Racing Pigeon Feed – What You Should Be Adding To Your Pigeon Feed To Increase Their Speed

Water and Honey in Racing Pigeon Feed

There is honey… and more honey.

First of all, we have the ordinary imported honey, which in our country, is mixed with sugar. Then, we have the pure bee-honey which we can get from bee-keepers. Years ago, it was easier to get honey from the bee-keepers than it is to-day. Of late, the number of bee-keepers has declined tremendously. Today, men no longer care to look after the hives, where they have to work daily wearing a mask and heavy gloves!

Actually, we prefer the honey which we obtain from a bee-keeper. In this case, we consider honey a cure, containing excellent qualities. Honey is especially good for improving the breathing, and for the nervous system. It aids digestion, and is a nutriment for people with stomach troubles. Persons who suffer from rheumatism and gout should use honey. The antacid it contains is an excellent source for healing. Honey is free of microbes and contains all the vitamins, which the bees gather together with the pollen of the flowers. Honey does wonders for colds, sore throat, enteritis and the flu – it is not just useful as racing pigeon feed! It is a natural food – healthful, energy-giving, and healing. Not only is it good for children, but also for adults; prevention is better than cure, and with this saying, honey certainly plays an important role.

Being good for humans, it must also be good for pigeons, and we advise all fanciers to give it to their birds as part of their racing pigeon feed, because we ourselves do well with its use. We use it all year round, one teaspoonful in a quart of water. Dissolve the honey first, in a glass of water. Never pour hot water on honey, since this may ruin the vitamins and may also cause fermentation. After a long, hard race, our widowers get all they want to drink of this… one tablespoonful in 500 cc. of water. At least two days a week, and two days before basketing, the honey brew should be in all pigeon lofts. As the well known saying goes: “Try it… you might like it!”

Water and Sugar in Racing Pigeon Feed

Every fancier who wishes to keep up with the modern advances in racing pigeon feed, will make use of glucose-sugar. Glucose – the food for the muscles before the season and after the race, helps the birds to recuperate faster. If the birds are basketed on Friday, then on Wednesday and Thursday add 2 teaspoons full of glucose-sugar to each quart of drinking water. On their return from the race, for one day, add two or three teaspoons full of glucose-sugar to each quart of their drinking water every time your racing pigeons feed. On the next day, clean the drinkers and serve fresh water. When we use tea, after it has cooled off, you may add some glucose-sugar to it.

Some fanciers use sugar cubes (6 to a quart of water), or crystal sugar, using one tablespoonful to a quart of water.

We prefer glucose as part of their racing pigeon feed because it is easier to use, and with us, it has given the best results.

What is the HbA1C and How is it Useful in Diabetes Control?

Our blood contains red blood cells, and these are made of haemoglobin molecules. Glucose in our blood sticks to the haemoglobin to make what is known as ‘glycosylated haemoglobin’ molecules, which are also described as haemoglobin A1C or HbA1C. The higher the levels of glucose that there are in the blood, then the more haemoglobin A1C or HbA1C will be present.

Red blood cells have a life cycle of somewhere between 8 -12 weeks before they are replaced. When we measure our HbA1C it will tell you how what your blood glucose level has averaged over those previous 8-12 weeks. A non-diabetic HbA1C reading is between 3.5-5.5%, whereas in diabetes patients, good blood sugar control is considered about 6.5%.

The HbA1C test is presently one of the best indicators to determine whether or not a diabetic is keeping their diabetes under control. It usually involves the giving of a blood sample that requires analysis by a laboratory. It needs to be remembered that the HbA1C is not the same as the glucose level, as many may confusingly believe. The glucose/HbA1C numbers which are considered good diabetes control are similar at lower levels, and diverge the higher the two readings are. For example, an HbA1c of 7% means the average glucose level was 8mmols/l, and at higher levels, an HbA1c level of 10% means the average glucose level for the previous 10 weeks was 13mmol/l.

If your most recent reading is over 7% and you’re health is generally good, you should aim to achieve a lower level as soon as possible. This assumes you make the appropriate changes required to improve your overall blood sugar control. Your HbA1C level can be a predictor for the likelihood of diabetic complications.

Blood glucose levels can fluctuate at any time, whether its by the minute, by the hour, or by the day. For control by the hour or by the day, you should use your glucose level as the best guide. Because the HbA1C level only changes slowly, (over 8-12 weeks) it is better used as a ‘quality of blood sugar control’ test.

The glucose levels in diabetics can rise more than usual, often dropping after exercise, increasing after food, and again even moreso after sweet food, making it very hard to control.

Control Hypothyroidism to Prevent Heart Attacks

The study was conducted on women over the age of 50 who had all the classic signs of a low functioning thyroid. The end result of the study suggests that it is beneficial to control hypothyroidism to prevent heart attacks.

The heart is a muscle as well as an organ that is very responsive to thyroixine, a substance put out by the thyroid gland. When there is not enough of it in the bloodstream, it can make the heart more susceptible to cholesterol build up in the arteries. The lining of the arteries with cholesterol deposits can build up over time and cause increased blood pressure because the heart has to do more work to get the blood supply through it. This condition usually leads to the patient having a heart attack.

Since scientific studies are showing that to control hypothyroidism to prevent heart attacks can be done by taking thyroid feeding supplements, a few products have been produced to do just that and are now out on the market. Prescription thyroid medicine is not without its side effects; so many people are opting for trying a natural thyroid supplement.

Shaped like a butterfly, and found in the lower front part of the neck, the thyroid gland does a great job of balancing out the body’s hormones and other functions. Thyroid glands have been known to become diseased, just like other glands in the body. One disease of the thyroid gland is called Hypothyroidism. It causes the thyroid gland to become under active. An under active thyroid gland can lead to fast weight gain because the body’s metabolism has been slowed down.


If you have an under active thyroid gland, you will probably suspect something is wrong. You may find that your ability to handle stress has really lowered and blood tests will show high cholesterol amounts. People with hypothyroidism are tired all the time. They have dry skin and brittle nails. The soles of the feet will be cracked and dry. Hair will begin thinning and falling out. Another tell-tale symptom is the fact that about one third of your outer eyebrows will vanish. Feet and hands will be cold all the time and extra weight will begin to show up even when you are not over eating. The body temperature will consistently read a little low when taking your temperature.


People who do not have low levels of thyroine in their bloodstream do not have all of the above mentioned symptoms. It is important to make sure you are feeding your thyroid with a good thyroid supplement. Today’s diets do not furnish what it needs for some people. If you have had a heart attack or would like to control

To learn more about hypothyroidism visit:

Seven Risk Factors For Lower Back Pain

SAN RAMON, CA – Low back pain strikes hundreds of thousands of people every day. Most will see their primary medical doctor, who will typically prescribe pain medications, anti-inflammatories, and perhaps muscle relaxants. Some will call their local chiropractor and receive chiropractic treatment. And then some will try to manage their pain on their own.

The medical literature is filled with case studies on low back pain. Why some people develop it, while others don’t is still open to discussion. There are some risk factors associated with low back pain:

1. Obesity, or gradual weight gain in the abdomen

2. Overly sedentary lifestyle

3. History of injury to the low back

4. Type A personality

5. Smoker

6. History of playing sports

7. Long torso

If you are in one or more of these categories, you are at a high risk for developing low back pain. Let’s go over the reasoning:

Obesity— when you stopped growing, around your early 20s your skeleton stopped growing. Your long bones and vertebrae settled at a size sufficient to support a naturally lean body weight. Now, the only way to gain weight after you stop growing is to gain fat, or get pregnant. If fat settles in the abdomen, it moves the center of gravity of your stomach forward and pulls your lower spine forward in the process. The additional weight compresses the cartilage (discs) in your spine, as well as in your hips, knees, and ankles. Over time, it will cause the cartilage to develop cracks. The increased pressure and spinal arc jams the posterior vertebral joints (facet joints) together, making the vertebrae less mobile. This causes muscles around the spine to atrophy, or weaken. End result: low back pain and stiffness.

Overly sedentary lifestyle. Many of those who work at a desk for the most part of the day fall in this category. You need to move your spine frequently in order to keep your spinal discs hydrated and healthy, and to keep your spinal musculature exercised and toned so that it can support your spine from the back, the sides, and the front. Sitting and not exercising leads to weak discs and weak back muscles, which can lead to pain.

History of low back injury. If you hurt your back during high school or college, it may have healed. But healed tissue has scar tissue mixed in. Scar tissue is what your body uses to close broken muscle, tendon and ligament tissue. Scar tissue is not as strong or elastic as normal tissue, so if a previously injured area is subject to a heavy load, or sometimes a sudden movement, it can become re-injured. And this time, since you’re older, it may not heal as fast as before, and may even become chronic (permanent).

Type A personality. This means that you are frequently under stress, are aggressive and are always “on the go.” Type A personalities have a very hard time relaxing. Studies show that this can increase heart rate, blood pressure, and cortisol (stress hormone) levels. These physiological changes are not conducive to a healthy back.

Smokers. Smoking deprives oxygen delivery to tissues. If your job places a lot of force on your back, the cells that make up your discs, muscles, ligaments and tendons need oxygen, as their metabolic rate increases. Limited oxygen will make these structures prone to injury. Also, cigarette smoke contains at least ten known carcinogens.

History of playing sports. Not much surprise here. Any sport that requires jumping and landing will put a tremendous shock to the spine. The spine IS designed to handle such activity, but only so much. 4-6 years of this can overcome the body’s engineering and cause a breakdown in cartilage and bone.

Long torso. Individuals with long upper bodies are often more prone to low back pain. The reason being is that a long torso means a long spine. With the head at the end of the spine (a 10-12 pound weight) a lever-arm is created. Gravity tends to pull the head forward, so if you have a long torso, more force (bigger lever arm) is going to be required from your lower back muscles to stand or sit erect. To help visualize this, picture holding up a a stick with a 10 pound shot put attached to the end, then tilting it forward slightly. You will notice the force required to keep it up. Now, picture holding a broomstick length stick with a 10 pound shotput attached– you won’t be able to keep it up, due to the much larger force created.

If you are aware of these risk factors, you can take immediate steps to help reduce your chances of developing lower back pain.

Dan Perez, DC

11 Effective Home Remedies for Scars

Many of us are left with scars on our body due to some hurt or injury. Scars can result from a pimple, acne, burn or cut. Many of us have chickenpox and measles scars on our body. Too much exposure to the sun also causes scars in some people. Wounds and sores can also leave a scar behind.

Scar may be defined as the mark left on skin after the skin has been damaged. As a natural process the skin tries to heal itself. In order to repair itself, the skin produces a new tissue which results in a scar. If many layers of the skin are damaged, the scar will be deeper and more visible. The lighter scars may fade away with time. The intensity of the scar depends on the intensity of the cause (wound, burn, etc).

Scars which are visible and on obvious parts of the body can affect a person’s self esteem and confidence. Scars cannot be removed completely or permanently, but can be lightened. The type of scar and the color of the skin make a difference too. There are options available like laser treatment, surgery or skin grafting for deep scars. But if the scar is not too intense, some home remedies can be tried to make it lighter over a period of time.

Home remedies are simple and economical. Some of the home remedies for scars are the following.

1. Lemon: Lemon juice is known as natural bleach. As bleach lightens the color so does the juice of lemon. The juice of lemon can be squeezed out and applied on the scars. If done regularly, eventually the scars will lighten.

2. Aloe Vera: Aloe Vera is helps skin problems. The Aloe Vera leaf can be broken and the aloe juice taken out. This juice can be applied directly on the scar marks.

3. Honey: Apply honey directly on the scars. Do this regularly.

4. Lavender Oil: Dab few drops of lavender oil on the scars with help of cotton wool.

5. Tea tree Oil: This is also effective if rubbed on the scars.

6. Vitamin E: Vitamin E is vital for healthy skin.

7. Almond Oil: Almond Oil can be massaged onto the scars regularly.

8. Olive Oil: Olive oil is also beneficial for scars.

9. Coconut Oil: Coconut oil aids in lightening of the scars if applied regularly.

10. Cucumber: Cucumber juice can be massaged on the scars.

11. Tomato: Tomato juice can be applied on the scars or simply cut the tomato and gently rub the slice over the scars.

Try not to squeeze the pimples or scratch them, so that they don’t leave marks behind. For a healthy skin drink lots of water and exercise regularly. This will improve your blood circulation and help the body to heal better. Follow a healthy diet. Eat lots of green leafy vegetables and avoid junk food.

Heart Disease Causes, Symptoms, Stress Contribute and Treatment

Heart Disease

If you’re like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for other folks. But heart disease is the number one killer in the U.S. It is also a major cause of disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease is narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart itself.

Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases affecting the heart. As of 2007, it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1][2] England, Canada and Wales,[3] killing one person every 34 seconds in the United States alone.

Symptoms of Heart disease

The symptoms of heart disorder include certain types of pain, shortness of breath, fatigue, palpitations (awareness of slow, fast, or irregular heartbeats), light-headedness, fainting, and swelling in the legs, ankles, and feet. However, these symptoms do not necessarily indicate a heart disorder.

Symptoms may be very noticeable, but sometimes you can have the disease and not have any symptoms.

Chest pain or discomfort (angina) is the most common symptom. You feel this pain when the heart is not getting enough blood or oxygen. How bad the pain is varies from person to person.

Causes of Heart Diseases

Too much low-density lipoprotein (LDL or “bad cholesterol”) in the blood causes plaque to form on artery walls, which starts a disease process called atherosclerosis. When plaque builds up in the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart, you are at greater risk of having a heart attack.

Many distinguished scientists have pointed to serious flaws in this theory, beginning with the fact that heart disease in America has increased during the period when consumption of saturated fat has decreased. “The diet-heart idea,” said the distinguished George Mann, “is the greatest scam in the history of medicine.

Stress Contribute to Heart Disease

Medical researchers aren’t sure exactly how stress increases the risk of heart disease. Stress itself might be a risk factor, or it could be that high levels of stress make other risk factors (such as high cholesterol or high blood pressure) worse. For example, if you are under stress, your blood pressure goes up, you may overeat, you may exercise less and you may be more likely to smoke.

Treatment of Heart Disease

Diagnosis and Conventional Treatment
In many cases the first indication of cardiovascular disease is a sudden heart attack. There are more than 1.5 million heart attacks in the United States every year and 30% of them are fatal within the first month(5,24). As one popular medical textbook puts it: “Sudden death is the first and only manifestation of coronary heart disease in about 25% of patients.”

Intermittent claudicating involves pain in a muscle to which the blood supply has been restricted due to atherosclerosis. The pains occur with exercise and subside within a couple of minutes once the exercise is stopped. Conventional medical therapy includes an emphasis on daily walks, weight reduction, and total avoidance of smoking.

Caring For Your Geriatric Dog – 8 Helpful Hints

All dogs age eventually, and with it comes ailments that may require special care. These times can be frustrating and scary for both of you. But, if you anticipate these changes you can prepare for them in advance. With a few helpful hints you can turn their golden years into a more pleasant experience for the whole family.

Average dog years: young (0-6 years) middle age (7-10 years) geriatric (11 years and over)

1. Most ailments come on slowly, so we as dog owners don’t notice the failing eyesight or hearing loss, yet these changes can cause strange behavior in your dog. For instance many older dogs become more needy. They may become glued to your leg or may vocalize if you leave them in alone in a room. They may express separation anxiety by barking or whining when you leave the house. This is normal and can you really blame them? Life can get scary when you start to lose your faculties. Always be patient and gentle with your aging pet. Realize they will have to rely on you more and more for their basic needs.

2. As they age dogs develop aches and pains. Sixty-five percent of our four legged pals will get arthritis at some point in their life. Most arthritis appears as a dog ages, but old injuries and surgeries can also cause arthritis to set in. You may not have noticed that your pet has slowed down. Their daily walks have turned into short jaunts to relieve themselves. Getting up and down can be painful and they seem may fall more. The best remedy for an aging, arthritic dog is to put them on a home-cooked diet, but more about this in a bit.

3. Dogs get confused, forget where they are and may work their way into a corner and not be able to get out. They may run into things. This is not funny to them and shouldn’t be to you. They have feelings and get embarrassed. Your poor pup is frustrated by the changes happening in them. They need compassion more than anything. Help your pet adjust to aging, by keeping their schedule as regular as possible. Keep their feeding times and walk times the same. Try not to move things around in the house and don’t leave stuff out where they can trip over it. Dogs thrive on routine especially as they age. And more than ever they need lots of hugs and reassurance.

4. As your pet slows with age so does digestive system. They may not be able to digest the preservatives and additives in commercial dog foods. You may notice runny stools or they may vomit more than usual. Some older dogs even develop allergies to their commercial pet food. This is why a home-cooked diet is so important at this time in their life. Starting now you want them to get their nutrients from whole, fresh, human grade foods. Ground turkey, fresh fruits, vegetables and yams are a great substitute for kibble and canned food.

Fish three times a week is essential to make sure your pet gets their omega 3 fatty acids. Since your pet is not as active they don’t need to eat as much. Try feeding smaller meals more frequently during the day. Snacks like yogurt with fresh berries are terrific for aging dogs. The probiotics in yogurt and the antioxidants in the berries help aid the immune system. If you haven’t already done so this is a good time to add a multivitamin to your pet’s home-cooked diet. You may eventually have to add selective supplements, for various ailments but a home-cooked diet and a multivitamin is a great place to start.

5. Your pup may sleep most of the day. As they get into their golden years they require more sleep. Although sleep is important your dog should get out frequently during the day, not only to relieve themselves, but to stretch their legs. Idleness can cause stiffness, so make them get up and move during the day, but don’t overwork them.

6. Aging dogs often leak or have accidents in the house. These are the times you have to remember how much unconditional love your pet has shown you and return the favor. Puppy pads and doggie diapers, what a great invention! They come in very handy when incontinence is a problem. They now make doggies wipes so you can keep their hind- quarters clean, too. Having you dog take more frequent potty breaks may help keep them from leaking or having bowel movements in the house. If your dog does have an accident in the house don’t scold them they most likely don’t know they did it.

7. Be sure your aging pet has regular vet check ups. This way you can catch things before they get out of hand. A geriatric dog should see the vet for a regular check up every six months as opposed to yearly. And be sure to keep their teeth clean as this prevents other illnesses.

8. Know when to say good-bye. As heart wrenching as it is, your pet needs you to be strong and show them kindness. They will tell you when they are ready if you listen.

We all want to enjoy our pets for as long as we can. Help them by understanding that as they get older they may need special attention. By preparing ahead of time you can eliminate a lot of the frustration that comes with caring for an aging pet. Remember their love is unconditional.

Nutrition Tips – The Medicinal Uses and Health Benefits of Rubidium

Rubidium is quite a rare trace mineral that is not very abundant in the human body. But despite its rarity and low presence in the body, it has some very important functions to perform for your health. Without further ado, let’s get straight into the uses of rubidium.

4 Medicinal Uses and Health Benefits of Rubidium

1. Helps in the prevention of diabetes: The mineral rubidium plays an essential role in the synthesis of enzymes. One such enzyme that rubidium helps to create is very essential for the proper absorption of glucose in your body.

Without rubidium to help the action of the enzyme, the glucose molecules would not be able to get absorbed efficiently, thus leading to diabetic problems.

Hence, one of the major uses of rubidium is to decrease your chances of getting diabetes.

2. Maintains hormonal balance: Studies have revealed that rubidium enhances the production of many hormones and various enzymes.

The working of the pituitary gland, as well as the salivary and lachrymal glands, is encouraged with the presence of rubidium. Thus rubidium helps to keep your hormone production balanced and also controls the excretion of required fluids from the other glands.

A hormonal imbalance can cause a lot of difficulties including, hair fall, facial hair, weight gain, infertility etc. As rubidium keeps your body’s hormonal activity in check, it can thus help to prevent such health concerns.

3. Aids in the regulation and absorption of iron: Rubidium has been shown to help regulate the flow of iron into the bloodstream, which in turn helps in better absorption of iron. When there is enough iron present in your blood, rubidium acts as a block and stops more iron from being let into the blood.

As a result, your iron level remains optimum and there is no excess iron in your blood, which could cause several health problems including hemosiderosis. When there is just the right amount of iron present in your blood, your body is not overworked and can absorb the iron most effectively.

Thus, adequate rubidium is vital to ensure that you do not get diseases related to overdose of iron.

4. Helps in depression: Initial results of medical studies have shown rubidium to be very useful in the synthesis of serotonin. It also ensures presence of enough serotonin in your body.

Serotonin is a brain chemical, in the absence of which you may suffer from mental imbalances. Serotonin deficiency has been observed in those who are depressed and they are generally given serotonin drugs to counter the depression.

Thus, as rubidium seems to e a natural serotonin booster, it can be of great help in maintaining the health of your brain, and specifically in preventing depression.

Although not much is known about rubidium as it is a rare mineral and the body contains very little of it, the above uses of rubidium make it an imperative mineral for your well being.

Sourcing the Uses of Rubidium

As rubidium is not very abundant in soil (if at all), food sources of rubidium are quite rare. In fact, a lot of the rubidium used in the United States is brought in from other countries.

Thus, the only source of rubidium for your health is rubidium supplements.

How To Choose A Rubidium Supplement

Do not buy any rubidium supplement that has ingredients such as silica, sugar, starch, artificial colors etc. Such ingredients are additives that are harmful for your body and should thus be avoided.

Buy a rubidium supplement that is made as per pharmaceutical GMP standards so as to ensure that you are getting a safe product.

Staining Techniques In Microbiology


Simple Stains
They are also referred as monochrome stains, since only one dye is employed for the colouration of bacterial smear (The act of taking bacteria taken from a lesion or area, spreading them on a slide, and staining them for microscopic examination.). The surface of a bacterial cell has an overall acidic characteristic because of large amount of carboxyl groups located on the cell surface de to acidic amino acids. Therefore, when ionization of carboxyl groups takes place it imparts negative charge to the cell surface as per the following equation.

COOH → COO- + H+

H+ is removed and the surface of the bacteria becomes  negatively charged and a positively charged dye like (methylene blue) attaches to the negatively surface and gives it a coloured appearance.

Methylene blue chloride →  Methylene Blue++ Cl‑

Negative Stains
Negative staining is a technique (used mainly in electron microscopy) by which bacterial cells are not stained, but are made visible against dark background. 
Acidic dyes like eosin and nigrosin are employed for this method. Though, this staining technique is not very popular, it has an advantage over the direct or positive staining methods for the study of morphology of cells. This is because of the fact that the cells do not receive vigorous physical or chemical treatments.

The colouring power of acidic dye e.g. eosin in sodium eosinate is having negative charge, therefore, it does not combine with the negatively charged bacterial cell surface. On the other hand, it forms a deposit around the cell, resulting into appearance of bacterial cell colourless against dark background.  Some suitable negative stains include ammonium molybdate, uranyl acetate, uranyl formate, phosphotungstic acid, osmium tetroxide, osmium ferricyanide and auroglucothionate. These have been chosen because they scatter electrons well and also adsorb to biological matter well. The method is used to view viruses, bacteria, bacterial flagella, biological membrane structures and proteins or protein aggregates, which all have a low electron-scattering power.

Differential Stains
Staining procedure which differentiates or distinguishes between types of bacteria is termed as differential staining technique. Methods for simple staining impart same colour to all bacteria and other biological material, may be slight variation in shade. On the other hand, differential staining methods impart distinctive colour only to certain types of bacteria.

The basic principle underlying this differentiation is due to the different chemical and physical properties of cell and as a result, they react differently with the staining reagents. Differential staining procedure utilizes more than one stain. In some techniques the stains are applied separately, while in other as combination. There are two most important differential stains, namely, (A) Gram stain and (B) Acid-fast stain.

(A) Gram Stain

Gram stain is one of the most important and widely used differential stains. It has great taxonomic significance and is often the first step in the identification of an unknown prokaryotic organism. This technique divides bacteria into two groups (i) Gram positive those which retain primary dye like crystal violet and appear deep violet in colour and (ii) Gram negative, which lose the primary dye on application of decolourizer and take the colour of counterstain like safranin or basic fuchsin.

Gram-positive bacteria have a thick mesh-like cell wall made of peptidoglycan (50-90% of cell wall), which stains purple while gram-negative bacteria have a thinner layer (10% of cell wall), which stains pink. Gram-negative bacteria also have an additional outer membrane which contains lipids. There are four basic steps of the Gram stain, which include applying a primary stain (crystal violet) to a heat-fixed smear of a bacterial culture, followed by the addition of a trapping agent (Gram’s iodine), rapid decolorization with alcohol or acetone, and counterstaining with safranin. Basic fuchsin is sometimes substituted for safranin since it will more intensely stain anaerobic bacteria but it is much less commonly employed as a counterstain.

Crystal violet (CV) dissociates in aqueous solutions into CV+ and chloride (Cl – ) ions. These ions penetrate through the cell wall and cell membrane of both gram-positive and gram-negative cells. The CV+ ion interacts with negatively charged components of bacterial cells and stains the cells purple.

Iodine (I – or I3 – ) interacts with CV+ and forms large complexes of crystal violet and iodine (CV–I) within the inner and outer layers of the cell. Iodine is often referred to as a mordant, but is a trapping agent that prevents the removal of the CV-I complex and therefore color the cell.

When a decolorizer such as alcohol or acetone is added, it interacts with the lipids of the cell membrane. A gram-negative cell will lose its outer membrane and the lipopolysaccharide layer is left exposed. The CV–I complexes are washed from the gram-negative cell along with the outer membrane. In contrast, a gram-positive cell becomes dehydrated from an ethanol treatment. The large CV–I complexes become trapped within the gram-positive cell due to the multilayered nature of its peptidoglycan. After decolorization, the gram-positive cell remains purple and the gram-negative cell loses its purple color. Counterstain, which is usually positively charged safranin or basic fuchsin, is applied last to give decolorized gram-negative bacteria a pink or red color.

Acid Fast Stains
Acid fast staining is another widely used differential stain­ing procedure in bacteriology. This stain was developed by Paul Ehrlich in 1882, during his work on etiology of tuber culosis (5). Some bacteria resist decolourization by both acid and alcohol and hence they are referred as acid-fast organisms. Acid alcohol is very intensive decolourizer. This staining technique divides bacteria into two groups (i) acid-fast and (ii) non acid-fast. This procedure is extensively used in the diagnosis of tuberculosis and leprosy.

Acid-fastness property in certain Mycobacteria and some species of Nocardia is correlated with their high lipid content. Due to high lipid content of cell wall, in some cases 60% (w/w), acid-fast cells have relatively low permeability to dye and hence it is difficult to stain them. For the staining of these bacteria, penetration of primary dye is facilitated with the use of 5% aqueous phenol which acts as a chemical intensifier. In addition, heat is also applied which acts as a physical intensifier. Once these cells are stained, it is difficult to decolourize
Ziehl-Neelsen method:
Ziehl (6) and Neelsen (7) independently proposed acid fast stain, in 1882-1883 is commonly used today. The staining reagents are much more stable than those described by Ehrlich.
The procedure for staining is as follows. Prepare a smear and fix it by gentle heat. Flood the smear with carbol fuchsin (S19) and heat the slide from below till steam rise for 5 minutes.
Do not boil and ensure that stain does not dry out. Allow the’ slide to cool for 5 minutes to prevent the breakage of slide in the subsequent prevent step. Wash well with water. Decolourize the smear till red colour no longer comes out in 20% sulphuric acid. Wash with water. Counterstain with 1% aqueous solution of malachite green or Loeffler’s methylene blue (S18) for 15-20 seconds. Wash, blot dry and examine under oil-immersion objective
Endospore staining

Bacterial endosporesare metabolically inactive, highly resistant structures produced by some bacteria as a defensive strategy against unfavorable environmental conditions.  The bacteria can remain in this suspended state until conditions become favorable and they can germinate and return to their vegetative state.  The primary stain applied is malachite green, which stains both vegetative cells and endospores.  Heatis applied to help the primary stain penetrate the endospore.    The cells are then decolorized with water, which removes the malachite green from the vegetative cell but not the endospore.  Safraninis then applied to counterstainany cells which have been decolorized.  At the end of the staining process, vegetative cells will be pink, and endospores will be dark green.

Do You Have Birth Control High Blood Pressure Concerns?

Birth control high blood pressure symptoms can be a problem for women taking certain types of hormonal contraceptives. The two birth control methods that pose the most risk include the birth control pill and the birth control patch.

However, not every woman who uses these methods of birth control will experience high blood pressure, as there are many factors involved that generally determine the degree of risk each woman faces.

Nevertheless, the reason why hormonal birth control high blood pressure risk exists, is because these contraceptives contain progestins. Progestin is a type if drug that mirrors the activity of the hormone progesterone which naturally occurs in the female body.

It is common for progestin to slightly raise the blood pressure in most women who take hormonal birth control, and it is the cause of high blood pressure when it occurs.

The risk of birth control causing high blood pressure increases for a woman based on the following factors:

 Age – As a woman ages (usually mid 35 and older), her chances of developing high blood pressure increases.

 Duration of use – The longer a woman uses the pill or patch, the greater the chances of high blood pressure occurring.

 Pre-existing condition – Women who have previously experienced episodes of consistent high blood pressure, even only if it was during pregnancy, are at a greater risk.

 Family history – Women who have a family history of hypertension could be at a greater risk.

 Obesity – a woman who is obese has a greater risk of developing high blood pressure.

Hormonal contraception is one of the most convenient and effective methods of birth control, but it is a fact that high blood pressure occurs 2- 3 times more frequently in women who take hormonal contraceptives than those who use other methods.

Therefore, if you take the pill or are using the patch – regardless if you have any of the above increased risk factors or not – have your doctor check your blood pressure every year.

Should you discover you have developed high blood pressure, you should stop taking hormonal contraceptives and seek out other birth control methods. Once off the pill or the patch, your blood pressure should return to normal within 3 to 6 months.

Keep in mind that although you can take hormonal methods of birth control if you have high blood pressure that is being regulated with medications, you will need to have your blood pressure closely monitored by your doctor. Nonetheless, it is strongly advised that anyone who had, has, or is at a greater risk of developing high blood pressure, use other birth control methods.

The following are safe methods of birth control that doesn’t put a woman at high blood pressure risk:

 Barrier birth control methods – condoms, diaphragm, sponge, cervical cap. Each of these methods is disposed of after sexual intercourse.

 Birth control injection – DepoProvera is a shot containing synthetic progestin (different from the pill and patch) administered via a needle every three months. DepoProvera a long-term method of birth control.

 Birth control implant – Norplant is a progestin capsule that is inserted into the upper arm and lasts for 5 years. An IUD (intrauterine device) is a T-shaped device that is inserted into the uterus (and can last a year or 10 years depending on the type) and is very effective at preventing pregnancy. The IUD is recommended for those women who are in a long-term monogamous relationship.

Keep in mind that even though the above do not directly impact high blood pressure, the shots and implants do have side effects, and none of the above contraception (including the pill and patch), except for the condom, prevent the transmission of STD’s (sexually transmitted diseases). Therefore, make sure you discuss your contraceptive options with your health care provider if birth control high blood pressure is a risk factor for you.

How You Can Cure The Incurable Headache

Have you ever suffered from a headache? If yes, then you know how uncomfortable it could be. Headaches can paralyze you for days, weeks and even months! Headaches can make your life miserable. But despite the fact that more than 10 million Americans suffer from headaches, traditional medicine cannot really offer a cure. Because the most common approach is simply giving a pill to treat the symptoms, it looks like we might be doomed to a lifetime of Excedrin and days lost. Is there anything else that can be done?

The better approach would be to find the root cause of the problem and eliminate it. Sounds simple, so why don’t they do it in every medical office? Because in real life it is not that easy. Let me give you an example.

A middle-aged, pleasant lady came to my office complaining of chronic headaches crippling her life. She was seen by multiple doctors without getting help. The last doctor she saw advised her to check for possible hormone imbalances and she came to see me. I created a list of possible causes:

  1. Migraines, a poorly understood condition, is probably related to hormone imbalance. She was at an age when hormonal decline was there for sure.
  2. Tension headaches that can be related to depression. Even though she denies it, she did not look happy. So depression was still on my list.
  3. Headaches, secondary to excessive coffee intake. Yes! She was drinking several cups of coffee every day. But she said that could give it up without a problem.
  4. Excessive alcohol intake can also cause headaches. But she denied drinking alcohol, except socially.
  5. Head tumors are notoriously known as a reason for chronic headaches. But her regular doctor had an MRI done that ruled out any brain mass.
  6. Not enough sleep can cause chronic headaches. And it was definitely a problem, because her sleep was not great and not long enough.
  7. Electrolyte imbalance, especially magnesium deficiency, can be the cause of chronic headaches. Magnesium is necessary to relax. Not enough magnesium because of low greens in your diet and/or soil depletion, and you can’t relax your head muscles, resulting in chronic headaches. But her magnesium was normal.
  8. Certain foods as well as food additives like chocolate, cheeses, MSG and sulfides can cause headaches. But from many years of suffering from headaches she learned all about that foods and additives and stayed away from them.
  9. Allergies, like food allergies, causing sinusitis, can be the cause. And she indeed was suffering from frequent sinusitis and food allergies.
  10. Even a hole in the heart can cause severe headaches. But her echo-cardiogram did not show any hole.
  11. Do not forget about too much stress in our life. It can cause anything from headaches to even death. And this is understandable: we are not designed to sustain that much stress. Humans are hunters/gatherers intended to work only 2-3 hours a day. Can you imagine? But how many hours do you work a day? Your spouse?

What we did first was deal with her hormonal imbalance and food allergies. And though she did respond initially, she was still suffering from headaches. We continued to look for the cause. I was hoping that specific imaging studies would help and was waiting for more information. And then came the answer.

She went to a different continent for a week. And a miracle happened: no more headaches over there. But they returned as soon as she came back. What it meant was: allergic inflammation in the sinuses! And then the imaging studies came: a lot of problems in the nose and sinuses with blockage.

She went for surgery and did well after that.

Treating headaches for this woman, and for so many others who don’t even seek the proper treatment can be much more complicated than popping a pain reliever every four to six hours.

  • Are you suffering from headaches?
  • How often?
  • What do you do to get rid of them?

How To Plant A Pomegranate Tree To Fruition

Before contemplating planting activity of any sort, it is recommended to carefully think things through.  Understanding how to plant a pomegranate tree does not just constitute picking up a shovel and digging a hole in the backyard to house a young plan.

Tree planting yields different outcomes than potted plants.  Firstly, it is ideal to ascertain how large this genus of plant life can grow to.  This encompasses horizontal as well as vertical dimensions as it is known to shoot in all directions without periodic pruning.  If one‘s backyard is near the size of a basketball court, that should suffice.  Those with smaller plots may need to rethink such an ambitious deed so as not to risk roots emerging in odd spots and intruding neighboring limits.

Once the question of space is resolved with an adequate plot size and spot picked out, the next step is to select method of transplanting to soil.  Although this fruit has seeds within, they are purely for consumption in salads and desserts as well as juice extraction.  It is unlikely that sprinkling some of the little red rubies will sprout new growth.  Pay a visit to the local fruit orchard or nursery.  Else, run a search on the internet to yield some helpful leads in sourcing some cuttings.  Select the mildest weather for a new planting to avoid frost and extreme heat.  With plenty of fluids, it takes root quite quickly.  Young branches may need stakes as support until they have reached maturity.

Part of the drawing board process on how to plant a pomegranate tree requires understanding of weather and irrigational requirements.  Originating in temperate climates, it thrives on sunshine and good drainage to bear fruits.  Underground water sources also help to sate needs of root structures.  Else, install watering units to ensure constant supply.

Various options exist to boost flowering and sprouting of new shoots as well as kill off or deter aphids.  No different from man popping his supplements, a tree needs its dose of nitrates.  If one is gearing towards organic practices, select appropriately.  Alternatively, it is a good opportunity to initiate a home project for a compost heap.  Whilst doing one’s bit for the environment, one is also assured a safe and healthy crop.  Fortunately, this species is relatively spared of major pests and diseases with the occasional nibble of young leaves by some fauna.

Encourage fruiting from new shoots by periodic pruning.  This also helps to keep its shape as a tree instead of a large bushy shrub.  Other than being an ornamental addition to one’s backyard, a pomegranate tree is certainly a thing of beauty to complement one’s garden party.

10 Surprising Things That Can Make You Break Out

Surprise breakout trigger #1: Fun times

Surprisingly, your skin can react to exciting events such as a big weekend, vacation, graduation or wedding in the same way as it does to stress, even though it doesn’t feel stressful at all! Just like stress, highly anticipated events can play with your immune system. Remember even when awesome things are happening to keep up with taking care of your self. Plenty of water, good foods, sleep, and a bit of calming yoga or stretching will help keep your skin (and nerves) in tip-top shape.

Surprise breakout trigger #2: Your toothpaste

Your skin can react to the ingredients in toothpaste, especially those with fluoride or whitening agents. If you are experiencing little red bumps just around your mouth, it might be time to switch to toothpaste geared to sensitive skin. (If you do switch to non-fluoride, double up on tap water, as it contains fluoride necessary for healthy teeth.)

Surprise breakout trigger #3: Getting Fit

Hold on there — you work hard on your workout, sweat a little and your pores feel great, but is it bad for your skin? Actually, acne loves sweat – and chooses this time to flex it’s muscles causing your skin problems. Your counter defense: rinse skin directly after a workout, and apply a gentle alicylic acid wash/treatment.

Surprise breakout trigger #4: Your boyfriend

Yes, he looks hot with a little manly stubble, and he smells great too — but both of these can wreak havoc on your skin after a serious make-out session! The friction from his beard, and the fragrance from her aftershave can cause major irritation and breakouts. Breakouts may not appear for days or a few weeks, but if you’ve left your date with your face red or irritated, you can bet the breakouts will show up later. Let him know that a baby-faced smooth shave is a great look, and buy him a nice gift of some great cologne to replace that after shave!

Surprise breakout trigger #5: Your mineral make-up

Woah! Aren’t mineral make-ups good for acne-prone skin? The answer is, they can be. Watch for mineral make-ups that contain bismuth oxychloride, which can cause cystic acne, itching and irritation. Monave makes a variety that is bismuth oxychloride-free.

Surprise breakout trigger #6: Your water

Whaa? If your water has a high mineral content, it can throw off the ph balance of your skin, and it also has less rinsing ability, so it can leave residue from soaps and other products on your skin. The result can be clogged pores and irritation. Consider a water softener, or look into pre-moistened cloths.

Surprise breakout trigger #7: Your facial cleanser

Facial cleansers with too much soap in them can throw off the ph balance of the skin, causing the skin to react in ways that sometimes aren’t pretty. Opt for a gentle cleanser, such as castile soap, or a natural acne wash meant for sensitive skin.

Surprise breakout trigger #8: Your hair products

What? They’re on your hair right? Your hair products can block your pores – even though it is hard to realize the connection, as acne can take days/weeks to form. On the flip-side, oils from the hair can cause forehead and jaw line acne, too. Keep your hair clean and pulled back, especially at night. If you suffer from persistent acne, try using an anti-dandruff shampoo on your hair – it is especially anti-bacterial.

Surprise breakout trigger #9: Your hands

We all know that picking the skin is bad for you. But it also makes sense that just touching your skin with unclean hands can transfer a number of unwanted, aggravating bacteria to the skin? Get into the habit of a hands-off approach to your skin. If you are applying products to your skin, wash your hands with a mild soap prior to application.

Surprise breakout trigger #10: The Sun

We all love the fact that a glow from the sun makes breakouts less noticeable and helps dry up excess oil, but a little too much sun can aggravate the pores and cause acne to appear a week or two later. Keep safe with an oil-free sun block. Look for one with micronized zinc oxide, which is helpful to acne-prone skin.

Pros and Cons of Morning After Pills

The use of morning after pill has both advantages and disadvantages associated with it. Here are a few pros and cons you need to be aware of:


1. It can be your last resort to avoid unwanted pregnancy.

2. If you are 17 years of age or over, you don’t need a prescription to buy morning after pills. You can have it soon after having an unprotected sex.

3. By consuming these pills, you can avoid unnecessary stress and tension about an unwanted pregnancy.

4. Even if the pills fail to prevent pregnancy, they will not cause any harm to the baby.

5. These pills won’t affect your chances of getting pregnant in the future. Your fertility remains the same and returns with your next period.

6. Studies have shown that morning after pills effectively lower the risk of endometrial and ovarian cancer.


1. They can cause certain side effects. Some common morning after pills side effects are nausea, vomiting, dizziness, diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, irregular bleeding and breast tenderness.

2. Morning after pills can also cause some serious side effects such as liver disorders, gallbladder disease, high blood pressure and blood clots in the heart, intestines and lungs.

3. They can cause serious health complications in women suffering from diabetes, heart diseases and migraine.

4. They can also have adverse effects in women, who are over 35 years of age and have cardiovascular disorders, deep vein thrombosis, liver problems and breast cancer.

5. The use of morning after pill raises the risk of an ectopic pregnancy. In such a pregnancy, the embryo gets lodged in the fallopian tubes rather than the womb. If you are using morning after pills, the pregnancy can remain undetected. This is because the symptoms of ectopic pregnancy are similar to the side effects of the pills: nausea and abdominal pain. If remain undetected for a long time, it can prove to be fatal.

6. Other than these side effects, the body may have an allergic reaction to the drug, causing an outbreak of rash and breathing problems.

7. Apart from physical side effects to the body, the emergency contraceptive pills can also have a wider social impact. The easy over-the-counter access to the emergency contraceptive pill raises questions about its misuse. Many people are of the view that it may lead to an increase in promiscuity, Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) and increased sexual violence against women.

Though the use of morning after pill becomes essential to avoid pregnancy after an unprotected sex, its usage must be avoided on regular basis.

Epulis – Mouth/Oral Tumor In Dogs

Epulis is the most common type of benign or non-cancerous tumor in dog’s mouth. A benign tumor is one that does not spread to other parts of the body. However, an epulis can be “locally invasive,” which means that it can grow into the tissues surrounding its initial location. This tumor of the periodontal ligament, which is the structure that holds the dog’s tooth in place. Epulides are the most common benign oral tumors in dogs; cats rarely have benign oral tumors. These tumors occur in dogs of any age, but they are generally found in middle-age dogs over six years old.

Epulides have three types and are recognized, grouped by tissue origin. The first is Fibromatous Epulis, they are pedunculated (on a stalk or stem) and non-ulcerating (no interruptions on the outside of the growth). Fibromatous is the most common non-cancerous oral tumor of dogs. These firm, pink tumors arise from the gums. Even a non-cancerous, Fibromatous may become quite large and completely envelop one or more teeth. also may not be possible to tell whether an oral tumor is an epulis or one of the less common, malignant tumors that may occur in the mouth. These growths may become inflamed and ulcerated, causing pain on chewing. They are most common in dogs over 8 years of age.

Other types of Epulis are Ossifying Epulis and Acanthomatous Epulis. Ossifying Epulis includes fibruous tissue and also contains bone cells and these may transform into a cancerous tumors. Ossifying has a greater abundance of hard tissue, osteoid, bone and cementum than fibromatous epulides. Fibromatous and ossifying epulides are now considered to be peripheral odontogenic fibromas, while Acanthomatous epulis is now called canine peripheral ameloblastoma or canine acanthomatous ameloblastoma. Acanthomatous (also called Oral Adamantinoma) is a locally invasive, sometimes recurrent, tumor of the gums of dogs and sometimes cats. These routinely aggressively invade local tissues including bone and they generally do not metastasize, but due to their locally aggressive nature surgical excision must include a full 1-cm margin of clinically normal tissue to prevent recurrence.

An epulis is usually first noticed as a growth on the gum line of the dog’s mouth. In rare cases, teeth may be moved from their normal position because of the growth of the epulis. Your pet is initially unaffected by the epulis. However, if the growth becomes large, it could bleed, cause problems with eating, or affect the teeth or jawbone. An epulis is treated by surgically removing it, including a broad margin around the growth. Sometimes, especially with larger tumors, teeth adjacent to the epulis have to be removed. In other cases, portions of the jawbone may need to be removed to cure the condition, for if a portion remains, it will often regrow. Radiation treatment is sometimes used in addition to or instead of surgery for treating large tumors. The prognosis is good if the entire epulis can be removed, so it’s best to avoid delay of surgery that would allow the epulis to grow. After surgical removal, the prognosis can be very good depending on the type of epulis removed. A subtype of epulis called an “acanthomatous” epulis can cause more bone problems than the other types, and can be more difficult to completely remove.