What Causes the HSP Trait?

What causes the HSP trait? In the 1980’s the findings of an important medical study were released. The study laid a biological and scientific basis for understanding the highly sensitive trait.

Dr. Norman Geschwind, a neurologist at Harvard Medical School, conducted a study of 3000 people with Dr. Peter Behan, a neurologist at the University of Glasgow. He was attempting to discover the correlation between left handedness, learning disorders and genetic diseases. The report, titled “Cerebral Dominance” revealed his findings.

Apparently what causes the HSP trait is stress during pregnancy which sets a chain of events in motion that results in changes to the development of the child. Higher levels of testosterone in the mother caused by stress cause the fetus to develop differently because the testosterone creates reserve lateralization of the brain. Reverse lateralization of the brain slows the left brain’s development as a result of the increased testosterone and advances a greater developed right brain.

One result is that brain functions may be located in atypical places in the brain -an example would be language skills changed to a location in the right brain; speech problems may be a result. Another result is a greater chance of left-handedness, a known characteristic of highly sensitive people. Since each side of the brain controls the opposite handed, handedness located in the right brain results in left-handedness – an HSP effect that is more pronounced in males than females.

The study that Dr. Geschwind did with Dr. Behan showed left-handed people were 2 and 1/2 more times more likely to have autoimmune disorders and 10 times more likely to have learning disabilities. Near relatives of left-handed people can also be affected and may acquire HSP traits. Apparently there is a familial genetic basis for these conditions so that any family member can be right handed and also experience learning difficulties, autoimmune disorders and other human genetic diseases because the family has a history of left-handedness and the highly sensitive trait. It is possible that what causes the HSP trait in some individuals is a familial genetic condition, possibly from a prior generation where stress during pregnancy resulted in the birth on an HSP child.

It is amazing that stress can be so powerful that it can cause a human being to become a different person – that it can effect such a powerful change in a human being. Violence and the threat of violence are bad enough under ordinary circumstance. When they occur during pregnancy, a human being can be born with a variety of sensitivities as well as any number of genetic diseases. That’s a lot of damage! What causes the HSP trait is stress. In a world of 7 billion people, reducing stress would seem to be a humane solution to the consequences of excess stress.

Wild Flowers of New York

Wild Flowers of New York are of great species and with a large variety. It certainly interests any kind of flower lover. Wild flowers are beautiful, fragrant and colorful. Wild flowers also can be grown in gardens as well. These flowers have mixed hybrid varieties that are grown in different colors and characteristics.

There are wide varieties of New York wild flowers. Trout lily, wild daffodil, common dandelion, yellow hawkweed, common blue violet, sweet white violet, ground ivy, garlic mustard, greater celandine, agave, alder, and periwinkle are a few of the most common wild flowers.

The New York State Thruway Authority’s Wildflower program was implemented in 2000 to improve the visual attraction and aesthetics of the Thruway system. It also saves on maintenance costs by reducing the amount of grass to mow and to make the travel more enjoyable. The program selected various locations in New York City. Different species of wildflowers are planted by monitoring growth rate, weed growth and aesthetic value.

Wild flowers mostly come in purple and blue flowers; pink, red and orange flowers; yellow and gold flowers; and white flowers. Wild flowers such as desert lupine, sand verbena, and desert willow are a few of the wild flower types available in the purple and blue colors. Ocotillo, strawberry cactus and fairy duster are a few wild flowers which come under the pink, red and orange colors. Creosote bush, cinchweed, desert sunflower, and dune sunflower are a few of the wild flowers which are available in the yellow and gold colors.

The popularity of wild flower gardens is increasing as gardeners in general are more concerned with nature. A few wild flowers, such as the New York aster, are also known for their edible usage and medicinal purposes.

New York wildflowers are seasonal in nature. The Spring wildflowers are those that bloom from late April through early June, the Summer wildflowers are those that bloom from late June through August, the Fall wildflowers are generally those that bloom in September through November, and the Winter wildflowers are those that bloom December into January, or March through early April. One is gifted to see these wild flowers from early spring to late fall, in a multitude of colors, sizes, and shapes. New York City is blessed to have these flowers in abundance.

Uti Treatment- How a Uti Cure Kills the Bacteria in Less Than 12 Hours

A spark causes a fire! A rudder turns a ship! And citric acid cures a urinary tract infection (UTI). In life, we know that sometimes the smallest thing(s) can have the greatest effect. And this basic rule applies to urinary tract infections. Did you know that you can naturally cure (no medication needed) your UTI by a simple natural acid found in most fruit.

A UTI Treatment might be as simple as a step-by-step UTI natural remedy using a natural citric acid and a simple body flush to cleanse the urinary tract.

UTI 101

(I was always told to start out a lesson with a question so) Do you know what causes most urinary tract infections? E coli! In almost every case of UTI, the infections most likely started from the bacteria called E coli. After the bacteria reaches the urinary tract, the human body will now play host to E coli.

Under the perfect conditions (lower immunity), the bacteria will continue to multiply resulting in cystitis. If the infection is left untreated, the urinary tract infection will only worsen and serious kidney damage will soon follow.

If you suffer from a UTI, you should immediately seek medical treatment or naturally treat your urinary tract infection.

Killing the UTI Bacteria

All UTI Treatment aim to do one thing, Kill the UTI Bacteria! And all of them are mostly effective. Whether choosing antibiotics or the citric acid cure, you should not delay if you had your urinary tract infection for more than two weeks.

If you see a doctor, you will automatically fork out a weeks pay for the visit and UTI medication. But before you choose antibiotics, you should know that you will be killing the E coli and good bacteria called intestinal flora (kills the bad and aids the good). Though convenient, antibiotics can sometimes leave your body worse off than better. And worse yet, a natural acidic fruit is just as effective as the UTI antibiotic and 1/500th of the cost!

And why does ascorbic acid remedy work? Because God designed your body to repair itself naturally if giving the right means. In fact, urinary tract infections would be almost non-existent if people ate what they were designed to eat (namely fruit).

Imagine paying $15 for ingredients for a simple natural UTI remedy or $415 for a doctor’s visit, medication and doctor’s advised nutrition program.

UTI Treatment: A Guaranteed Option

The first step of a UTI Treatment is creating a hostile environment for the E coli bacteria with a simple piece of fruit. How? Most fruits contain citric acid (acidic pH) which can be digested by your lined stomach but are extremely dangerous for most bacteria. Consider why Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and fruit are so effective for a healthy immune system.

By taking a simple step-by-step natural UTI treatment cure, you can actually be free from a urinary tract infection in 12 hours. But the best part, it’s guaranteed! The next best part, you can get it sent right to your computer and you can be cured in less than 12 hours (guaranteed!). Imagine being free from UTI tomorrow!

To learn more about our simple step-by-step UTI treatment for urinary tract infections, please check us out at our UTI website which has literally helped thousands of UTI sufferers.

Which Herbs to Use in Treatment For Uterine Fibroids? Easy Herbal Cure For Uterine Fibroid Treatment

Herbal remedies for uterine fibroid treatment are gaining popularity these days. The primary reason for this is the failure of conventional medicines to provide reliable and permanent cure. Fibroid tumors are benign tumors which are rarely life threatening. In fact fibroid is one of the womens issues which responds very well to herbal cures.

In this article I am going to share some herbal remedies which you can make use of in treatment for uterine fibroids. In addition to herbal remedies you will need to adopt certain lifestyle changes too which I am going to describe in detail.

Herbs – The most popular herbs which help in getting rid of fibroids naturally are:

1. Dong Quai

2. Black Cohosh

3. Chasteberry (Also called vitex)

You can also use palm kernel nut, aloe vera and raw pawpaw in treatment for uterine fibroids. Chew white unripe palm kernel nut, 25 pieces each day for 8 weeks to make your existing fibroids shrink in size. To get rid of fibroid symptoms peel an unripe pawpaw slice it. Add a leaves of aloe vera,misletoe and chickweed. Boil all of this together with with 3 liters of water. Sweeten with honey and take one glass twice a day for relief from fibroid symptoms.

Lifestyle Changes

Many women do not realize the fact that their bodies are capable of absorbing estrogens present in the environment. These are commonly found in a number of things which we make use of on a day to day basis like

1. Personal care products

2. Cosmetics

3. Cleaners

4. Plastics

5. Pesticides

The purpose of listing these things is to help you in making a note and avoiding the use of these items as far as possible. Although it may not be possible for you to completely give up some of these items like cosmetics, it would be worthwhile to attempt and limit your exposure as far as possible.

The second lifestyle change you must work on is liver detoxification. Liver is the main organ responsible for deactivating estrogen in the body. It is therefore essential to keep the liver healthy and toxins free. Two herbs particularly useful in the regard are milk thistle and dandelion.

Most herbal remedies take time to produce results and make a noticeable difference to your health. Therefore when you go in for herbal treatment for uterine fibroids be prepared to take treatment for a few months at least. Trust me this type of uterine fibroid treatment will be effective if you are patient and disciplined enough to follow your fibroid cure plan.

Uterus Fibroid Surgery: Reliable Destination India

What are uterine fibroids?

Uterine fibroids (also referred to as myoma, leiomyoma, leiomyomata, and fibromyoma) are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that grow within the muscle tissue of the uterus. Between 20-50% of women of childbearing age have uterine fibroids. While many women do not experience any problems, symptoms can be severe enough to require treatment.

Fibroids range in size from very small (coin sized) to larger than a melon. A very large uterine fibroid can cause the uterus to expand to the size of a six or seven-month pregnancy. There can either be one dominant fibroid or a cluster of many small fibroids.

What are common symptoms of uterine fibroids?

  • Very heavy and prolonged menstrual periods
  • Pain in the back of the legs
  • Pelvic pain or pressure
  • Pain during sexual intercourse
  • Pressure on the bladder which leads to a constant need to urinate, incontinence, or the inability to empty the bladder
  • Pressure on the bowel which can lead to constipation and/or bloating
  • An enlarged abdomen which may be mistaken for weight gain or pregnancy

How do I know if I have uterine fibroids?

During a visit to investigate these symptoms, your doctor will check the size of your uterus. If it feels enlarged, your doctor may order an ultrasound or a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) session, which can confirm the presence, location and size of fibroids. After identifying the size and location of your fibroid(s), and possibly after other diagnostic tests, your doctor may be able to rule out other potentially more serious conditions, and advise you of your options and a recommended course of treatment for the fibroids. If you do not notice any symptoms caused by fibroids there is no need to treat them. Your doctor may want to watch them and check for any growth.

India finds the infrastructure and technology at par with that in USA, UK and Europe. Uterus fibroid surgery is one the common treatments for patients coming to India. The good facilities provided in India are certainly beneficial but also the skyrocketing medical costs and long waiting lists to get treated by the specialists in the western countries are helping Indian medical tourism industry. India is all set to capitalize on the opportunity through low costs and highly trained doctors to appeal to the medical tourists. India has a large pool of professionally qualified doctors, nurses and paramedics. The world-class facilities and infrastructure is further supported by low cost airfare and other facilities related to their stay in India. The hospitals of uterus fibroid surgery in India at Delhi, Chennai, Mumbai and Hyderabad are providing low cost treatment for uterus fibroid without compromising with the health of the international patients. The cost of surgery less when it is compared with the other western countries, It is relatively cheap because that is the way the international economy runs. For more details on uterus fibroid surgery in India please visit http://www.forerunnershealthcare.com and enquiry@forerunnershealthcare.com

How to Sense Low Levels of Asbestos in Your Daily Environment. (Part II)

Most people find it difficult to believe that a tiny dust material, too small to see, can cause such havoc with the human body.

As a construction worker, I may have an advantage in identifying the materials which shed this residue, but this also tends to make me more vulnerable to it’s effects. This, in turn gives me the incentive to do what it takes to avoid it or possibly shed it myself if I should accidentally make contact with it from any number of situations.

How do I determine that I’ve accidentally contacted the residue?

To start with, what you have to understand is ” this material is light enough to stay airborne for long periods of time, it is very dry and staticy, it can leave a bitter-salty taste in your mouth, it can be irritating to the eyes and sinuses and it attaches to the hairs on your skin and head leaving a staticy-iching feeling over your entire body.( Sometimes this sensation is subtle and other times it’s pronounced, depending on the type of asbestos material it came from and the amount of dust you’ve contacted.)” Combined with the many chance encounters of this material, this presents an interesting challenge for which few are willing to embark.

If you are ready to take on this challenge, the first step in getting relief from this sensation requires removing and isolating the clothes you were wearing and showering thoroughly. After dressing, the next logical step is to backtrack and identify the items and locations that you made contact with between the time you made the contact with the residue and the point where the clothes were shed. If these were solid surface items, they can be wiped clean with disposable towels and either water or a spray cleaner such as orange cleaner. If they were cloth surfaces such as cloth car seats or furnture, the simplest method is thorough vacuuming with a vacuum cleaner which includes a hepa filter.

Next comes the choice of disposing of the clothes or trying to clean them. If you try to wash them in a clothes washer, one washing wil not do it. Also, it’s important to wash them separately from other clothes. Cotton clothes will eventually clear up, where polyester or nylon may never come clean of this residue.

Given the previous information to be true, one soon sees the logic in wearing only cotton clothes and being aware of the path you take after contacting any suspected situations.

If this routine doesn’t interest you in the least, you probably have no incentive to follow it.

If you suffer from any of the following maladies which I’ve been able to associate with an unfortunate contact with asbestos dust, you may want to try this routine just to see if the condition clears up.

Any entry of this dust to the air passages can cause irritation, such as, the sinuses, notrils, eustation tube, back of throats, broncial tubes or even down to the stomach. Consequentally, illnesses, such as, sore throats, strep throat, toncilitis, sinus infections and inner ear infections can all have their beginnings with unrelenting irritation caused by asbestos residues. Irritation to the broncial tubes can be the beginnings of broncitis and pneumonia. A sour or sore feeling in the isofigus, which may mimic heart burn, is another result of exposure.

The eyes and outer ear can also suffer from exposure causing

pink eye and blurring, as well as outer ear infections.This is another moist area where a fine dust can be desolved into body fluids. As these fluids dry out, the fine asbestos residue is left destroying the surrounding tissue causing irritation and immune system responses.

The largest surface affected is the skin. Many different effects can be seen, depending on the location. The face and shoulders commonly are affected by acne, if that individual is prone to it. Asbestos fibers become embedded in the large pores

and cause constant irritation and eventually infection by the acne bacteria which is commonly on the skin. Other areas of the face where contact with a hat, pillow or even ones hair that is embedded with some level of asbestos residue can show signs of acne. Other areas may have anything from dry, cracking skin to contact dermatitis or even yeast infection.

I’ve also found athelete’s foot to follow an accidental walk through an area recently stripped of asbestos tiles. The shoes become embeded with the substance due to the amount of asbestos dust left in the mastic adhesive and porous concrete. Wearing these shoes causes the skin of the feet and toes to become vunerable to fungus infection, such as atheletes foot. Some portion of this dust makes it’s way up to other parts of the body as well, each with their own story of immune system compromise.

This is just another day in the life of body exposed to low levels of asbestos residues encountered in any number of situations we should avoid when they are recognized.

Types of Ovarian Cysts

What is an Ovarian Cysts?

Ovarian cysts are small fluid-filled sacs usually found on the surface of a woman’s ovaries. They’re part of a woman’s monthly menstural cycle but rarely show signs or symptoms of ovarian cysts. However, some types of ovarian cysts can cause serious health problems.

Types of Ovarian Cysts

1) Functional (physiologic) cysts – This is the most common type of ovarian cysts. Fuctional cyst are caused mainly by slight changes during the menstural cycle. Normally your ovaries grow small cysts like structures called follicles at the end of the ovualtion period and every. Tthese small cysts like stuctures usually go away by themselves but sometimes the fluid-filled cyst doesn’t die off like it should and stays around for a little while.

There are two types of functional cysts: follcular cysts and Corpus leteum cyst which are named according to the half of the cycle at which they appear. Follicular cysts appear in the first half; luteal cysts appear in the second half.

    Follicular cyst – Each month an egg-making follicle of your ovary releases an egg. This process is called the “LH surge”. However, in the case of follicular cysts, the egg isn’t released or ruptured and the follicle continues to grow until it becomes a cyst. These type of cysts rarally have symptoms and are usually harmless. They can disappear within two or three menstrual cycles and may only be diagnosed when you happen to be seeing your doctor for other reasons.

    Corpus luteum cyst – This type of ovarian cyst develops in the second half of the cycle after the egg has been released. When there is a successful “LH surge” and the egg is released or ruptured, the follicle responds by becoming a new, temporarily little secretory gland called the corpus luteum. The corpus luteum produces large amounts of progesterone in anticipation of pregnacy. If the egg is not fertilised by a sperm cell, then the corpus luteum dies, progesterone levels fall and a period occurs. A luteal cyst is formed when the corpus luteum fails to die when it should, and fills with blood instead. This type of cyst will usually disappear after a few weeks. Rarely, it will grow to 3″-4″ in diameter and potentially bleed into itself, or twist your ovary, thus causing pelvic or abdominal pain.

2) Dermoid cysts – A dermoid cyst is mainly fat but can also contains a mix of different tissues. This type of ovarian cysts rarely occurs. They’re classed as turmours rather than simply cysts. They’re often small and usually don’t have symptoms. Very rarely, they become large and rupture, causing bleeding into the abdomen, which can turn into a painful medical emergency.

3) Endometrioma or “chocolate cyst” – These type of cysts form when endometrial tissue (the type that lines the inside of the uterus) invades an ovary. It is responsive to monthly hormonal changes, which cause the cyst to fill with blood. It’s called a “chocolate cyst” because the blood is a dark, reddish-brown color. Multiple endometriomas are found in the condition called “endometriosis”. Every month during your period these endometrial patches of tissues that have become encapsulated in a cyst will bleed. Because there is no outlet for the bleeding, the cyst becomes larger. Even small chocolate cysts can rupture, although they may grow very large causing severe pain.

4) Cystadenoma – Cystadenomas are cysts that develop from cells on the outer surface of your ovary. Occasionally, they grow to a large size and thus interfere with abdominal organs and cause pain. The cysts themselves may not cause any noticeable symptoms, but they can twist on their stems and then rupture, which can be extremely painful, and require emergency surgery.

5) Multiple cysts the polycystic ovary” – Women who don’t ovulate on a regular basis can develop multiple cysts. These type of ovaries are often enlarged and contain many small clusters of cysts. Polycystic ovarian syndrome is a complex condition that involves multiple hormonal symptoms and organ system dysfunction.

Winter Jacket Styles – Shrink Your Old Jacket and Create a New Fashion

Winter and fall seasons in the past may have let peacoats slip in but this time winds have changed. The hottest hit of the season is the shrunken jacket with a wide range of styles and designs. The cuts may remain the same as traditional jackets but the eye catching and jaw dropping addition to these trendy all time favorites is the length that makes them stand out. They end before the waist begins and button up at the lower end. They offer sex appeal along with coverage against cold weathers.

Jackets can make your outfit sexy, elegant, funky, trendy and hot all at the same time. Shopping for just one piece with so many varieties available this season would be a mistake you will repent all year. The ever existing denim jacket is relived this year by adding softness to its historic roughness. This fall these denim jackets are more feminine than they have ever been with designs and cuts that make them hug the body like a man. Corduroy jackets as well as leather ones are one of the season’s trendiest launches that have hit the shelves again.

Brocade has popped up again this year and old designs have been revised to new, hotter and funkier ones. The jackets that are selling like hot cakes this season are made of this particular fabric, elaborating on its texture and detail in the designs. If jeans are more of your favorites then brocade jackets with a velvet piping or lace trims can work magic for your attire. Some designs have cuts at the back near the hips but some designs are more experimental with longer cuts that extend to almost a little below the chest level (H& M). These sexy jackets have given the term “jackets” a new meaning by enriching their designs with fabrics like velvet, denim, brocade or tweed. Faux fur is just one of the few innovations in these jacket designs and metallic finishes (Allen B. by Allen Schwartz) are following up behind them becoming just as popular.

Jacket length is not the only innovation of the season’s fashion industry. Sleeves have been revamped into the retro style. Bell shaped sleeves using traditional types of fabrics and re living the 1970s are back (banana republic). Houndstooth fabrics are becoming the season’s new ingredient to these trendy designs. Military jackets haven’t been ignored either. Their lengths have been cut down to a mini version with an addition of zippers and brass buttons to compliment their funky appearance (Bebe).

The best thing about these jackets is their versatility. Wear them with a mix of skirts, denim, trousers and dresses and your set to go with a funky, trendy new outfit .The variety of fabrics, designs and styles have made it easier to choose your heart’s favorite this year.

African Sage

African Sage (Tarchonanthus Camphoratus) has long been acknowledged by the native peoples in the areas to which it is indigenous, as a valuable plant of multiple medicinal and spiritual properties. It grows wildly as a shrub or small tree in the Rift Valley region of Kenya and in parts of Southern Africa. It is known by different names from region to region, but internationally it is increasingly gaining recognition by its Maasai name – Leleshwa.

Leleshwa leaves are effectively used to relieve sore feet and legs before, during and after long journeys. In Southern Africa, a hot poultice of leaves is placed on the chest to alleviate respiratory ailments such as asthma and bronchitis. Apart from these obviously analgesic effects, it is also used for bedding to promote restful sleep by repelling both bad dreams and bed bugs, and inducing a state of deep relaxation. Even some African savannah animals are hip to this as many of them have been observed rubbing themselves on leleshwa shrubs to get rid of ticks and other insects. Warriors of various ethnicities have also been known to brush one another down with leleshwa leaves to promote courage and increase tolerance to pain.

This plant of many purposes is finally being introduced to the rest of the world in the form of an essential oil, which also has the same effects, as mentioned above, on the emotional and spiritual bodies that Africans have long experienced. Research has demonstrated that leleshwa essential oil has antiseptic, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and detergent properties. Experiments have shown it to be several times quicker and more potent than tea tree oil in killing germs. It drastically reduces the discomfort of dandruff, psoriasis, fungal diseases and acne. It also is a great insect repellant. This newer essential oil shows great promise as a preservative in emulsions (like lotions and liquid soaps) that until previously could only be effectively preserved on the shelf by synthetic, chemical preservatives. The ability to substitute leleshwa oil for ingredients like parabens and PEG’s would be a huge milestone in the field of natural personal care products.

The harvesting of Leleshwa leaves and its subsequent distillation to the essential oil represents a whole new stream of income for the local people populating the areas in which the shrub grows wild. What was once considered a weed on some ranches is now a viable economic venture. Purchasing leleshwa oil not only improves your personal wellbeing and the cleanliness of your surroundings, it helps to generate money for low income rural families in exchange for the healing benefits of the African Sage bush.

Leleshwa Oil can be purchased from the Essential Oil University at http://www.essentialoils.org or 812-945-5000, from which much of the information for this article was gathered.

Diflucan Thrush – Is Diflucan Safe For Treating Thrush?

What is thrush? You probably know by now thrush is caused by yeast overgrowth, usually the common yeast candida albicans. Naturally you want relief from your thrush and you’re wondering if you should use Diflucan for thrush. In a word: no. Diflucan is a potent anti-fungal drug which is a bit like taking an herbicide internally. Yes, it will stop the thrush from growing (at least temporarily), but it can also wreak havoc on your health and well-being at the same time.

Using Diflucan for thrush carries the risk of serious side effects:

*nausea, stomach pain, low fever, loss of appetite, dark urine, jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes)
*fever, chills, body aches, flu symptoms
*severe blistering, peeling and red skin rash
*easy bruising or bleeding, unusual weakness
*seizure (convulsions)

On top of that, Diflucan can also cause less serious side effects such as mild nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or upset stomach; headache, dizziness, unusual or unpleasant taste in your mouth; or skin rash or itching.

Even if using Diflucan for thrush doesn’t cause these more obvious side effects, what subtle damage is happening to your body? Years ago, before I learned to cure thrush naturally and holistically, I was prescribed Diflucan for my yeast problems.

I was somewhat aware of natural and alternative medicine at the time, so even though I decided to take the Diflucan, I also took milk thistle to protect my liver. Unfortunately, this wasn’t enough to protect my body from the effects of the Diflucan – as it ended up, my hair started falling out, I lost 20 pounds down and became emaciated and weak. Looking back, it must have really affected my mental functioning because I don’t know why I didn’t stop taking it sooner!

The reality is that in 99.9% of cases, Diflucan isn’t necessary to treat thrush. There are completely safe and natural ways to treat thrush permanently, without side effects. Not only is the holistic approach safe – it’s much more effective over the long term.

What Are Color Enhanced Diamonds and Are They For You?

Diamonds are naturally available in a very wide range of colors. Most people know about colorless diamonds and GIA’s color grading system that is used to classify a diamond’s body color… you know D, E, F, etc. This color grading system is only used to classify the most common diamond body color of yellow however anytime a diamond is found in another color like pink, blue, green, etc.; then this diamond is referred to as a “fancy diamond”.

Natural Fancy diamonds can be very expensive and many times more expensive than a similar size colorless diamond. A very good example of a Fancy diamond is the infamous 45.52 carat fancy deep blue diamond, the Hope Diamond, which is on display in the Smithsonian Natural History Museum in Washington, DC.

A color enhanced diamond is a 100% natural diamond that has had its color changed. And best of all, color enhanced diamonds come in a very wide selection of colors at very affordable prices!

A bit of history-

For many, many years it has been well known that a diamond’s color could be “improved” by putting a bit of colored substance on the surface of a diamond and just like magic… a diamond that had a noticeable yellowish color would change to a more attractive near colorless diamond. Unfortunately, this type of color enhanced diamond could change back to its original body color if this colored substance was unintentionally removed.

In more recent years, the technology of color enhanced diamonds has gone extremely high tech. It is now possible to completely change the color of a diamond! These processes are considered permanent because it does remain stable when exposed to everyday normal conditions. The color will not fade if exposed to sunlight or be washed off by harsh chemicals.

How is it done?

The desired outcome of any of these treatments is to have a more marketable diamond. A less marketable diamond would be a diamond that has a low body color or sometimes a lower clarity. The color enhanced diamond treatment companies know if they start off with a certain type of diamond and process it for a certain amount of time that they should end up with a certain color but it does not always work that way. This is a science that does require some art in their processes… the only process that gives consistent results is the coating process.

The three processes are as follows-

Process #1- HPHT Color Enhanced Diamonds- High Pressure / High Temperature (HPHT) treatment can improve the color of certain types of brown diamonds and thus increase their value. General Electric has developed a process that pretty much is a mechanical simulation of a diamond’s creation in nature. The color enhanced diamond will be heated up to a very high temperature under a very high, stabilized pressure. Faults in the crystal structure are then rearranged resulting in an alteration of the diamond’s color.

Because the conditions of HPHT are very similar to diamond’s original formation, only a well equipped lab will be able to positively identify this type of color enhanced diamond. HPHT was first used to turn yellowish diamonds into more marketable fancy colored enhanced diamonds, but now it is also used to transform some unpopular brownish diamonds into more desirable colorless colored enhanced diamonds.

Process #2- Irradiated Color Enhanced Diamonds- OK… do not start getting all excited because you saw the word irradiated! This is a 100% safe process that is very similar to what is used to preserve food by exposing it to a stream of Gamma rays. The color enhanced diamond process is done in several different ways but the results are all the same. You start with a low color (P, Q, R, etc.) 100% natural diamond that has already been cut and polished, then it is exposed to a stream of fast electrons. During this part of the process the diamond will turn to a very dark color because some of the atoms in the diamond’s crystal structure have now been dislocated and this in turn has affected the way light passes through the diamond. Next the diamond goes through a controlled heating (annealing) process, this allows some of those atoms to relocate (partially repaired) in order to obtain a desired color.

Process #3- Coated Color Enhanced Diamonds- The coating on polished diamonds refers to a thin artificial layer that alters the color of the diamond. The coating can either be of the desired color or can cause a colored interference-effect. Unfortunately sometimes this process is done to deceive a buyer. It is a relatively easy process to perform, it has been around for many years (although the coatings materials are much better now), and it does not require a lot of expensive high tech equipment. Recently, I’ve seen some pink coated diamonds on the market, they are very attractive…. and of course you would have to purchase them knowing that they have been coated and follow your jeweler’s guidelines about owning and caring for these color enhanced diamonds.

The coating can be applied to the whole of a diamond’s surface, just the bottom of the diamond, or to a narrow zone near the girdle. A well-applied coating can change the color by one or more color grade. Some coatings can be removed through boiling in acid, strong cleaning solutions, or even household chemicals. Sometimes dots or larger areas of purple or blue ink are painted on the diamond to help counteract a yellowish color. The diamond’s setting will usually cover the dots, so they are difficult to see in a mounted stone.

So, is a color enhanced diamond right for you?

Maybe… natural fancy color diamonds can be beautiful but they are expensive! Color enhanced diamonds are affordable and allow many people to own a brightly colored diamond. Ask your local jeweler if they have any Fancy diamonds…. either natural or color enhanced diamonds. It is always interesting, and fun, to look at something different!

Under normal wear the irradiated and HPHT color enhanced diamonds will have no problems of the color fading away. The only consideration will be when you need to have any type of service done on the piece of jewelry. If this type of color enhanced diamond is exposed to excessive amounts of heat it might affect the color. The jeweler will need to know that the diamond is a color enhanced diamond before any work is done and then the jeweler will be able to decide on the best course of action. Color enhanced diamonds are now also used as the small accent diamonds around a larger colorless diamond. There are many exciting pieces of jewelry available with small blue, yellow, black, or green color enhanced diamonds.

Now that you know about color enhanced diamonds and someone tries to sell you on what they call a natural fancy colored diamond but it is at a super bargain price… you will know that something just does not sound right about the offer. A report from a respected grading lab should accompany all natural Fancy colored diamonds that are marketed as natural. If you deal with a reputable company and you have been reassured about what you are buying, then you will lessen the possibility of something bad happening to you. As with any situation involving an expensive purchase of something that not many people are well versed in, education should be an essential part of your plan. This is even more important if you plan to purchase a color enhanced diamond.

Tricone Bits or PDC Bits: Which Does Your Project Require?

Tricone bits, sometimes referred to as button bits, have been the go-to well drilling option for over 70 years. However, over the past 20 years Polycrystalline Diamond Compact (PDC) fixed cutter bits have seen a meteoric rise. The differences between tricone and PDC bits are significant, and this article aims to offer a brief overview of the differences between them and then outline the advantages of each. Keep in mind that many professional drillers, particularly when it comes to advanced drilling techniques such as directional drilling, have strong preferences about tricone or PDC. If there’s any doubt, listen carefully to the professionals who have evaluated the needs of your specific drilling operation; this article simply aims to provide broad guidelines regarding tricones use, and is not a substitute for a professional consultation.

The differences between Tricone Bits and PDC Fixed Cutter Bits

The most straightforward difference between Tricone and PDC bits is the moving parts used in tricones bits. Tricone bits consist of three “cones” which must all rotate on lubricated bearings. This lubrication in turn requires a grease reservoir and for any medium or large scale project some sort of bearing seal to prevent debris from entering the tricone and stopping rotation. Conversely, PDC fixed cutter bits are solid and consist of no moving parts. These are made by combining fine grained artificial diamonds and tungsten carbide under extremely high heat and pressure, as the metal cools the tungsten carbide shrinks more quickly, keeping the diamonds suspended in a matrix within the tungsten carbide. The specifics of this process are carefully guarded trade secrets.

Advantages of Tricone Bits

One of the largest advantages enjoyed by tricone bits is the length of time they have been around. This longer stretch of time has allowed the design and manufacture of tricone bits to advance significantly, incorporating advances in material technology such as Tungsten Carbide Inserts, or advances in engineering like sealed journal bearings. They are also easier to control in tricky situations, providing more options in regards to torque and Weight On Bit. They are also better for varied rock formations, especially for hard formations. The action of the individual rollers on a tricone bit serves to fracture the rock, making it significantly more flexible in terms of the range of formations one bit can be used on. One of the most important considerations on any drilling project is always cost, where all things being equal tricones tend to come out ahead. However, depending on the specifics of the drilling project there may be circumstances that let PDC bits pull ahead.

Advantages of PDC Fixed Cutter bits

The solidity and strength of these bits lends them many advantages that a tricone bit can’t match. Most significantly, PDC bits have a longer lifespan which means they don’t need to be replaced as often as tricone bits. That reason alone explains much of the shift towards PDC bits for large scale projects. Additionally they can achieve a higher Rate Of Penetration than other bits under optimal circumstances. These factors combined mean that in formations where the rock type is established and the correct bit is selected you can drill faster and further with a single PDC bit, bringing the cost per foot down below that of a tricone. Even though other bits may be cheaper up front, in the right kind of project that can take full advantage of the features of a PDC bit, you will wind up saving money in the long run by going with PDC bits. Lastly as tricone bits consist of several different moving parts, it is possible to lose part of the tricone in the borehole, a danger that does not exist with PDC bits.

Hepatitis Part II – Types of Hepatitis

As we mentioned in previous articles, hepatitis is characterized by the destruction of a number of liver cells and the presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue caused by excessive alcohol drinking, disorders of the gall bladder or pancreas, including medication side effects, and infections. There are many other infective agents that can cause inflammation of the liver, or hepatitis. However, the term is unfortunately commonly used to refer to a particular group of viruses such as Hepatitis A, B, and C.

In this article we will discuss types of hepatitis, there are 5:
1. Hepatitis A (HAV)
Hepatitis A causes swelling and inflammation in the liver and is very common in underdeveloped countries, resulting in drinking water or eating food that is infected by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). It can also be transmitted through sexual intercourse. This type of hepatitis usually has slow onset and most people fully recover. Hepatitis A can be discovered by blood testing.

2. Hepatitis B (HBV)
Hepatitis B virus is most often contracted via blood contact such as blood, semen, body fluids, IV drug abusers sharing needles or someone using tainted needles. It can also be transmitted through sexual contact and from mother to baby during childbirth. Hepatitis B causes inflammation of the liver leading to a serious infection that can cause liver damage, which may result in cancer.

3. Hepatitis C (HCV)
Hepatitis C, like hepatitis B is spread via blood and body-fluid contact such as blood, semen, body fluid, IV drug abusers sharing needles or someone using tainted needles. Hepatitis C used to be the most common type of hepatitis acquired through blood transfusions until a test for it became available in the 1980s. Hepatitis C causes inflammation of the liver resulting in liver damage that can lead to cancer. It also commonly leads to chronic liver inflammation and slowly damagesthe liver over a long period of time before leading to cirrhosis of the liver, that means scar tissue replacing normal, healthy tissue in result of blocking the flow of blood through the liver and preventing it from from working as it should.

4. Hepatitis D (HDV)
Hepatitis D is caused by the virus HDV. You can only get hepatitis D if you are already infected with hepatitis B. Hepatitis D also causes inflammation of liver and is transmitted through infected blood, needles and sexual contact with with a person infected with HDV.

5. Hepatitis E (HEV)
Similar to hepatitis A, hepatitis E is also caused by drinking water or eating food that os infected by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). It can also be transmitted through sexual intercourse causing temporary swelling of the liver and no long term damage to it.

I hope this information will help. If you need more information of the above subject, please visit my home page at:

Kyle J. Norton

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What’s The Purpose Of Coughing?

Coughing can be very annoying. It will not only produce sounds that may disturb the people around you but it can also be very painful such as in the case of dry cough. But what is the purpose of coughing? Why do people cough?

Coughing is the body’s natural way of clearing the pathways in your throat. These are the passages where food and other substances pass. If your throat is irritated or if there are unwanted substances that want to enter, your body will try to eliminate them by coughing them out. This is the same with mucous. When you have a cold, mucous build up in the throat and causes irritation. The natural way to remove this mucous and relieve the itchiness is to cough it out as phlegm.

Coughing can be three things. First it can be voluntary. This means that you purposely do it for some reasons. You may do it because you want to pretend that you have a cold or you can do it to remove certain foods that you have ingested accidentally. Coughing can also be a reflex. When the passage ways are blocked, the body will automatically try to unblock them because air and food should always have a clear passage way. It is the body’s reflex for certain situations such as when you have drank too much water or if you eat a very big piece of food. Lastly, coughing can be behavioural. Different people have different habits and different adaptations to certain situations. Coughing can be a mannerism especially when a person is subjected to extreme pressure. Just like other people who fidget when they are nervous, some may try relieve the nervousness through coughing.

For coughs that are caused by illnesses that irritate the throat, there are certain remedies that can be used. Prescription medicines will immediately help in relieving the itchiness of the throat. However, you should consult a doctor first because there are too many cough medicines in the market and some of them may not be suitable for your condition. There are also some home remedies that you can try such as honey. Honey is a natural sugar and mixing it with hot water will soothe the irritation. It is known to be a very good cough suppressant. There are different types of honey and many believe that some types are great for curing coughs especially if taken in raw form. If honey is not available, you can just drink warm water. Warm water will immediately calm the throat. Some people try gargling to remove the bacteria that are causing irritation to the throat.

Coughing is not a problem in itself because it helps the body remove harmful materials off the trachea. However, it can be a symptom of a more serious condition so it should not be ignored.

Cirrhosis…when the Liver Finally Loses the Battle

Cirrhosis…When The Liver Finally Loses The Battle.

by Ken P

    People other than health-care professionals who are directly involved with trying to save the lives of alcoholics have no concept of the agony, destruction, degradation, and just plain waste caused by this disease. The following article is definitely not for the ‘faint of heart, but if you want a feel for what really happens when an alcoholic finally dies from his or her disease, then continue reading.
   Cirrhosis is a condition where the liver is reduced to a non-functioning shriveled knot after years of drinking.
   First, I need to make a disclaimer. Though I worked with physicians in academic settings for many years, I am not a trained physician, and I have absolutely no clinical experience (i.e., experience treating patients). Therefore, the following observations, other than the definitions and material taken from references as general as Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, medical dictionaries, The Merck Manual of Medical Information, and the Physician’s Desk Reference, are taken from experience with health professionals who do. However, to be fair, I need to add that I took my bachelor’s degree in biology, served in the training department of three drug companies, and worked as a clinical research associate setting up and monitoring drug studies. Academic medicine has been a major part of my life for over 40 years.
   A Healthy liver is capable of metabolizing about an ounce of alcohol per hour. Anytime a person drinks at exactly that rate he or she is matching the rate at which the liver can handle alcohol, so they are about “breaking even.” Humphrey Bogart figured this out early in his career. He was famous for being able to drink all night without appearing drunk. What he did was pace his drinking so that he was drinking at the same rate that his liver broke down the alcohol.
   The liver, as the principle detoxifying organ in the body, responds to alcohol the way it does to any other poison. It tries to protect the body by minimizing the amount of alcohol that enters the blood stream where it can travel to other organs and cause damage. The individual, in the meantime, is drinking for some reason. Maybe that reason is to relax, or to go to sleep, to loosen anxiety in social situations, or just to “get high.” In a real sense a battle is going on here between the individual and his or her liver.  In other words, while the person is trying to achieve some effect from the alcohol on his or her body and/or brain, the person’s liver is trying to prevent the alcohol from getting to the body and/or brain!
   The liver’s first strategy in this strange battle is to just metabolize the alcohol by using the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase. We humans make this enzyme naturally because alcohol does occur in foods due to fermentation of any vegetable matter. However, the amount of alcohol occurring naturally is infinitesimal compared to the amounts present in, say one beer. If the rate of consumption stays low, then this ploy by the liver works. This is what made Bogart’s system work. The person’s liver “cleaves” the alcohol molecule with the same enzyme over and over again until ultimately the alcohol molecule is converted to simple vinegar and water, which is then urinated out of the body. It is also excreted in small amounts through the sweat glands, which is why the families and friends of alcoholics all describe that characteristic sweet smell of alcohol that lingers around alcoholics.
   However, if the individual “ups the ante” on the liver by tossing down alcoholic drinks faster in order to achieve the desired effect, then the liver has to resort to more drastic measures. What the liver does  is allow as little alcohol as possible into the bloodstream by temporarily storing the alcohol, untouched within itself, in little storage units called vacuoles. The liver’s strategy is like this; it creates a vacuole, a tiny opening within its own tissue to store the alcohol…sort of like a Baggie. This is actually quite clever. After the person stops drinking, the liver can metabolize the poison at its leisure. This is what is happening during a hangover. So the strategy here is to just hold the alcohol temporarily intact within the liver. It is basically a delaying tactic.
   Unfortunately, every such episode results in a tiny hairline scar when the liver tissue seals up the little internal “Baggie.” The scar is in effect a zipper. That zipper is a fine line of scar tissue, which is lighter in color than normal liver tissue, and less supple (i.e., it is hard like any other scar tissue). After decades of creating these little baggies, more and more of the liver looks like scar tissue. At autopsy, livers of alcoholics are shrunken pale masses of hard tissue. This scarred liver tissue was, in the end, totally incapable of performing the liver’s vital functions.
   We are now entering an area that is about as complicated as any medical subject, because the liver is on a minute-to-minute basis performing the body’s chemical operations on a level commiserate with that of the brain performing its mental and regulatory operation. But for the sake of clarity, the focus here needs to stay on the issue of blood flow to and from the liver.

Cirrhosis…The Final Days.
   A healthy liver is like a healthy city. In a healthy city, traffic moves into and out of the city. It flows smoothly and rapidly. Imagine this liver-city with two major freeways entering from above and below. The one from the intestines with its blood loaded with nutrients brings in all the raw materials the liver uses in its various manufacturing plant to create just about everything the rest of the body needs to survive: the blood itself, complex proteins to build and repair cells, and, most important to this story, what physicians term “clotting factors.” Clotting factors are a complicated range of cells and organic chemicals that basically plug up any holes that appear in the body.
   The big freeway coming from the north, the hepatic artery, delivers a steady stream from the heart and lungs. Here is the good clean oxygen-laden blood to stoke the furnaces of the plants doing the manufacturing throughout the liver. This blood is under high pressure, having just left the muscular chamber of the left ventricle of the heart, and has been cleansed of waste gases like carbon dioxide and metabolic wastes that accumulated during the last pass the blood took through the body.
   In a cirrhotic liver, both major freeways are constantly backed up with traffic, because the fatty tissue and scarring has blocked vessels throughout the liver…not only the major highways themselves, but even the thousands of smaller highways and short-cuts the liver has been using for years trying to keep itself working.
   So how does this all result in the symptoms of cirrhosis? Let’s just focus here on those two freeways. Blood carrying only partially digested nutrients from the intestines is forced into the general circulation without the benefit of the liver’s detoxification system. This material is called bilirubin. It is in some respects like liquid fecal material. Bilirubin itself is a red pigment that is left over after red blood cells are destroyed.
   This material being pumped throughout the bloodstream doesn’t make your body feel very good. For example, when it is pumped through the brain, the patient becomes very tired and very grumpy. VERY grumpy. Also, bilirubin is what makes the skin appear bright yellow. This is jaundice. I saw a patient once who was as bright a yellow as a school bus during a training session in internal medicine my company sponsored at Hahnaman General Hospital in Philadelphia.
   Moving now to the other freeway, the nearest vessels available for the backup of the hepatic artery are those lining the esophagus. When all of that blood that should be going into the liver backs up into the small vessels lining the esophagus the pressure gets so great that they start to rupture. This causes what the medical professions terms esophageal varices. This is when the medical profession is faced with a losing battle, and some really tough decisions.
   Remember those clotting factors normally made by the liver? They are needed now more than ever. The first rupture of a good-sized vessel relieves the high blood pressure and creates another problem…a sudden DROP in blood pressure. Right away physicians start looking to find the biggest holes and pumping in units of blood from the hospital blood bank. In the back of their minds they know that every unit of this precious blood is going to be flushed quickly out through some holes somewhere. The most common place is through the bowel. Most people do not realize how much blood there is in a human being. This can end up all over everything!
   At some point the physician is faced with alcoholism’s ultimate bad choice; either continue keeping this person alive using other peoples’ donated blood, or stop the whole process and allow the patient to bleed out and die. Almost every hospital runs with a shortage of blood, but teaching hospitals, cancer centers, and most government-operated hospitals are just ALWAY in a panic for more blood. The family is right down the hall, and asking questions almost constantly. There are no good choices.
   As I stated at the outset of this writing, being associated in any way with death due to alcoholism is not for the faint of heart.
   Alcoholism is still rampant all over the world. The tragedy is that, while there is no cure at the moment, there are ways that the disease can be managed. The highest success rate for five-year sobriety remains the AA program, based on the 12 steps. As family members of alcoholics, we also have a support groups based on the same 12-steps program called Al-Anon and ACOA (Adult Children of Alcoholics). Whether you have the disease of alcoholism yourself, or are close to someone who does, there is still hope as long as there is breath. Call one of these programs immediately. You can find AA in the very beginning of any telephone book, and you can reach Al-Anon at 1-888-4AL-ANON or on their excellent web site at www.al-anon.alateen.org.
   Cirrhosis can be lethal, especially when it has been allowed to progress without treatment. If you live with a family member who drinks routinely and heavily, and if this person begins to exhibit some of the symptoms mentioned earlier, it is important that you get that person to medical attention. As an Al-Anon, we go to great lengths to avoid being an enabler to an alcoholic, but you need to understand that, once alcoholism reaches this point in its progression, it is as life threatening as a loaded gun in the hand of a suicidal individual.
   Call 911!
   Lastly, in Al-Anon one of our “Do’s and Don’ts” is to “…learn the facts about alcoholism.” You can help others do just that by passing this article to friends and family who might need the information, to 12-step program friends, to treatment centers, health-care professionals, or anybody whom it might help.
   One last point; most health care professionals say that cirrhosis can start as early as after only ten years of drinking!