Ankle Dislocation

What Is An Ankle Dislocation?

An ankle dislocation happens any time a bone within the ankle joint is shifted out of location. Generally resulting from trauma to the ankle joint, a dislocation is really a painful injury that calls for fast medical attention. Treatment usually entails surgical treatment as well as a recuperation period of up to 6 months.

The ankle joint is composed of 3 primary bones: the tibia as well as fibula, the two located within the leg, as well as the talus, located within the foot. When a dislocation happens, 1 or more of these bones may be out of joint. A pure ankle dislocation is really an unusual event. Usually, ankle dislocations happen in conjunction with either a fracture or sprain.

How Do I Manage a Dislocated Ankle?

An ankle dislocation happens when the joint shifts away from its typical alignment. The talus bone within the foot separates from the tibia bone, which could place sufficient stress upon nearby ligaments to inducing tear. Physicians firmly recommend that an individual who experiences extreme ankle pain as well as inflammation visit an emergency room as soon as feasible so professionals can properly diagnose as well as deal with a dislocated ankle. A physician may try to manually set the joint back into place, place a wrap or cast for the ankle, as well as explain home-care treatments.

Most dislocations are generally caused by acute ankle injuries from abrupt falls or twists. A dislocation is normally simple to identify, as the joint swells right away as well as the foot looks to become misaligned from the rest of the leg. Expert medical attention is required to correctly deal with a dislocated ankle. Prior to medical aid is obtainable, a personought to immobilize the joint as best as possible as well as stay away from placing any pressure on the foot.

An Overview of Feeding Tubes for Children With Cerebral Palsy

Some children with cerebral palsy have difficulty or are unable to feed themselves. Some have trouble ingesting important medications. In these cases, parents may consider utilizing a feeding tube to ensure their child receives adequate nutrition.

Clearly, the decision to use a feeding tube requires the participation of doctors and nutritionists. It may be that your child is not experiencing adequate caloric intake and is experiencing a lack of appropriate weight gain. Even if their weight is within the prescribed spectrum, they may be deficient in certain vitamin intake.

If you are considering a feeding tube, your child's physician will be able to direct you to the most appropriate type. Tubes can be inserted through the nose, leading to the stomach, or directly into the stomach wall. This will be done with the child under anesthesia, so the procedure should be painless.

Some of the types and terms you may want to familiarize yourself with:

G-tube (Gastrostomy Tube) – refers to a tube inserted through the abdomen into the stomach. It is primarily used when long-term feeding is foreseen.

PEG tubes – PEG stands for "percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy." It is a type of G-tube inserted endoscopically into the stomach.

Bard Buttons – named for the company that manufactures them, a bard button is a G-tube with an external "button" that fits flush with the skin. An extension tube is connected to facilitating feeding.

Nasogastric (NG) Tubes – a tube that is inserted through one nostril, passing through the esophagus and into the stomach. This is usually only used for short term needs. It does not require a surgical procedure to insert.

Nasojejunal (NJ) and Nasoduodenal (ND) tubes – these tubes are very similar to NG Tubes, except that they are extremely thread into the middle section of the small intestine (the jejunum) or the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine, just beyond the stomach). These are for children who, for whatever reason, can not tolerate feeding into the stomach.

If it is determined that your child will benefit from the use of one of these feeding tubes, the next step in the process is to work with the doctor and / or nutritionist to determine what type of formula will most benefit them. There are both commercially made formulas as well as recipes for creating your own at home.

The general term for the process of installing a feeding tube is known as "gastrostomy."

Stamm gastrostomy – the open surgical placement of a tube through an incision in the abdomen. The stomach is sutured to the peritoneum at the exact site.

Janeway gastrostomy – the creation of a permanent gastric fistula by means of a laparoscopic procedure. Laparoscopic refers to a procedure that is a less invasive alternative to open surgery.

Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy (PEG) – as mentioned above, this is considered a non-surgical method of inserting a feeding tube. The patient needs only mild sedation for this type of procedure.

Complications that sometimes arise from the use of a feeding tube include 1) accidental inhalation of the formula 2) choking 3) bacterial infections 4) organ rupture. These complications are somewhat rare and usually result from improper use or cleaning of the device, but they present sufficient of a risk to stimulate debt on which children should be fed in this manner. Despite the risks, many children with cerebral palsy have benefited and thrived from an upgrade in their nutritional intake. As long as a serious commitment is made to properly monitor and maintain whatever device is used, you should have no problems.

Guillain-Barre Syndrome – Ayurvedic Herbal Treatment

Guillain-Barre Syndrome is an inflammatory disorder in which the body's immune system attacks the nerves, causing severe weakness and numbness and eventually leading to muscular paralysis. While the exact cause is not known, in about 60% of cases, this condition is preceded by an infection either of the lungs or the digestive tract. Respiratory paralysis can be a serious complication of this condition and requires immediate hospitalization. Plasmapheresis and intravenous immunoglobin are usually used to reduce the severity of this condition and to ensure a speedy recovery.

The Ayurvedic treatment of Guillain-Barre Syndrome consists of treating the nerve damage and the resulting numbness or paralysis. Medicines like Yograj-Guggulu, Kaishor-Guggulu, Trayodashang-Guggulu, Panch-Tikta-Ghrut-Guggulu, Mahavat-Vidhwans-Ras, Vata-Gajankush-Ras, Tapyadi-Loh-Ras and Dashmoolarishta are usually used to treat nerve damage. Herbal medicines like Yashtimashuk (Glycerrhiza glabra), Manjishtha (Rubia cordifolia), Mandukparni (Centella asiatica), Nirgundi (Vitex negundo) and Dashmool (Ten Roots) are also very useful in this condition.

Medicines which act on the 'Majja' dhatu (tissue) of the body are also very effective in treating this condition and include medicines like Panch-Tikta-Ghrut-Gugggulu, Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia), Amalaki (Emblica officinalis) and Musta (Cyperus rotundus). In addition, localized therapy can also be used in this condition. In the acute phase, lasting for the first 3 to 6 weeks, only medicated steam fomentation is done. After this period, medicated oils are used to massage the body, followed by medicated steam fomentation. Medicines used for these procedures are: Mahanarayan oil, Mahamash oil, Mahasaindhav oil, Dashamool qadha (decoction) and Nirgundi qadha. Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera), Yashtimadhuk, Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), and Bhrungraj (Eclipta alba) are used to correct immune dysfunction in the body.

Since this disease can cause serious complications including respiratory failure and death, hospitalization is a must in the acute phase of this condition. However, to avoid long term disability, Ayurvedic treatment should be started as early as possible. Treatment needs to be given long term for good results.

Hernia Types – Overview

Hernia illness is very common, with everyone from infants to the elderly being affected. We have seen this kind of problem such as bulging of the abdominal wall but we are not aware on what are the different types of hernias. There are actually many types, characterized by which part of the abdomen is infected. Here are the different types of hernias, where they occur and what causes such.

Inguinal – or otherwise called as groin hernia is common to develop in adults and second to infants or children. This will develop in Myopectineal orifice or lower region of the abdomen or groin. As a result a bulge will be visible and pain will be felt in this part because the intestines stick out in the opening. This type of hernia may be inborn but pain and bulge will worsen when growing up. They can be acquainted from too much pressure of the abdomen and certain strain or injury that one undergoes.

Umbilical and paraumbilical – appears in the umbilicus, in the belly button and naval part. This type may be inborn and can also appear through adulthood. The vessels of a fetus or the infant's umbilical cord exited in the muscle of abdominal wall. Even though the umbilical cord slowly disappears when growing up, the condition inside the body may continue to worsen. One obvious symptom is the pain in the naval part, in which surgery is unfortunately required.

Incisional or otherwise called ventral – may occur in the area which undergoes surgical incision. These can start from small to complex situations.

Femoral – can also be found around the groin area but is said to appear in a ratio of 5 is to 1 of women to men. To avoid getting worse and complications, it is highly advised to be treated right away.

Epigastric – occurs in the middle upper abdomen from the lower part of breastbone down to the umbilicus. This is very small so more prone to pinch and can create extreme pain. The cure for this hernia type is tension free method.

Spigelian or the semilunar – appears on the outer part of the rectus or "six-pack" muscles. They are common to women and around the age of 50 years old.

Ergonomics and Jewelry Making – Pain Prevention

Safety and Ergonomics

Your hands, eyes and upper body are your most important and most vulnerable tools. Jewelry making creates a situation in which you use these tools in in an extremely intensive way.

Small movements are repeated many times over and this repetitive use of the hands with the same positions and motion can cause injury, pain and numbness. Incorrect or careless use positioning or use of tools can cause you to lose the ability to work for weeks or months at a time to give them time to heal. A little care taken before and during your work period will help keep your hands, eyes and upper body healthy.

Prepare to Work

Gently move the hands for a couple of minutes before you start working. Bend, flex, rotate, extend and stretch your hands. Wear eye protection when you are using power tools or torches or working with long pieces of wire.

Posture and Ergonomics

Good ergonomics when sated will help your neck, shoulders, arms, wrists and fingers when you are working for long periods of time. Be sure your seat height is correct for the length of your legs. Use a footrest if needed. Support your back properly and match your table height to your seat height.

Keep your hands and arms warm while you are working so keep them relaxed.Place your lighting in a position so you can see your work without shadows or craning your neck.

Do not rest your elbows or your arm below the elbow joint on the table without a pad. This can cause compression of nerves in that area and create numbness of the outer two fingers of the hand.

Exercises

Try to schedule a rest period each hour for a few minutes. You can do hand exercise, eye exercises and neck, shoulder and back exercises to keep mobile and comfortable while you work.

For your hands, use the praying hands exercise. Put the tips of your fingers together and gently push your palms together.Use fingertip touches to touch each fingertip to the tip of your thumb, one at a time. Stretch your fingers like a starfish reaching as far as you can go with each fingertip. Rotate your wrists very gently with your fists doubled up. Stretch your hands back at fingertips using the other hand. Bend the hand forward and use one hand to gently pull the thumb toward the wrist. Do all of these exercises gently but frequently to help your hands.

Your eyes can become dry when you do not blink as frequently as you should, so blink slowly to help bring moisture to your eyes. Close your eyes slowly and while they are closed, look up, down and to each side. Since you are working very close most of the time, change the focus of your eyes by doing the following; focus on your finger and slowly move your finger away. Bring your finger close then focus on something across the room.

The intense work of jewelry making can be hard on your neck, shoulders and back. Exercise them regularly during your rest periods. These exercises should be done while standing.

Exercise your shoulders to relieve tension and soreness. Use the shoulder blade touch. While sitting up straight with your shoulders back and head erect, push your shoulder blades together and hold for a count of five. Shoulder rolls are done by holding the arms and rolling the shoulders, first one and then the other, forward, then back while moving your arms naturally following the motion of your shoulders.

Neck rolls are done by placing one hand on your head to support the weight of your head and gently moving the head forward then to the right, back and left. Support your head throughout all of these movements.

Your back can benefit if you lift your shoulders and bow your back out for a count of three, arch your back for a count of three and then straighten your back. Also, hold your arms out and rotate your hips.

Pressure Points and Massage

Tension in your hands can be relieved if you put finger pressure at the base of the ball of your thumb. You can also put pressure at the base of each finger. Massage of the lower arm and lower back can also help relieve tension

Splints and immobilization

Your doctor may recommend splints or immobilization for certain periods of the day. Even sleeping in splints can help. If you are wearing splints, using ice and using analgesic rubs, you may be able to help your situation with rest and exercise while you are working, but consult with your doctor or physical therapist with these techniques.

The Do-It-Yourself Back Pain Therapy Exercises

All people experience back pain even once in their lives. If you’ll say you never experience one, I reckon you just forgot one of your awful experiences in this Earth. Now, what is back pain? I may not give you the exact meaning of it but I know my answer would give you an idea on how dreadful it is. Yes, it’s dreadful but I think it’s inevitable because back pain is a usual result of continually doing a specific thing. An illustration of this is continually cooking in your kitchen when you’re really cramming to cook because visitors will come in just a minute or two. Back pain will also arise when you are doing the same thing again and again. It may also be a result of a car accident, disease and a lot more factors.

And how long does it take before a back pain leaves you? Usually it goes away within a few days but if you’re not that lucky enough, it will take few weeks before it says good bye to you. This is the frequent irking of some patients. How can you go to the clinic or hospital of your doctor if you’re suffering from a hellish back pain? Good thing there’s back pain therapy exercise! With this, you won’t need to take a long journey to your doctor anymore PLUS it will be a money saved again. An instant “Do-it-yourself” back pain therapy exercise! Very promising.

There are four kinds of do-it-yourself back pain exercise. One is using the exercise ball. The second one is using the inversion table. The third one is using a small pillow. The last one is using nothing. Yes, nothing! It simply means “no tools needed”.

The exercise ball is fast becoming one of the favorite ways to conduct back pain therapy exercise because it is versatile and people of all ages can use it. You can use this huge ball to conduct stretching exercises for back pain, specifically the lower back. The best way to use it is to lie on the floor with your head slightly elevated on a pillow and the heels of your feet propped up on the top of the exercise ball. Slowly lift your buttocks off the floor so that your body is straight at an angle to the ball and floor where your head is positioned. This back pain therapy exercise is one of many on the exercise ball that even physical therapists recommend.

The inversion table has been around for ages and is a popular way to conduct some back pain therapy exercise. You are strapped into this table and then it is inverted, based on the degree of angle you need. The reason why the inversion table is popular for back pain therapy exercise is that it works to increase the disc space between the vertebrae which in turn alleviates the pressure that could be pinching nerves or compacting discs.

Another back pain therapy exercise consists of lying on your stomach with your chest supported by a small pillow. From there, hold your arms out in a 90 degree position from your body and then squeeze your shoulder blades together by raising your arms from their position This could take some time to get used to but greatly alleviates pain in the upper to middle back areas.

There are back pain therapy exercise options that do not require any special tools or implements to ease the aches, just your body! For upper back pain, there is the pectoral stretch, which consists of standing in an open doorway and using both hands to grasp either side of the doorframe. Then, with the frame tightly gripped, you push slightly forward until you feel the muscles in your chest stretch and then hold the pose for about 15-20 seconds if possible. You would then retract and repeat the process at least 2 or 3 more times.

Four kinds of back pain therapy exercise. Four exercises that will help you say good bye to your back pains. Just choose from those four ones. Choosing among those four would be better than just letting the back pain terrorize yourself.

What Are the Causes, Signs and Symptoms of Tennis Elbow?

The term used in the field of medicine for tennis elbow is lateral epicondylitis. This condition involves the inflammation of the tendons which connects the muscles of the forearm to a bone on the outer layer of the elbow known as the lateral epicondyle.

In layman’s term, it is called sore elbow, elbow tendonitis, hooter’s elbow, archer’s elbow or the most common term, tennis elbow.

Causes of tennis elbow

This injury occurs when there is too repetitive movement of the forearm or wrist. The injury particularly have something to do with the sport tennis. For this reason, it is named “tennis elbow”. However, this condition involves any physical activity that is involves the repeated twisting of the wrist or forearm. Thus, it can happen to anyone.

This condition is most noticeable when doing three activities:

Fishing – from the casting the fishing rod

Baseball – the whip of the arm when throwing the ball, and even a little while swinging the bat

Volleyball – during the overhand serve and spike of the ball

Signs and symptoms of tennis elbow

• Gradually worsening pain that is located from one to two centimeters from the bony area of the elbow.

• Pain is worse when shaking, grasping and twisting hands. Thus, it might be difficult doing simple tasks because of the weak wrist such as opening a door handle or shaking hands with someone.

• Weak wrist effecting to having weak grasp.

• Pain on the outside of the elbow when attempting to straighten the fingers with resistance.

• Pain on the outside of the elbow when the hand is extended (or bent back) at the wrist against assistance.

• Pain when pressing the lateral epicondyle, which is just below the elbow.

• Tenderness of the lateral epicondyle.

• Moving the wrist with force may also worsen the pain. Such activities include using tools, handling simple utensils like knife, fork or toothbrush, opening jars and lifting.

Clearing Throat Phlegm & Tonsil Stones – Sore Throat Phlegm Symptoms, Causes & Home Remedies

Tonsillitis is one among the common ailments that you might come across. In some cases it shows up the form of tonsil tones and white spots on the neckline. Sore throat is an issue that is directly linked with the tonsil & phlegm stones. In fact it is one of the important symptoms of this problem.

Here are some of the essential points that would help you in understanding more about phlegm throat clearing.

The symptoms:

* Fever and chills
* Pain in throat
* Irritation in the affected area
* Swelling of the lymph glands
* Inflammation
* Difficulty in swallowing
* Constant & mild headache
* Nausea
* Blood in the saliva & phlegm
* Problem in breathing
* Inability to swallow the food
* Can not open the mouth properly
* Lump in the neck
* Hoarse voice, etc.

The causes:
* The allergies with some food or due to environmental changes
* Sharing drinks with some one or kissing the one who has a sore throat
* Infection caught due to a person coughing, blowing nose or sneezing near you
* Severe tonsillitis
* Measles
* Excess of smoking
* Sinus, etc.

The natural remedies:

* Avoid eating fish, bone of the chicken bone, etc.
* Strictly avoid smoking and drinking alcohol.
* Avoid over hot & too cold food and water. Have them mild.
* Gargle with warm water and salt at least 4 to 5 times in a day.
* Make use of garlic and cayenne pepper in your daily meals.
* Avoid taking too hot spices.
* Add 1 – 2 tea spoons of dried chamomile blossoms in water. Leave it for some while and then strain the liquid. Have half or full cup of this water in every 1 hour.
* Have lots of fresh vegetable smoothies, juices and soups. Taking a liquid diet helps in this case.
* Add honey in place of sugar. It helps in clearing away the mucus stuck in the throat.

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder. This type of disorder affects many Americans. It can be quite debilitating if the person suffering couldn’t control it any longer and it got out of control.

There are many treatment options when the person is ready to seek help.

OCD in Depth

OCD is an anxiety disorder, meaning it all comes from the brain. There is a chemical imbalance in the sufferers who deal with this disorder. Usually, OCD sufferer will lack serotonin and that’s why they obsess easily. This is what causes someone to obsess, they don’t have the serotonin in their brain to be able to realize what they are doing is irrational. Once someone gets that serotonin back, whether it be medicine or supplements, they will see they will obsess less. Hereditary is such another strong factor when it comes to OCD. There was recent research done indicating that it can be indeed hereditary.

Living with OCD

Living with OCD can be difficult. Imagine repeating every action you do during the day. This is how an OCD sufferer lives. Some cases are so severe that the person can’t leave their house because they can’t stop cleaning, washing their hands, repeating actions, etc. It gets in the way of their every day life. Sometimes, people even put jobs, college, and even a family on hold because they just can’t seem to function and lead a ‘normal’ life. Living with OCD can be quite debilitating, frustrating, and most of all, depressing. It’s not by any means easy for someone to live day to day not being able to get out in the real world. For those who are more mild, they still have the same problem at times, they don’t want anyone seeing them repeat these actions out in public or they may be scared of germs. Whether the case is mild or severe, everyone with OCD suffers until they seek the right help they need.

Treatment

There are many types of treatment available. There is the option of talk therapy for someone who isn’t as severe. However, for more severe cases there is Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Exposure Therapy available. The last resort would be medication.

There are many different kinds of OCD that one can have. In the end, it all comes down to the same irrational thoughts, leading to repetitive behavior. Every OCD sufferer needs peace of mind and seek help. Every OCD sufferer deserves to be able to lead a happy, healthy, and normal life.

Reversing Diabetes is Possible

While science is still trying to reverse diabetes nature has already found a way for many people. The reason for this is very simple. The vast majority of diabetes is directly related to lifestyle. Poor eating habits combined with a lack of exercise provides the right combination to become diabetic.

University of Florida researchers have been successful at reversing diabetes in mice using stem cells. The cells were taken from the pancreas in the early stages of development. The cells were then injected in the mice. A few days later the cells began to act like normal non-diabetic cells. The study lasted for 3 months and during the time of the study the immune system did not attack the stem cells. Unfortunately they could not determine how long it would last.

One basic point to consider is the fact that a Harvard study suggested that 85-90% of diabetes cases are directly related to poor eating and exercise habits. If someone can reverse diabetes using science one simple question to ask is, how long will it last if the diabetic does not change his or her lifestyle habits? Common sense tells us that you can get rid of many diseases with a drug or surgery but if you do not take care of the cause of the disease it will still come back. We know this very well with cancer, another lifestyle disease.

So what are some of the foods that you should avoid? A good start would be to reduce or eliminate fast food, junk food, foods containing high fructose corn syrup, excess amounts of animal proteins including meats and dairy, and unhealthy fats like saturated fat and trans-fat. Drinks to avoid include sodas, alcohol, coffee and milk.

So what can you eat? Start by adding plenty of green vegetables to your diet. They are high in nutrients and allow your body to process then in a very clean fashion. Add good fats to your diet like avocados, almonds, flax seed oil, olive oil or borage oil. Add low sugar fruits to your diet like lemons, limes and grapefruit. And do not forget to drink plenty of water.

A recent study linked high fructose corn syrup to diabetes. Another found that eating almonds after a meal helps to balance your blood sugar and even more studies have found that exercise can balance glucose in Type 2 diabetics. These studies add more credibility to the fact that diabetes is a lifestyle disease.

The hardest part is realizing that you have to undo years of bad habits. Just be sure to start out simple. If you try to make too many changes at once you are apt to become frustrated and quit all together. Make small changes daily and before long you will be well on your way to a healthier lifestyle. Always remember to consult your doctor before changing your diet and adding exercise. You do not want to overdo it.

When you understand the foods you are eating and drinks you are drinking are creating diabetes you can understand how to change it. By following some simple diet guidelines many people have done just that, reversed diabetes .

Treating Obesity With Light Therapy

Since the time when obesity was revealed to have such major health problems, many strategies have merged to counter the problem. The core treatment to counter obesity is an increase in exercise and a low-energy diet. There is approximately an average of 8% weight loss. However, the response to dieting and exercise vary. A simple diet change may be effective to one person but a drug therapy may be more effective to another. To determine a suitable therapy for obesity, you must begin with the simplest and move on to more intensive treatments if necessary. The following is a short account of treating obesity with light therapy.

The first step to obesity therapy is counseling to determine a diet and exercise regimen and setting a realistic weight loss goal.

Treating obesity with light therapy is a simple intervention to lose weight. It is a treatment of restricted diet or regular exercise or better yet a combination of both.

The diet must consist of calories fewer than your normal intake. Take in well-balanced meals in specific servings, not large ones. Eat foods with a high fiber content such as raw vegetables and fresh fruits. Whole grains are good but be careful in choosing them. Rice is not advisable due to its high-calorie and low-fiber content. Lessen the intake of meat and avoid fatty meat. Do not choose fried dishes. Choose foods that are baked, broiled or steamed. Fast food is not advisable. Avoid soft drinks and high fat desserts such as regular ice cream, chips and the like. Be careful in choosing low-fat products, they may just cause you gain weight. Organic and fresh is better. Keep in mine that you require a light, lean and low-fat meal.

Exercise is important. Treating obesity with light therapy is better accomplished with regular exercise. Exercise will burn the excess fat and help maintain a healthy weight. It also contribute to good mental health. Begin with changing travel modes. If your destination is near enough, brisk walk or ride a bike instead of driving. Take the stairs instead of using escalators and elevators. Exercise for at least 20 minutes at 4 to 5 times a week. Taking up a sport would do you good. The important thing is to exercise no matter how small you start with. Its already a good start by treating obesity with light therapy.

Patience and faith is important to battling obesity. If treating obesity with light therapy does not result in a healthy weight and good overall health at the beginning, be patient and have faith. Giving up will not bring you anywhere. You must believe in yourself that you can achieve your goal.

Pregnancy Rash – What Are These Red Bumps

During pregnancy many women experience a rash, which is very common during the pregnancy stages as the skin visibly changes. During the pregnancy stages, there is a higher blood hormone level and this can have an effect on the skin. There is nothing harmful about most skin changes as far as the health of the baby and the mother is concerned. On the whole, these changes become normalized within a few months after the baby is born. But there are some skin conditions that can indicate other underlying problems so it's always best to get this looked at and treated. For some women, the hormonal changes can result in acne. We also know how common food cravings and repulsions can also be during pregnancy. Some women will also get a skin darkening, sometimes referred to as the pregnancy rash.

One pregnancy rash is called the pruritic urticarial papules and plaques of pregnancy (PUPPP) which can cause an non-stop itch or some and be quite frustrating. Fortunately, this ceases after the birth of the baby but nonetheless, it can be hard to tolerate. Some studies have shown that there is a higher incidence of the birth of a boy when one has pupps rash. Most women will not get this before the sixth month of pregnancy, but there are exceptions. The rash starts with the stretch marks in the abdomen according to some.

Pupp rash may sting as well as itch and is usually found on the stomach area, thighs and buttocks .. It can also be much more intensive. Moisturizers, anti-itch creams and sometimes cortisone is used to relieve symptom. Some doctors may in fact early or prescribe prednisone if necessary. Unfortunately, some women may even get the rash before their third trimester. Keep your focus on your beautiul baby inside you and know that this is a temporary discomfort. See a physician to rule out other issues such as a stress rash or eczema.

Dry Winter Skin: How to Deal with it

Your skin in winter can become dry to the point of being painful. I myself began feeling the effects of the cooler weather in early October. My lips became tender and chapped, and I had to switch to a different formula of daily facial cleanser because the exfoliating beads in my current cleanser were irritating my skin. I'll have to limit my daily exfoliation to just twice a week. Also my hands and feet became very dry.

Indoors you're subjected to dry heat and outdoors you're bombarded with harsh winter UV rays from the sun and chilling winds. Yes, the sun's rays are still just as dangerous as in summer and they will reflect off any snowy surfaces, bouncing the rays right back on to you. You're going to need a good facial moisturizer with SPF in it.

Here are some more tips to help you combat dry winter skin:
Use a lip balm (preferably with SPF) and do not lick your lips under any circumstances. That just makes it worse. Keep your hands moisturized with a good quality hand cream.

Drink plenty of water and limit your alcohol intake. Alcohol is a dehydrator.

Buy a humidifier if you do not already have one. It may help keep your heating bills down as well. You know, the whole heat and humidity thing. Think Amazon rainforest.

Use a shower filter. It will filter out the skin-drying chlorine in your tap water. Avoid hot water even though it feels good on a cold winter morning. It will only strip your skin of its natural oils and cause water to evaporate more quickly. Also, it pays to switch from soap which can dry the skin, to a silky body wash which will help your skin retain moisture. Pat your skin dry when exiting the shower, do not rub. Apply a nice moisturizer to help seal in moisture.

When the humidity drops to 50 percent or less, you will need to pay even more attention to your moisturization routine. Stay away from harsh scrubs or cleansers since they will eliminate most of the skin's oils and dry your skin out more easily. This applies to skin care products as well as cleaning products.

My favorite winter skin care tip is before you go to bed, apply a thick, rich moisturizer to your feet, concentrating on the heel area. Then put on a nice cushy pair of socks. When you wake up your feet will be soft and smooth and well-hydrated.

Not paying attention to extremely dry skin can lead to health issues and act as a welcome mat for rashes and skin infections. So take good care of your skin and enjoy your winter!

Psoriasis Diagnosis and Treatment

If you suffer from Psoriasis, you are not alone. Approximately 2-3% of the United States population suffers from this common skin ailment. That is almost 8 million people! Whether you are newly diagnosed with the condition, or have been suffering for a few years, there is relief out there. The key is to research all of your options and find a knowledgeable doctor that can help you explore your options.

Psoriasis has been known to afflict individuals of all races, sex, and age groups, though the majority of sufferers are adults. The condition begins when skin cells quickly rise from below the surface and begin to pile up on the surface before they have a chance to fully mature. While in a normal adult, the process takes about a month, a person suffering from Psoriasis can have this occur within a week. This excess growth of cells can lead to patches of thick inflamed skin, covered with silvery scales. They often itch and are very sore to the touch. Most sufferers have these patches on their elbows, knees, legs, lower back, etc.

Psoriasis can also affect fingernails, toenails, and the genitals. It is said that approximately 1 million people suffer from a condition called psoriatic arthritis, which is an inflammation of the joints.

The first step to getting treatment is to get diagnosed. Many physicians overlook Psoriasis because it appears similar to other skin diseases. There are many different forms of Psoriasis, which can range from smooth red patches to oozing lesions. The most reliable method of diagnosis involves a small skin sample. The doctor will look at it under a microscope to confirm.

Once you are diagnosed with Psoriasis, you can begin treatment. There are several different options, and depending on the severity of the condition, you may need several different mediations or treatments at a time. There are basically three different kinds of treatments available. These include topical creams, light therapy, and oral medications:

o Corticosteroids

o Calcipotriene

o Retinoid

o Coal tar

o Anthralin

o Salicylic acid

o Clobetasol propionate

o Bath solutions

o Moisturizers

o Light therapy- natural and artificial

o Immune suppressing treatments taken orally

While there is no known cure, there have been some major breakthroughs in the field of study. New medications and treatment options are popping up every day, and a cure is just right around the corner. Laser therapy has become extremely popular, and you can expect to see them integrated into your treatment plan in the near future.

The key is to find out what works for you. Many Psoriasis sufferers can benefit from group therapy. They can discuss their thoughts and feelings about having the condition, and form a support group of others going through the same problems. Online research and support groups are also very popular. The more you know about your condition, the better prepared you are for what lies ahead. So do a search on your favorite search engine and discuss your options with your doctor.

Understanding Medical Lab Test Reports

Introduction

Departments of Medical lab
A standard medical or pathology lab consists of following departments:

Hematology
Study of blood, blood forming organs and diseases of blood

Clinical pathology
Includes test on urine and stool (feaces)

Biochemistry
Study of chemistry of human body or chemistry of a human cell

Serology
It is the study of In vitro (inside the lab) Antigen / Antibody reactions

Antigen (foreign particles): a substance protein in nature which when enters the body provokes the production of antibodies. Antigen can be a bacteria, virus, fungus, pollen etc.

Antibody (body's defense): a substance protein in nature which is produced in response to an antigen in the human body, they are also called protective proteins eg IgG, IgM etc

Histopathology
Histopathology is the examination of tissues from the body under a microscope to spot the signs and characteristics of disease.

Microbiology
Is the study of microorganisms such as bacteria, virus, fungus and parasite

Hematology

Blood CP (blood complete picture)

The test includes following parameters

Red blood cells (RBC) count
RBC'S are the blood cells which carry and transport oxygen in the body, they do not have a nucleus and are red in color due to the presence of a pigment called hemoglobin

RBC count is lower than normal in most of the cases of anemia
Normal values:
Male: 4.5 to 5.5 million / L
Female: 3.8 to 4.8 million / L

Hemoglobin
It is a red colored pigment found in red blood cells its function is to bind with oxygen and carry it to each and every cell of the body.
Normal values:
Male: 13 to 17 gram / dl
Female: 12 to 15 gram / dl

Anemia
It is defined as lack of hemoglobin below normal levels for the age, sex and environment of an individual. Causes:

– Changes in bone marrow such as;
1. Aplasia (bone marrow failure)
2. Dyshemopoeisis (disorder in formation of blood cells)

– Changes in circulation
1. Hemolysis (reduced life span of red blood cells eg in malaria)
2. Acute hemorrhage

Types:
– Iron deficiency anemia
– Megaloblastic anemia
– Hemolytic anemia
– Anemia due to acute blood loss

Symptoms of anemia:
– Pallor of skin
– Dyspnoea specifically on exertion
– Lethargy
– Pain and numbness of lower limbs

Note
The most common type of anemia found worldwide is the iron deficiency anemia, the causes for iron deficiency anemia include:

1. Poor nutrition
2. poverty
3. Multiple pregnancies
4. malabsorption

It is also the most common type of anemia affecting the pregnant women

Red cell indices:

– MCV (mean cell volume)
MCV demonstrates the normal size of a red blood cell. In case of Iron deficiency anemia the size of a cell is reduced which means a low MCV (microcytic picture)
While in Megaloblastic anemias the MCV is increased (macrocytic)
Normal value: 80 to 10O fL

– MCH (mean cell hemoglobin)
MCH is the total amount of hemoglobin in RBC'S
In case of Iron deficiency anemia the mean cell Hb is reduced alongwith a low MCV (microcytic picture)
While in Megaloblastic anemias the MCH remains low or can be normal
Normal value: 27 to 34 pg

– MCHC (mean cell hemoglobin concentration)
It is the concentration of Hb in the red blood cell
Normal values: 33 to 36 g / dl

– PCV (packed cell volume)
It is the percentage of blood volume occupied by red blood cells
Normal values:
Male: 40 to 54%
Female: 37 to 47%

WBC count (leucocytes)
The total number of wbc's found in one liter of blood. The function of WBC'S is to provide immunity to the body against bacteria, virus and other organisms, they form the first line of defense against infection and they provide immunity to the body.

The normal value of WBC count is the same in both male and female that is: 4,000 to 11,000 / L

The value of leucocytes increases above normal level that is more than 11,000 / l in the following conditions:
– Acute infection
– TB
– Bacterial infections
– Viral infections
– Inflammation

AND if the value is very high that is near or above 20,000 than it should be investigated further for:

– Leukemia (blood cancer)
A decrease in the number of leucocytes occurs in case of typhoid and diabetes mellitus

Platelet count
Platelets are the blood cells which help in forming the clot after injury or bleeding.

Their value is same in both male and female that is: 150,000 to 40,0000 / L. When the value of platelet is decreased below normal (thrombocytopenia), blood looses its ability to clot, it occurs in following conditions:

– Liver diseases such as; Hepatitis and Chronic liver disease
– Cloting disorders

The value of platelets may also increase in certain conditions such as;

– Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
– Drug reactions

ESR (erythrocyte sedimentation rate)
ESR is a routine investigation which is mostly requested along with blood CP, it is a non specific investigation because it does not have any diagnostic value, it carries more of a prognostic value.
Serial ESR examinations are performed to assess the progress of disease.

Its value increases in the following conditions;
– Tissue damage
– Pregnancy
– TB
Typhoid
– Arthritis
– Acute infections
– Fractures

The value of ESR decreases in;
– Sickle cell anemia
– Polycythemia

Normal value:
Male: 4 to 10 mm / hour
Female: 6 to 12 mm / hour

Coagulation profile

1. Bleeding time / Clotting time:
These test are done for the diagnosis of bleeding disorders but both the tests are non specific and specifically the bleeding time is only prolonged in severe platelet deficiency

These tests do not give a clear picture of the coagulation pathway but only provide evidence of severe platelet disorder

Bleeding time and clotting time is prolonged in;
– Severe platelet deficiency (thrombocytopenia)
– Platelet function defects
– Warfarin therapy
– Aspirin ingestion

Normal value: <9 minutes

2. PT / APTT (Prothrombin time / Activated partial thromboplastin time)
These tests are also performed for the diagnosis of bleeding disorders BUT they provide a clear picture of the whole coagulation pathway which makes them more specific

Prothrombin time / Activated partial thromboplastin time are prolonged in;
– Clotting factor deficiency
– DIC (disseminated intravascular coagulation)

Normal value:
PT: 10 – 13 second
APTT: 28 – 38 second

Blood grouping
Blood group are antigens found on the surface of red blood cells, a person having 'A' antigen on the surface of his / her RBC'S will be having 'A' blood group just a person having 'B' antigen on the surface of his / her RBC'S will be having 'B' blood group

Classical ABO blood group system:
This is the most common blood group system found in the world, it is explained as under;

Blood group
Antigen on RBC Antibody in serum
AAB
BBA
AB AB Nil
O Nil AB

Blood group 'AB' is 'Universal recipient' and blood group 'O' is the 'universal donor'
Blood grouping is performed before going for "Blood transfusion"