Risk Factors of Nail Fungus

Nail fungus infection is one of the diseases that grow on toenails and fingernails. A lot of people develop this kind of disease because of the wide ranging risk factor of nail fungus infection.

Even though a person practices perfect hygiene, he can still acquire nail fungus infection due to a wide array of factors and causes. You are at greater risk of acquiring nail fungus infection if you have a small cut or injury on your toes or fingers and exposed it on the fungus. The injury may be caused by tight shoes and pressure on the feet.

A person with sweaty feet and overworked feet such as runners, dancers and athletes as well as those people who often used public bathrooms, swimming pools, showers and locker rooms are also at risk of developing nail fungus infection.

If you already have a history of athlete’s foot, you are most likely to develop nail fungus infection. People with other medical conditions such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes are at greater risk of acquiring nail fungus.

Having manicures and pedicures in unsanitary nail spa and salon, especially those with poor sanitation practices on their nail care tools can be a source of infection. Some customers may have nail fungus infection that can be transmitted through the tools used by the manicurists.

Nail fungus is far more common in elderly because of several factors. These are: poor blood circulation, susceptibility to fungus as the nails grow thick and slowly due to aging. Men tend to be more susceptible to nail fungus than women. Those with family history of nail fungus are at risk. Here are some of the other risk factors that can likely develop nail fungus:

  • Active sweat glands
  • Humid and moist environment
  • Constant wearing of socks and shoes that hinder proper feet ventilation
  • Walking barefoot in moist environment
  • Other minor injuries on nails
  • Other medical conditions such as diabetes, blood circulation problems and weak immune system

Aside from the aforementioned risk factors, you will see some discoloration on the toenails and fingernails. Nail fungus infection is quite hard to detect while it is on its early stage. However, the infection became visible when they are fully established on the nails and there is a yellow spot that seems to grow that indicates the spread of the infection until it affects the whole nail and sometimes the whole set of fingernails and toenails. It is easy for the fungus to grow and proliferate in the nails as the nails present favorable environment for the fungus.

Learn more information about the ZetaClear Nail Fungus Relief and have those beautiful nails!

How to Control Your Man! – Here is How to Easily Control Your Man Without Him Even Knowing It

The prowess of a woman is put to the test when it’s time for her to keep her man. Making a man want to stay for good isn’t about manipulation-if you go take this path, your relationship is doomed to end. But if you want to gently persuade your man that there’s no better woman out there, then there are ways that you can keep him on a leash (without him knowing it!).

Learn to Please

If you want to control your man, begin by pleasing him. This doesn’t mean giving in to his every wish, just learn to give him the things that he deserves such as-a warm meal at the end of the day, words of praise, and being affectionate around him.

Teach Him to Look Like a Model

Sure, this could be the overstatement of the year but men generally have poor taste and if you allow them to choose their wardrobe, they’re headed for disaster. Gently coax him to choose the red tie rather than the vomit-colored one which he loves.

Be Influential

Every woman has the God-given potential to gently influence any man to do good. For instance, the world around him might say he looks like a dork or a nerd but if the woman of his life believes that he looks like a stud, then he is a stud! If all else says he can’t do it and the woman is the wind beneath his wings, then he can create miracles!

Respect Him

Men long for respect so never shout at him nor physically hurt him-these are the most degrading things that any woman could ever do to her man. Speak fondly of your guy and never allow anyone to put him down.

When arguments arise-and they definitely will-learn to be a graceful woman and bite back any harsh comments.

Set Him Free

Unknown to them, men want to be controlled but, somehow, they don’t want to feel or see that it is being done to them. You have to be subtle if you ever want to have power over your guy. Never become the clingy girlfriend or wife. Say “have fun” when he goes out with his buddies.

Play the Role of the Ever-busy Woman

Are you tired of having to wait for your guy to give you a call? Then you can reverse the scenario by playing busy for a couple of weeks. Once he feels that you’re no longer nagging him for a call, then he would surely begin to worry; after which, he will be the one chasing you!

Make Him Feel Like He’s In Charge

Men want to know that they’re the captain of the ship so there’s no use stealing the role from him. If you don’t always agree with his decisions, you can gently sweet-talk him to doing it your way, once he agrees, make it appear that you just followed to his idea or decision.

If You Think You Know What Causes Your Urticaria & Angioedema, Think Again!

Many factors are known or suspected of contributing towards Urticaria, unfortunately even with modern day medical practices, identifying any specific route cause is almost impossible.

Listed below are some widely accepted risk factors, and causes which are known to be contributing factors. Also listed are some lesser known possibility’s which research indicates may also have a bearing. This is just a small list of some risk factors thought to be responsible for and attributed to Urticaria, many prescribed and over the counter drugs may also play a very damaging part.


Studies into the cause’s of Urticaria suggest the association of specific genes which could be linked to certain types of Urticaria conditions. Its thought that Urticaria or genes containing the condition may be passed down through family generations. Having the gene passed to you through family puts you at a higher risk of developing Urticaria, known as genetic predisposition, this however does not mean you will develop the condition.


Smoking cigarettes and passive smoking has damaging effects on many parts of the human body, Its clear to everyone what smoking does to their heart and lungs, not to mention their skin. You may be surprised to learn that studies now indicate a very strong link between smoking and autoimmune disease.

The connection is yet to be fully understood, but research has shown that smoking releases excess free radicals and toxins into the bloodstream. Excess free radicals along with numerous other toxins are known to attack and effect the immune system, which may cause abnormality in white blood cells.


There are very few foods which cause obvious allergic reactions, the best known are probably peanuts. Not knowing what foods you may be allergic to is a real problem, a bigger problem than you might imagine.

Many people go through life with food intolerance’s and never show any classical signs of an allergy, for this reason they may never suspect their favorite food may be the cause of their arthritis. Symptoms of food intolerance’s, when apparent are more often than not delayed reactions, so even if you do display symptoms it can still be difficult to link a reaction with a particular food.


Candida is normally a harmless yeast contained within the gastrointestinal tract, under normal circumstances candida is a sugar fermenting yeast which along with other micro-organisms help break down and digest food.

The human body’s biochemistry is very fragile and may be easily thrown off balance. Candida can transform itself from part of the body’s natural yeast, into a pathogenic fungus, a condition known as candidiasis. The transformation of candida into candidiasis can be caused by the prolonged use of antibiotics, stress, diabetes, acidic pH level, & depleted immune system.


Heavy metal poisoning has become a major health problem in recent history and will inevitably become much worse, as more countries become industrialised nations. Metals and industrial bi products seep into the water and enter the food chain. Heavy metals have a density of over five times that of water, the human body is unable to successfully break down the foreign bodies and is forced to retain them.


When the immune system is overloaded either through viral exposure or toxic metals and/or chemicals and your body becomes overwhelmed, it is easy for parasites and bacteria to get a foothold. This is not surprising, as we are all exposed to them on a daily basis.

Unhealthy bacteria such as spirochaetes, as well as viruses and dinoflagellates (algae which produce nasty toxins), can colonise your liver and its biliary system, causing the synthesis of very long-chain saturated or renegade fats that lead to liver toxicity.

Scary reading I know, but when you’ve suffered for so many years with urticaria and Angioedema, being told you just have an allergy can become a little frustrating. The good news is, almost all underlying conditions which might be responsible for triggering urticaria attacks can be treated relatively simply without drugs.

Knee Pain Relief : Sprains & Strains – Knee Braces That Can Surprisingly Provide Meaningful Support

The knee is the largest joint on the human body, and it is also the most used. Your knees take a pounding throughout your lifetime, and almost everyone suffers from a sprained or strained knee at some point in their lives.

Whether you fall awkwardly or jar your knee, spraining or straining the knee joint is a common occurrence.

A sprain is a stretching of the ligaments that join your bones together. This can be debilitating, and of course, very painful. If you suffer from a second or third degree sprain, which involves different degrees of tearing of the ligaments, you can lose your mobility altogether. Sprains can take weeks to heal, and in some cases, physical therapy is needed to gain back all of the movement you had before you suffered a sprained knee. If the knee sprain is severe enough, you may have to undergo surgery to correct the problem.

Strains on the other hand are different, although it sounds a lot like a sprain. Strains, are injuries that involve muscles or tendons; not ligaments. (In this case, we would be still reviewing how it relates to your knee.) Tendons are the tissues that connect muscles to bones. Depending on the level of severity of the injury, a strain maybe a simple overstretch of the tendon or muscle involved, or you may be suffering from a partial or complete tear.

A grade 1,2, or 3 is associated to levels of strains, as is found with sprains. A grade 1 strain is more mild and involves the damage of some muscle fibers. As a result, healing can occur in two to three weeks, unless you reinjure your knee. Supporting your knee in this time period would be a good idea. In a grade 2 strain, there is moderate damage to the muscle or tendon, although it is not completely ruptured. This healing process is longer and can take up to 3-6 weeks. Lastly, in a grade 3 strain, there is a more severe injury and involves a complete rupture. The healing period might take up to three months and may include the need for surgery. Tendons usually do not heal as quickly because they have a more poor blood supply, compared to other tissues in the body. As mentioned earlier, if you have sprained or strained your knee, you should highly consider the use of a well designed knee brace for supportive reasons. More on this later,…

Some symptoms of a knee sprain or strain include:

Swelling Loss of mobility in the knee joint

A grating sound

Numbness Pain

A bulge that was not there before

If you are a sports enthusiast, there is no need to quit sports in order to prevent a knee sprain from occurring. Instead, you could simply try wearing a knee brace. Nothing is perfect, but a well designed knee brace can definately help!

People will often times think that there is a certain knee brace called a “football knee brace” or a “basketball knee brace”, but these are just the sports that people can use knee braces for. Many different knee supports can be used while you are participating in sports. For example, if you need a “sports knee brace”, this brace should be used in conjunction with the injury that you have, or one you are trying to prevent. (In other words look to your knee pain, and then secondly to the sport you play) Knee braces can help to support the knee, and prevent injuries from occuring. They are fairly inexpensive, if you go to the right provider, and they can be found online. (One valuable piece of information is that you should look for online brace companies that can back up what they are talking about. Most do not have the credentials to speak upon knee braces at all! – Please, we would love it if you prove us wrong).)

Weight lifters also use knee braces quite a bit. It is only logical, since you weight lifters are usually asking their bodies to lift above usual work loads. With almost any exercise that weight has to be carried, a knee brace can be a logical conclusion.

Top 3 DHT Blockers: Minoxidil, Trichogen, and Saw Palmetto

What is a DHT Blocker?

DHT (Dihydrotestosterone) is a hormone that increases in our body as we age. It is produced when the hormone 5 alpha-reductase binds with testosterone. DHT attacks, shrinks, and kills the hair follicles, causing hair loss, hair thinning, and/or baldness. DHT is more abundant in men than in women because men produce more testosterone. Hair loss happens because DHT shocks the hair follicles, causing the patient to lose hair. The purpose of a DHT blocker is to prevent the binding of testosterone and alpha-reductase, therefore saving more hair follicles. With the absence of DHT, hair grows normally and with proper nourishment and care, you can keep your hair long and beautiful.

Two Ways to block DHT

There are two ways to block DHT. The first way is to prevent it from binding to the hair follicles. The second is to block it before it is made. Many products on the market are formulated to block DHT. In this article, we will cover the top 3 DHT blockers that are proven to fight pattern baldness and thinning. They are Trichogen, Saw Palmetto, and Minoxidil.

What is Minoxidil?

Minoxidil is recommended by many doctors to fight pattern baldness. It is a potent DHT blocker. Minoxidil is derived from a plant extract. While the product efficiently stops hair loss, it has many possible side effects such as nausea, difficulty breathing, fainting, headaches, scalp irritations, to name a few. Many hair loss patients however, have claimed to be very satisfied with Minoxidil. Rogain, for example, contains Minoxidil. Minoxidil can be purchased over the counter. Some hair loss treatment specialists have stated that the use of Rogain in the long run might cause hair loss to resume.

What is Trichogen?

Trichogen helps break down DHT. Those who are not able to tolerate Minoxidil can use Trichogen to stop baldness and thinning and experience even better results. Trichogen is a combination of natural herbal extracts designed to block DHT. It increases blood flow to the scalp and provides needed amino acids that help jump- start new growth. Trichogen also protects hair against UV-B rays. It is an extreme hair growth stimulant. Trichogen works well at the hairline and the crown. In addition, it stimulates and thickens hair. Trichogen can be found in the form of shampoo, conditioner, topical solution, and follicle stimulator.

What is Saw Palmetto?

Saw Palmetto is also a natural alternative to Minoxidil. It does everything Minoxidil does without any side effects. It is derived from herbs and just like Minoxidil, it is FDA approved to fight male and female pattern baldness. Saw Palmetto lowers DHT levels in the body and prevents cell membranes from absorbing DHT. When combined with Sitosterol, a compound found in plants, Saw Palmetto is a safe and natural DHT blocker for moderate pattern baldness. It is usually sold alone in the form of capsules, or combined with Sitosterol in various hair loss treatments.

It is beneficial to fight baldness or thinning with natural remedies instead of chemicals ones. Selecting healthy foods that provide essential nutrients to the hair is also recommended.

A Cure for Pattern Baldness

So far, there is no cure for pattern baldness and thinning, but there are solutions available to help you keep your hair. These top 3 DHT blockers are the most potent, natural hair loss treatments and may be tried before attempting surgical solutions.

Mira Love

Dangerous Anemia Symptoms You Should Not Miss

Anemia can be mild, moderate, or severe, and this condition can be caused by many different factors. In this condition your body does not have an adequate number of red blood cells present, and if the condition is severe it can lead to serious complications or even be fatal in some cases. Another cause is having the right number of red blood cells, but for some reason these cells do not contain adequate amounts of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is a protein which is rich in iron, and this component is required so that oxygen from your lungs can be transported through the rest of your body in your bloodstream. Both of the factors that cause anemia mean that your tissues do not get enough oxygen rich blood to them, and organ or tissue damage can result. One cause of this problem is an injury which results in substantial blood loss, and over time the condition will go away as your body makes new red blood cells. If your condition is mild then you will probably not notice many symptoms, if any at all. You may notice some fatigue, because insufficient oxygen levels will sap your energy, and your skin may seem a little pale.

Moderate anemia may cause other symptoms, some of which can be dangerous and should be treated. You may experience extreme fatigue, where it may be impossible to perform normal daily tasks without requiring rests. Your skin may become extremely pale, and you may experience difficulty breathing or be short of breath without any exertion. Dizziness is another common sign, and so is a headache. You may have extremities which feel cold or go numb, and this means that your blood flow and oxygen levels in these tissues are affected. Chest pain can be a symptom as well, and this sign should always be evaluated by a medical professional immediately. In some cases a lack of oxygen or adequate blood flow can affect your heart tissue, causing damage and increasing your risk of a heart attack or other cardiac event. Unusual or irregular heartbeats called arrhythmias can also occur, and these can be dangerous if not controlled.

Tissue and organ damage caused by severe anemia can be permanent, and may cause fatal complications. If left untreated or allowed to continue over longer time periods, this condition can cause damage to your heart, brain, kidneys, liver, lungs, and other organs. Heart failure can occur because of extensive damage caused by a lack of oxygen, and brain damage can lead to permanent mental disability or even death in some cases. If you experience heart palpitations, fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, or any other problems that are serious you should go to the nearest Emergency Room for evaluation. These may be signs that your red blood cells or hemoglobin levels are dangerously low, and if left untreated you could suffer from serious medical complications or even death. Bloody bowel movements, weight loss, and a loss of appetite may also be signs of this condition, and they should be checked out as soon as possible.

Golfer’s Elbow – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment Methods

Golfer’s elbow is the funny bone on the inside of the elbow. It is also called medial epicondylitis. It can occur in tennis players and other people who repeatedly grip objects tightly. The elbow is a hinge joint consisting of three bones that serve as the mechanical link between the upper arm and forearm. The primary differences between these conditions are the location of the pain and the activity that leads to injury. Golfers Elbow, or Medial Epicondylitis, affects people who rely on the use of their hands in their work, which could mean just about anyone. Golfer’s elbow can be caused by golf, as the name suggests, by constantly taking the divot with the ball, but it is far from being exclusive to golfers. Golfer’s Elbow is similar to Tennis Elbow which affects the other side of the elbow. The muscles that bend the wrist down start at this point. Forceful and repeated bending of the wrist and fingers cause tiny ruptures of the muscle and tendon to this area. Golfing is only one of the causes of pain at this bone.

Golfer’s Elbow, or Medial Epicondylitis, is a form of tendonitis. The medical names of Tennis Elbow (lateral epicondylitis) and Golfer’s Elbow (medial epicondylitis) come from the names of these bony prominences where the tendons insert, and where the inflammation causes the pain. Rarely the inflammation comes on without any definite cause, and this may be due to an arthritis, rheumatism or gout. Elbow injuries are relatively common among athletes. Adolescents and older adults are most at risk- adolescents because their bones and ligaments are still growing, and older adults because their ligaments and tendons lose normal elasticity with age. Sometimes the problem is partly or completely due to a neck problem, which is causing pain in the elbow via the nerves from the neck. This conditions typically affect people aged 35-50 years, and both men and women equally.

Causes of Golfer’s elbow

The common causes and risk factor’s of Golfer’s elbow include the following:

Overusing the flexor muscles of the forearms.

Carpenters who use hand tools on occasion.

Muscle imbalance.

Decreased flexibility.

A direct injury or bang.

Prolonged gripping activities such as hammering, driving screws, weight lifting,canoeing, digging in the garden and driving.

Symptoms of Golfer’s elbow

Some sign and symptoms related to Golfer’s elbow are as follows:

Tenderness and pain at the medial epicondyle.

Swing a golf club or racket.

Pick up something with your palm down.

Weakness in the wrist.

Pain when wrist flexion (bending the wrist palm downwards) is resisted.

Tightness of forearm muscles.

Stiffness or trouble moving the elbow or hand.

Forearm pain.

Outer-side forearm pain – the inner side is affected in tennis elbow.

Treatment of Golfer’s elbow

Here is list of the methods for treating Golfer’s elbow:

Physiotherapy treatments, which may include heat / ultrasound therapy.

Reduce the load on your elbow: Wrap your elbow with an elastic bandage or use a forearm strap.

Consider other medications: If over-the-counter pain relievers aren’t effective, your doctor may recommend a cortisone injection to reduce pain and swelling.

Electrical stimulation to ease pain and improve healing of the collagen.

Apply heat to the elbow only when you are returning to physical activity. Then use it before stretching or getting ready to play sports.

You should apply ice packs to your elbow for 20 to 30 minutes every 3 to 4 hours for 2 or 3 days or until the pain goes away.

A commonly used surgery for golfer’s elbow is called a medial epicondyle release . This surgery takes tension off the flexor tendon.

Silversmithing – The Basics of Working With Silver, What You Need and How to Do It

When you see a stunning piece of worked silver jewellery in a shop, have you ever wondered at the skill which goes into making it? How do silversmiths create those fabulous items we all covet? What techniques are involved, and what tools do they use?

Silversmithing is a craft which takes years to learn, either as an apprentice to a silversmith, or these days in one of the college and university courses which are run in the major jewellery centers of Sheffield, Edinburgh, Birmingham, London and Dublin. Practise is essential to mastery of this wondrous craft, but the basics are achievable by anyone with patience, and the right tools!

There are many techniques which are used by silversmiths, some of which follow:

Piercing – This is the cutting of metal using a piercing saw. Cutting can be functional, to create a basic shape, or decorative, to create a pattern in the metal. If creating a pattern within a sheet of metal, a small hole is drilled in the sheet to allow the blade of the saw to be positioned. The blade is then connected to the piercing saw, which looks like a hacksaw, under tension. Several grades of blade are available, from coarse which allows speed of cutting, to very fine for detailed work. All the blades are delicate and easily snapped, so work must be done slowly. The blade is held vertically, and the metal is moved slowly to make curves or corners. Blades are lubricated by passing them through beeswax to make the cutting smoother. The work is supported on a bench peg which is screwed to a workbench, and has a V cut into it so the area either side of the cut is supported. Small shavings of metal called lemel are collected from under the piercing in a leather or paper cloth, and then recycled into new silver.

Soldering – Soldering silver and other precious metals is somewhat different to soldering for electronics or plumbing purposes. Silver solder (also gold and platinum) melt at a far higher temperature than lead solder, and so a blow torch is necessary. This has safety implications, and creates difficulties for the silversmith, as the temperature needed to melt silver solder is very close to the temperature at which the piece being worked would itself melt. In order to manage the temperatures of the soldering process, soldering and other torch work is usually carried out in darkness, so that the colour of the metal as it heats can be used to gauge the temperature of the piece.

Silver is soldered using silver solder, which contains mainly silver. It comes in various alloy mixes, which alter its melting temperature and its usage. The softest solder, called EASY, has a lower melting point, and is therefore less likely to result in damage to the piece being soldered. MEDIUM has a higher melting point, and HARD has the highest. Pieces where multiple solderings are required use hard solder initially, and work down the grades with subsequent solderings so that each addition does not melt or distort the previous one.

Lead solder is NEVER used with any precious metal or jewellery piece, as the high temperatures involved would cause the solder to run all over the silver, contaminating it and rendering it useless.

Annealing – Annealing is the technique used to soften silver and other precious metals to make then more malleable and easier to work. Malleable metal bends easily without damage to its molecular structure which weakens the piece. The more a piece is worked, the harder and more brittle it becomes, so repeat annealings are used to keep it malleable. Annealing is done with a torch, again in darkness. The work is heated until it glows a soft pinkish red, which is the point just before melting. The piece is then quenched rapidly in a tub of cold water, which freezes the molecules into the alignment they were in when almost molten, and thus makes it easier to work. However, any work with a torch leaves a fire stain on the silver which must be removed before further work is done, so the piece must be pickled.

Pickling – Pickling is the process of placing a fire stained piece of work in an acid bath to remove any oxidisation before working it. Sulphuric acid is most commonly used, although pickling salts which are safer solutions can be bought for the smaller silversmith. The pickling solution is kept warm to speed to process, and once a satisfactory result is obtained the piece is rinsed in running water, then cleaned with pumice powder to remove any last traces.

Shaping – most work will need to be shaped into its finished form. This is done in a variety of ways, dependent on the he shape desired. Tubular shapes such as rings and bangles are shaped on mandrels which are held in a vice, while the annealed metal is hammered with a mallet of wood or hide. Bowls and other curved pieces are domed on leather sandbags and wooden or metal doming blocks, using wooden or shaped metal hammers. Many repeat annealings will be necessary when shaping work.

Polishing – polishing is the last technique used by any silversmith on their piece once the forming work is completed. It is a long process, where a piece is rubbed with progressively finer wet and dry papers to remove any tool marks from working, and then remove marks left by the previous paper used. Once completed it can then be wheel polished, (for larger pieces like bowls) polished with a fine polishing mop on a pendant drill (like a hobby drill), or barrel polished, where it is immersed in a soap solution with steel shot and rotated for 10 minutes or so. The finished result should be smooth and shiny and free of all tool marks.

These are the basic techniques of a silversmith. When learning the art of silversmithing, it is wise to work in a base metal such as brass or copper until you have accomplished a level of proficiency, as its much cheaper when you make mistakes! Design a simple piece on paper, at full finished size. This template is then cut out and glued onto the metal to be worked as a guide. Piercing is done before shaping, which must be done very carefully on a pierced piece as it will have stress points where it will fracture easily. Once you have a pierced and shaped design, either polish it for a glossy finish, or brush it for a matte finish, then wear it with pride.

Diabetes Mellitus Tests to Establish the Diagnosis

Are you experiencing some of these symptoms of the 4Ps: Polyphagia (excessive hunger), Polydipsia (excessive thirst), Polyuria (frequent urination) or Pruritis (itching)? Or you easily get sleepy and tired? Or you have some close relatives, your father or mother, an uncle and so forth with diabetes? Well, you should be aware for having diabetes mellitus. However, to establish a sound diagnosis, you need to visit your physician who may as well send you for a blood test to look into your blood sugar levels…

There are several tests that need to be conducted to diagnose whether you have diabetes or not. Those tests include:

#1 – Fasting plasma glucose test (FPGT). This test will measure your blood sugar or glucose levels. You will be asked to fast for a minimum of 8 hours prior to taking your blood sample. This test is usually arranged so you can do the fasting in the evening and your blood sample to be taken in the morning. The result will show whether you have diabetes or in stage of pre-diabetes.

#2 – Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). This test is meant to measure your blood glucose levels in two stages. The first one is similar to the FPGT which is taking your blood sample after a fasting period of a minimum of 8 hours. After your blood take, you will be asked to drink a kind of syrup (sugar diluted in water). The second blood sample will be taken after 2 other hours of your drinking. This test will establish the diagnosis of diabetes or pre-diabetes.

#3 – Random plasma glucose test.Your blood glucose level can also be measured at any time, regardless the time you have been eating your last meal. This test, together with an evaluation of other symptoms, like the above 4Ps, is used to establish the diagnosis of diabetes but not pre-diabetes.

Positive results of those three tests should be confirmed by repeating the fasting plasma glucose test as well as the oral glucose tolerance test on another day.

Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG) Test

This is the test of choice to diagnose diabetes since it is most convenience and reliable when taken in the morning. Test results can be read as follow:

  • A fasting sugar level of 99 milligrams/dL or below means that your glucose level is normal
  • A fasting sugar level of 100 – 125 milligrams/dL, concludes that you at a stage of pre-diabetes which is also called by impaired fasting glucose (IFG). It means that you are more likely to get type-2 diabetes in the future, but does not appear yet.
  • A sugar level of 126 milligrams/dL and beyond, means that you have diabetes mellitus which however, should then be confirmed by a repeated same test on another day.

Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT)

Research has concluded that the OGTT seems to be more sensitive compared to the FPGT in diagnosing the stage of pre-diabetes. However, it is less convenient to manage. Test results can be read as follow:

  • A blood sugar level after 2 hours of 139 milligrams/dL or below means that your glucose level is normal
  • A blood sugar level between 140 – 199 milligrams/dL 2 hours after drinking the syrup, concludes that you are in a stage of pre-diabetes called impaired glucose tolerance or IGT, which means that you are more likely to develop type-2 diabetes in the future, but it does not appear yet.
  • A 2-hour blood sugar level of higher than 200 milligrams/dL, means that you have diabetes mellitus which however, should then be confirmed by a repeated same test on another day.

To establish the diagnosis of Gestational diabetes, plasma glucose levels measured during the OGTT can be observed. But in this case, blood sugar levels will be checked 4 times during a test with an interval of one hour between two blood takes. If your blood sugar levels are above normal twice at the minimum during the test, you may be considered to have gestational diabetes.

The following scheme is showing the above-normal results for the OGTT for gestational diabetes cases:

  • Fasting – 95 milligrams/dL or beyond
  • After 1 hour – 180 milligrams/dL or beyond
  • After 2 hours – 155 milligrams/dL or beyond
  • After 3 hours – 140 millgrams/dL or beyond

Note: Some laboratories might use other standards for this test.

Random Plasma Glucose Test

A random plasma glucose level of 200 milligrams/dL or beyond, added by the following symptoms, can be concluded that you have diabetes:

  • Polyuria or frequent urination
  • Polydypsia or excessive thirst
  • Polyphagia or excessive hunger
  • Pruriitis or itching
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Or other symptoms such as fatigue, blurred vision, and un-healing sores.

Based on those findings, your physician will examine your blood sugar level on another day using the FPGT or the OGTT to establish the diagnosis.

Indigestion – Causes, Symptoms and Precautions

Indigestion is a common problem. It may be triggered by eating particular foods, or drinking wine or carbonated drinks. It may also be caused by eating too fast or by overeating. Some people may find that spicy foods, high-fiber foods, fatty foods, or too much caffeine can all make this problem worse. Symptoms may be worsened by anxiety and depression.

“Indigestion” refers to any number of gastrointestinal complaints, which can include gas (belching, flatulence, or bloating) and upset stomach. “Heartburn” refers to a burning feeling that can be caused by stomach acid regurgitating into the esophagus from the stomach, by gastritis (inflammation of the lining of the stomach), or by an ulcer of the stomach or duodenum (also called peptic ulcer). “Low stomach acidity” refers to the inability to produce adequate quantities of stomach acid that will affect digestion and absorption of nutrients.

A variety of disorders can cause symptoms of indigestion, including ulcers, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and less commonly, cancer. In about half of cases brought to a doctor’s attention, however, no identifiable underlying problem can be determined; doctors refer to such cases as “functional dyspepsia.” Many different medications are available to treat indigestion, even when the underlying causes cannot be identified.

Indigestion is the term used to describe pain or discomfort in the upper abdomen or chest after meals. The medical term for this is dyspepsia. Sometimes it is also used to describe a distinctive burning feeling in the chest, known as heartburn. Most people have suffered from indigestion after a large meal at some time, and up to one in four adults suffer from heartburn each year.


Indigestion might be caused by a disease or ulcer in the digestive tract. However, for many people, indigestion is caused by eating too much, eating too quickly, being tired, drinking too much caffeinated beverages, eating high-fat foods, or eating during stressful situations. Smoking, drinking too much alcohol, using medications that irritate the stomach lining, can also cause indigestion or make it worse.

Due to all these reasons the food does not get digested even if it has been taken at proper time and wholesome as well as light to digest. The common symptoms of indigestion are stasis of food in the stomach, malaise, headache, fainting, giddiness, stiffness in back and waist, yawning, body ache, thirst, fever, vomiting, griping, anorexia and improper digestion of the food.

As the adage goes, prevention is better than cure, the occurrence of indigestion could easily be prevented when the food intake is monitored. Monitoring food does not only require a person to check the food contents or nutritional values of the food but even the time of eating and the amount of food. It is still better to avoid the foods or situations that can cause indigestion. Smokers can be relieved when smoking is minimized or quitted. Exercising just after eating is also not recommended as it also causes indigestion.


Fasting till the agni is proper and then giving manda, peya, vilepi till it is restored back to normal should be done. The diet should consists of old rice and light vegetable soup of spinach with warm water. Avoid all heavy and fried foods and cold drinks. Excess sweet, milk and its products which are heavy for digestion and meat of animals.

Overfeeding Your Pet – Accidental Animal Abuse

There is a type of animal abuse that is prevalent amongst many different kinds of pet owners: overfeeding. When you hear the term “abuse” you tend to think of beating your animal or underfeeding, but indeed overfeeding your animal can lead to health problems as well. Now, this isn’t to say that owners who give in just a bit too frequently to their animals’ pleas should be stripped of their furry friends and stoned in public; it’s mostly a crime of innocent ignorance. This article should provide you with knowledge of the dangerous effects of overfeeding as well as information on how much you should feed your pets on a daily basis.


Perhaps the kings of scavenging and begging for food are dogs. Who can resist those puppy eyes peering up at you from underneath the dinner table at night?! Dogs seem to have an appetite that is insatiable, and that’s probably the exact truth of the matter. However, overfeeding your dog can be quite hazardous to his/her health. The biggest risk with overfeeding your dog is obesity. There are many health problems that can plague an overweight dog such as diabetes, muscle and ligament strains, joint deterioration, and arthritis. Your dog can also develop high blood pressure or even congestive heart failure from the overexertion to the heart caused by carrying around the excess weight.

The amount of food that a dog requires varies with breed. According to dogbreedinfo.com, the following is about what you would want to feed your dog based on weight:
• 10 lbs. or less- You should feed no more than 1/3 – 1 cup of dry food or if mixing canned with dry food you should feed ¼ can and ¾ cup dry food.
• 10-25 lbs.- 1-2 ¼ cups of dry food or ½ can and ½ – 1 ½ cups dry food.
• 25-50 lbs. -2 ¼ – 3 ¾ cups dry food or 1 can and 1 – 2 ½ cups dry food.
• 50-75 lbs. – 3 ¾ – 5 cups dry food or 1 ½ cans and 1 ¾ – 3 cups dry food.
• Over 75 lbs. – 5-8 cups of dry food or 2 cans and 2 ½ -5 ¼ cups dry food.
It’s not very often that you peer into a fish tank and think ‘My, what a fat fish!’. As opposed to obesity the health hazards with overfeeding fish are a bit less obvious and harder to recognize. As a part of their evolution fish have a tendency to eat whenever the opportunity presents itself. In the wild this is a helpful survival tactic, but in your fish tank this can be a serious problem. Your fish will literally eat until their insides explode if you provide them with enough food more frequently than they need it. Overfeeding can cause issues with the water quality in your tank such as producing algae and toxins that are also harmful to your fish. Some diseases that can result from overfeeding your fish are fin rot, fatty liver and improper digestion (petcareeducation.com).
Prevent overfeeding by simply reading the directions on your fish food. For most freshwater fish these directions will be sufficient in explaining how much you should feed. When in doubt, about a pinch of food is enough to feed at least 5 fish.

The health risks associated with overfeeding your cat are very similar to those associated with overfeeding a dog. The biggest problem is the obesity and the problems caused by it. Some of the common ailments that an obese cat faces are diabetes, liver disease (fatty liver), arthritis, and skin problems. It is also more difficult for an overweight cat to be anesthetized for procedures at the veterinarian’s office as well due to the fact that the anesthetic is taken up by fat. This means that overweight animals take longer to come out of anesthesia and can take longer to recover.

So how much should you feed your cat? According to dogtime.com, the typical 10 lb. cat should be fed 4-6 ounces of canned food or 1/4 – 1/3 cup dry food daily. It is also a good idea to feed your cat twice a day. This doesn’t mean giving the full recommended amount of food twice a day; break up the servings. Leaving food out all day can encourage your cat’s overeating as sometimes, especially seen in in-door cats, they eat because they’re bored (sound familiar?). You may also want to monitor what kind of food you give your cat. Just as you would with your diet, monitor the calorie and carbohydrate in-take of your cat in addition to limiting the amount of food you give them.

These are only a few tips for feeding your pets. As always, you will want to consult your vet as the final word on what’s best for your animal. Like people all animals are different, and the tips shared here may not necessarily be applicable to the particular breed of animal you have or the health issues that may already exist within your pet. The first step to responsible pet ownership is to keep yourself compliant with and informed about your pet’s needs.

So You Want a Hypoallergenic Dog

Well, technically, there is no such thing as a hypoallergenic dog. Contrary to popular belief, people are not allergic to a dog’s hair or its dander but rather to a protein shed from the surface of the skin. Shedding spreads the protein and as a result causes an allergic reaction in some people. So, if a dog is low or non-shedding, it reduces the potential for an allergic reaction to this protein. (Saliva Allergies will react to any canine)

So, how do you find a low to non-shedding, allergy friendly dog with the temperament of a companion dog and without the hunting instincts of a terrier? Well, that’s the dilemma I found myself in when I wanted a third dog. My husband is already very allergic to the two retriever mixes we have, so there was no way I could add another shedding, allergy generating dog to our pack!

I discovered that the answer to our problem was created 25 years ago in Australia and is call a Labradoodle! Labradoodles give allergy suffers a practical opportunity to finally own a dog. And Labradoodles are increasing in popularity, because they’re very intelligent, playful, and depending on the Labradoodle – allergy-friendly dogs.

Now let’s begin with the Labradoodles fascinating history. Their story starts in Australia. Now the exact date when breeding began is still a question, however the current view among experts is sometime in 1988 or 1989. It all started with an inquiry from a visually impaired women in Hawaii, who wanted a guide dog that wouldn’t cause her husband’s allergies to flare.

The reason why she chose Australia was the countries quarantine laws. Because of their laws, dogs exported to Hawaii could go home with no quarantine.

Now in response to the women’s request, roughly thirty Poodle hair and saliva samples were sent to Hawaii to test for allergy friendliness over a two year period of time. Unfortunately, none on those original samples tested successful.

Following the unfortunate failure of those samples, a man named Wally Conren suggested to the Manager of the Australian Guide Dog Association to cross a Labrador Retriever and a Standard Poodle. Approval was granted and his first litter produced three puppies. Wally gave the resulting cross the name we use today–Labradoodle.

Now from those three puppies, hair and saliva samples were sent to Hawaii for testing once again. And this time, the samples from a puppy named Sultan were successful!

After the success of the first mating, Mr. Conren bred Labradoodle to Labradoodle, and called the subsequent offspring, “Double Doodles.” But he wasn’t done, because next he crossed the Double Doodles and called the offspring “Tri Doodles.” These were the forerunner to what we call today the Australian Multi-Generational (or Multi-Gen) Labradoodles.

Because of their unique coats, Labradoodles typically have no body odor, they don’t require constant bathing, and rarely attract fleas – which is great for all types of owners.

Certain Labradoodles are proving to be ideal for asthma and allergy sufferers, as wool and most fleece coat Labradoodles rarely shed. Labradoodles who have a hair-textured coat will shed, so are less likely to be suitable for allergy sufferers.

The continually increasing popularity of Labradoodles and Goldendoodles (a golden retriever/poodle cross) today has encouraged a slew of backyard breeders to jump on the doodle band wagon. So in order to get a healthy, allergy friendly dog for your family, it’s critical to find a reputable breeder. In my ebooks ‘The Definitive Guide To Labradoodles’ and ‘The Definitive Guide To Goldendoodles’ I give readers the tools they need to evaluate breeders and find the best possible puppy for their family!

Candida Yeast Overgrowth How It Is Contracted Into The Human Body

When we are born the only exposure that we have to bacteria is through our mothers, it is passed on while we are still in the womb. Over the course of a lifetime, a healthy person becomes exposed to many different types of bacteria, no matter how sterile and clean we think our lives are. We drink bacteria in water, and we swallow them on our food, many are airborne so we breathe them into our lungs, they are present on our skin, in our mouths, in our sinuses, and in the gut.

Not all bacteria are dangerous or a Candida yeast infection, many are benign. Some bacteria have a neutral effect, while others are extremely beneficial and we would feel horrible without their presence. A healthy gut with plenty of “good bacteria” is crucial to the digestion of our food. Pro-biotic is a generic term for a substance, which promotes the growth of micro-organisms. Pro-biotic is marketed as foodstuffs which are good for us and are supposed to encourage the growth of healthy bacteria.

So how do our bodies handle damaging bacteria? Imagine a tight rope walker walking over a precipice, a thousand feet above a ravine. It is about balance, purely and simply. There are a number of situations that could create and imbalance in the body and cause it to produce an overgrowth of Candida yeast. One of the simplest and most common is the intake of and excess of complex carbohydrates in our every day meals. Dysbiosis is the name of the process that occurs when harmful bacteria becomes more prevalent than the good bacteria. When damaging bacteria prevail, it is always a systemic Candida attack, there is no such thing as a touch of Candidiasis, and there are no mild symptoms. A systemic attack means that the Candida infection attacks the whole body. However, we all suffer different symptoms because of our individual genetic makeup.

Candida is not and enemy, it is only when it becomes a fungi. As Candida it does not harm, only when there is an overgrowth. The trick is to take care of your body and stop the Candida yeast overgrowth from becoming life threatening. When you are young Candidiasis would not be fatal but as your body ages an imbalance can lead to conditions that will kill.

Oral Candida is a Candida Yeast Overgrowth of the mouth. This can be caused by many things, generally a depressed immune system and can be a seriously bothersome and painful thing to have. Our sexual behaviour can in certain circumstances transmit Candida yeast overgrowth to others, by intercourse, deep kissing contact with genitals, oral sex, or mouth genital contact. It does not always, if your partner is healthy, their immune system should protect them. If for any reason their immune system is compromised then it can be transmitted.

It is important to know that high fibre foods help to maintain a healthy colon. Low fibre intake has been associated with the proliferation of bacteria which produce endotoxins, which are definitely bad for the colon. High fibre foods reduce the colons pH value and promote good bacteria known as Lactobacillus.

The Pros And Cons Of Supplementing With Tyrosine

Tyrosine is one of 20 different amino acids which are used by cells in the human body to synthesize proteins, building blocks of muscles and other organs. It is a nonessential amino acid, which means that it is manufactured in the body from other essential amino acids. Amino acids are those molecules which must be received from nutrients, digested and cannot be made from within the body.

Tyrosine is also a precursor of several neurotransmitters, including dopa, dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine. Through the effect on neurotransmitters researchers believe that tyrosine effect several health conditions, including Parkinson’s disease, depression and other mood disorders which rely on dopamine and l-dopa. Preliminary findings from several studies have indicated that individuals experience a beneficial effect of taking supplemental tyrosine, along with other amino acids, in the treatment of depression, dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. It is also believed that tyrosine may help ease the adverse effects of chronic environmental, psychosocial and physical stress on the body.

If the levels of neurotransmitters are insufficient, the individual often feels sadness, anxiety, irritability and frustration. In addition, dopamine will often help suppressing appetite and reduce body fat so people who have insufficient levels of the neurotransmitter may find they gain weight or struggle to lose it. Another use of tyrosine in the body is to convert the thyroid home hormone to adrenaline during times of stress. This means that individuals who are chronically stressed have depleted levels of tyrosine which may affect their neurotransmitters and weight loss.

Tyrosine is used by the body in the skin cells to convert to melanin which is the dark pigment that protects the skin against the harmful rays of ultraviolet light. Melonin is the pigment in the skin that turns color during the summer time and creates a tanned effect on the skin. Interestingly, thyroid hormones also contain tyrosine as part of their structure.

Babies born without the ability to metabolize phenylalanine, the essential amino acid from which tyrosine is derived, have resulting mental retardation and other severe disabilities. This disease is called phenylketonuria (PKU) and is screened for by mandatory screening process for all babies born in US hospitals. With simple phenylalanine dietary restrictions these problems are prevented.

Tyrosine is found in dairy products, meat, fish, wheat and Oates and most other protein containing foods. Practitioners have used it in the treatment of depression with some success and as an herbal supplement for individuals who are going through alcohol withdrawal and in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease.

Most individuals should not supplement with tyrosine. Although severe side effects have not been reported it is not known about the long-term use particularly in large amounts. For this reason any supplementation should be monitored by a physician. There are certain medications and over the counter drugs that can interact with tyrosine and individuals who are considering this supplementation should have a discussion with their pharmacist to identify which medications, if any, that they are already taking that may interact with tyrosine.

Anxiety Attack Medications – Soothing the Frayed Nerves

Today, we are under the spell of anxiety and panic attacks. If a survey were conducted, “I am so worried” would probably come out to be the most often used phrase. Pressure of one’s career as well as relationship woes, one’s natural bent of mind, one’s private experiences – these are the major causes that have made anxiety the multi-layered problem of today.

Our world is becoming more and more complicated with every passing and day and its constituents are becoming more so. Of these thousands of billions of components, anyone can be the causative agent of adrenaline overflow in the body and the onset of panic attack – to pinpoint this agent is like looking for a needle in a haystack. Yes, it is none other than the emergency hormone ‘Adrenaline’ or ‘Epinephrine’ that is responsible for setting into motion the symptoms of panic attack. Symptoms like sudden palpitations, stomach aches, dizziness, nausea and even micturition can together form the onset of panic attack. Many people all over the world are suffering from anxiety and panic disorders. These people have bouts of extreme fear and trauma for periods of one to ten minutes during which their blood pressures and pulses go out of control. It may even appear as if the patient is having a cardiac seizure.

To get suitable panic disorder treatment is very important. Probably when juxtaposed with other maladies, anxiety disorder may not appear to be as traumatic, but its severity is an accepted fact. If it is not properly treated while there is still time, it may end up preventing the patient from having normalcy in his life. Sometimes the patient may even require urgent attention of the doctor or a dose of anxiety disorder medication which if not given, might even lead to his death or permanent disability.

Most medications fall under following categories:

*Benzodiazepines – alprazolam, clonzepam, diazepam


*Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors – paroxetine, sertraline, fluvoxamine

*Serotonin Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors – Venlafaxine, Tramadol

*Tricyclic Antidepressants – Amitriptyline, Trimipramine

However, these drugs often provide symptomatic treatment only, and most of them come with a host of dangerous side effects. For instance, benzodiazepines are open to abuse, can be habit forming and may cause withdrawal symptoms if intake is ceased abruptly. Hence, medicines alone cannot be used as the only mode of treatment – they serve only as a part of the entire therapeutic regime.

Another option for the patient is to seek an appointment with a known psychoanalyst. Without doubt, such a person is trained to be a good, sympathetic listener – something an anxiety disorder patient badly requires. Sometimes, a few sittings with the therapist may end up curing the less severe forms of the disorder.

Apart from being a good listener, a psychotherapist has scientific panic disorder treatments in his kitty too and of these Cognitive and Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is the most significant.

CBT plays a pivotal role in the treatment of anxiety disorder and panic attack patients. It is a two-pronged procedure – the cognitive therapy aims to make the patient acutely aware of his thought process and turns him into a complete self-analysis mode. The patient is encouraged to differentiate the thoughts into the logical and the illogical. Soon the patient realizes that most of his fear and anxiety causing thoughts fall under the category of the illogical, and this helps him to get rid of his unruly thoughts.

The second part of CBT is behavioural therapy which is responsible for making the patient aware of how panic attack is eating into his system, of how bad it is for him – he is gradually tutored to give it up.

One more panic disorder treatment is Exposure therapy. The logic of this therapy is that if one’s fears are faced continuously, they lose their power on us.

Apart from everything else, one must not forget the restorative powers of good sleep. Indeed, it is the best anxiety disorder medication. Many a time panic and anxiety disorder patients find it difficult to sleep, and this lack of relaxation worsens their condition. This vicious cycle must be broken by the incorporation of ease and repose in our hectic lifestyles. More of yoga and meditation and more of soothing massages and spa treatments may go a long way towards helping anxiety disorder patients.

Caffeine containing food has also been blamed to concentrate the symptoms of anxiety disorder. A diet having less of tea, coffee, soft drinks and chocolates is, therefore, likely to help in panic disorder treatment.