension: More than 9 in 10 people with high blood pressure have what is called “Primary” or essential hypertension. This means that there is no single clear cause of it. Like I said previously the exact cause of high blood pressure is not fully understood. It is known that some factor to do with your life style can contribute (OLayinka, 2003).
Secondary Hypertension: Around 1 in 20 people with high blood pressure have “secondary hypertension”. This means your condition can be linked to a recognized cause-in fact, it may be a symptom of another underlying disease or factor such as:
Kidney disease
Endocrine disease
Narrowing of the aorta
Steroid medicines
The contraceptive pill
Pregnancy, which can cause pre-eclampsia.
You may also need some test to see if high blood pressure is having an effect on the rest of your body. These may include:
An analysis of urine (protein in your urine may be the first sign of kidney problem).
A blood test, to check your cholesterol and blood sugar levels as well as the condition of your kidneys.
An ECG (Electrocardiogram), which record the electrical changes happening in your heart.

Monitoring
24hrs Ambulatory monitoring. You may need 24-hours testing to measure your blood pressure over 24-hours.
Treatment
Slightly raised blood pressure may not be treated so aggressively, but regular monitory is important. If you have a very severe high blood pressure, you may need to go to hospital for treatment. But it is much more likely that you will be cared for by a Nurse. (www.bpassoc.org.uk, www.bhf.org.uk)

1.3 DIABETES
Diabetes mellitus occurs when the pancreas doesn’t make enough or any of the hormone insulin, or when the insulin produced doesn’t work effectively. In diabetes, this causes the level of glucose in the blood to be too high. Diabetes can also be viewed from this perspective: Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by persistent hyperglycemia (Dorman, 2004).
There are two main common forms of diabetes, these are the type one diabetes and type two diabetes, and these were initially called the insulin dependent diabetes and non insulin dependent diabetes respectively.
In Type 1 diabetes the cells in the pancreas that make insulin are destroyed, causing a severe lack of insulin. This is thought to be the result of the body attacking and destroying its own cells in the pancreas – known as an autoimmune reaction. It’s not clear why this happens, but a number of explanations and possible triggers of this reaction have been proposed. These include:
Infection with a specific virus or bacteria;
Exposure to food-borne chemical toxins; and
Exposure as a very young infant to cow’s milk, where an as yet unidentified component of this triggers the autoimmune reaction in the body.
However, these are only hypotheses and are by no means proven causes. Type 2 diabetes is believed to develop when: The receptors on cells in the body that normally respond to the action of insulin fail to be stimulated by it – this is known as insulin resistance. In response to this more insulin may be produced, and this over-production exhausts the insulin-manufacturing cells in the pancreas; there is simply insufficient insulin available; and the insulin that is available may be abnormal and therefore doesn’t work properly.
The following risk factors increase the chances of someone developing Type 2 diabetes:

Increasing age;
Obesity; and
Physical inactivity.
Rarer causes of diabetes include:
Certain medicines;
Pregnancy (gestational diabetes); and
Any illness or disease that damages the pancreas and affects its ability to produce insulin e.g. pancreatitis.
What doesn’t cause diabetes?
On the cause of this research we will find out what may possibly not cause diabetes and what facilitates diabetes. Many scientists believe that eating sweets or wrong kind of food does not cause diabetes, but obesity instead. However according to our findings obesity is associated with people developing type two diabetes. Further more they also believe that stress does not cause diabetes, although it may be a trigger for the body turning on itself as in the case of Type 1 diabetes. It does, however, make the symptoms worse for those who already have diabetes.
Diabetes is not contagious. Someone with diabetes cannot pass it on to anyone else (Hicks, 2004).

What causes diabetes? It is believed that some drugs could lead to the cause of diabetes. Drugs such as steroids, Dilantin, and others may elevate the blood sugar through a variety of mechanisms. Certain other drugs, such as alloxan, streptozocin, and thiazide diuretics, are toxic to the beta cells of the pancreas and can cause diabetes. Certain syndromes (for example, Prader-Willi, Down’s, Progeria, and Turner’s) may result in a hyperglycemic state; if this state is prolonged, the result can be permanent diabetes. (Guthrie, 2003).
Diabetes resulting in an insulin-dependent state is classified as Type 1 diabetes. While Type 1 diabetes affects only between 5 to10 percent of the diabetic population, its effects on the body can be worse than other forms of diabetes. In the past, Type 1 has been known as juvenile or juvenile-onset diabetes (because it is usually diagnosed in those under thirty), brittle diabetes, unstable diabetes, and ketosis-prone diabetes. People in this classification more frequently exhibit the classic symptoms, usually with ketones present in blood and urine. A blood-sugar level of 800 mg/dl (44 mmol) or more, especially if ketones are not present, indicates a diagnosis of hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (a state in which the body is extremely dry (dehydrated), the chemicals in the body are concentrated, and the blood sugar is high). As stated before, diabetes is a syndrome or group of diseases (rather than one disease), leading to the prolonged hyperglycemic state. Type 1 is most associated with the killing of the beta cells, most likely by the body’s own immune system. Either the immune system cannot kill an infecting agent, which then kills the beta cells, or the immune system itself goes “wild,” attacking the body’s own tissue and destroying the beta cells. The cells of the islets of Langerhans are inflamed, resulting from an infectious-disease process (for example, mumps) or, more commonly, from an autoimmune (allergic to self) response.
The autoimmune process results in the circulation of antibodies that may either cause or be caused by beta-cell death. If it is found that the antibodies cause beta-cell destruction (the body fighting what it now considers foreign to itself), the body’s response to the Type 1 diabetes is much less severe (i.e., easier to control) with treatment. Until then, the outcome is a lack of available insulin. While the onset is said to be sudden, changes resulting in decreased insulin availability may have occurred over a longer period of time. In short, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is an inherited defect of the body’s immune system, resulting in destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas.  (Guthrie and Guthrie, 2003).

1.4 STRESS RELATED DIABETES
Stress, both physical and mental, can send your blood sugar out of whack (Nelson, 2004).
It’s hard to dispute that most of us live life at breakneck speed. It’s the nature of a fast-paced society, where numerous family, social, and work obligations can easily overpower your precious time and resources. But for people with diabetes, both physical and emotional stress can take a greater toll on health (Nazario, 2004).
This is a simple biological phenomenon that when a person is undergoing stress, the persons blood sugar level rises. During stress hormones like epinephrine (A substance produced by the medulla (inside) of the adrenal gland. The name epinephrine was coined in 1898 by the American pharmacologist and physiologic chemist (biochemist) John Jacob Abel) and cortisol (the primary stress hormone. Cortisol is the major natural GLUCOCORTICOID (GC) in humans) becomes active as their major function amongst others is to raise blood sugar level which, helps to boost energy when needed. Emotional and physical trauma keeps these hormones working as they are designed to aid you when you are stressed. Logically they want to give you energy to fight the cause of such stress, but, the adverse effect becomes eminent. People who aren’t diabetic have compensatory mechanisms to keep blood sugar from swinging out of control. But in people with diabetes, those mechanisms are either lacking or blunted, so they can’t keep a lid on blood sugar, says (David, 2004). When blood sugar levels aren’t controlled well through diet and/or medication, you’re at higher risk for many health complications, including blindness, kidney problems, and nerve damage leading to foot numbness, which can lead to serious injury and hard-to-heal infections. Prolonged elevated blood sugar is also a predecessor to cardiovascular disease, which increase the risk of heart attacks and strokes.
In diabetes, because of either an absolute lack of insulin, such as type 1 diabetes, or a relative lack of insulin, such as type 2, there isn’t enough insulin to cope with these hormones, so blood sugar levels rise (Richard, 2004).
Anything upsetting like going through a breakup or being laid off is certainly emotionally draining. Being down with the flu or suffering from a urinary tract infection places physical stress on the body. It’s generally these longer-term stressors that tax your system and have much more effect on blood sugar levels. Since stress has virtually become a way of life, you may not even notice you’re frazzled. A lot of people will identify stressors such as an illness in the family (something large) but may not recognize the stress of the holidays or a hectic time at work (something smaller or shorter in duration).

1.5 STRESS RELATED HYPERTENSION.
Reducing stress can help lower blood pressure. Stress is a normal part of life. But too much stress can lead to emotional, psychological and even physical problems — including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, chest pains or irregular heart beats. When you are exposed to long periods of stress, your body gives warning signals that something is wrong. These physical, cognitive, emotional and behavioral warning signs should not be ignored. They tell you that you need to slow down. If you continue to be stressed and you don’t give your body a break, you are likely to develop health problems. You could also worsen an existing illness. (Curtis, 2007)
If stress itself is a risk factor for heart disease, it could be because chronic stress exposes your body to unhealthy, persistently elevated levels of stress hormones like adrenaline and cortisol. Studies also link stress to changes in the way blood clots, which increases the risk of heart attack.
1.6 GENETICS AND DIABETES
type one diabetes: it is believed that diabetes is likely to be inherited amist the other possible links and cause. In families it is studied that first degree relatives have a higher risk of developing type one diabetes than unrelated individuals from the general population (approximately 6% vs <1%, respectively) (Dorman and Bunker, 2000). These data suggest that genetic factors are involved with the development of the disease. At present, there is evidence that more than 20 regions of the genome may be involved in genetic susceptibility to type one diabetes. However, none of the candidates identified have a greater influence on type one diabetes risk than that conferred by genes in the HLA region of chromosome 6. This region contains several hundred genes known to be involved in 4 immune response. Those most strongly associated with the disease are the HLA class II genes (i.e., HLA-DR, DQ, and DP). IDDM1. The HLA class II genes, also referred to as IDDM1, contribute approximately 40-50% of the heritable risk for T1D (Hirschhorn et al., 2003).
Type two diabetes: It has long been known that Type two diabetes is, in part, inherited. Family studies have revealed that first degree relatives of individuals with Type two diabetes are about 3 times more likely to develop the disease than individuals without a positive family history of the disease (Flores et al., 2003; Hansen 2003; Gloyn 2003). It has also been shown that concordance rates for monozygotic twins, which have ranged from 60-90%, are significantly higher than those for dizygotic twins. Thus, it is clear that Type two diabetes has a strong genetic component. One approach that is used to identify disease susceptibility genes is based on the identification of ca n d i d a t e   g e n e s   ( B a r r o s o   e t   a l . ,   2 0 0 3 ;   S t u m v o l l ,   2 0 0 4 ) .   C a n d i d a t e   g e n e s   a r e   s e l e c t e d   b e c a u s e   t h e y   a r e   t h o u g h t   t o   b e   i n v o l v e d   i n   p a n c r e a t i c   ²   c e l l   f u n c t i o n ,   i n s u l i n   a c t i o n   /   g l u c o s e   m e t a b o l i s m ,   o r   o t h e r   m e t a b o l i c   c o n d i t i o n s   t h a t   i n c r e a s e   T y p e   t w o   d i a b e t e s   r i sks (e.g., energy intake / expenditure, lipid metabolism). To date, more than 50 candidate genes for Type two diabetes have been studied in various populations worldwide.
However, results for essentially all candidate genes have been conflicting. Possible explanations for the divergent findings include small sample sizes, differences in Type two diabetes susceptibility across ethnic groups, variation in environmental exposures, and gene-environmental interactions. Because of current controversy, this review  w i l l   f o c u s   o n l y   o n   a   f e w   o f   t h e   m o s t   p r o m i s i n g   c a n d i d a t e   g e n e s .   T h e s e   i n c l u d e   P P A R ³ ,   A B C C 8 ,   K C N J 1 1 ,   a n d   C A L P N 1 0 .

S e v e r a l   T y p e   t w o   d i a b e t e s   S u s c e p t i b i l i t y   G e n e s

R R   =   r e l a t i v e   r i s k
U P P A R ³   ( p e r o x i s o m e   p r o l i f e r a t o r s – a c t i v a t e d   r e c e p t o r – ³ )   U .   T h i s   g e n e   h a s   b e e n   w i d e l y   s t u d i e d   b e c a u s e   i t   i s   i m p o r t a n t   i n   a d i p o c y t e   a n d   l i p i d   m e t a b o l i s m .   I n   a d d i t i o n ,   i t   i s   a   t a r g e t   f o r   t h e   h y p o g l y c e m i c   d r u g s   k n o w n   a s   t h i a z o l i d i n e d i o n e s .   O n e   f o r m   o f   t h e   P P A R ³   g e n e   ( P r o )   d e c r e a s e s   i n s u l i n   s e n s i t i v i t y   a n d   i n c r e a s e s   T y p e   t w o   d i a b e tes risks by several folds. Perhaps more importantly is that this variant is very common in most populations. Approximately 98% of Europeans carry at least one copy of the Pro allele. Thus, it likely contributes to a considerable proportion (~25%) of Type two diabetes that occurs, particularly among Caucasians.
Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young: An uncommon form of T2D (accounting for <5% of all T2D cases) that generally occurs before age 25 years is MODY. MODY is characterized by a slow onset of symptoms, the absence of obesity, no ketosis, and no evidence of beta cell autoimmunity. It is most often managed without the need for exogenous insulin. MODY displays an autosomal dominant pattern inheritance, generally spanning three generations (Stride and Hattersley, 2002).

1.7 GENETICS AND HYPERTENSION
Scientists at the University of Virginia and Georgetown University in Washington, D.C., have discovered three variants in a kidney gene that indicate the most common type of hypertension. Their findings, the result of “18-year” collaboration between the two schools, are allowing development of the first predictive medical test for high blood pressure, according to an article in the March 19 issue of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).
The researchers report that these gene variations, either by themselves or through interaction with variations of other genes, are associated with essential hypertension in several populations: Caucasian American, Ghanaian and Japanese. The presence of these gene variants, also called polymorphisms, can be determined by a simple genetic test used to assess an individual’s risk of developing high blood pressure (hypertension). The test is based on detection of inherited gene variations that encode for a protein called G protein coupled receptor kinase type 4 (GRK4). GRK4 variations are associated with an inability to eliminate sodium from the body. This discovery has led to a high quality test that should be suitable for screening a large number of patients based on a fluorescent molecular beacon assay, and will aid physicians in their diagnosis of genetic forms of hypertension, (Robin, 2002).
The genetic information disclosed by the new test will allow physicians to provide guidance to patients with a family history of hypertension who wish to know if they should modify their lifestyles to help prevent the debilitating consequences such as kidney failure, heart failure, stroke, blindness or high blood pressure, (Felder, 2002).
Essential hypertension – a type that classifies 50 percent of hypertension – affects 25 percent of the world’s adult population and is a major risk factor for stroke, myocardial infarction and heart and kidney failure. Although scientists have believed this condition to be hereditary, determining the genetic cause of essential hypertension was previously difficult because blood pressure level results from a combination of hereditary and environmental factors.
Patients with even a single GRK4 variation have a significant lifetime risk for developing hypertension, said Dr. Pedro A. Jose, professor of pediatrics and of physiology and biophysics at Georgetown University, and senior author of the journal article. We have now identified the genetic abnormalities that cause this error and so we have a better idea of the impact of these gene variations in the development of hypertension in three distinct racial groups.
Identification of this leading cause of hypertension should lead to improved medical treatments for the disease but, the belief of these scientists is it really true?

1.8 PRINCIPLES OF ANTIOXIDANT IN DIABETES AND HYPERTENSION

Very simply put, an antioxidant is something that prevents or slows down oxidization. This can be very beneficial to the health, for instance the cholesterol in our bodies is not necessarily harmful until it becomes oxidized, which then causes it to start clinging to our blood vessels which as you know can then lead to some serious health related heart problems. Antioxidants can help to prevent this and thus make a very positive contribution to your overall general state of health and physical well being (Gorman, 2003)
Have you had your lycopene today? If you ate a green salad with fresh chopped tomatoes, then you not only got a healthy dose of this powerful antioxidant, but you have also taken significant action toward lowering your blood pressure.
A recent double-blind study conducted in Israel has confirmed what hearth-healthy Italians have enjoyed for centuries – tomatoes (and tomato sauce) lower blood pressure and the risk of heart disease (Paran, 2007). Tomatoes are so effective at lowering blood pressure because they contain lycopene. This potent antioxidant is even the focus of some hybrid tomatoes processed by Tomatoes Company in Nigeria (Gino tomatoes).
Long-Term Antioxidant Intervention Improves Myocardial Microvascular Function in Experimental Hypertension (Martin, 2003). Hypertension increases oxidative stress, which can impair myocardial microvascular function and integrity. However, it is yet unclear whether long-term antioxidant intervention in early hypertension would preserve myocardial perfusion and vascular permeability responses to challenge. Pigs were studied after 12 weeks of renovascular hypertension without (n=8) or with daily supplementation of antioxidants (100 IU/kg vitamin E and 1 g vitamin C, n=6), and compared with normal controls (n=7). Myocardial perfusion and microvascular permeability were measured in vivo by electron beam computed tomography before and after 2 cardiac challenges (intravenous adenosine and dobutamine). Basal left ventricular muscle mass was also obtained. Mean arterial pressure was significantly increased in both groups of hypertensive animals (without and with antioxidants, 123±9 and 126±4 mm Hg, respectively, versus normal, 101±4 mm Hg; both P<0.05), but muscle mass was not different among the groups. The impaired myocardial perfusion response to adenosine observed in hypertensives (normal, +51±14%; P<0.05 versus baseline; hypertension, +14±15%; P=0.3 versus baseline) was preserved in hypertensive pigs that received antioxidants (+44±15%; P=0.01 compared with baseline). Long-term antioxidant intervention also preserved subendocardial microvascular permeability responses in hypertension. On the other hand, antioxidant intervention had little effect on the hypertension-induced myocardial vascular dysfunction observed in response to dobutamine. This study demonstrates that the impaired myocardial perfusion and permeability responses to increased cardiac demand in early hypertension are significantly improved by long-term antioxidant intervention. These results support the involvement of oxidative stress in myocardial vascular dysfunction in hypertension and suggest a role for antioxidant strategies to preserve the myocardial microvasculature. (Krier et al, 2003).
Most of the food that many people eat, such as fast food and other food sources high in processed carbohydrates sugars and fat, contain very low levels of antioxidants. As well as being low in antioxidants, these items actually increase your cholesterol level; this can lead to some serious health issues that pose serious health risk. (Heath monitor, 2006).

1.9 HYPOTHESES
H0: Stress is not linked with hypertension
H1: Stress is linked with hypertension
H0: Stress is not linked with diabetes
H1: Stress is linked with diabetes
H0: Antioxidant cannot curb hypertension
H1: Antioxidant can curb hypertension
H0: Antioxidant cannot curb diabetes
H1: Antioxidant can curb diabetes
H0: Hypertension is not hereditary
H1: Hypertension is hereditary
H0: Diabetes is not hereditary
H1: Diabetes is hereditary

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 MATERIALS

The major materials used were: a comprehensive questionnaire and data analysis software. These two materials are very effective in processing information for statistical analysis. Biological raw data can be mathematically analyzed, computed and intensely verified for effective result. Different people have different believes and tenets, but, such believes have to be reasonable hypothesis and proven.

2.1 REVIEW OF HYPOTHESIS
H0: Stress is not linked with hypertension
H1: Stress is linked with hypertension
H0: Stress is not linked with diabetes
H1: Stress is linked with diabetes
H0: Antioxidant cannot curb hypertension
H1: Antioxidant can curb hypertension
H0: Antioxidant cannot curb diabetes
H1: A    ntioxidant can curb diabetes
H0: Hypertension is not hereditary
H1: Hypertension is hereditary
H0: Diabetes is not hereditary
H1: Diabetes is hereditary

2.2 DATA COLLECTION (QUESTIONNAIRE)
Data are research facts that are based on respondents’ answers to questions. There are types of data like parametric and non parametric data; the former is in numerical values while the later is the type I am applying in this research which is nominal or ordinal like sex, age, nationality and more (Oludotun, 2007). Information are processed data while a questionnaire is a form of mechanism for obtaining information, data to be processed and opinions of people about certain issues. Questionnaires have a number of advantages and disadvantages when compared with other evaluation tools. The key strengths and weaknesses of questionnaires are summarized in bullet points below. In general, questionnaires are effective mechanisms for efficient collection of certain kinds of information. They are not, however, a comprehensive means of evaluation and should be used to support and supplement other procedures for evaluating and improving research hence an evaluating soft ware is also utilized in this research as indicated above.
2.3 ADVANTAGES OF QUESTIONNAIRES:
They permit respondents time to consider their responses carefully without interference from, for example, an interviewer.
Cost: It is possible to provide questionnaires to large numbers of people simultaneously.
Uniformity: Each respondent receives the identical set of questions. With closed-form questions, responses are standardized, which can assist in interpreting from large numbers of respondents.
Can address a large number of issues and questions of concern in a relatively efficient way, with the possibility of a high response rate.
Often, questionnaires are designed so that answers to questions are scored and scores summed to obtain an overall measure of the attitudes and opinions of the respondent.
They may be mailed to respondents although this approach may lower the response rate.
They permit anonymity. It is usually argued that anonymity increases the rate of response and may increase the likelihood that responses reflect genuinely held opinions.
The responses are gathered in a standardized way, so questionnaires are more objective, certainly more so than interviews.
Generally it is relatively quick to collect questions using a questionnaire.
Potential information can be collected from a large portion of a group. This potential is not often realized, as returns from questionnaires are usually low. However return rates can be dramatically improved if the questionnaire is delivered and responded to in time.

2.4 DISADVANTAGES OF QUESTIONNAIRES
Questionnaires, like many evaluation methods occur after the event, so participants may forget important issues.
Questionnaires are standardized so it is not possible to explain any points in the questions that participants might misinterpret. This could be partially solved by piloting the questions on a small group of people or at least friends and colleagues. It is advisable to do this anyway.
Open-ended questions can generate large amounts of data that can take a long time to process and analyze. One way of limiting this would be to limit the space available to students so their responses are concise or to sample the people and survey only a portion of them.
Respondents may answer superficially especially if the questionnaire takes a long time to complete.
People may not be willing to answer the questions. They might not wish to reveal the information or they might think that they will not benefit from responding perhaps even be open by giving their real opinion. People should be told why the information is being collected and how the results will be beneficial. They should be asked to reply honestly and told that if their response is negative this is just as useful as a more positive opinion.

2.5 LOCATION IN VIEW
The locations considered: Ikeja, Gbagada, Victoria Island. These areas are both industrial and residential areas. Majority of people in these areas have different life styles and different ways of attending to health issues.

2.6 CATEGORIES OF PEOPLE IN VIEW
People, who take taxies to work, some take private cars, public buses and even bikes. Many of them spend long time in traffic, and even spend long time at work.   
2.7 METHOD OF DATA PROCESSING

There are so many methods applied in investigation of statistical analysis among these are design and survey which are the two methods used. The software used in the analysis of the data collected from the questionnaire is the statistics package for social scientist (SPSS). Based on the fact that the data collected through the questionnaire are non-parametric, they are first analyzed into percentile, mean, mode and median. Furthermore a correlation is made between related information coined from the data in the questionnaire and chi square test into symmetric measure which shows Pearson’s ranking and spearman correlation to produce an efficient result to test if the null hypothesis is accepted or the alternative hypothesis is accepted.  
CHAPTER THREE

3.0 RESULT

The questionnaires were collected and analyzed using statistical package for social scientist (SPSS), these were tabulated as percentile, mean and modal information that was further correlated with cross-tabulation, chi square test and symmetric measure. The result shows that stress increases diabetes and hypertension. Antioxidants reduce the effect of diabetes and diabetes and hypertension are both hereditary.

3.1 SECTION A: BIO-DATA
The three locations (Gbagada, Victoria Island and Ikeja) were fused together in a tabular form depicting information in quantity (mode) and in percentage. The tables below are results from the fusion of data from Gbagada, Victoria Island and Ikeja based on some related question on the questionnaire.

Table 1: Age of Respondent

Table 1 shows 56.3% of workers fell in the lower category of age while 43.8% fell in the higher category of age; 18-25 and 26-33 respectively.

Table 2: Marital Status

In table 2, a large number of the respondents are single (94.9%) while the rest were either married or divorced.

Table 3: Nature of Job

Table 3 shows the kind of jobs the respondents do, there were more people on the white collar jobs.   

Table 4: Family History of Hypertension

Table 4 shows that many hypertensive people had traces of family members that were hypertensive.

Table 5: Family History of Diabetes

Table 5, 12% were found to be valid for diabetic traces in their families.

Table 6: Distance to Workplace shows 30.4 valid percent of people living very far from their workplaces.

Table 7: Conditions of the Roads

Table 7 verifies that 51.7% go to work on bad roads.

Table 8: Duration of time spent in Traffic Daily

Table 8, indicates that a higher percent of workers spend about 2hours in traffic.

Table 9: Transportation system to Workplace

Table 9 shows that 43.8 go to work on bike, 36.9 go to work in private cars, 1.1 use commercial buses.

3.3 Section C: Use of Fruits and Vegetables

Table 10: Respondents cook and eat vegetables outside those incorporated into food

In table 10, 62.5% against 29.5% respondents eat vegetables outside those incorporated into food.
Table 11: Respondents eat fruits often

Table 11 depicts that a high frequency of respondents eat fruits.
Correlation/cross-tabulation of parameters closely investigated hypothesis. Samples from the cross relationship showed 13 respondent who were hypertensive out of 35, they spend about 2hours in traffic while 10 out of 34 respondent who were hypertensive spend lesser time in traffic; that is to say stress aggravates diabetes.
For diabetes majority of people who spend more time at work did not respond well to treatment. The chi-square test gave 0.508 which is greater than 0.05 this accepts the alternative hypothesis. Results show that antioxidants curb both diabetes and hypertension, 54 respondents, 17 are hypertensive and eat enough vegetable, but 37 people of the 54 respondents are not hypertensive but eat enough vegetables. More respondent have family members that are both hypertensive and diabetic.

Table 12: Effect of stress on hypertensive patience

CASES CORRELATED QUESTIONS VALID MISSING TOTAL N PERCENT N PERCENT N PERCENT TRAFFIC A DURATION OF TIME SPENT IN TRAFFIC DAILY* ARE YOU HYPERTENSIVE? 69 39.2% 107 60.8% 176 100% B DURATION OF TIME SPENT IN TRAFFIC DAILY* WHEN LAST DID YOU CHECK YOUR BLOOD PRESSURE? 63 35.8% 113 64.2% 176 100% C DURATION OF TIME SPENT IN TRAFFIC DAILY* KIND OF MEDICATION(S) USED? 56 31.8% 120 68.2% 176 100% D DURATION OF TIME SPENT IN TRAFFIC DAILY* ANY IMPROVEMENT? 38 21.6% 138 78.4% 176 100% WORK E DAILY TIME AT WORK* HYPERTENSIVE? 68 38.6% 108 61.4% 176 100% F DAILY TIME AT WORK* CHECK OF BLOOD PRESSURE? 64 36.4% 112 63.6% 176 100% G DAILY TIME AT WORK* KIND OF MEDICATION USED 56 31.8% 120 68.2% 176 100% H DAILY TIME AT WORK* ANY IMPROVEMENT? 38 21.6% 138 78.4% 176 100%

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 DISCUSSION

The level of stress back in the days of our fathers compared to the present life style was relatively small.
Physical and mental stress increase the blood sugar level which in turn increases the pressure the blood exerts on the walls of the blood vessels. When the rate or speed of blood pumping from the heart around the body increases consistently then you are susceptible to high blood pressure (Olayinka, 2003). The primary hypertension is more common; about nine in ten people suffer from that primary hypertension. There is virtually no clear cause of that one.
The secondary hypertension is more critical with one person in twenty people suffering from it; its cause could be linked to other underlying diseases (www.bhf.org.uk). We have been able to show that People who spent 10hours at work could trigger or aggravate the incidence of high blood pressure. Unsatisfactory job conditions and long time in traffic also triggered the incidence of hypertension. We could show that about 2% of hypertensive people spent less than and equal to 30 minutes in traffic while about 3% of hypertensive people spent about 2hours in traffic. These facts prove that stress leads to high blood pressure.
A large percentage of people with essential hypertension have genetic abnormalities of their peripheral arteries (arterioles) — the small arteries that supply blood to the body’s tissues. This genetic abnormality makes the walls of the arteries stiff so there is greater resistance to the blood flowing through them. (www.medicinenet.com).
A higher number of those with high blood pressure had members of their family with high blood pressure (13 out of 21 respondents that are hypertensive have family members that are hypertensive from the result). Genetic factors may contribute to an estimated thirty percent of cases of essential hypertension (high blood pressure of unknown cause). In the United States, high blood pressure occurs more frequently among African Americans than among white or Asian Americans. Adult African American men are most at risk for developing hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. The reason remains unknown, especially since non-American adult African men have very low occurrences of hypertension.  One of the relating factors to high blood pressure is sodium salt; this was sited previously. Some scientist believe that the black American adult suffering from high blood pressure can be linked to the time of the slave trade, when they were crossing the see they must have been affected by the high sea concentration of salt. This is just an assumption. (www.webmd.com).
Diabetes is mainly in two forms except for other minor but important types like MODY: maturity onset diabetes in youth and more (Dorman, 2004). The insulin dependent diabetes which is also called the type one diabetes is when all the cells responsible for the production of insulin has been totally destroyed by the body’s own immune system; the non-insulin dependent diabetes also called type two diabetes this is when the receptors responsible for the stimulation of the cells that produces insulin fails this is also called insulin resistance. In response to this excess insulin produced, over time the cell loses the ability to produce enough insulin to control the blood sugar. Cortisol and epinephrine are triggered to produce excess sugar for energy when a person encounters stress (health monitor, 2006). When there is not enough insulin to control the sugar level, diabetes is worsened (McElroy, 2007). It was clearly discovered that those undergoing certain stressful life style were diabetic with poor response to treatment which is another major connection between stress and diabetes (1.1% of those who spent hours in traffic do not respond to diabetic treatment against 0.44% of those who spent lesser time in traffic). Stress makes diabetes worse; even if you are doing everything you can to control your condition (Tennen, 2007).
At present, there is evidence that more than 20 regions of the genome may be involved in genetic susceptibility to type 1diabetes. The genes strongly associated with the disease are the HLA class II genes (i.e., HLA-DR, DQ, and DP). IDDM1. The HLA class II genes, also referred to as IDDM1, contribute approximately 40-50% of the heritable risk for T1D (Hirschhorn et al., 2003).
It was discovered that those that diagnosed their diabetes between the ages 0-20 had more family members with diabetes. It has long been known that “Type two diabetes” is, in part, inherited. Family studies have revealed that first degree relatives of individuals with “Type two diabetes” are about 3 times more likely to develop the disease than individuals without a positive family history of the disease (Flores et al., 2003; Hansen 2003; Gloyn 2003).
Antioxidants reduce hypertension as the rate of vegetable consumption increases. Out of 54 people 37 who consume a very high amount of vegetables reported not to be hypertensive anymore against the remaining 17 people. This simple indication shows that these vegetables help the body in the reduction of hypertensive risk.
Studies on oxidative stress, antioxidant treatment, and diabetic complications have shown that oxidative stress is increased and may accelerate the development of complications through the metabolism of excessive glucose and free fatty acids in diabetic and insulin-resistant states. However, the contribution of oxidative stress to diabetic complications may be tissue-specific, especially for micro-vascular disease that occurs only in diabetic patients but not in individuals with insulin resistance without diabetes, even though both groups suffer from oxidative stress. Although antioxidant treatments can show benefits in animal models of diabetes, negative evidence from large clinical trials suggests that new and more powerful antioxidants need to be studied to demonstrate whether antioxidants can be effective in treating complications. Furthermore, it appears that oxidative stress is only one factor contributing to diabetic complications; thus, antioxidant treatment would most likely be more effective if it were coupled with other treatments for diabetic complications (www.joslin.harvard.edu).
Those workers that indulge in adding extra vegetables to their meal and eating fruits regularly responded to diabetic treatment properly. This only indicates that since vegetables and fruits are good sources of antioxidant, it has positive effect on diabetic patients. Hence the alternative hypothesis is accepted that antioxidants help in curbing diabetes.

Conclusions
Finally we can confidently say that, “stress is related to hypertension, stress is related to diabetes, antioxidant can ameliorate the risk of developing hypertension and diabetes. Hypertension and diabetes are both hereditary these indications are possible because, haven tested the strength and direction of variables and observed the effect of one variable on the other; the alternative hypotheses were now accepted.

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Anjos, S., Polychronakos, C. Mechanisms of genetic susceptibility to type 1:diabetes  beyond HLA. Mol Genet Metab, (2004). 81: 187-195.

Barroso, I., Luan, J., Middelberg, R.P.S.,  Candidate gene association study in type 2  Diabetes indicates a role for genes involved in B-Cell function as well as insulin action. PLoS Biol, (2003). 1: 41-55.
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The Female Shaving Heads Trend and Laser Hair Removal

Laser hair removal is an option that women may look into instead of shaving their head because of the high maintenance of a daily shave, and the discomfort of ingrown hairs. Laser hair removal is a real and viable alternative to actual shaving of the head for women.

Reasons for the Female Shaving Head Trend

Some women want to shave and “go bald” because they look and feel good that way. Others may have a hair-loss disorder such as alopecia and want to embrace baldness by shaving their head rather than try to disguise or hide it. Still other women may shave their scalp for charity or as a fashion statement.

Appreciating Your Own Inner Beauty

Whatever the reason for female head shaving or baldness, we would encourage you to embrace the vision of your beauty as a person – to see your own value as a human being, and to realize profoundly that your beauty has nothing to do with your hair or lack of it. Whatever your external attributes are, you can learn to embrace and love yourself unconditionally and not because of how you do or don’t look.

Is Laser Hair Removal a Good Alternative?

If you’re a female who shaves your scalp and you want a permanent solution, then laser hair removal could be just what you want. The hair on our scalps is different than the hair on other parts of our body, which is why it grows longer, but just like body hair, scalp hairs also respond well to laser hair removal.

Problems with Female Shaving Head

Some of the afflictions that females who shave their heads encounter include:

  • The inconvenience of having to repeat the shave every few days or even every day
  • Cuts, scabbing and scars
  • Ingrown hairs causing red spots
  • Soreness associated with the shave
  • The ongoing expense of shavers and other equipment

For all of these reasons, laser hair removal is an option to consider if you are certain that you want a permanently hair-free head. While laser hair removal does hurt when you have the procedure done, it does away with these uncomfortable, time consuming and expensive problems for the long term.

Female Head Shaving – the Way Forward

Only you can know what your exact desires are with regard to your female head shaving goals. Laser hair removal can be a good permanent way to deal with your head shaving problems.

Causes Of Obesity

As we all know obesity aside from leading a person to sever health problems tends to affect the self esteem of young teenagers. In most cases, peers bully and tease these children who may be overweight when compared to the other children. This alone has a tendency to affect the way the child views themselves as well as having a profound influence upon their social life. Teenage obesity has continued to increase at a steady rate within the past 20 years and it is estimated that 12.5 million teens or 70% of the teenage population are currently overweight.
There are several factors which contribute to teenagers becoming overweight in America these days.

1. Poor eating habits. Not eating the right food at the right amount at the right time are the foremost reasons that contribute to obesity in teens. Fast food and soft drinks are the main culprits. Teens have become consistent customers of these fast food chains which have sprung up in all neighborhoods of America. The tendency to overeat the fast food selections plus the failure to eat at the proper time all contributing factors to these teen’s overweight problems. In addition, teenagers tend to eat a considerable quantity but are failing to get the proper nutrition from the foods that they do consume. Fast foods have shown to be an ideal means of eating particularly since most people are living a fast paced lifestyle.

2. Laziness and lack of exercise. Because of the technology that now offers automation in almost everything we do most of the tasks that require exerting some sort of effort has been effectively replaced with gadgets and other high tech stuff. Watching TV and computers are also contributed greatly to this obesity issue in teens. Teens spend more time in front of the TV or the computer while eating mostly junk food and consuming a vast amount of soft drinks instead of exercising and sweating.

3. Psychological factors. Stress, anxiety and especially depression may lead a teen to eat merely to pacify themselves. These are prominent factors which eventually will lead to obesity in the teenagers.

4. Medical conditions. Some disease conditions may cause a teen to be overweight such as thyroid problems.

5.Heredity. This is a situation where the overweight problem simply runs in the family.

These factors that contribute to teenage obesity must be addressed in order to curtail the increasing number of teens who are currently overweight. There are many cases where the children die ahead of their parents merely because of obesity thus it is important to do something positive and address these issues immediately. The family especially the parents have a big role to play when resolving their teenage obesity.