Anesthesia For Rhinoplasty – Cosmetic Nose Surgery

Rhinoplasty can be done without intubation. The surgeon and the

Anesthesiologist work as a team to provide the best possible patient


Anesthesia for Rhinoplasty is a combination of intravenous propofol

given by the Anesthesiologist together with local anesthesia injected in

and around the nose by the surgeon. The intravenous use of propofol for

anesthesia is sometimes called total intravenous anesthesia or TIVA.

Propofol is a gentle, safe, non-opiate medication with rapid smooth

action, and quick offset. It is exceedingly unlikely to cause any allergic

reaction, and does not cause nausea. In the proper hands, it is easily

controlled, and can be used for mild sedation to general anesthesia. It

can be used for very short operations, lasting a few minutes, to long

procedures lasting many hours.

For cosmetic nose surgery without intubation, the patient is fully monitored for

respiratory, heart and cognitive function. The TIVA with propofol is

continuously adjusted with the aid of a computerized pump. Initially,

enough medication is given to eliminate the discomfort of the local

anesthesia injections. The local anesthetic also includes a

vasooconstrictor,epinephrine, to eliminate bleeding during the operation.

The local anesthetic used is long acting, and the pain relief lasts long

after the rhinoplasty is completed. As soon as the nose is numb, the

propofol dose is decreased to the minimum required to keep the patient

asleep. Since the nose is completely numb, the dose of propofol is usually

quite small at this point. The patient continues to breathe naturally, remaining asleep and unaware until the end of the Rhinoplasty procedure. Patients wake up shortly after the TIVA is stopped, and are fully alert, ready to eat drink and ambulate minutes after nose

surgery is done. A combination of oral and intravenous anti-inflammatory

medications are given before, during and after surgery resulting in

minimal swelling and pain after surgery.

General anesthesia with intubation typically involves the use of propofol

together with paralyzing drugs and inhaled anesthetic gases. A tube is

placed through the mouth into the windpipe. In medical terms, this is

called oral endotracheal intubation. The patient depends on the

anesthesiologist to help with breathing using a manual and/or powered

ventilator for most if not all of the duration of the surgery. Since the

patient doesn’t move (paralyzing medications are used), the nose does not

have to be as thoroughly numbed as in the TIVA technique. There is more

likely to be bleeding, and gauze packing is frequently used in the nose

and throat. When blood is swallowed patients are also more likely to wake

up nauseated. Before patients wake up, they are often given medications to

reverse the paralyzing drugs. These medications and intravenous opioid

narcotics, and inhaled gases and contribute to a significant incidence of

post operative nausea and vomiting. Even in experienced and gentle hands,

many patients complain of sore throat, and less frequently, hoarseness and

vocal irritation.

TIVA and local anesthesia for rhinoplasty require the Anesthesiologist and

the surgeon to work together as a team. The Anesthesiologist needs to

monitor the patient closely, both visually and electronically. The surgeon

needs to thoroughly and carefully numb the nose with the appropriate

propofol dose adjusted constantly by the Anesthesiologist. Once the nose

is completely numbed, a few minutes are required for the anesthetic and

vasoconstrictor (epinephrine) effect to fully work. At this point the

rhinoplasty can proceed with total sedation and minimal medication until

the surgery is completed.

Can Colon Hydrotherapy Help Your Kidneys Function Better

When someone mentions the idea of colon hydrotherapy, one subject will spring to mind: an enema. And, of course, that leads to the question: how can an enema help my kidneys? That’s because it’s not an enema! Colon hydrotherapy is so much more than just enemas. Primarily, it has to do with putting the right sort of things into your body to flush out the pollutants that have built up there over time.

Often times, you’ll hear doctors warn against eating too much red meat. It’s said that it can collect in the lower intestine and stay there as a breeding ground for bacteria. Well, the same is true for other organs of your body. Kidney stones, bladder infections, and other diseases can lead to serious health problems.

A good kidney cleansing can flush out toxins, dissolve kidney stones, and improve overall kidney function. Now, one little caveat here: if you’re suffering debilitating pain from kidney stones, don’t think that one quick treatment is going to get rid of them. Kidney stones are like any other malady; they take time to build up, and will take time to deal with. There are different kinds of stones. Depending on their size and composition, days or even months will be needed to get rid of them.

The first step in proper kidney health is to prevent the stones. To that end, drink lots of water, juice, tea, and eat plenty of fruit. Lemonade, juices, and herbal teas are particularly good for the kidneys. If you start showing the symptoms of a kidney stone: low back pain, pain in the kidney, and edema that is, you’re retaining a lot of water in your body, there is a simple treatment you can try. This is known as the watermelon hydrotherapy, and you may find it a bit unorthodox. First, get a few large melons, slice them up into nice bite-sized chunks, and then sit in a nice warm bath.

You’ll have to stay there the whole day, and eat as much watermelon as you can. Now, here’s the part you may not like you have to empty your bladder into the bath water, and stay in the tub the whole time! It’s one thing to do that at the beach or even a public swimming pool (come on, admit it, you’ve done it before!), but to have to do it in a bathtub and stay in it; that’s a bit much. Yet, if you can tolerate it, this hydrotherapy has been shown to dissolve kidney stones in as little as a single treatment.

Type 2 Diabetes – The Least Common Causes of Diabetes

You are likely familiar with some of the causes of Type 2 diabetes. You may know a little about this form of diabetes or be very aware of the latest regarding new medications, and the strategies for coping with the psychological and social challenges.

Regardless of your background, let us focus on the least common causes of Type 2 diabetes. These do not receive much attention: they are overshadowed by the main culprits, which you are likely acquainted with already.

Let’s get to it…

1. Hormonal Diseases. There is much more affecting the body’s insulin resistance than you may think. It is not all about your lifestyle and well-being; even if they are primary factors. Sometimes diseases may be involved, as is the case with those affecting hormone function.

Some conditions cause a dysfunction in hormone production. In some cases, excess hormones have an effect on insulin, which may play a role in the development of Type 2 diabetes. Acromegaly, hyperthyroidism, and Cushing’s syndrome are some hormonal diseases that can cause Type 2 diabetes.

2. A Damaged Pancreas. The pancreas is a vital organ when it comes to blood sugar management, as it is the site where insulin is produced. For this reason, any damage to the pancreas, or any disease that affects it may predispose an individual to diabetes.

If insulin production or efficiency is impaired, the development of diabetes becomes more likely. Pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer are two diseases affecting the pancreas that may be considered less than common causes of diabetes.

3. Genetic Mutations. Most of the time, the causes of diabetes can be anticipated and addressed. When it comes to genetic mutations, however, there is little one can do. Sometimes it is a matter of a single gene impairing an individual’s pancreas, limiting its ability to produce insulin. Other times, what happens we may not even currently understand. Remember there is still much we do not know, and science is a field constantly evolving.

Fortunately, anything involving genetics and diabetes is relatively rare and is the exception rather than the rule. Needless to say, genetic mutations are yet another less than common cause.

4. Medications. Lastly and perhaps surprisingly, medications may sometimes be a cause of Type 2 diabetes. Especially those inflicting damage to the beta cells in the pancreas which are responsible for making insulin.

When many people are prescribed drugs, they skip past the “possible side effects” section when reading through the product information. Medications are not perfect and sometimes, they do more harm than good.

Diuretics, psychiatric drugs, and anti-seizure drugs are known for their effects on insulin. Even niacin, a form of vitamin B you can purchase over-the-counter, could make you more vulnerable to diabetes.

Before taking any over-the-counter drugs or supplements, check with your Pharmacist or Doctor before adding them to your list.

Rash After Shaving? You Could Have a Bacterial Infection Causing the Red Bumps

Shaving rash is a big problem for many men (and women) around the World. It’s characterized by the red bumps that appear after you’ve just shaved and is most common around the neck & jawline of men. Many people have this problem and it’s one which is actually very easy to cure if you know what’s causing it.

Although there are many theories about what causes shaving rash, there’s one cause that is extremely common. Unfortunately, there’s a condition which affects the hair follicles of men & women called ‘Folliculitis’, which is where the actual hair follicles become infected with bacteria. This bacteria then causes the follicles to become irritated, which means that after shaving, you will be left with a series of red bumps that will sting and be itchy.

The problem of folliculitis is VERY common and almost no-one knows about it. It’s caused when you have a bacterial or fungal infection inside the hair follicles on your body or neck and this bacteria irritates the follicles when you shave. You can normally tell if you have this condition by the tenderness and how irritated your skin feels after shaving. Many men complain about having a “red raw” neck after shaving, and many women complain of unsightly red bumps after shaving their bikini link – both of which is a tell-tale sign of the folliculitis condition.

To stop your shaving rash, you should first think about tackling folliculitis. Even if you don’t have the infection, performing what I am about to explain will only benefit your skin.

The first thing you should do is to invest in a quality electric razor. There are plenty of women’s razors around now and you can find them on eBay and Amazon… and for men, I would highly recommend investing around $75 (it needs to be good) on a comfortable Philips or Remington razor. The better quality the razor, the less irritation you’re going to get. Using a manual razor will basically cause tons of microscopic tears in your skin and make the folliculitis worse.

After you have a new razor, you then need to perform some ‘cures’ to kill the bacteria that’s infecting your hair follicles. This can be done using a series of different methods which all work to rid your skin of the harmful bacteria that is causing the irritation. There are some good herbal remedies for this condition, which we have detailed on our site.

Information On Baby Reflux Symptoms

Baby acid reflux is present in around 20% of babies before the age of nine months. The condition is caused by an underdeveloped digestive tract and almost all babies will grow out of it before their first birthday. By knowing the baby reflux symptoms, a parent can watch and assess the baby to see if an appointment should be scheduled with the child’s paediatrician. Every parent knows their child better than anyone and so if you feel something is wrong then you should trust your instincts and have the child examined by their physician. Obtaining a medical diagnosis can sometimes be difficult as the doctor will only see your baby for a very short period of time, you can help ensure a quick and correct diagnosis by taking a list of symptoms which you feel are present in your child with you.

The most common of all the infant reflux symptoms is the frequent spit up or swallowing with a painful look on the face. It is perfectly normal and healthy for babies to spit up occasionally. But if your child is spitting up in large volumes and after all or most feeds, they may be suffering from baby acid reflux.

Other symptoms of the condition include fussiness and crying/screaming. If your baby is crying or screaming in pain it can be difficult for a new parent to cope with.

Further symptoms include frequent coughing and/or hiccups. Further symptoms include sleeplessness. If a infant has a hard time staying asleep during day time or night time this could be a sign of reflux. Also continuous movement while sleeping or a constant need to be held may show the need to have the infant examined by a doctor or paediatrician.

When an infant has severe baby acid reflux they may projectile vomit with the vomit sometimes even coming out the nasal cavity. This will usually result in dangerous weight loss or poor weight gain. Knowing the baby reflux symptoms can help a parent be on the look out for a problem if it arises. If you believe your child may be suffering from baby acid reflux you should take them to a doctor or paediatrician for diagnosis as soon as possible. Paediatricians can run tests to ensure it is actually acid reflux from which your baby is suffering. They can then advise you on the most effective treatment to treat it.

Psoriasis Herbal Treatment

What is Psoriasis?

The name Psoriasis comes from the Greek word ‘Psora’ meaning ‘itch’, it is an inflammatory, skin disorder due to which, roughness and redness appears on affected areas, with fine silvery scales. It is not a contagious or an infectious disease but a life style induced disease.

Causes; Symptoms; Remedies:

According to ayurveda , impurities in the blood along with emotional factors are the main cause of the disease, it is also accepted that it has a genetic component. The disease appears first round the back of the elbow and the front of the knees as small pimples, each covered with a white cap of scales, which enlarge till they form patches. It occurs due to imbalance of vata and kapha dosha. Irregular food habits, consumption of incompatible foodstuff, salted items; alcohol, tobacco etc may also activate the disease. Ayurvedic treatment of psoriasis uses tri- pronged approach targeting the ahara (diet), vihara (lifestyle) and aushada (medicines).

Ayurveda suggests certain dos and don’ts for Psoriasis:

1) Reduce stress levels and maintain levels of calmness. Practice Pranayama, the breathing and mental exercises have proven time and again successful for treatment of almost all kinds of chronic skin disorders.

2) Do not prick, peel, scratch or rub towel vigorously on skin. Avoid soap or other irritating cleansing measures; apply herbal balm liberally on affected areas after drying the skin.

3) Wear cotton clothes. Never tend to control natural urges like urination, bowel, belching, farting etc.

4) Avoid cold-water bath immediately after a heavy work out, brisk walk etc.

5) Consume foods, which are easily digested. Diet should be strictly vegetarian and yogurt; chilies, black gram and excess salt intake should be avoided. Refrigerated and cold foods should also be avoided.

Psoriasis is an inflammatory, noncontiguous skin disorder due to which, roughness and redness appears with fine silvery scales. Psoriasis can be considered as a imbalance of Vata and Kapha doshas. Irregular food habits, consumption of foodstuffs that cannot be eaten together (E.g.: milk products with fish), excessive intake of yogurt, black gram, seafood, salted items, alcohol and tobacco are few things, which may enhance this disease.

Few Ayurvedic Medicines and remedies are:

1) Guggul is an Ayurvedic herb from a resin of a small tree, which grows in northwestern India, its useful in treating psoriasis. It has anti-inflammatory and lipid-lowering actions, helps remove fat, excess fluids from the body and penetrates deep into the tissues. An effective Kapha- and Vata-pacifying supplement.

2) Psoraban an ayurvedic product is a liquid mixture manufactured from herbs and plants having unique properties to overcome all types of Psoriasis.

3) Neem is one among the best blood purifier and detoxifier known to Ayurveda. It enhances immune system and neem oil is an antiseptic in itself. Leaf extracts are used in antiseptics and can be effectively used in treating psoriasis. It destroys fungus and bacteria and is best for almost all kinds of skin diseases including redness of skin and itching.

4) An extract of Margosa leaves with extract of cow dung and cow urine may feel repulsive, owing to the ingredients and also the stench but the bottom line is that it works quite effectively.

5) To mention a few daily use items as recommended by ayurveda are: green leafy cabbage, bitter gourd juice, sesame seeds, lecithin seeds, vitamin E rich foods.

Apart from medicines, diet control, a controlled lifestyle and yoga go long way to attain best results from ayurveda for treatment of psoriasis.

Love Your Partner – Removing Nastiness From Relationships

One of the simplest gifts we can give ourselves and our partner in our relationship is loving-kindness. It’s not hard to do yet can have a profound effect on the quality of our relationship.

Over the years we can become familiar with our partner and with this familiarity can emerge a slightly ‘snappy’ tone. Instead of always treating one another with love and respect a level of irritability creeps in.

This doesn’t have to happen.

While there are 1000 reasons why we may become irritable with our partner, we can also simply choose not to be. This means that whatever we have to say to our partner, we can do it with loving-kindness instead of nastiness.

In order to raise our level of loving-kindness we must let go of our judgments of our partner (and ourselves) and choose only to see what is wonderful about them. It’s useful to use a pen and paper to write these judgments down e.g. Mary is lazy etc. You can then ask yourself whether it serves your relationship to hold on to these judgments or not.

After you have named and let go of your judgments of yourself and your partner you can then choose to replace them with the qualities that you love most dearly. Take a moment to open your heart and feel how wonderful these qualities are.

Finally practice feeling these qualities when you are around your partner and you’ll find yourself speaking with loving kindness more naturally. In summary you have to do the following activity to receive the benefits.

*Make a decision to only speak to your loved one with loving-kindness

*Write down a list of judgments about yourself and partner and choose to let them go.

*Now write down all of your and your partner’s wonderful qualities and choose to feel these whole-heartedly when in your partner’s company.

On our Dynamic Couple Website you can view a video of the author discussing issues from this article, taking the nastiness out of relationships [].

Top 7 Tips For Maintaining Kitchen Food Safety

Bacterial food poisoning is becoming more common in the US. Some experts estimate that over 76 million cases occur each year. By following a few simple household precautions, you can greatly reduce your family’s chances of food poisoning.

1. Check your kitchen appliances and ensure that the fridge and freezer thermostats are working properly. Also, make sure that they are set on the correct temperature for food storage- your fridge should be set at 40 degrees Fahrenheit (or less) and setting the freezer at 0 degrees Fahrenheit is effective at stopping bacteria growth.

2. Always put perishable food items in the fridge or freezer immediately after use and within two hours of cooking. Leftovers can then be safely eaten within a few days.

3. Keep your countertops and appliances clean. Utilize anti-bacterial cleansing products- especially after handling of raw meat. Wash hands thoroughly with hot water and always dispose of used paper towels immediately after use. Sponges can be decontaminated by wetting and microwaving them for 30 seconds; towels and rags should be laundered in hot water.

4. When cleaning, do not forget to sanitize the kitchen sink! Pouring diluted bleach down the sink and garbage disposal will help to kill any lingering bacteria.

5. Kitchen cross-contamination is a serious food safety issue. Raw meat or fish should never come in contact with other foods. Choose your cutting board wisely: make sure that it does not have a porous surface and place in the dishwasher after use.

6. When cooking for your family, utilize a meat thermometer. Veal, beef, pork, and most seafood should be cooked to at least 145 degrees Fahrenheit. Chicken and turkey breasts should be cooked to at least 180 degrees Fahrenheit, while ground chicken and ground turkey should be cooked to at least 165 degrees Fahrenheit.

7. Salmonella bacteria are spread through egg shells, so cook eggs or any food containing egg product thoroughly. Only buy refrigerated eggs and always store eggs in the fridge. Both egg and yolk should be firm when cooking eggs whole; scrambled eggs should be cooked until you cannot see any liquid egg. Do not consume any raw baking batter or other foods containing egg until cooked thoroughly.

By safely handling food in your kitchen, you can significantly decrease your family’s risk of foodborne illness. Above all, remember to wash hands and utensils often, keep raw meats and prepared foods separately, cook foods thoroughly, and refrigerate foods promptly. By following those simple steps, you can help keep your family safe from food bacteria.

Paint by Emotion: Edvard Munch’s Struggle With Bipolar Disorder

He was a man surrounded by death, and grief – the blackest sort of emotions and deepest kinds of sadness. When he died in the winter of 1944, he left over 20,000 pieces of his work to the city of Oslo, the place where he was born. Best known for his hauntingly beautiful painting, “The Scream”, Edvard Munch was a man who likely had many things to scream about in his own life, not the least of which was his suspected bipolar disorder.

Once called “manic depression” (a term that is now seen as outdated), this brutal psychological condition manifests itself primarily through intense mood changes, severe depression, and swings in energy levels. These changes can disappear as quickly as they come, giving rise to the term “bipolar”, literally opposite poles on the emotional spectrum. An exact cause for why bipolarism occurs is thus far unknown, and even less was understood about it during Munch’s life. A person suffering from this condition often goes through cycles or periods where they experience abnormally large swings and changes in their moods, energy levels and depression. Some in the medical field feel that traumatic events and excess stress, especially during a patient’s youth can greatly increase the risk of developing bipolar disorder, either at the time of the trauma or in the years following it.

In the first few years of his life after he was born in 1863, Munch watched as both his parents, a sister and a brother all died. As the years went on other siblings and close relatives would pass away, and another sister was diagnosed as being mentally ill. With so much death and sickness circulating through his young mind, it is almost too easy to see how and why this Norwegian artist would go on to create pieces of art that dealt less with somewhat cheery impressionism of the time, and more with capturing the essence of emotions and moods. Fraught by anguish and perhaps a sense of loneliness, Edvard decided to enrol in art school in 1881. With his life in tow Munch began going between Paris and Norway (and later Germany), studying the great artists and art movements of the era.

While not entirely macabre for the most part, in general Munch’s work was far from the flower gardens and ballet dancers that top impressionist artists were painting by the cartful at the time. Instead, Munch wanted to convey more than just a scene; he wanted his paintings to be riddled with emotion, energy, deeper meaning and complexity. Yet even with that in mind his style of art would change several times (a theme that is also noted in other artists such as Picasso) as he dabbled in impressionism, synthetism, and other genres that were popular then. Borrowing techniques here and inventing others there, Edvard would go on to be a pillar in the creation of the German Expressionism movement. In Expressionism, Munch found a way to look beyond the perfectionism of realists and impressionists and starkly put forth emotion on canvas, wood or whichever of the many mediums he chose to work with. Just as Edvard Munch’s work would take on a more optimistic aura in his later years, this gifted artist’s moods and emotions changed sharply throughout his life, giving rise to the suspicion that he was afflicted with bipolar disorder.

Munch is not the only artist who is thought or known to have suffered from this condition; in fact some researchers tend to think that it can bring about deep forms of varied creativity. Famous names from Hans Christian Andersen to Virginia Woolf, Napoleon to Marilyn Monroe are but a few of the stars, icons and history makers who may have battled this psychological condition. Now, just as it was in Munch’s lifetime, no failsafe treatment exists for bipolar disorder. With his memories as inspiration, and his moods as his medium, there may have been little else to do but turn to art in order for Munch to use his internal earthquakes of feeling, energy and depression to help him cope with his own bipolar disorder. Indeed Edvard Munch turned melancholy and mania into timeless art, and gave the world an incredible collection of creative, poignant work.

Learn How to Create a Chunky Look For Your Hair

Is chunky and separated hair something you would like to achieve? If you want to add volume and style to your hair, try separating it into pieces. Here are some tips and techniques for creating piecey hair.

Look for suitable product choices. Piecey sections to the hair can be accomplished with the proper products. In order to know what you need for a piecey look, you can visit you local salon or even the hair product section at a discount store. Purchase hair wax, gel or fixative made just for your kind of hairdo. Since you just need a single product, you should investigate to discover the ideal one for your tresses. 

Your hair should be dry when beginning to style. The hair should be dried thoroughly as the first step to achieving the chunky look. Using the blowdryer will completely dry it. It is impossible to get piecey hair, if it’s wet. (You will face difficulty if the products stick to each other. 

Put the products on your hair. After buying the right type of product for your hair, take a small portion of the product on your fingertips and apply fully to your hair when it is dry. The center of the hair shaft is to be caught hold of. (Don’t put it too close to the top, or your hair will cling to your scalp, giving it a greasy appearance.). Next, draw your fingers down the length of your hair. Exercise caution and apply product sparingly to avoid ending up with oily, not piecey tresses. Keep picking out random sections all over your scalp till you get the look you want. As you go, you may need to reapply the product to your fingertips. Make sure that the product is not visible when the thick chunks of your hair are dry. The idea is that the piecey style should look like the natural state of your hair. 

This works for any hair length. Almost hairstyle will look elegant if you create a chunky look. Since the different layers of hair are accentuated, short layered hair looks great. But also, since piecey looks break up the length of the hair with some volume and style, for longer hairstyles they are great. Whatever may be the length of your hair or the hair style you have, within a short time, you can get a chunky look to your hair using one product. The outcome will be quite rewarding.

Indications of Stomach Ulcer

 It truly is considered that the principle cause of stomach ulcer is actually persistent use of anti-inflammatory pills, anesthetics and also other identical treatments. The particular esophagus, duodenum and the stomach usually are spots on the overall body where stomach ulcer frequently shows up.

It is very important to start treating the stomach ulcer after you see the manifestations. The reason is if you do not quickly get started with any prescription drugs, there may be other side effects or maybe move into the final phase. During that period any signs or symptoms we pointed out will begin creating difficulties. A number of sufferers have labeled the intestinal discomfort they’ve felt as the biggest pain ever before, a pain that can not be identified. For that reason, when you start off feeling any signs of illness it may be the best to go to a medical professional to get the proper diagnose as well as treatment plan.

During the next paragraph we intend to discuss the typical symptoms of gastric ulcer.

– Prolonged aches and pains in your own abdomen

– Immediate soreness in the stomach that is inconsistent for not any explanation for a few days.

– Sharp vomiting of blood.

– The stools can easily have blood too and may seem brownish or black.

These indications of a stomach ulcer will need quick particular attention apart from seeking pain relief. Dismissing the particular signals might lead to serious deterioration of your belly lining and also dysfunction of internal tissues. Consequently, it is significant to be able to pay extensive care about your body at the time you feel like maybe you have several of those advanced indicators. Therefore, when you have warning signs of a gastric ulcer, you should be careful enough to see with your medical professional and steer clear of such ingredients which may intensify your problem.

It’s best never to ignore the symptoms of gastric ulcer. Of course, your overall health relies upon you focusing on the messages your physique is trying to send you.

It’s wise not to ignore the indications of gastric ulcer. In spite of everything, your well being is dependent upon yourself paying attention to the messages your physique is attempting to tell you.

5 Things You Didn’t Know About Bounty Hunters

The age-old industry known as bounty hunting dates back to the Wild West, when wanted ads of local and national fugitives were posted throughout towns with rewards listed on them for the capture of those fugitives. Back then, rewards were roughly $5,000 per person, and it did not matter if the fugitive was brought to justice dead or alive. All the local law enforcement wanted was for the fugitives to be away from public, no matter the method. Bounty hunters, then and now, work for a percentage of the bail money the fugitive has to pay to the justice system. Bounty hunting has become a serious profession these days, with most bounty hunters being trained and licensed to operate where they live.

The following five items are some interesting facts you did not know about bounty hunters:

1. Bounty hunter is not the preferred name for this profession anymore. The name used now is fugitive recovery agent or bail enforcement agent. These two names are more politically correct in today’s society and are respected by members of the industry and of the justice system alike.

2. Some fugitive recovery agents have more authority to arrest fugitives than police officers. This all depends on the state the bounty hunter is operating in and its bounty hunting laws, which is legal across the country. Kentucky, Illinois, and Oregon prevent bounty hunting completely. A court order needs to be issued to a bounty hunter and then a police officer can make the arrest. The bounty hunter can then request that the fugitive be turned over into his or her hands.

3. Bounty hunters are no longer allowed to bring home fugitives dead or alive, they must be alive and not roughed up at all. Broken bones, bruises, scratches and other injuries will not be accepted by the justice system. Fugitives who have been beaten up will not be sent to jail because of the legal liability involved.

4. Believe it or not, most fugitive recovery agents wear Bail Recovery Agent badges these days so they are identifiable to local law enforcement agencies, the public, and the fugitives they are chasing so no problems arise during the chase.

5. Broad authority for bounty hunters arose in 1873 in the United States with the Supreme Court case of Taylor vs. Taintor. This Supreme Court case gave bounty hunters across the country authority to act on behalf of bail bondsmen and arrest fugitives who have skipped bail. This case also gave bounty hunters permission to chase the fugitive into another state and enter the fugitive’s place of residence to make an arrest.

Bounty hunting has become a multi-million dollar industry in the United States over the past couple of decades. A talented fugitive recovery agent can make roughly $80,000-$100,000 per year arresting fugitives. They will need to work anywhere from 50-150 cases to make this much money, which can be an exhausting task. Many bfugitive recovery agents spend 80-100 hours per week chasing fugitives, working on stakeouts, doing research and finally tracking down their target.

Urologist – What Type of Doctor Is One?

A urologist is a type of medical doctor who has specialized training and knowledge in diagnosing and treating problems related to the urinary tract in both males and females of all ages. He or she is also skilled at treating sexual dysfunction in both men and women. Due to the fact that this area of medicine encompasses a variety of clinical conditions, a urologist must have extensive knowledge of internal medicine, gynecology, pediatrics and a selection of other specialties. The word urology comes from a Greek word that means “the study of urine.” Urology is considered to be a surgical subspecialty. Another name for such a doctor is a urological surgeon.

Within the field of urology there are a number of specialties that these doctors can choose to work in. According to the American Urological Association (AUA) there are eight areas of subspecialty. These include:

-Pediatric urology

-Urologic oncology (tumors)

-Female urology

-Urinary tract stones

-Male infertility


-Erectile dysfunction (impotence)

-Renal transplantation

In order to become certified by the American Board of Urology the physician must fulfill both educational requirements as well as specific examination ones. Those who wish to work in this specialty area of medicine must first graduate from an approved medical school.

The next step is to complete a urology program that has been given the stamp of approval by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). This program must be for a minimum of five years. Of those five years one must be devoted to general surgery while three must be devoted to clinical urology. As well, a minimum of six months must be spent receiving additional training in urology, general surgery or another clinical discipline that relates to this area. The final year that the physician spends in the residency program will see the individual working as a chief resident or senior urology resident while under the supervision of an attending physician.

Once the person has finished their graduate education they are then able to apply for their certification by way of the American Board of Urology (ABU). Once the application has been approved by the Board the person then enters the process of certification. During this process it is necessary to complete and pass a qualifying exam which is Part I before moving onto Part II which is the subsequent certifying exam.

A urologist may diagnose and treat any number of conditions. He or she is likely to treat patients of both sexes and of varying ages on a routine basis. Some of the problems may be unique to young patients and not so common in adults, and vice versa. A child may be seen for a neonatal urological condition such as ambiguous genitalia, bladder exstrophy or cloacal exstrophy (which is common in those born with spina bifida), as well as testicular torsion. Many parents take their child to such a urologist for bedwetting problems. This condition is known medically as enuresis.

Adults can seek help from a urinary specialist for health conditions ranging from interstitial cystitis to erectile dysfunction to Cushing’s syndrome or Conn’s syndrome. They can also see a specialist for such things as penile, prostate or testicular cancer, ureteral stones, kidney problems such as cystic diseases of the kidneys and renal failure, vasectomy and premature ejaculation.

This is the physician you need to be referred to if you experience any bladder problems such as blood in your urine (known medically as hematuria), bladder fistula, neurogenic bladder or paruresis (which is a phobia of urinating in public washrooms).

Underactive Thyroid Gland

Underactive thyroid gland simply means that the thyroid gland is working less than what is required by the body. Thyroid gland is an important gland of the body that is located somewhere middle of the front side of the neck just nearer to voice-box and Adam’s apple. The gland secrets some hormones (known as thyroid hormones), that play active role in the metabolism of the body. Metabolism is nothing but the process by which, the body turns the food particles absorbable form.

Underactive thyroid is medically known as hypothyroidism wherein the thyroid gland produces little hormones than the body requires. In case, when the thyroid gland acts more than required and produces more hormones, it is known as hyperthyroidism and when the gland functions well with no hyper or hypo states, it is labeled as Euthyroid.

Underactive or hypothyroidism is common in adults but rarer in babies. According to statistics, one in every 4000 babies born with congenital hypothyroidism and that result into delayed milestones of the baby. Hypothyroidism affects women more often than men at about 7:1 in ratio and those people who have underactive thyroid are at a greater risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, autoimmune dysfunctions etc.

The causes of underactive thyroid include Hashimoto thyroiditis, Lymphocytic Thyroiditis after hyperthyroidism. Certain radioactive surgery or iodine can also slow down the thyroid process and cause hypothyroidism. Excessive iodine deficiency is also a common cause for hypothyroidism.

The symptoms include sluggishness, unspecified weight gain, lethargy, decreased touch sensation, paleness and/or puffiness of the face especially surrounding eyes etc. Depression, dry and/or coarse hair, excessive sleepiness, fatigue, vague aches and pains are also common symptoms for hypothyroidism. There could be swelling of the legs, decreased ability to concentrate on subject, intolerance to the cold environment are not uncommon in patients with hypothyroidism. The pulse/heart rate may come down along with the drop in body temperature and hence, the patients with hypothyroidism are cool to touch.

Diagnosing the disease depends upon the severity of the symptoms and local and/or general body examination. However, TFT (Thyroid Function Test) in which, hormonal levels T3 and T4 is tested, confirms the disease and then according to the levels of thyroid hormone in the body, the treatment is decided.

Fortunately, the thyroid hormone that the body lacks in the condition of hypothyroidism can be supplied from outside. Thyroid hormone supplements are available in the form of pills and they are to be taken without failure to avoid further complications. There are some alternative therapies too, that help healing the thyroid problems. Acupressure, acupuncture, Ayurveda and Homeopathy has many therapies and drugs that work on thyroid gland and stimulate it to produce enough hormones. Latest researches support that practicing some holy exercises such as Yoga and Pranayama has dramatically improved underactive thyroid gland i.e. hypothyroidism and has also helped relieving symptoms that are caused due to hypothyroidism.

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Mastocytic Enterocolitis – A Patient Guide to Mastocytic Inflammatory Bowel Disease (MIBD)


Mastocytic enterocolitis (entero=small intestine, colitis- colon + -itis= inflammation) is a newly discovered disorder defined by the presence of increased mast cells in the intestine. Mast cells are a type of immune cell. They are involved in allergy reactions, infection fighting and nerve regulation in the body. They have numerous granules that contain a variety of chemicals that mediate body reactions i.e. chemical mediators. Histamine is one of the main chemical mediators in mast cells that are released when mast cells are triggered. Mast cells present in the superficial intestinal lining or mucosa in small numbers except when there are parasites, food allergies, increased stress or the presence of other chronic inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis. When mast cells release histamine and other chemicals, this irritates or inflames the bowel making it more permeable or leaky. This can set up a vicious cycle of pain and further gut injury.


The most common symptoms are diarrhea, bloating and abdominal pain. However, constipation may occur due to gut paralysis. Nausea, vomiting and various non-GI symptoms such as flushing, headaches, and fatigue may also commonly occur. When histamine is released, it can cause leaky gut, increased contractions of the gut or decreased contractions, increased secretions and increased pain.


When you have an endoscopic procedure, the doctor takes samples of tissue, called biopsies, from the lining of your intestines. The tissue is then sent to a pathologist who looks at it under the microscope. Mast cells may be hard to see on biopsies without a special stain for tryptase, an enzyme present in mast cells. Mastocytic enterocolitis is diagnosed when excess mast cells are present in the small bowel or the colon.


There are medications that can reduce or block the release of the chemicals by the mast cells. The most common are antihistamines, both type I and type antihistamines. Type I antihistamines are typically used for allergies symptoms such as Zyrtec, Allegra, Claritin etc. The type II antihistamines are also acid blockers such as Zantac, Tagamet and Pepcid. The most specific therapy for mastocytic enterocolitis is a medication that stabilizes mast cells known as cromolyn sodium (Gastrocrom). This drug prevents the release of chemicals including histamine from mast cells. It is typically prescribed four times a day for about 4-6 weeks. Along with medication, you should have allergy testing done for the most common allergies, work on reducing or coping better with stress and consider taking a probiotic supplement.

Copyright 2008 Dr. Scot M. Lewey, “Dr Celiac, the Food Doc” All RIghts Reserved

This may be reprinted for non-commercial patient use provided the contact information above is included.