Allergic Rhinitis – Ayurvedic Herbal Treatment

Allergic rhinitis is the most common cause of rhinitis, which indicates inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose. Sneezing, itching and congestion in the nose, and watery discharge are common presentations of rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis usually causes inflammation not only in the nose but also in the surrounding areas which include eyes, eustachian tubes, middle ear, sinuses and throat. Genetic and environmental factors are believed to be important in the predisposition to allergic rhinitis. Antihistaminic medications play an important part in the modern management of this condition.

The Ayurvedic management of this condition consists of both local as well as generalized therapy. Local applications include the use of medicated oils like Anu Tel, Panchendriya-Vardhan Tel, Vacha Tel, or just simple Til oil. Individuals who have a highly localized inflammatory component respond very well to this treatment modality, and may not require oral medicines at all. The sneezing and nasal congestion clears up rapidly, and episodes of allergic rhinitis may reduce dramatically. However, all individuals may not respond to this treatment; in fact, some people with a generalized inflammatory component may show aggravation of symptoms.

Oral therapy of allergic rhinitis is aimed at improving the strength and immunity of the nasal mucous membrane, as well as the general immunity of the body. Prior to this, medicines are given to reduce local congestion, inflammation and infection, as well as to help heal the damage to the mucous membrane of the nose and surrounding areas. Medicines used for this purpose are Tribhuvan-Kirti-Ras, Naag-Guti, Sitopaladi Churna, Talisadi Churna, Shwas-Kuthar-Ras, Sutshekhar-Ras, Kamdudha-Ras, Praval-Panchamrut-Ras, Sukshma-Triphala, Abhrak-Bhasma, Praval-Bhasma, Mukta-Bhasma, Yashtimadhuk Churna, and Triphala Guggulu.

Once the acute condition has subsided, medicines can then be given to improve both local as well as general immunity, so that the frequency and severity of recurrent episodes can be significantly reduced. These medicines include Pippali (Piper longum), Chausashtha Pippali (Fortified Piper longum), Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), Yashtimadhuk (Glycerrhiza glabra), Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus), Amalaki (Emblica officinalis), Laghu-Malini-Vasant, Madhu-Malini-Vasant and Suvarna-Malini-Vasant. Such medicines should however, be taken for limited periods and under medical supervision. In individuals with severe episodes of allergic rhinitis, it may be necessary to repeat courses of such medicines, in order to bring about a lasting or permanent therapeutic benefit.

People affected with this condition also need to adopt other counter measures like avoiding known offending food products, reducing exposure to outdoor and indoor allergens, and adopting a healthy life-style.

Bone Up on Extensive CPT Changes to Musculoskeletal System Codes

CPT and the AMA may have just made the orthopedic coder’s life a little easier. CPT 2002 includes 89 changes to codes in the musculoskeletal system chapter, 31 of which are new codes. Eight of these new codes deal with arthroscopic surgery and will in many cases eliminate the need for submitting unlisted-procedure codes for surgeries that up until now had no CPT code .

The 2002 changes go into effect Jan. 1, 2002. Practices should plan changes to super bills, encounter forms, charge tickets, etc., but hold off on implementation until after Jan. 1.

According to Heidi Stout, CPC, CCS-P, coding and reimbursement manager at University Orthopedic Associates in New Brunswick, N.J., many carriers do not update their fee schedules until February or March, so poll your major payers to determine when they will activate new CPT codes. Jumping the gun can result in a rash of denied claims” ” Stout says.

Note: New codes appear here in bold type and revised codes are in plain type. As in past issues all new revised and deleted codes are listed in Appendix B of CPT 2002.

Dotting I’s and Crossing T’s

Many of the changes to existing codes involve the slightest grammatical or even punctuation changes but even those slight revisions can change the nature of the code. For instance 20225 now reads: biopsy bone trocar or needle; deep (e.g. vertebral body femur). The only change in the code definition is the addition of “e.g.” But the change means that a deep bone biopsy includes but is not limited to the vertebral body or the femur.

The most minor changes appear in the 21182-21184 code group (reconstruction of orbital walls rims forehead nasoethmoid complex following intra- and extracranial excision of benign tumor of cranial bone [e.g. fibrous dysplasia] with multiple autografts [includes obtaining grafts]; total area of bone grafting ). The choice of code depends on the size of area of bone grafting e.g. 40 square centimeters. That measurement used to be shown as 40cm but the term for the measurement is now 40 sq. cm.

New and Revised Injection Codes

The 20000 series of injection codes includes a number of new entries. These new codes offer options for reporting injection of the carpal canal for carpal tunnel syndrome as well as a range of codes for reporting those troublesome trigger-point injections. Expansion of this section of codes will allow for more accurate reporting and less confusion about location purpose and number of injections rendered.

  • 20526 injection therapeutic (e.g. local anesthetic corticosteroid) carpal tunnel.
  • 20550 injection; tendon sheath ligament ganglion cyst.
  • 20551 injection; tendon origin/insertion.
  • 20552 injection; single or multiple trigger point(s) one or two muscle group(s).
  • 20553 injection; single or multiple trigger point(s) three or more muscle groups.

    Miscellaneous Changes

    Several other codes have been rewritten with slight additions or deletions of terms to make them clearer or more consistent with current medical terminology.

  • 21750 closure of median sternotomy separation with or without debridement (separate procedure).
  • 23000 removal of subdeltoid calcareous deposits open.
  • 23350 injection procedure for shoulder arthrography or enhanced CT/MRI shoulder arthrography.
  • 27447 arthroplasty knee condyle and plateau; medial and lateral compartments with or without patella resurfacing (total knee arthroplasty).

The term “soft tissue” was added to a number of codes for the excision of subcutaneous and deep tumors (24075 24076 25075 25076 26115 and 26116) to solidify their use for soft tissue masses only and not bony tumors.

More Elbow Room

Important additions were made to the humerus (upper arm) and elbow section which has remained essentially untouched for years providing coders with a wider more specific range of codes for identifying surgeries to the arm. Stout says the big plus with these new codes is that for many common surgeries they eliminate the need for an unlisted-procedure code (24999 unlisted procedure humerus or elbow) and the accompanying reimbursement hassles. Physicians who perform ulnar collateral ligament repairs will be especially pleased with the new codes for reporting this service.

  • 24075 excision tumor soft tissue of upper arm or elbow area; subcutaneous.
  • 24076 excision tumor soft tissue of upper arm or elbow area; deep (subfascial or intramuscular).
  • 24300 manipulation elbow under anesthesia.
  • 24332 tenolysis triceps.
  • 24343 repair lateral collateral ligament elbow with local tissue.
  • 24344 reconstruction lateral collateral ligament elbow with tendon graft (includes harvesting of graft).
  • 24345 repair medial collateral ligament elbow with local tissue.
  • 24346 reconstruction medial collateral ligament elbow with tendon graft (includes harvesting of graft).

Clarifications for Wrist and Forearm Surgeries

A range of new and revised codes will offer more accurate coding options for surgery to the wrist and forearm. The code changes offer greater specificity as evidenced by the expanded range of codes for decompressive fasciotomies.

Many of the changes are minor giving more clarification as to what is and isn’t included in surgeries of the wrist and forearm. Some of the most notable new codes here are 25001 for release of flexor carpi radialis tunnel syndrome 25259 for manipulation of the wrist joint and 25651 and 25652 for treatment of ulnar styloid fracture. Again the need to report an unlisted-procedure code (25999 unlisted procedure forearm or wrist) has been eliminated by the addition of these new codes.

  • 25001 incision flexor tendon sheath wrist (e.g. flexor carpi radialis).
  • 25020 decompression fasciotomy forearm and/or wrist flexor or extensor compartment; without debridement of nonviable muscle and/or nerve.
  • 25024 decompression fasciotomy forearm and/or wrist flexor and extensor compartment; without debridement of nonviable muscle and/or nerve.
  • 25025 decompression fasciotomy forearm and/or wrist flexor and extensor compartment; with debridement of nonviable muscle and/or nerve.
  • 25075 excision tumor soft tissue of forearm and/or wrist area; subcutaneous.
  • 25076 excision tumor soft tissue of forearm and/or wrist area; deep (subfascial or intramuscular).
  • 25259 manipulation wrist under anesthesia.
  • 25274 repair tendon or muscle extensor forearm and/or wrist; secondary with free graft (includes obtaining graft) each tendon or muscle.
  • 25275 repair tendon sheath extensor forearm and/or wrist with free graft (includes obtaining graft) (e.g. for extensor carpi ulnaris subluxation).
  • 25394 osteoplasty carpal bone shortening.
  • 25405 repair of nonunion or malunion radius or ulna; with autograft (includes obtaining graft).
  • 25420 repair of nonunion or malunion radius and ulna; with autograft (includes obtaining graft).
  • 25430 insertion of vascular pedicle into carpal bone (e.g. Harii procedure)
  • 25431 repair of nonunion of carpal bone (excluding carpal scaphoid [navicular[ (includes obtaining graft and necessary fixation) each bone.
  • 25440 repair of nonunion scaphoid carpal (navicular) bone with or without radial styloidecto my (includes obtaining graft and necessary fixation).
  • 25443 arthroplasty with prosthetic replacement; scaphoid carpal (navicular).
  • 25520 closed treatment of radial shaft fracture and closed treatment of dislocation of distal radioulnar joint (Galeazzi fracture/dislocation).
  • 25526 open treatment of radial shaft fracture with internal and/or external fixation and open treatment with or without internal or external fixation of distal radioulnar joint (Galeazzi fracture/dislocation) includes repair of triangular fibrocartilage complex.
  • 25645 open treatment of carpal bone fracture (other than carpal scaphoid [navicular]) each bone.
  • 25651 percutaneous skeletal fixation of ulnar styloid fracture.
  • 25652 open treatment of ulnar styloid fracture.
  • 25671 percutaneous skeletal fixation of distal radioulnar dislocation.

A Fist Full of Changes in Terminology

There is only one new code (26340) in the hands and fingers section but numerous terminology changes were made that clarified codes and removed obsolete terms. For example the term “zone 2” replaces “digital flexor tendon sheath” in CPT codes 26350 and 26356; “synthetic” replaces “prosthetic” in 26390 26392 26415 and 26416; and “polydactylous” replaces “supernumerary” in CPT code 26587.

The addition of the word “each” to the codes for treatment of carpometacarpal joint (CMC) dislocations (26670 26676 and 26685) and arthrodesis of the CMC joint (26843) invites coders to report these codes as multiples when this is appropriate. Code 26340 again offers a viable alternative to the unlisted-procedure code for finger manipulation.

  • 26115 excision tumor or vascular malformation soft tissue of hand or finger; subcutaneous.
  • 26116 excision tumor or vascular malformation soft tissue of hand or finger; deep (subfascial or intramuscular).
  • 26160 excision of lesion of tendon sheath or joint capsule (e.g. cyst mucous cyst or ganglion) hand or finger.
  • 26340 manipulation finger joint under anesthesia each joint.
  • 26350 repair or advancement flexor tendon not in zone 2 digital flexor tendon sheath (e.g. no man’s land); primary or secondary without free graft each tendon.
  • 26356 repair or advancement flexor tendon in zone 2 digital flexor tendon sheath (e.g. no man’s land); primary or secondary without free graft each tendon.
  • 26390 excision flexor tendon with implantation of synthetic rod for delayed tendon graft hand or finger each rod.
  • 26392 removal of synthetic rod and insertion of flexor tendon graft hand or finger (includes obtaining graft) each rod.
  • 26415 excision of extensor tendon with implantation of synthetic rod for delayed tendon graft hand or finger each rod.
  • 26416 removal of synthetic rod and insertion of extensor tendon graft (includes obtaining graft) hand or finger each rod.
  • 26426 repair of extensor tendon central slip secondary (e.g. boutonniere deformity); using local tissue(s) including lateral band(s) each finger.
  • 26428 repair of extensor tendon central slip secondary (e.g. boutonniere deformity); with free graft (includes obtaining graft) each finger.
  • 26510 cross intrinsic transfer each tendon.
  • 26585 deleted use 26587.
  • 26587 reconstruction of polydactylous digit soft tissue and bone.
  • 26590 repair macrodactylia each digit.
  • 26597 deleted use 11041-11042 14040-14041 15120 15240.
  • 26607 closed treatment of metacarpal fracture with manipulation with external fixation each bone.
  • 26607 closed treatment of carpometacarpal dislocation other than thumb with manipulation each joint; without anesthesia.
  • 26676 percutaneous skeletal fixation of carpometacarpal dislocation other than thumb with manipulation each joint.
  • 26685 open treatment of carpometacarpal dislocation other than thumb; with or without internal or external fixation each joint.
  • 26843 arthrodesis carpometacarpal joint digit other than thumb each.

    Pelvis and Hips Feet and Toes Revisions

    The pelvis and hip joint section of CPT has several code revisions but no additions. As with the other changes they are more specific but offer little substantive difference from the past edition of CPT.

  • 27110 transfer iliopsoas; to greater trochanter of femur.
  • 27130 arthroplasty acetabular and proximal femoral prosthetic replacement (total hip arthroplasty) with or without autograft or allograft.
  • 27132 conversion of previous hip surgery to total hip arthroplasty with or without autograft or allograft.
  • 27140 osteotomy and transfer of greater trochanter of femur (separate procedure).
  • 27185 epiphyseal arrest by epiphysiodesis or stapling greater trochanter of femur.

    There are a few changes to nomenclature in the foot and toes section but no new codes. The narrative for CPT code 28299 was tightened up a bit by replacing “other methods” with “by double osteotomy.”

  • 28104 excision or curettage of bone cyst or benign tumor tarsal or metatarsal except talus or calcaneus.
  • 28238 reconstruction (advancement) posterior tibial tendon with excision of accessory tarsal navicular bone (e.g. Kidner type procedure).
  • 28299 correction hallux valgus (bunion) with or without sesamoidectomy; by double osteotomy.
  • 28737 arthrodesis with tendon lengthening and advancement midtarsal tarsal navicular-cuneiform (e.g. Miller type procedure).

Casts and Strapping

One new code was added to the section on casts and strapping and one was revised.

  • 29049 application cast; figure-of-eight.
  • 29086 application cast; finger (e.g. contracture).

Arthroscopy Codes Added

The most meaningful changes to CPT 2002 for orthopedics are the addition of several new codes for arthroscopy. Sports medicine orthopedists should be pleased since they now have a means for reporting arthroscopic Bankart repairs (capsulorrhaphy) SLAP lesion repairs and distal clavicle resections.

The addition of 29806 29807 and 29824 alone means there are now codes to describe common arthroscopic shoulder surgeries that formerly had to be reported using 29909 (unlisted procedure arthroscopy). Orthopedic coders are painfully familiar with the denials extra documentation reimbursement reductions and other pitfalls that came with submitting this code. And as if to put those headaches to bed permanently CPT has eliminated 29909 replacing it with 29999. The change is largely symbolic as the language for 29999 remains just as it was for 29909 (unlisted procedure arthroscopy).

  • 29805 arthroscopy shoulder diagnostic with or without synovial biopsy (separate procedure).
  • 29806 arthroscopy shoulder surgical; capsulorrhaphy.
  • 29807 arthroscopy shoulder surgical; repair of SLAP lesion.
  • 29815 deleted use 29805.
  • 29824 arthroscopy shoulder surgical; distal claviculectomy including distal articular surface (Mumford procedure).
  • 29900 arthroscopy metacarpophalangeal joint diagnostic includes synovial biopsy.
  • 29901 arthroscopy metacarpophalangeal joint surgical; with debridement.
  • 29902 arthroscopy metacarpophalangeal joint surgical; with reduction of displaced ulnar collateral ligament (e.g. stenar lesion).
  • 29909 deleted use 29999.
  • 29999 unlisted procedure arthroscopy.

The downside to the new arthroscopy codes is that they may present bundling issues in 2002. According to Terry Fletcher BS CPC CCS-P CCS a healthcare coding consultant based in Laguna Beach Calif. bundling was less of an issue when unlisted-procedure codes were reported with other surgeries performed at the same setting. “Now with the new codes ” she says “coders should be aware of all of the new bundling issues that come with them and reimbursements will definitely be affected. It’s a good idea to start negotiating contracts with payers as soon as possible.”

The Best Herbal Remedies For IBS You’ll Ever Find

The constant flipflop between constipation and diarrhea often associated with IBS makes planning anything difficult. However, between these herbs and your doctor, things can be done to calm the problem and ease the pain.

Peppermint Oil: Fifteen studies have been done on peppermint oil in relationship to irritable bowel disease. Patients who used the oil were statistically better off by a wide margin. While you can drink a tea, the capsules of oil are probably the better bet. It needs to get through the stomach in order to be useful in the intestines. The enteric coating helps assure that happens.

Chamomile: The soothing qualities of these flowers is well known to those who are anxious or suffer from mild insomnia. However, it is just as soothing to the intestines. Chamomile can help stop the painful spasms in they body, which can reduce the impact of IBS on your life. It may also make you sleepy, so be careful driving or operating machinery after taking it. I find a tea the best method for this plant, but you may need the convenience of tablets or capsules.

Acidophilus: While this isn’t an herb, it does seem to offer help to those suffering from IBS. Bad bacteria can cause flare ups, so adding more good bacteria is often helpful. You can get it in liquid form as well as in yogurt. You’ll want the live kind, so read the labels carefully.

Wormwood: While some websites encourage the use of wormwood, I do not. There are two reasons. One, the wrong dosage can have really bad side effects. The other is that it contains a chemical that can cause brain damage. Unfortunately, it doesn’t wear off, it accumulates. That means the more you take it, the more of your brain will be damaged, and it causes irreversible insanity.

Sage: I’ve used sage the most for IBS, in part because I know it works on me. It has a drying effect, so if you are suffering from a constipation episode, don’t take it. However, for diarrhea, it can be quite useful.

A Psychological Profile Of Janis Joplin

“The greater the feeling of inferiority that has been experienced, the more powerful is the urge to conquest and the more violent the emotional agitation.” —Alfred Adler

Biographical Overview

Janice Joplin was born January 19, 1943 in Port Arthur Texas to Seth and Dorothy Joplin. Janice was the first born child in a family that would eventually include a sister Laura, who was born 6 years later, and a brother Michael, who was born 10 years later. Janice’s early family life was relatively normal, and as a child she was exceptionally curious and bright. Janice often made up stories as a child and began writing plays while in the first grade, and even at a very young age her creative talent seemed to be developing.

One early story recounted in Myra Friedman’s (1973) book on Janis, recounts how Seth would take the Janis and eventually her siblings down to the post office to look at the pictures of the wanted men as a form of entertainment. Given Janis’s later utter and total disregard for the law and conventionality in her life, one wonders if Janis didn’t develop some kind of sympathy for the “outlaw” from these early experiences, as she certainly began to view herself as existing outside of the bounds of normal society.

In Janis’s words, “The whole world turned on me” when she entered High School, and these years seemed to have an especially profound influence on Janis as well as her later work. Port Arthur was in many ways a rough and even violent city, and as a port town had a number of bars and houses of prostitution to service the men who came to work there. Janis witnessed extreme racism while growing up in Port Arthur, and her tolerance and acceptance of people from other races quickly earned her the nickname “nigger lover” which was one of many that she would eventually acquire in Port Arthur. During this period Janis also gained weight and developed bad skin, and she was often also called a “pig” by the other children in the school.

Following High School Janice enrolled at Lamar State College which she found was much like her High School in Port Arthur, as she again experienced a great deal of rejection here and eventually dropped out. With her parent’s blessing, Janis moved to Los Angeles to live with one of her aunts. Janis eventually moved out of her aunt’s home into a place of her own in Venice Beach and it was during this trip that she began to seriously use drugs including heroin. Having nearly died during her experiences in Venice Beach, Janice again returned to Port Arthur, and eventually decided to return to school, this time at the University of Texas in Austin.

It was during this period of her life where Janis began performing seriously as a musician. She had discovered the blues through listening to records by Odetta and Bessie Smith, and Janis showed an amazing ability to imitate these singers, which was a lifelong talent she had developed even as a young girl. Janis would often play in coffeehouses and other campus spots around Austin, and it was during these formative years where she was able to put together her blues, folk, and rock influences into her own integrated and unique sound. Janis’s favorite place to play was the legendary Threadgill’s where she became close friends with owner Ken Threadgill who was a very positive force in Janis’s life.

Although Austin included many more anti-establishment types than Port Arthur, Janis was still ridiculed and mocked at the University of Texas, and her sense of inferiority as a result of this reached its pinnacle when she was nominated for the “Ugliest Man on Campus” award while attending school in Austin. This was the final blow to Janis in Texas, and shortly after this even she packed her bags and moved to San Francisco to pursue a career as a singer.

Janis moved to Haight Ashbury in 1966 which at the time was the epicenter of the 1960’s. Bands such as the Grateful Dead and the Jefferson Airplane were also coming up at this time, and the music and freedom made the Haight in the 1960’s for many a magical time and place to be. Janis found an incredible sense of belonging with Big Brother during this time, and their early work as a band represented the raw energy and improvisational nature of rock and Roll that people were beginning to take notice of.

Janice soon began to outshine Big Brother however, and although they were a highly energetic live band, their improvisational style did not translate well in recording sessions. Janice on the other hand took a great interest in the recording sessions, and was committed to recording an album that demonstrated Big Brother’s and more importantly her own unique style. With Albert’s encouragement, Janice eventually left Big Brother, and this act was seen by many in the band, as well as many of Janice’s personal friends, as an act of selfish betrayal.

Janice next formed the Kosmic Blues Band, which she spelled with a K in honor of Franz Kafka, who was one of the many novelists that Janice loved to read. The band was supposed to mark a return to Janice’s blues roots, but her first gig in Memphis, a city rich in the blues tradition, was a disaster as the new band received a very lukewarm response from the Memphis crowd. During her time with Kosmic Blues, Janice, already a regular heavy drug user became more enamored of Heroin. Janice’s Heroin use continued to increase throughout her time with the Kosmic Blues band, and by the time it came to play at Woodstock in the summer of 1969 she was most likely addicted to the drug. In one particularly disgusting story, Janice’s friend and lover Peggy Caserta (who would later go on to write “Going down with Janis” recounts how Janis snuck into the portable toilets to shoot Heroin prior to her performance at Woodstock. In any case Janice’s performance at Woodstock was not thought to be one of her best, and it was at this juncture of her career where her Heroin abuse and continued heavy drinking seemed to adversely begin affecting her music.

Realizing that the Kosmic Blues band was not working, Janice also left this band, and in the last year of her life formed her final band that was known as Full Tilt Boogie. It was also during this period that Janice formed a friendship with Kris Kristopherson who would eventually become her lover, and who also wrote Janis’s seminal hit Me and Bobby McGee which is the song she is most known for today. During this last phase of her life, Janice began referring to herself as “Pearl” which to her represented the tough- talking highly sexed festive side of her nature.

One significant event that occurred at the end of her life was Janice’s ten year High-School reunion. Janis announced her plans to attend the reunion on the Dick Cavett show while also telling the host Dick Cavett that during her time at Port Arthur that her classmates “laughed me out of class, out of town and out of the state, man”. Janis wanted to return to Port Arthur to show those that had picked on her and ostracized her that she had made it after all, while also still craving acceptance from the town that she thought her fame would bring her. Janis was drunk most of the time during the reunion, and because she had made several negative remarks about the town in the national press, her visit did not achieve what she had hoped, and once again she left Port Arthur feeling rejected and unloved.

Upon returning to San Francisco Janice’s Heroin usage had increased significantly, and it was also during this time that she met and quickly became engaged to a man named Seth Morgan who was from a wealthy east coast family. By all accounts Seth was a dishonorable man, and his stormy relationship with Janis did not appear to be based on any kind of fidelity from either party. During Janis’s last months in San Francisco she also reconnected with Peggy Caserta whose appetite for Heroin nearly matched Janis’s. Peggy and many others of Janice’s friends continued to use Heroin with her in her last month, but Janice was using the drug alone in a seedy hotel when she eventually died from an overdose on October 4th 1970.

Janis’s death deeply saddened her friends as well as her fans, but many, including Janice herself, did not expect her to live a particularly long life. Her rampant alcohol and Heroin use had set her on a collision course with death that seemed inevitable, and with this in mind, many people considered the idea that Janice Joplin’s death was not in fact an accident but rather a suicide. While a coroner’s report showed that the Heroin Janice had used that night was especially pure, one can certainly speculate that Janis Joplin contributed greatly to her own demise. Despite the fact her death was eventually ruled an accident, it is clear that Janis Joplin’s sad and unhappy life ended as a direct result of her own actions.


Gender Role Preparation perceived through Gender Guiding Lines and Role Models

One of the ways a child makes his or her way in the world begins with an acceptance or a rejection of their gender guiding lines. In this regard, Janis Joplin’s relationship with her mother becomes fascinating to analyze, as Janice and her mother’s interactions were often characterized by a battle of wills and a great deal of turbulence. Janis’s mother, who was a Sunday school teacher, expected Janis to conform to the rules, wear dresses like the other little girls, while also making the family proud with her accomplishments. In this regard Mrs. Joplin had high expectations for her daughter concerning both conformity and accomplishment, and this seemed to send a mixed message to Janis that affected her future ambitions and desires.

Despite Janis’s rejection of the maternal guiding line, she did identify strongly with her father who was an intellectual man who enjoyed reading and was much more accepting and permissive of Janis than her mother. Janis seems to have strongly identified with her father instead of her mother, and this speaks directly to her eventual embrace of many more traditionally masculine qualities in her life.

Janis eventually almost totally and completely rejected her mother’s wishes that she be like the other girls, and therefore rejected the female guiding line in the family which also seemed to have an effect on her sexuality. Although Janis talked a few times of achieving married life with a “white picket fence” she found belonging by wearing pants and acting like one of the boys, and for Janis this included sleeping with by her own account “a couple of hundred” women throughout her life, including one in her High School years.

Much has been made of Janis’s sexuality, and one feminist writer attributed Janis’s drug use and lifelong pain as resulting from being unable to fully come out and experience life as her lesbian self. In essence she made Janis a martyr for lesbian causes, and this idea is provocative and interesting to consider with regard to Janis. It certainly must have been difficult for Janis to reject the feminine guiding line in the family without it having some affect on her sexuality, and therefore it seems highly plausible that Janis may have been predominantly attracted to other women. On the other hand Janis did also sleep with a great many more men than women in her life, but her inability to sustain lasting relationships with these men may speak directly to Janis’s confused and even tormented sexual feelings. Although she often bragged about her conquests with men, one could see this as a dramatic overcompensation for her lesbian feelings, as well as a compensation for her rejection by the boys of Port Arthur when she was young. As a star Janice spoke often about her increased access to “pretty young boys” and one wonders if her often false bravado when speaking about men may have simply been attempts to deal with feelings of childhood rejection and inferiority.

When children reject their parental guiding lines, they may often turn to role models to guide them. In Janis’s case because such a role model was not available in Port Arthur, she found this guidance through emulating and studying the music of Bessie Smith, who had died several years before Janis was born. Bessie Smith was and is one of the most influential Blues singers in American history and Janis felt a kinship with the blues where she was drawn not just to the music but also to the sadness and pathos that produced the music. Janis remarked often throughout her career that singing the blues required suffering, and Janis used this belief to justify and rationalize her Heroin abuse.

Janice did draw strength from visualizing the blues singers that had come before her however, and the anguish and pain in her voice while she was singing appeared to be a true representation of Janis’s often tortured life. Much like the Blues singers she was emulating, Janis did use music to make sense of painful feelings, and the power and influence of Blues singers like Bessie Smith provided for Janis a roadmap of how to process these feelings. Bessie Smith was in fact such a powerful influence on her, that Janis contributed half the money for Bessie Smith’s memorial so she could be properly honored and remembered.

Interpersonal Style perceived through Experience of Family Atmosphere

One thing that Janice seems to have inherited from her mother was a sense of frugality which Dorothy had developed from her experiences seeing her family farm lost to the depression. Janice was not particularly generous with money over the course of her career, and despite her blatant disregard for the rules, friends who went through Janice’s possessions (Friedman 1973) following her death found several “meticulously organized checkbooks, all balanced to the penny.” Janice also always scoured for the cheapest item when she was grocery shopping, and would spend extra time comparing differences in price on items although money was really no object in this instance. Considering Janice’s otherwise highly disruptive life, this seems almost miraculous, and certainly speaks to the fact that Janice respected at least some of her family’s established values.

Another instance where Janice seems to have rejected her mother’s guidance was in the area of spirituality, where Dorothy who was a Sunday school teacher, tried to instill in her children ideas consistent with conventional morality. Janice wildly rejected this idea, and adopted an extremely hedonistic attitude where if something felt good to her she was quick to do it. Janice often expressed this philosophy of the immediate throughout her life, and this ran directly opposed to the family’s religious convictions that there was a life after this one where we received our final rewards.

The family’s experiences with music are also important to consider with regard to Janis’s interpersonal style. At one time Dorothy was such a talented singer that she received a full scholarship for her musical abilities to Texas Christian University. Dorothy continued to sing in the church choir when Janis was little, and the family had a piano to celebrate Dorothy’s love of music. When Janis was young Dorothy had one of her vocal cords severed in an accident during a surgery, and Dorothy could no longer sing as a result of this experience. Seth then sold the piano and this seemed to convey an unusual message to Janis about music, and may have a relationship to Janis’s fear, repeated often throughout her career, that she would loose her voice and therefore her career.

Janice’s eventual embrace of music could be interpreted a couple of different ways. First, that she carried on the family torch passed down from Dorothy, or second, that she took to music because it was something her mother could no longer do. Considering how stormy the relationship was between Janis and her mother, and the fact that Seth sold the piano because it was too painful to have around for Dorothy, it seems possible to speculate that Janis’s music was in some ways a reaction against her mother. The kind of music Janis did go on to produce was certainly far different than the music Dorothy studied in school and perhaps Janice’s embrace of music could be interpreted as both an ode to, as well as a reaction against, Dorothy’s love of music.

Perspective on the World perceived through Experience of Psychological Birth Order

Janis was the first born child in a family of three, and this also influenced her perspective on the world. First born children are often the responsible and conservative children in the family, and can become in many ways like second parents to the other children. In Janis’s first 6 years of life she behaved much like you would expect an oldest child to behave, as her mother reports she learned to sit and cut her food and eat and talk like an adult at a very early age with amused and surprised Dorothy. Janice was also very well-behaved and had excellent manners, and her mother reports that her behavior was nearly beyond correction in these early years.

Things changed when Laura was born when Janice was six, as not only was Janis now dethroned as the only child, but Laura had health complications which took up even more of her mother’s attention. Interestingly Janis did not at this time become a jealous and overbearing sibling, but instead became very attentive to Laura and cared for as a kind of surrogate parent.

A fascinating switch in the psychological birth order perspective did happen later however, when Janis began to get jealous that Laura appeared to do things that met her mother’s high expectations whereas Janis consistently let her down. Children often find belonging in families by engaging in behaviors that are different than their siblings. In the case of the Joplin’s this happened much later when Janis was in High School, where Janis was now finding belonging as the misbehaving child where Laura assumed the role of the responsible one. Normally this dynamic is exactly reversed, but in the Joplin’s case Laura now assumed the vantage point of the first born child and Janis as the reckless and wild second born.

This pattern continued throughout the rest of their lives, as during her periods of conservative behavior Janis would often ask for Laura’s assistance picking out the proper clothes and seek her advice on style and other matters. Although Laura was six years younger, she seemed to eventually surpass Janis emotionally as well, and her story is very much intertwined with Janis’s even today. Laura eventually earned a PHD in education and became a motivational speaker. She also wrote a book called Love, Janis which provided letters Janis had written home to the family throughout her career, and this book, which was later made into a Broadway production, helped a lot of people reach a greater understanding of Janis Joplin’s inner world.

Self Assessment perceived through Genetic Possibilities

It is impossible to talk about Janis Joplin without talking about her physical appearance, as this was at the root of a great deal of Janis’s inferiority and perhaps even a partial explanation for her extreme talent. Although Janis was by all accounts an average looking girl growing up, she went through a particularly awkward stage in High School where she gained weight and also developed skin problems. In Texas in the 1950’s this must have been particularly difficult, as beauty was certainly a cherished value for women in this time and place, and a person’s self-worth could easily become tied to their appearance which seems to have happened to Janice. Rather than attempt to play a game she felt she could not succeed at, Janice instead chose to respond in the exact opposite manner, and she made her personal appearance a very low priority.

This is classic safeguarding behavior where a person creates a sense of rejection themselves before others have a chance to reject them. In Janis’s case she would put on a brave front when others would call her a “pig” in High School, but then go home and cry about this rejection. It must have particularly painful for Janis to be nominated for “Ugliest Man on Campus” while at the University of Texas, as this was a place where she had finally found some belonging and had experienced some success as a singer.

Being constantly rejected for her appearance, Janis only felt beautiful in her life when she was performing. It was on the stage where her wild sexuality and charisma finally shined, and this for Janis meant the stage became the only place where she every truly felt accepted. Janice spent the rest of her life following High School chasing the “pretty boys” and this seems to be overcompensation for the rejection she felt from the popular boys both in High School as well as at the University of Texas. She made much of her one night stand with New York Jets quarterback Joe Namath, even announcing their affair over the microphone while doing a New York concert, and also bragged about sleeping with Jim Morrison, Dick Cavett, and many other men which may have been simply further attempts to prove that she was indeed wanted by the “popular” crowd.

This certainly seemed to be a large part of her motivation to return to her High School reunion where she hoped to show those that had rejected her how she had made it. When Janis was again rejected at her High School reunion it seemed to bring all of her intense feelings of inferiority back to the surface, and have at least some relationship to her final and fatal Heroin binge.

It is also interesting to consider Janis’s engagement to Seth Morgan with regard to the timing of her reunion. Seth, whose east coast pedigree led Janis to believe that he was in fact one of the “popular” boys she had always sought after had also assured Janis he did not want any of her money, and even signed an agreement that assured this. For Janis this may have been a last grasp at fitting in and dealing with the feelings of inferiority her reunion stirred up, and a final attempt at finding the belonging that she so desperately craved.

Openings for Advancement Perceived through Environmental Opportunities

It is impossible to attempt an understanding of Janis Joplin without also understanding the times she came of age in. The 1960’s was a period of great revolution and change, and provided the perfect backdrop for Janis to unharness her raw energy and power through her music. Prior to the 60’s women had no such opportunity, and the classic model of the Rosemary Clooney type lounge singer was a paradigm that Janis helped change and recreate for many future generations. The fact that Janis came along concurrently at the height of the woman’s movement was also significant, as she became for many a symbol for women’s sexual freedom and experimentation that had previously been taboo. Had Janis come along in another era, her brazen sexuality would not have been well received, and Janis was a direct benefactor of as well as a contributor to, the women’s movement.

Range of Social Interest perceived through Other Particularities

In Adlerian psychology, a person’s mental health can be measured by examining a person’s social interest in other human beings. In Janis Joplin’s case her early inferiority produced such violent insecurity that she had a very difficult time getting close to others and maintaining intimacy in her personal relationships. Although Janis was often taken advantage of by others in her life, she relished in thinking of herself as a victim as it confirmed her existing feelings about herself.

For Janis the circumstances of her life must have contributed greatly to her confusion about other people’s motives concerning their feelings for her. Before she was famous she was mocked and ridiculed by nearly everyone she came into contact with, excepting a few select friends she made along the way. She felt inferior in her home life and that she wasn’t living up to her mother’s expectations as to what a woman should be. Then when she became famous suddenly the whole world took an intense interest in her, and it is easy to see why she would doubt the motivations behind this interest given her prior experiences.

No where was this more evident than at Janis’s reunion where she wanted to show the people who had mocked her how important she had become, while also badly seeking their acceptance. For Janis the Thomas Wolfe axiom that “You can’t go home again” seemed especially appropriate, and all of these conflicting cognitions and emotions must have created a great deal of psychic turmoil in Janis which she numbed by using Heroin.

In this regard, Janis remarked to Myra Friedman (1973) that “her only true friends were the junkies she used to hang out with” and this is a telling statement that speaks directly to the fact that drug addicts often gravitate to each other in a kind of shared misery. The fact that Janis made this remark seems to confirm her low opinion of herself, and how this low opinion affected her interactions with others. Because Janis was so in need of love from others, she surrounded herself with sycophants who would often tell her whatever she wanted to hear, which was a fact Janis was well aware of.

Although many singers from this era including Janis’s one time lover Country Joe McDonald became very involved in political causes in the 60’s, Janice’s message seemed to be more about freedom through breaking off the shackles that society imposed. Perhaps because the 60’s were such a time of freedom, many serious addictions such as Janis’s were overlooked under the guise of free living. The dream of Timothy Leary and others like him that drugs could be a mind expanding tool has not been realized, and many such as Janis developed severe and pathological addictions as a result of this idea. This was the paradox of the pairing of drugs and freedom, as, although the drugs were meant to free a person’s mind, they often made them virtual slaves to their addictions as was the case in Janis Joplin’s life.


Janis Joplin’s life was clearly very sad, and demonstrates the pathology and sadness that exists in someone who, despite achieving considerable wealth and fame, never learns to overcome feelings of inferiority towards the self. Alfred Adler’s quote “The greater the feeling of inferiority that has been experienced, the more powerful is the urge to conquest and the more violent the emotional agitation” seems especially relevant to Janis’s life. In many ways Janis positively channeled and compensated for her feelings of inferiority through her work on the stage, but when the music was over Janis was always left with the same uncomfortable feelings. Several of the books on Janis’s life describe how despondent she would be following a performance, and this may be because the stage was the only place she truly found the love and acceptance she so desperately craved.

Many factors contributed to Janis’s inferiority, and the stars all aligned in a very unique way to create the life that was Janis Joplin’s. Her early and continued rejection by the other children, particularly in High School created a lifetime of negative feelings about her physical appearance, and these feelings were probably exacerbated through her interactions with her mother who wanted her to be more like the other children. Because Janis was not like the other girls, she assumed many masculine traits, and somewhere along the way her feelings about sexuality became very confused. Although there is significant evidence to demonstrate a genetic link to homosexuality, there are also almost certainly environmental factors which can contribute to this, and Janis Joplin’s life seemed to be an excellent example.

Despite Janis’s sexually ambivalent feelings, she many times remarked about a mythical “white picket fence” kind of life that she longed for that would bring her some consistency and stability. But Janice was also terrified of giving up her stardom, as this was also the only thing she had to cling to that gave her a sense of accomplishment in life. She had created the “Pearl” image and now she had to consistently live up to it, and this required a pace that no one could possibly maintain.

Janice was also a product of her times, as more than any other decade before or since, the 1960’s were a time of great change, paradigm shifts, and revolution, and Janis helped define these times while also being swept away by them. The music of the 60’s reflected a large break in society where kids were expected to “never trust anyone over 30” that never quite considered what happened when they reached 30. For Janis, her reckless lifestyle, intense feelings of self-loathing, and raging feelings of inferiority eventually overwhelmed her, and her death at the age of 27 was truly tragic considering the further contributions she may have gone on to make.

Questions about Erb’s Palsy

What Is Erb’s Palsy?

Erb’s palsy is a disability disorder caused by an injury to the brachial plexus during a baby’s birth. The brachial plexus is a “bundle” of nerves, originating from the spinal cord and located between the neck and shoulder. The result of damage to this nerve set can be as severe as paralysis in the arm, shoulder or hand.

Erb’s palsy, also known as brachial plexus paralysis, is considered a serious birth injury, just as cerebral palsy is considered a birth-related condition.

What Causes Erb’s Palsy?

Erb’s palsy is usually caused by a stretching of the brachial plexus nerve fibers as a baby’s head and shoulder are moved in opposing directions during delivery. Medical malpractice has been shown to play a role in the development of Erb’s palsy in some cases, including these types of situations:

  • Failure of doctor to accurately estimate the baby’s size before labor begins
  • Failure to schedule a C-section for mothers who have risk factors, such as a previous infant with a brachial plexus injury or a small mother with a large infant
  • Use of unnecessary or excessive force during delivery
  • Failure to recognize a breech-positioned baby prior to labor and delivery
  • Inappropriate use of forceps or vacuum extraction
  • Allowing a troubled delivery to go on for too long or delaying the decision to perform a C-section for too long

What Are the Symptoms of Erb’s Palsy?
A child with Erb’s palsy may exhibit some or all of the following signs:

  • Inability to move the shoulder, arm, wrist or hand (paralysis)
  • Numbness or no feeling at all in the hand, arm or shoulder
  • Decreased or lack of muscle control in the shoulder, arm, wrist or hand
  • Limpness in the hand, wrist or arm (baby appears “floppy” on one side)
  • Paralysis on one side of face
  • Inability to sit up or crawl without assistance (in an older infant)

What Are the Treatments Available for Erb’s Palsy?

Early diagnosis of Erb’s palsy is essential to give a baby the best prognosis for injury recovery and reduced disability later in life. Treatment options can include physical therapy, nerve grafting, and surgery on the nerves, tendons and muscles in the injured area.

What Should I Do If I Suspect My Child’s Erb’s Palsy Was Caused by Medical Malpractice?

Don’t wait any longer to contact an experienced medical malpractice attorney to discuss your case. (There are statutes of limitations involved in medical malpractice cases.) You may also find the online resources available from Salt Lake City, Utah’s Erb’s palsy lawyers at G. Eric Nielson & Associates, LLC.

Hypnotherapy Training – How To Become A Certified Hypnotist

Hypnotherapy is a field in which you learn about hypnosis. Hypnosis training is a major field of medical science nowadays. It is The field of Hypnotherapy training is continuing to expand and one can find appropriate hypnosis training in any one of these focus areas: general hypnosis; medical hypnosis, dental hypnosis, forensic hypnosis, sports hypnosis, business/education hypnosis, regression hypnosis, behavioral hypnosis and hypnotherapy as a tool in psychotherapy. Persons from all walks of life are invited to attend these life changing programs.

Our hypnotherapy training schools teach students to offer sessions that deal with: smoking cessation, weight control, stress, phobia elimination, habit extinction, personal growth, spiritual growth, performance enhancement, insomnia, regression/past-life regression and behavioral change. Other topics of which the Infinity Institute International, Inc hypnotherapy training schools instruct are on ethics and professionalism, marketing and when to refer to a psychotherapist and or a licensed health care professional.

Graduates of this program qualify to take the certification examination from the International Medical and Dental Hypnotherapy Association® and become Certified Hypnotherapists.

There are a large number of universities and colleges who are working on it.

The rapidly expanding field of contemporary hypnotherapy has a vast variety of safe, powerful applications.

Hypnosis training can dramatically help with improving performance, health, confidence, relationships, sports, concentration, recall and creativity; chronic or acute pain control; overcoming habits, addictions, fears and phobias; self-discovery, stress reduction, healthier self-expression, and therapy for past traumas. Compared with traditional therapeutic modalities, the results of a relatively brief series of hypnotherapy training sessions are often faster and more effective and lasting. No wonder why so many professionals already in the healing arts are implementing hypnosis within their practices.

For those intending to pursue a career in hypnotherapy training, this exciting profession is recognized by the United States Department of Labor including listing in the Dictionary of Occupational Titles. Our school is licensed and our diplomas are approved by the California State Bureau for Private Postsecondary and Vocational Education. HTI is also approved for career training by the Department of Vocational Rehabilitation and other agencies. Professional hypnotherapists may emphasize private consultations or classes or both. They may specialize or have a general practice.

It is a very important and effective adjunct to any therapeutic specialty. Many professionals in the health and counseling fields have taken our training and successfully integrated hypnotism into their work. Examples include: physicians, dentists, chiropractors, psychologists, social workers, marriage counselors, nurses, massage practitioners, electrologists and physical therapists.

Courses all over the world have also proven to be valuable for the ministerial and teaching professions, child welfare, optometry, and coaching, and for students preparing for a career in the “helping professions”. In addition, the course is open to those who wish to have hypnosis training for other purposes such as improving business skills, personal therapy or research, or developing an avocation or a part-time or retirement career.

“Hypnosis training is required to reach the subconscious when awake. It is a very useful. Hypnosis is an altered state beyond ordinary consciousness, but a natural state that can occur spontaneously. There are a great number of ways hypnosis can be induced and deepened. Once in hypnosis during therapy, there are a tremendous variety of healing applications in harnessing and transforming the subconscious. Learning more about hypnotherapy will substantially enhance the skills of ANY health, counseling or teaching professional. All of the best therapists often use hypnotic methods, whether they use that semantic or not.”

The Pros and Cons of Kava

Kava is the name of two shrubs related to the pepper plant. They are also called ava. They grow in Australia and the Pacific Islands, where the people have cultivated them for centuries. The Kavas are erect shrubs. They grow as tall as 5 feet (1.5 meters). The kava plant has round leaves and small yellowish-cream flowers. Kava is easy to grow in green houses. They are grown from the cuttings of the stem. The roots yield a juice called kavaic acid. The people of the South-Pacific use the juice to make a fermented drink that is called Kava, Ava or Kava kava.

Students of all ages get restless as the school year draws to an end. This happens to the most academic students also, resulting in frustration and bad results much to everyone’s dismay. Kava can be used in such cases to relieve anxiety, tension and stress. It calms you down and clears the mind. Kava if used instead of alcohol will help you relax and unwind minus the next morning’s hangover with a fresh and clear head to face the day.

Studies have shown that kava has anti-anxiety properties and improve concentration, reaction time and memory in people suffering from anxiety. Kava has been proved to achieve all the criteria of conventional anxiety medication without the side effects. It has also been found to act as a muscle relaxant. This combine with the other benefits has caused sportspersons to consume kava in mild quantities. Kava also relives menstrual cramping and pain associated with menopause and can also be used to treat urinary tract infections. Kava helps with stammering by contracting the blood vessels in the tongue, giving better muscle control which eases speech.

Kava does have its side effects. Dietary supplements containing kava extracts have know to cause liver ailments, causing them to be banned in Europe. The other side effects are very rare and depend on your genetic makeup. These rare reactions are limited to 2.5% of the test subjects. The severe side effects of kava are liver toxicity and failure, abnormal muscle movements, apathy, kidney damage, high blood pressure in lungs and blood in urine. When taken in conjunction with other drugs it is known to produce abnormal muscle movements. If you experience a stomach upset or rashes after consuming kava you are better off avoiding it altogether.

Kava can be purchased by the pound or in multiples or portions of it. To prepare the kava place it in a straining bag or cheesecloth. You can get straining bags from the same place you buy your kava from or from any supermarket. Put the powder (two spoonfuls per cup) into the straining bag and then immerse the bag into the container of water (hot) to steep. The fine kava particles will melt into the water leaving behind the coarse grit in the cloth. Massage the cloth with a spoon to help the process on. It’s ready to drink when the water turns a muddy brown color. If you think this method is too much of nuisance you could use a French Press with an additional filter paper.

Poliomyelitis – Information on Poliomyelitis

Poliomyelitis is a communicable disease caused by infection with the poliovirus. Transmission of the virus occurs by direct person-to-person contact, by contact with infected secretions from the nose or mouth, or by contact with infected feces. The virus enters through the mouth and nose, multiplies in the throat and intestinal tract, and then is absorbed and spread through the blood and lymph system. Incubation (the time from being infected with the virus to developing symptoms of disease) ranges from 5 to 35 days (average 7 to 14 days).

Poliomyelitis is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by three types of poliovirus. The poliovirus is a virus most recognized for its destruction to the nervous system causing paralysis. The majority of individuals who are infected with polio, however, have no symptoms and few have mild symptoms. Of those persons that do acquire the infection, 2 percent or fewer may develop paralytic disease. Since the advent of the polio vaccine during the early 1950’s, infections from the poliovirus have nearly been eradicated.

Between 1840 and the 1950s, polio was a worldwide epidemic. Since the development of polio vaccines, the incidence of the disease has been greatly reduced. Polio has been wiped out in a number of countries. There have been very few cases of polio in the Western hemisphere since the late 1970s. Children in the United States are now routinely vaccinated against the disease. Outbreaks still occur in the developed world, usually in groups of people who have not been vaccinated. Polio often occurs after someone travels to a region where the disease is common.

Polio is more common in infants and young children and occurs under conditions of poor hygiene. However, paralysis is more common and more severe when infection occurs in older individuals. In exceedingly rare cases, oral polio vaccine has caused paralytic polio in a person who received the vaccine or in a person who was a close contact of a vaccine recipient.

Poliovirus is an RNA virus that is transmitted through the oral-fecal route or by ingestion of contaminated water. Three serotypes are able to cause human infection. The incubation period for poliovirus is 5-35 days. The viral particles initially replicate in the nasopharynx and gastrointestinal tract and then invade lymphoid tissues, with subsequent hematologic spread. After a period of viremia, the virus becomes neurotropic and produces destruction of the motor neurons in the anterior horn and brainstem. The destruction of motor neurons leads to the development of flaccid paralysis, which may be bulbar or spinal in distribution.

Paralytic poliomyelitis – the symptoms of paralytic poliomyelitis include the symptoms of nonparalytic and abortive poliomyelitis. In addition, symptoms may include muscle weakness all over; severe constipation; muscle wasting; weakened breathing; difficulty swallowing; weak cough; flushed or blotchy skin; hoarse voice; bladder paralysis; or muscle paralysis.

Two types of polio vaccine are available: trivalent oral polio vaccine (tOPV) and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV). In July 1999, the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended that IPV be used exclusively in the United States beginning in 2000. The recommended schedule for childhood immunization is for IPV to be given at two, four, and six to eight months of age and between four to six years of age. Adults travelling to countries where polio cases are occurring should review their immunization status.

3 Enlarged Prostate Treatment Options

Men who need treatment for an enlarged prostate are those suffering from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). When you are suffering from this condition you have a progressive decrease in the size and force of the urinary stream. You also feel as if you haven’t urinated even after urinating. Doctors recommend that you treat the condition as soon as possible to avoid complications. Some of the complications that you can have include: thickening of the bladder, development of bladder stones, infection of residue urine, reduced ability to store urine, and damage to the kidneys due to backup pressure.

There are 3 treatment options for an enlarged prostate: lifestyle changes, medications, and surgery.

Lifestyle changes

This is known as the period of watchful waiting. You change your lifestyle and wait to see if there will be changes in your condition. Some of the lifestyle changes that you can make include: drinking less alcohol, artificial sweeteners, and caffeine, emptying your bladder before you go out, double voiding, eating more fruits and fiber, losing weight, massaging the bladder, engaging in exercises, and drinking less in the evening.


If changing your lifestyle doesn’t solve the issue, you should consider taking medications. There are plenty of medications that you can take to treat the condition. The most common are:

Alpha-1-adrenergic blockers: They work on the nerve impulses that signal the muscles around the prostate to contract. Due to this, they relax the muscles. The cool thing with these medications is that they work almost immediately. Experts recommend that you be cautious when taking the medications as they are known to cause dizziness, insomnia, and fatigue.

5-alpha-reductase inhibitors: The medications inhibit the action of 5-alpha-reductase. This is the enzyme that converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. According to experts, these medications work best on you if you have a large prostate (40 ml and above). Doctors report that by regularly using these medications you will be able to reduce the size of the prostate by up to 30%.


If the worse get to worst, the doctors have no other way out other than to put you under the knife. There are many types of surgeries that you can undergo depending on the extent of the prostate enlargement. The most common types of surgeries include: bladder neck incision, transurethral resection of the prostate, holmium laser enucleation of the prostate, and open prostatectomy. For ideal results, you should visit a clinic run by a certified and experienced surgeon.

Kyolic Clears Constipation and Strengthens Your Colon

Garlic is another wonder herb. It has action in all areas of your body and can help you eliminate constipation. You can find it in capsules in a brand call Kyolic.

Kyolic is a special garlic preparation, which is aged for 20 months in stainless steel tanks. With this aging, garlic odor is eliminated and certain chemicals are enhanced – S-allyl-mercaptocysteine, S-allyl-cysteine. These chemicals are powerful sources for fighting various diseases – cancer, heart and liver disease.

Kyolic cleanses, soothes, and reduces inflammation throughout your gastrointestinal tract. It is rich in potassium, which is necessary colon wall contraction.

Kyolic is also effective in killing pathogens and bad bacteria that live in your colon and elsewhere in your body. It also binds to heavy metals and other toxins that exist in the blood and colon and sweeps them out of the rectum. Aside from helping in constipation, it is helpful for reducing,

· fungus and other bacteria in your ear

· skin lesions due to bites or insects stings – use liquid form

· arthritis – requires 12 capsules a day

· diabetes – requires 12 capsules a day.

You can buy it in capsule and liquid form. Capsules are easy to take and have no side effects.

Here’s how to use it,

· For mild cases of constipation take 2 tablets once or twice a day.

· For moderate cases of constipation take 2 tablets three times a day.

· For severe cases of constipation take 2 tablets five times a day.

Or if you prefer you can take 4-5 Kyolic capsules just before going to bed.

Continue this until your constipation is cleared. You can combine this Kyolic remedy with the apples and spinach remedy to help rebuild and remove toxic material, which builds up along your colon walls.

Continuous use of Kyolic is not harmful. It is the allicin in garlic that provides the stimulation to your colon to produce peristaltic movement.

Kyolic can be bought in health food stores or on the Internet. Just type in Kyolic into the Google search engine.

Garlic has blood-thinning abilities. Using it with blood thinning drugs, pentoxifylline, NSAID’s is potentially dangerous since excessive blood thinning can increase blood-clotting time. Do not use 3 days before any surgical procedure.

Garlic can also cause an allergic reaction or an upset stomach in some people.

Do not use garlic if breast-feeding. Garlic can get into the breast milk giving the baby colic.

Garlic in the Kyolic capsules is an excellent way to deal with constipation. Using it improves you colon function and gives you body nutrients that make it stronger.

Types of Hernia Explained

So what is hernia and what are its symptoms? Someone suffering from hernia has an opening or weakness in the muscular structure of the abdominal wall. This condition causes a bulging of the wall of the abdomen. The bulge or lump will be more noticeable when the abdominal muscles are tightened, thereby increasing the pressure inside abdomen of the hernia patient.

There are several activities that can worsen a hernia condition such as lifting heavy weights and objects, coughing, or even straining during movement of bowels.

A hernia condition is like a barrel with a hole in its side and a balloon that is blown up inside the barrel with part of the balloon straining to push through the hole with part of it bulging out of the hole. The barrel is the abdominal wall and the balloon is the intestine.

Developing a hernia may result in serious medical complications when organ tissues or intestines are trapped. In medical term, this complication is called incarceration. The human organ tissues such as the intestine may have their blood supply cut off, leading to severe damage or even death of the tissue. When incarceration happens, a hernia surgery is required to repair the damage. If immediate surgery is not undertaken to correct incarceration, it could be potentially fatal.

Hernia victims will usually feel pain or dull discomfort in the lower abdomen. Sometimes localized swelling will appear on the abdomen or in the groin area.

The most common area for hernias to occur is in the groin or inguinal area. This condition is called inguinal hernia. This is because there is a natural anatomical weakness in this abdominal area. Also, the upright position of the human posture places a greater force at the bottom of the abdomen causing increasing the stress on these weaker muscles of the abdominal wall.

These pressures, over time break down the supporting tissues thereby enlarging any pre-existing hole or resulting in a new hole on the abdominal wall. Several different types of hernias may occur or even coexist. These include indirect, direct, and femoral hernias, which are defined by the location of the opening hole of the hernia from the abdomen to the groin.

Another type of hernia, called the ventral hernia, occurs in the mid section of the abdomen, usually just above the navel. Hernias can also occur within the navel too.

Other types of hernia such as Epigastria, incision, lumbar, internal, umbilical and Spigellian all occur at different areas of the abdomen that are prone to muscular structural weaknesses. Internal hernias can be difficult to detect and is usually diagnosed only when incarceration sets in. This is because there are usually no external evidence of a lump or bulge on the abdominal wall. Immediate surgery must be performed or else serious medical complications will arise.

Is Dehydration the Reason for Your Back Pain?

These days, you can’t turn your head without being reminded of the importance of drinking enough water. But does an adequate supply of H20 really make a difference to how you feel on a daily basis? Could dehydration be contributing to or even to blame for your aches and pains?

Absolutely, yes!

Most people don’t drink enough water and this is an issue that should not be taken lightly. If you suffer from back pain, it’s worth evaluating how much water intake you get on a daily basis as dehydration can have serious damaging effects on the spine.

The discs between each vertebra in your spine are largely made up of water. If your body is dehydrated, the discs are at risk of shrinking which can add pressure on the spinal nerves, resulting in pain and even neurological symptoms. Chronic dehydration can even lead to the spine becoming less stable which can cause herniated and bulging discs. So the answer is an affirmative yes; not drinking enough water can absolutely affect how you feel on a daily basis – especially when it comes to back pain!

Worryingly, many people suffer from debilitating back pain for years without even realising that dehydration could be the cause. As dehydration can lead to a lack of flexibility and joint stiffness, many people can wrongly assume they are suffering from arthritis or another chronic disease, when their bodies are simply lacking water.

Of course, back pain is just one of a host of symptoms that dehydration can cause. Here are just a few other reasons to keep up your water intake:

To Maintain Good Circulation

Dehydration can lead to persistent headaches, as well as dizziness, blurred vision and hearing difficulties.

For Good Energy Levels

If your body is dehydrated you may feel weak, fatigued or exhausted. This is usually because dehydration causes the blood to thicken, resulting in the heart having to work harder to pump the blood around the body. It’s always better to drink a glass of water than a cup of coffee or a sugary drink if you feel in need of an energy boost.

To Maintain a Healthy Weight

A low water intake can lead to a slow metabolism and weight gain. Most people find that they naturally lose some weight just by drinking more water on a daily basis.

For Healthy Sinuses

If you are not drinking enough water your sinuses and the lining of your lungs are at risk of becoming dry, which can sometimes lead to breathing issues.

The damaging effects of dehydration on the body could take up an entire book; this article simply highlights some of the most common. Start making a focused effort to add more water to your fluid intake. You’re likely to see some positive changes to your health.

Important note: Some of the symptoms mentioned above can be caused by other medical conditions and the possibility of dehydration should be considered when other causes have been eliminated. Contact your health care provider if you are at all concerned about any of your symptoms.

How To Give Criticism Without Bruising Egos

As responsible employers, parents, and friends, we have an obligation to correct the mistakes of other people in order to enhance their personal success. The task before us is how to correct a deficiency without damaging the delicate ego that can sometimes get in the way. Too often people criticize someone’s behavior without providing a solution and this is detrimental because it then becomes a personal attack on the person that only aims to demerit them. Constructive criticism involves pointing out their weakness and offering a solution to correct it. In order to give constructive criticism, we must seek the solution to the problem before we point it out to the person. By doing this, we effectively separate the behavior from the ego and preserve the relationship in the process.

Here Are Some Strategies For Giving Constructive Criticism:

1. Never criticize while you are angry with the person. If your emotions are controlling your actions, then avoid any type of criticism. It becomes too easy to use that criticism as a chance to make a personal attack on the other person when emotions are high. Distance yourself and regain your own composure before you address a behavior that needs correcting.

2. Offer a better solution. Know the difference between disliking a certain behavior because it disagrees with your own personal preference versus disliking a behavior in favor of a more efficient way or correct way of doing something. Avoid making a criticism and then attempting to support it with emotional appeals because the issue then becomes a matter of personal preference and conflicting egos. Instead, use the power of logic to show the person that there really is a better way of doing the same thing that will enhance their own success and productivity.

3. Always let the person save face. This means respect the person, even if they did something completely inappropriate. The psychological consequences of embarrassing or disrespecting someone in front of their peers is very severe. It is so severe in fact, that such embarrassment has been a major factor in 80% of all violent incidents in the workplace and at schools. Criticism is a personal and private process that is not to be shared with anyone else. Also, it is just as important not to make it apparent to other people that you are giving, or going to give criticism. Asking someone to come into your office in front their peers can be just as damaging as criticizing them in public. Keep it very confidential and respect your counterpart’s needs to save face in front of their peers.

4. Focus on the problem, not the person. When giving constructive criticism, make sure that you stay focused on addressing the problem and not the person. The problem is an objective issue that you can work cooperatively on to enhance both of your interests. Focusing in on the person, however, will always be construed as a personal attack against them–even if it is not meant to be. Personal attacks are always followed up with resentment and anger, which can actually be more detrimental in the long run because it can cause deep-seated resentment, which in turn, can lead to poor moral, clandestine or saboteur behavior, and passive-resistance. Remember that the person has feelings and those feelings can be easily broken by a wrong approach. Whenever you give criticism, follow the golden rule of attacking the problem, while being gentle on the person.

5. Empathize with their position. Empathy is the ability to step into the shoes of the other person and see the world from their perspective. Sometimes we forget what it is like to be the new person on the job because we have grown accustom to a certain procedure or routine that is second nature to us. Remember that people don’t always see things as you do and part of being a good educator is being able to understand the other person’s position and work with them at their level–not your own.

6. Never label the person. Attaching a negative label on the person being criticized is an inappropriate approach because it dehumanizes them, making it easier for you to be angry with them and it demoralizes them.

7. Focus on the future, not the past. Blaming someone for their past behavior does nothing but create conflict. The past is over with and your main concern is that it does not happen in the future. So instead of dwelling on past behavior, use it as a teaching tool so that they can improve in the future.

8. Use softening words to pad your criticism. Softening words are designed to “soften” harsh-sounding statements.. Softeners work because they leave a lot of room for interpretation of the statement that follows it. Some examples of softeners are, “I think,” “I suppose,” “it seems,” “I believe,” etc. So instead of making a harsh statement such as, “You’re report is terrible.” Replace it with a softened criticism such as, “It seems to me that this part of your report could use some revision.” The psychological effect of rewording a statement can lead to a greater amount of persuasion and conflict avoidance.

9. Give them an opportunity to correct their behavior. This is an important step for any criticism because it works at two different levels. On the first level, giving them the opportunity to correct their behavior or actions lets them take responsibility for their behavior and reinforces the point that they must be held accountable for their actions. On the second level, giving them the opportunity to correct their behavior will give them an opportunity to redeem themselves and save face with you, which will make it easier for them to put their past behavior behind them and move one.

10. Constructive criticism is a sign of compassion. Criticism is often associated as a negative thing because it is often abused as a transport device for personal attacks. However, constructive criticism is a positive gift because the core message behind that criticism is that you care about the person enough to want them to succeed in the future. Constructive criticism is one of the main tests that separate regular people from true caring friends. Caring people will be honest with you and even risk generating conflict if they believe that their constructive criticism will help improve your life. Make sure that the person knows that your constructive criticism is done because you care about them and that you value your relationship with them. They will respect you more for being honest with them.

Airbag Injuries

Certainly, airbags installed in today’s passenger vehicles are important safety features. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) estimates that more than 20,000 lives have been saved by airbags.

The bad news is that airbags can also cause severe personal injuries and even wrongful deaths. Detailed NHTSA reports show that since 1990, airbags have killed more than 230 people and injured thousands of others.

Because of this, it is important to be aware of how airbags can play a part in auto accident injuries. Following are the most commonly seen injuries related to airbags.

Contact Injuries

Airbags must come out of the steering wheel or front instrument panel very quickly to be effective in an automobile accident. (Airbags can be ejected at speeds as high as 200 miles per hour.) But that quick deployment means there is also a large amount of force. That force can cause contact injuries, including:

  • Cuts and scrapes
  • Bruises
  • Contact burns
  • Rashes

Eye Injuries

Types of eye injuries from airbag deployment include eye-socket bruising, broken bones of the eye socket, bleeding in the eyeball or ruptured eyeball. These injuries can lead to blindness or the development of angle-recession glaucoma.

Head Injuries

Concussions can easily occur because of an airbag hitting a person’s head on deployment. But more serious injuries, like traumatic brain injury, can also result.

Because of the position of the airbag, children in rear-facing child seats in the front seat, and children and petite adults who sit closer than 10 inches from where the airbag deploys are at the largest risk for serious brain injury.

Broken Bone Injuries

If your arms are in the path of a deploying airbag, the airbag can cause broken bones in your arms, wrists and fingers.

Internal Organ/Soft Tissue Injuries

Because the engineering behind airbag systems was created for a 5 ft 8 inch 180 lb. male, the bags can put others who do not fit that driver model at serious risk for internal injury. But internal damage can happen to anyone, especially unconscious drivers who may be slumped over the steering wheel or drivers who are not wearing seat belts and who slide forward during a crash.

Other Airbag-Related Injuries

  • Spinal cord injury
  • Chest injury
  • Amputation of arms or fingers

Why You Need a Sonohysterogram

An ultrasound doesn’t use any ionizing radiation, thus, there is no harmful effects. It will provide a picture that is clear of the soft tissues that normally can’t be seen with x-ray images.

The best time to perform a sonohysterogram will be a week after your menstruation in order to avoid any risk of infection. There isn’t any special preparation to perform this procedure. You need to inform the doctor if you think you might be pregnant. Wear clothing that is loose and comfortable, and leave your jewellery at home.

Reason for it

It normally gets done when a normal ultrasound can’t find any cause for heavy bleeding. It can also be used for determining reasons for not getting pregnant or with repeated miscarriages.

The following will be checked with the images of the uterus:

For any structure or shape that is abnormal.

If there is masses or growths that is abnormal, like polyps or fibroids.

Any scarring on the inside of the uterus also called adhesions.

To find polyps and fibroids the sonohysterogram will be more accurate as to the hysterosalpingogram.

Common uses of this procedure

This technique is valuable to evaluate unexplained bleeding of the vagina which might be a result of any uterine abnormalities. This can be like: fibroids, polyps, endometrial scarring or adhesions, endometrial atrophy, congenital defects or malignant masses or lesions.

A sonohysterogram is used for investigating of any abnormalities in the women’s uterine when they experience multiple miscarriages or infertility.

These ultrasound images can help the doctor to evaluate the problem. They can see the following: if there is a blockage with the flow of blood like clots, tumours, blood flow in polyps and congenital malformation, or aneurysms and pelvic varicose veins.


You should only schedule your appointment for a sonohysterogram if:

You are sure that you won’t have any menstrual bleeding. You should do this preferably a week after you had your menstrual period. This is said to be the best time to check the lining as the lining of the uterine will be the thinnest.

If you suspect that you might be pregnant make sure that you are not before doing this procedure. Get a pregnancy test done first.

You shouldn’t have any kind of pelvic infection. These include pelvic inflammatory disease or an infection that is sexually transmitted like Chlamydia or gonorrhoea.

Make sure that you doctor knows if you are allergic to any kind of latex. They might ask you to sign a consent form that will state your understanding of any risks, and that you are in agreement to do the procedure.

If you have any concerns about the test, how it will be performed, the risks that might be involve, and what the meaning of the results will be, talk to your doctor in advance.

Experiences during, as well as after this procedure

Most patients will easily tolerate this procedure because it’s a painless examination. This procedure is performed to find out the cause of your pelvic pain. It is said to be more comfortable than a manual examination by your doctor.

During a sonohysterogram there might be some cramping when the saline is introduced. You can get any over-the-counter medication if needed that will be sufficient in minimizing the discomfort that is associated with this procedure.

There might be a little spotting after you had the procedure for only a few days but it is normal. After the procedure is done it should be easy for you to resume immediately any of your normal activities.

The benefits and risks


Most of the scanning done through an ultrasound will be non-invasive. It usually doesn’t require any injections or needles.

Occasionally there might be a temporary uncomfortable feeling with the ultrasound exam but it won’t be painful. If you have pain, inform your doctor immediately.

Ultrasound is easy-to-use and widely available. It is also not as expensive as what other imaging methods are.

It doesn’t use any ionized radiation and the imaging is very safe.

This procedure will give the doctor a very clear picture, that doesn’t show well with x-ray images, of the soft tissues.

A sonohysterogram has very little complications and it is a minimally invasive procedure that patients can tolerate well.

The procedure provides a clear and excellent view of your endometrial lining and the uterus, and it is also relatively short.

With a sonohysterogram procedure, it will give the doctor a detailed view of many uterine abnormalities, which is not possible with a routine trans-vaginal ultrasound.

It can also prevent any unnecessary surgery, as well as ensure that all fibroids and polyps will be removed surgically.


There is not any harmful risk or effects to humans that is known off with this procedure.

However, it is always wise to consult a professional. Talk you your doctor before the procedure about any fears you may have.