CAD: Coronary Artery Disease

Coronary heart disease, coronary artery disease (CAD) and ischemic heart disease (IHD) are synonyms and includes a bunch of disease like stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death.

Coronary heart disease develops when the arteries that supply blood and oxygen to the heart itself gets blocked due to the cholesterol or other substances acquired deposited on the inner side of the blood vessels called the plaque, this narrowing of arteries is called atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis. If it takes place in one of the major heart supplying arteries then it causes heart attack, stroke or peripheral arterial disease (PAD).

It reduces the elasticity of the blood vessels or narrows the inside area restricting the normal flow of the blood. It leads to the deficiency of oxygen in the heart muscles and causes chest pain also called angina.

Angina can be of two types:

Stable angina is the chest pain which occurs regularly with different activities. Unstable angina is when angina changes its intensity, also it can lead to myocardial infarction.

CAD weakens the blood muscles and leads to reduced functioning of heart in pumping the blood into the body, this is called heart failure. This also develops irregular heartbeat or arrhythmia.

Sometimes the plaque ruptures, gets stuck up in the artery somewhere and completely blocks the blood flow leading to oxygen cut off that that particular area causing permanently damaged heart muscle or scarring of them.

Causes: It is caused due to the cholesterol deposition on the inner lining of the blood vessels of the heart muscles.

Symptoms: Initial detection of the disease is done through its symptoms which are:
• shortness of breath (dyspnea)
• chest pain (discomfort in the chest and increasing into travel into the shoulder, arm, back, neck, or jaw)
• sweating
• nausea
• indigestion
• heartburn
• weakness

At risk: People with risk of getting IHD are / with:
• hypertensive
• smokers
• diabetic
• obese
• high blood cholesterol
• High resting heart rate
• Depression and stress
• Kidney disease
• Family history
• Lack of exercise
• poor diet
• excessive alcohol intake
• 40 years old men and women are at great risk of developing this disease.

Diagnostic test: There are many test which help in the diagnosis of CAD:
• ECD or EKD: To measure electrical activity, rate and regularity of heartbeat.
• Chest X-ray: Pictures the heart, lungs and other organs of the chest.
• Echocardiogram: Ultrasound waves are used to picture the heart.
• Exercise stress test (EST): While walking on the treadmill, heart rate is measured.
• Cardiac catheterization: Checks the blockage in the heart arteries by inserting a thin, flexible tube through an artery in the groin, arm or neck to reach the heart to collect blood samples and to inject dye.
• Coronary angiogram: Injected dye is detected via X-rays point out the blocked areas in the treaties.

Prevention: To keep the disease at bay people need to control with medication and keep:
• Blood pressure
• Diabetes
• Proper diet
• Regular exercise
• Less alcohol intake

Management: Changes in the lifestyle is very helpful in living fit and healthy. Medication which help in managing the disease includes:
• Antiplatelet like aspirin
• Statins
• Beta blockers
• Calcium antagonists
• Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors
• Nitroglycerin.

Some procedures are also done to increase the inner width of the arteries like percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) like coronary stent and angioplasty or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).

The Challenge of Infectious Diseases

Infectious diseases have one thing in common-they're all problematic and difficult to treat. The sunset of such diseases can be rapid and unpredictable. However, they also have a curious character: The almost assured survival dichotomy of the patient. The infected person will either die a slow, painful death from the disease or recover completely, forever immune to re-infection. Some of them arise as a result from some type of neglect in our own lifestyles (poor sanitation, infrequent hygiene, etc.). Thankfully, the most common methods of transmission for these diseases are well known and are preventable.

The human immune system has evolved into an intricate mix of organisms, effectively protecting the body from infections and diseases that would have otherwise killed humans thousands of years ago. Influenza, smallpox, tuberculosis and malaria are some of the diseases that routinely prevented people from various centuries ago, but due to technological advances and new medical discoveries, these diseases are either well-vaccinated against the point where they are very rare or eradicatedly. That being said, infections change dynamically; that is, as the human immune system has changed, so have infectious agents. Furthermore, the diseases that cause often arise as a result of something else happens to allow them to flourish. This is how opportunistic infections enter the body after HIV infection.

There are three broad categories of infectious diseases. Established ones are those who have been with us for quite some time and have a predictable mortality and morbidity rate; various respiratory diseases, types of malaria and tuberculosis would fall into this category. Newly emerging infectious diseases are those who are just now appearing in humans for the first time, such as HIV / AIDS. Reemerging infectious diseases are those that "keep coming back" in one way or another, such as influenza.

Respiratory infections kill over 4 million people a year according to current estimates; in fact, over one-quarter of all deaths are caused due to infectious diseases. This is a disabling statistical for many who treat and research these diseases. Vaccines against certain diseases, such as polio and measles, have been in place through the world for quite some time, and as a result the number of new cases has declined. Treating infectious diseases such as HIV has historically proved to be problematic because HIV can hide within the body during treatment. Bacteria can become resistant to antibiotics, and viruses mutate into different forms that render treatment against them ineffective. As a society, we must realize that the challenges of dealing with infectious diseases will never go away. As they continue to evolve and reemerge, the perpetual fight to eradicate them must continue as well.

Hair Growth Tips – How to Make Your Hair Grow Back

Let me tell you right away. If you follow these tips your hair will grow back. It does not matter if you are a man who has started to go bald, desperate to avoid a life sentence of no hair. It does not matter if you are a woman who is going thin on top.

Keep this in mind though. You have to take action to stop going bald. It is no good looking in the mirror trying to will your hair back. Numerous factors determine if you keep your hair. Hormones, diet, lifestyle and environmental factors, including increased stress, for example at work.

Hair growth tips will work for everyone.

The good news is this. You can decrease the chances of losing your hair.


You will grow your hair back by changing your diet and looking after your hair. It is made from protein and by changing to a healthier diet and drinking plenty of water you will see quick changes.

Let me tell you a little secret .

If you add the following to your diet you will see an astonishing difference in your hair –

omega 3 acids

Fruit and vegetables

Hair pills or supplements

This is the largest single action you can take to prevent baldness. You should take hair supplements if you are not sure you are getting the right vitamins in your diet, or the right proteins for your hair. Let me tell you right now this is probably one of the best hair growth tips I can give you.


Massaging your scalp on a daily basis will assist blood flow in your scalp and improve circulation. This will simplify your hair to grow.


Smoking is the single biggest way to damage your hair. Studies have shown smoking can restrict blood flow and circulation to your scalp and will damage your hair. Cut back on cigarettes.


Various tests and studies have shown alcohol to indirectly affect hair loss. Reduce alcohol consumption where you can.

You will see the results right before your eyes

I could go on and on. The simple fact is this though, you have to take action, or nothing will happen. Except you will lose more hair. Without you use these hair growth tips.

Brain Cancer

Everyone fears the word cancer. However most types of cancers can be beaten, if you catch it soon soon enough, and even if you do not there are new treatments coming out by the minute everyday that will help you fight and successfully beat cancer. There are however some types of cancers that are more complex in nature than others, brain cancer is the one we're speaking of and the one we will be focusing on.

Two types of known brain cancer exist, namely: Primary brain cancer (these generally initiate in the brain), Primary brain cancer almost never moves to any other part of the body, so death is brought on by uncontrollable tumor growth within the brain cavity. Then you get metastatic brain cancer or otherwise known as secondary brain cancer (this type of cancer originates in other parts of the body and get transported or should we say it migrates to the brain that causing the person to circum to secondary brain cancer.

In some cases the patient will not know they have brain cancer until its too late, so know what symptoms to look out for is vital when it comes to any type tumor or cancer.

However, before we go there, let's take a look at the know causes of brain cancer. The main known cause of brain cancer is the continuous contact with vinyl chloride. Then there are things like pipes, car parts, furniture, wire coatings, and other house wares that contain a substance called carcinogen. Patients who suffer from a long standing battle with melanoma, colon cancer, breast cancer, kidney cancer, and lung cancer are all at risk of being or getting secondary brain cancer.

If you think that you might have brain cancer here are some things to look out for, be sure to do a check regularly and please get yourself to a doctor for a detailed check at least once every three months (or as directed by your doctor) . A brain tumor has the tendency to obstructive the flow or the brains cerebral fluids, or cerebrosinal fluid (this has the devastating result of the buildup hydrocephalus and can thus increase intercranial pressure, which leads to vomiting, nausea and sever headaches.

Brain cancer also leads to impaired judgment, memory loss, reduced mind capacity, vision loss; sever behavior changes, swelling of the optic nerve and impaired smell sense. If you suffer from any of these get yourself to a trained doctor immediately.

What Are The Types Of Lung Infections?

There are several very common types of lung infections that you probably know about. There are also some not-so-common lung infections which names probably sound familiar, but they're no longer prevalent in most developed countries. You may not know as much about these. We'll cover them, nonetheless, in this article.

There are two types of lung infections that still affect millions of people annually in the US and other developed countries. These are pneumonia and acute bronchitis.

Pneumonia is a lung infection that occurs when the air sacs in your lungs fill with fluid. Most of the time, pneumonia is caused by bacteria or viruses, but in rare instances, you can also get it from parasites or other harmful organisms that invade your respiratory system. Pneumonia results in more than one million hospitals annually in the United States, and more than 50,000 deaths. It is especially dangerous for the very young and the very old.

Acute bronchitis is a type of lung infection that results from an irritation or inflammation of the air passages from the windpipe to the lungs. This causes swelling of the lining of these passes, which reduces the space for air to flow through. When you have acute bronchitis, your bronchial tubes also secret an inflammatory fluid that makes breathing difficult. Acute bronchitis is usually caused by viruses, but it can also come from bacteria or chemicals that get into the lungs.

In the past, there have been other dangerous types of lung infections have now become rare in the industrialized nations of the world. But they are still a significant threat in underdeveloped countries.

Whooping cough, or pertussis, is one of these. Whooping cough is an infection that triggers repeated spasmodic coughing. Each coughing episode ends with a distinct whoop that gives the disease its name. The cough is so forceful that it lasts until the person runs out of breath. It is caused by species of bacteria called Bordetella pertussis. It's estimated that it affects 30-50 million individuals a year worldwide, but is rare in the US because a vaccine is available.

Tuberculosis, or TB, is another type of lung infection that has actually been wiped out in developed countries, but still kills many people every year in the Third World. It's caused by bacteria and can therefore be treated with antibiotics.

Typically, specific types of lung infections suddenly appear in various places. One such type known as SARS, or severe acute respiratory syndrome, caused a number of deaths in 2003. SARS is a form of pneumonia that was caused by a virus. It was highly contagious and spread quickly thanks to modern transport systems like air travel. The virus still exists, but aggressive cntrol programs by health organizations around the world have greatly reduced itsvalence.

Legionnaire's disease is a severe type of pneumonia. It's caused by a bacterium called legionella and it is especially dangerous for those who smoke, the elderly, and individuals with weakened or damaged immune systems. It was named "Legionnaire's disease" because it first came to public attention during an outbreak at an American Legion convention in Philadelphia in 1976. More than 30 Legionnaires died from the disease in a few days.

Most people contract a lung infection due to a virus, bacteria, parasites or fungi. These agents easily float on air currents from one individual to another. They can also land on countertops and door knobs that you touch with your hands. The gases transfer into your respiratory system when you touch your mouth or nose.

It's also possible (although unusual) for a lung infection to result from the side effects of certain medications, chemicals, and other toxins.

Most lung infections are characterized by similar symptoms, including a cough, chest discomfort, shortness of breath and possibly wheezing. Severe cases may feature hemoptysis, or coughing up blood. People with a lung infection sometimes have an oxygen deficiency because their respiratory system is not working efficiently, and these results in a bluish skin discoloration known as cyanosis.

A lung infection is also commonly called a chest infection or bronchial infection.

Can You Die From Pleurisy – Yes You Can and No You Can not

Can you die from pleurisy? Before I answer that question let's look at what pleurisy is.

It's a condition of one or both lungs. The typical symptoms are pain, a cough, a fever and rapid breathing. But These symptoms, bar the cough, are pretty common whenever your body is struggling with ill health of any description. The cough purely indicates the lungs are involved.

A fever is the body's way of trying to restore balance after a pathogen has invaded it. It's a healthy sign.

There are two types of pleurisy – the wet type and the dry type. This reflects to the amount or lack of extra fluid which builds up between the pleura, the membrane encasing the lung, and the lung.

That is the medical description of the disease.

But a deeper explanation is needed to understand what's going on.

You only get disease, any disease if your immune system is compromised. If this is in good order, your body will be able to prevent any disease from occurring. A slightly less that perfectly healthy immunity might not be able to prevent disease, but it would be mild, with minor symptoms.

So can you die from pleurisy? Yes, you can die from any disease if your immune system is badly compromised. The disease label may change as you advance through the stages of deteriorating health. And in this case, your pleurisy may advance to pneumonia, in which case the answer would be no, you can not die from pleurisy.

Limiting your understanding to disease labels will not help your overall health. What will help that is if you start focussing on improving your health at a holistic level.

Then you will not be bothered by questions such as, can you die from pleurisy.

Items You Should Look For On Outdoor Backpacks

If you are becoming a serious hiker, then your old school backpack simply will not cut it. You need outdoor backpacks if you are going to do outdoor adventuring. As you look into the different outdoor backpackers that are on the market, you may find that there are simply some you like better than you like others. It is really a matter of preference in many cases.

However, one of the most important things for any backpacker to consider when purchasing new gear is the fit. Each person needs to actually go into a store and have fittings of several different packages instead of just selecting a pack that they think is cool or that a friend recommended and thinks you might like. You want the shoulder straps to be plenty wide as well as curved and well-padded so they do not cut into your shoulders. You want outdoor backpacks that include compression straps as well as stabilizer straps if you are going with a heavier pack. The hip belt transfers the load from your back and shoulders down to your hips, or nearer to your center of gravity.

Most experts tell you that a hip belt should be a full circle under the lumbar pad rather than simply being made up of side straps that attach to the sides of the pack. This belt must be both broad and soft so that the padding can prevent pressure points from becoming painful. All the components of the outdoor backpacks must work together to create a snug fit that is comfortable to you. You should even ask the sales associate if he can put come sort of load in it so simulate how different it might feel when it is loaded. If you have a heavy load it slides a bit.

Outdoor backpackers have seen many technological advances that make them so much better than the old-school backpacks. They are designed of lightweight materials that are stronger than the old canvas and the frames are mostly interior frames rather than the very bulky aluminum frames that were popular years ago.

In addition, the study of the human body and how it carries weight has led to advances in the design and placement of the different parts of the pack. With the ergonomically designed shoulder straps, the properly placed sternum or chest strap, the lumbar pad and the hip belt, they are designed to be easy on your back and make it a pleasure to go hiking and backpacking. Pressure points are alleviated and hotspots are practically eliminated, as long as you are properly fitted to your pack.

Many outdoor backpacks have a hydration system with a water bladder and a drinking tube that is integrated into the pack or a place where you can add one if you want to. You will also find a variety of different pocket and compartment configurations that will aid you in organizing your gear. With spindrift collars that are basically compartments that cover the top opening of the backpack and splash covers to make them waterproof, you will see that there are many items that are available on outdoor backpacks that make them work for you. Just remember that the fit is very important, and that the volume depends on the type of backpacking you plan to do. No single backpack is best for everyone, but everyone can find one that is best for them. It may take some serious research and shopping, but is well worth the effort.

Bronchitis Treatment – Anti-Inflammatory Drugs for Treating Bronchitis

There are two main types of bronchitis, these are acute and chronic bronchitis. Acute bronchitis is predominately a viral infection and there requires no specific drug for treatment. What is required of you is to take plenty of rest, drink plenty of water and fruit juices and keep away from dusty environment. However, to tie the pain associated with acute bronchitis, you can take some anti-inflammatory drugs, pain relief medications, expectorants and nasal decongestant drugs.

But if your acute bronchitis is as a result of bacterial infection, then you need antibiotics as prescribed by the doctor. Common antibiotics for treatment of acute bronchitis include ampicillin, azithromycin, amoxicillin, telithromycin, sulfamethazone and clarithromycin.

Chronic bronchitis on the other hand requires anti-inflammatory drugs to treat you from the pain associated with the constant cough. The commonly prescribed drugs include prednisone and ipratropium. Others include bronchodilators, such as metaproterenol and albuterol which clear the lungs and help to relieve difficulty in breathing. In some cases, severe chronic bronchitis can make you to have low levels of oxygen and this requires that you undergo oxygen therapy while you will need supplemental oxygen regularly.

It is essential to consult your doctor before taking any drug to treat your bronchitis. Some drugs overreact in the body if not properly taken and this can develop resistant to the bacteria. Therefore, you need to take safety precautions once you decide to take drugs to treat your bronchitis. You must take your medicines as prescribed by the doctor, ensure that you complete your dosage and make sure to consult your physician if you notice any side effects.

What Does Stage One Hypertension Mean?

Being diagnosed with hypertension may be scary and/or confusing. There are very few noticeable symptoms which makes the problem worse. Understanding what it is, the levels and what you can do will make things easier.

By the Numbers: There are two numbers that make up blood pressure readings. One is when the heart is beating. That is systolic pressure. The other is between beats when the heart is at rest. That is diastolic pressure.

There are four levels but only two are called stages. Normal readings range from 90 to 119 systolic and 60 to 79 diastolic. Prehypertension is from 120 to 139 over 80 to 89. Stage one is 140 to 149 over 90 to 99. Anything over 150 over 100 is stage two.

Why is it important? Think of your blood vessels like a water hose. Attached to that hose are a filter and the mechanism that pumps the water. Those would be the kidneys and the heart. Turn the pressure up and damage can happen to both. If the numbers are too high for a long period of time, both the filter and the pump can fail. If that’s your kidneys and/or your heart, you could die.

Fixing It: While it’s not as simple as turning the hose down so the water doesn’t do damage there are things that can be done to lower the problem of hypertension. Lifestyle changes are often recommended, including weight loss and avoiding caffeine.

Medications may also be needed. There are several different types, so it could take a bit before the numbers are where your doctor wants them.

The bottom line is that this symptomless condition needs to be found as early as possible. Regular checkups are a must and if you are at risk for the condition your doctor may ask that you take readings at home. Kits are available, inexpensive and fairly easy to use. This will help you keep your heart and kidneys safe.

Lisfranc Injuries

The Lisfranc joint connotes the toe bones (metatarsal) to the foot arch bones (tarsal) around the midpoint of the human foot. While Lisfranc injuries are unusual, when such an injury does occur it can be painful and difficult to diagnose. Proper treatment is critical because a healthy Lisfranc is necessary to maintaining the strength and stability of the foot and impacts overall balance and mobility. Also, appropriate treatment can reduce, but will not eliminate, the possibility of long-term complications.

The Lisfranc can be injured in three ways: sprain, fraction and dislocation. Bruising to the arch of the foot is one of the more unusual symptoms of these injuries. In addition, there may be bruising and swilling through the foot. Depending on how severe the injury is, the middle of the foot can be painful and unable to bear weight. Some Lisfranc injuries will lead to ongoing complications such as chronic pain or arthrosis.

The joint is named for a doctor who has not attended this incident to soldiers in Napoleon's army who fell from their horses, but their foot remained in the saddle. However, today, this injury is caused by many activities beyond horseback riding. Car accidents, a twisting fall, or falling after one foot has stepped into a hole can injure the Lisfranc. In addition, objects falling or being dropped on the foot and sports activities like football and running can cause the injury.

What next?
First, if you think you may have suffered an injury to your Lisfranc, it is important to speak with a doctor who is an orthopedic specialist. Lisfranc injuries are often missed or diagnosed as other types of foot injuries. A doctor with specialized training will present the best chance of properly identifying and evaluating your injury. Depending on the severity of your injury, treatment will range from resting the injured foot to taking medication or having surgery.

Second, if your injury occurred due to the fault of another individual or business, you should speak with an attorney to consider your legal options; for instance, if you were injured during a car accident or a mishap at work. It is important to find a lawyer with successful Lisfranc claim experience because this person will understand the complicated medical issues involved in the case and will know how to best communicate this information to a judge or jury.

Most attorneys who work with Lisfranc lawsuits will take your case on contingency. This means you will not have to pay any fees without the lawyer secures a financial award or settlement for you. At that point, you would pay the lawyer a percentage of the money you obtained. Since there is no upfront fee, even if you are unsure whether you can sue another party for your Lisfranc injury, it is best to speak to an experienced lawyer to explore your options.

What is a Jones Fracture?

Metatarsal fractures are referred to as long bone fractures. As a long bone, treatment for these types of fractures varies depending on the location of the fracture and the amount of the damage both to the bone and to the neurovascular supply to that bone.

Treatment of these fractures should be individualized, based on the patients health status, ambulatory needs, and clinical presentation.

Fractures of the fifth metatarsal usually are treated similarly to other metatarsal fractures. Due to the increased weight bearing load of the first and fifth metatarsal bones, extra care should be taken to ensure adequate alignment, compression of the fraction fragment (s) and immobilization to allow proper bone healing.

There are basically four (4) types of 5th metatarsal fractures. Head & Neck fractures, Midshaft, Avulsion, and a unique type of fraction known as a "Jones Fracture".

A Jones Fracture is a break in the fifth metatarsal that occurs in between the mid shaft portion of the bone and the posterior or base of the metatarsal. This is not to be confused with an "Avulsion Fracture", where a small piece of bone breaks off due to the pull of a ligament or tendon. This type of injury usually is caused by "inversion" or rolling in of the ankle.

The Torg classification system is commonly used by doctors to determine proper treatment based on radiographic findings. Due to the high rate of nonunions in these type of fractures (caused by the disruption of the blood supply to the metatarsal fracture site), this classification system allows proper treatment based on the severity of the fracture line.

The Torg system is divided into 3 types of fractures. Type I and II usually are treated conservatively with a non-weightbearing cam walker or cast for 6-8 weeks. This is followed up with a gradual weight bearing in a tall or short walking boot. Some Type II fractures may require surgery depending on the patient and activity level (athlete). Type III fractures usually are displaced fractures (separated) and should be treated surgically with fixation devices to hold the two bones together. This is followed up with a non-weight bearing cast or cam walker.

Follow up x-rays are typically taken after the fraction to determine the healing stage of the fracture site.

Whatever treatment options are indicated by your physician, it is important that the patient follow instructions to the letter. Non-unions are very common with this type of fraction and may result in months or years of pain, swelling and disability.

Cerebral Palsy and Developing the Right Attitude

Cerebral Palsy and developing the right attitude can make the difference between some measure of independence and having to depend on caregivers for a lifetime. For parents, constantly doing everything for a special needs child does him / her no favors; likewise, constantly expecting people to bail you out, if you have a disability, is only going to hurt you in the end.

Maybe it is time to practice a little tough love on yourself or someone you know who has persistent brain damage. Even individuals who are severely disabled by CP have learned to do small things to help them become independent in a small way.

The Right Attitude

For example, a young boy has severe cerebral palsy, yet he is developing the right attitude. He can barely move. In fact, he has very few abilities beyond that of an infant. He has total body involvement. But, he has the spirit of independence. His mom knows he will never be able to live alone. He will always need the help of a caregiver. But, even though his tongue seems to be tangled up, he learned a few signs to let his mom know his basic needs.

Occasionally, he has been able to acquire a special computer that allows him to carry on a conversation with only the movement of one finger. Although his life may sound miserable, he is happy and loved. Inside that frustrating body, he is simply a young boy with a sense of humor, who loves teasing and tacos.

Finding the Right Attitude

If you or someone you love has cerebral palsy, finding the right attitude is possible. All parents are charged with the responsibility to prepare their sons and daughters for adulthood. The same can be said for children with special needs. However, it can be very difficult to watch someone struggle, when it is much easier to just do it. By the same token, it can be easier to ask than to make the effort towards independence.

But, it is human nature to want autonomy. Anyone who has children will be quick to discuss a strong-minded toddler. How many moms have heard, "I can do it myself?"

Do you implement living aids to make the tasks a little easier and safer? Although a bit testy at the time, it is that very attitude that will help a child become as independent as possible.

I can do it Myself!

Are you teaching your child with cerebral palsy that he / she can do it? Are you telling loved ones that despite your physical challenges that you can do it yourself? Although it may sound trite, it is true. You will never know if you do not try. In fact, you may have to try and try again before succeeding.

Many individuals with mild to moderate cerebral palsy are now living independently. They have jobs and families. Yes, activities most people take for granted are still more difficult, yet they have developed the right attitude and know the struggle is worth the blessing of being as independent as possible. living aids to make the tasks a little easier and safer?

Although a bit testy at the time, it is that very attitude that will help a child become as independent as possible.

All About Hiatal Hernias

Hiatal hernias occur when part of the stomach pushes up through the diaphragm and into the chest cavity. There are several different types of hiatal hernias that can lead to uncomfortable feelings like heartburn, which may require medication to alleviate.

Normally, the diaphragm separates the chest cavity from the abdomen. A hernia happens when a portion of the stomach forces its way up into a small opening in the diaphragm that allows the esophagus to pass through, called the hiatus. This is usually caused when the muscles and tissue around the hiatus weaken.

There are three different types of hiatal hernias: sliding, paraesophageal, and mixed. A sliding hernia is characterized by movement of the upper stomach into the chest cavity so that the valve that separates the stomach and esophagus is forced up and above the diaphragm. This valve is called the lower esophageal sphincter, and it is in charge of keeping your stomach acid or food from flowing back up into your esophagus.

Paraesophageal hernias are typically more severe than sliding hernias. While the lower esophageal typically stays in place, but the stomach is squeezed up above the chest cavity, where it can remain until surgery. This allows time for a person to develop complications. Additionally, someone can sustain a mixed hiatal hernia where the lower esophageal sphincter is above the diaphragm like in a sliding hernia, but the stomach is pressed into the esophagus like a paraesophageal movement.

It can be difficult to correctly determine if you have a hiatal hernia because its symptoms often mimic those of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and heart problems. Sliding hiatal hernias may be accompanied by heartburn since the lower esophageal sphincter may be impaired in its ability to keep stomach acid from washing up into the esophagus.

Treating hiatal hernias depends on the severity of your problem. If you have only mild symptoms, doctors will probably only suggest lifestyle changes and over the counter medication to help you. Avoiding food that increases a production of stomach acid can aid you in avoiding acid reflux. If problems are severe, you may need stronger medication or even surgery.

However, sometimes doctors prescribe the drug Reglan to treat hiatal hernias that involve chronic acid reflux. The active chemical in Reglan, metoclopramide, has been linked to permanent disorders such as tardive dyskinesia. This can leave a person with hallucinations and uncontrollable muscle movements for the rest of his or her life.

If you or someone you know has suffered this type of negative effect after taking Reglan, you should speak to a lawyer about your rights. For more information, talk to the Reglan attorneys at the law firm of Williams Kherkher today.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome – Know the Signs

Severe carpal tunnel symptoms typically develop over a period of time. A possible exception to this is an injury to the carpal tunnel area. It is beneficial then to recognize the signs of carpal tunnel as early detection is vital to minimize the painful aspects of the carpal tunnel syndrome.

One of the first symptoms is usually a reoccurring pain in the hand or wrists. There could also be a numbness feeling. If the pain, tingling or numbness increases performing repetitive tasks using the hands, the diagnosis becomes more sure.

Swelling in the carpal tunnel may also reduce blood circulation to the hand causing the hand to feel cold. Another sign is if the hand is cold and the forearm is warm.

Another sign is the loss of gripping strength with the hand. Other results could be clumsiness and difficulty holding objects large or small. Some people have reported that they can not tell the difference between hot and cold to the touch.

As mentioned earlier, early detection and treatment can prevent a lot of suffering that might happen if left untreated. One of the main reasons for this is continued irritation of the nerve that runs through the tunnel into the hand results in increasing inflammation of the nerve. An inflamed nerve can be very painful and very slow to heal.

Consider also that the median nerve passing through the carpal tunnel starts in the back of the neck and pass through the shoulder and down the arm. It is also possible that an infection anywhere along the way could be reflected in hand and wrist pain. That makes the cause of hand and wrist pain difficult to pinpoint. If unsure consult a qualified health care practitioner.

I would like to cation you to seek non invasive (non surgical) treatment for the pain and discomfort. Surgical solutions usually mean cutting the ligament over the tendons, blood vessels and nerves in the tunnel to allow more room in the tunnel and less contact and irritation. Statistics are published that 70% of the operations are successful and 30% are not. If you happen to be one of the 30% that are not successful you could have many months of frustration and pain trying to use you hand and wrist in a meaningfulful way.

Even though 70% of the surgeries are listed as successful, a large percentage of those do not have full use of their hand and wrist. Some report loss of dexterity and strength. In most cases it does relieve the pain. Surgery should be the option only when all non invasive techniques have been tried and failed.

Anti inflammatory drugs and pain relief medications may provide some short term relief. Please understand that these medication provide temporary relief and there continued use may jeopardize the healing process. The use of these medications will not cure anything.

Plan out a nourishing diet. Give your body the vitamins and minerals it needs to heal itself.

Back Pain Solutions Without Surgery

Acute back pain may begin suddenly and usually lasts around 3 months. Chronic back pain sometimes lasts through life.

The most common back pain is low back pain (LBP). It is often described as sudden, sharp, persistent, or dull pain felt below the waist. LBP is very common and affects the majority of people at some point during their life. Up to 70% – 85% of all people have back pain at some time in their lives. LBP is the most common cause of a limitation of activity in people younger than 45 years of age. It is the second most frequent reason for visits to a physician, and the third most common indication for surgery. It is the fifth-ranking cause of hospital admissions and is one of the leading causes of disability.

Low back pain is most commonly caused by muscle strain associated with heavy physical work, lifting or forceful movement, bending or twisting, awkward positions, or standing in one position too long. Any of these movements can exacerbate a prior or existing back disorder. Other conditions that can cause low back pain include spinal stenosis, arthritis (osteoarthritis), spinal infection (osteomyelitis), spinal tumors (benign and malignant), spondylolisthesis, and vertebral fractures (eg burst fracture).

Low back pain is either acute or chronic. Acute LBP may begin suddenly with intense pain usually usually fewer than three months. Chronic pain is persistent long-term pain, sometimes lasting through life. Even chronic pain may present episodes of acute pain. Other symptoms include localized pain in a specific area of ​​the low back, general aching, and / or pain that radiates into the low back, general aching, and / or pain that radiates into the low back, buttocks and leg (s). Sometimes pain is accompanied by neurological symptoms such as numbness, tingling, or weakness. Neurological symptoms requiring immediate medical attention include bowel or bladder dysfunction, groin or leg weakness or numbness, severe symptoms that do not subside after a few days, or pain prohibiting everyday activities.

Pain felt in the low back is not always indicative of a spinal problem. A thorough physical and neurological assessment may reveal the cause of the low back pain. The physical examination begins with the patient's current condition and medical history. Examination of a patient with low back pain involves examining the patient's range of spinal motion while standing straight, bending forward, and to the side. Asymmetry, posture, and leg length is noted. Methodical palpation of the spinal can reveal muscle spasm, possible bony displacement, and tender points. Abdominal palpation is performed to determine if the cause of low back pain is possibly related organ (eg pancreas). The neurological assessment evaluates weakness, absence of reflexes, tingling, burning, pain, diminished function, and other signals that may indicate nerve involvement.

If infection, malignancy, fracture, or other risk factors are suspected, routine lab tests may be ordered. These tests may include complete blood count (CBC), erythrocyte sedimentation (ESR), and urinalysis. In some cases electrodiagnostic studies such as electromyography (EMG) or nerve condition velocity (NCV) are performed to confirm a diagnosis or localize the site of nerve injury. Plain radiographs (x-rays), CT scan, and / or MRI studies are performed when fracture or neurological dysfunction is suspected. A MRI represents the gold standard in imaging today. A MRI renders high-resolution images of spinal tissues such as the spinal cord and intervertebral discs. X-rays are still the imaging methods of choice to study the bony elements in the low back. The results of the physical and neurological examinations combine with test results are carefully evaluated to confirm a diagnosis.

Most patients with low back pain are treated without surgery. A conventional treatment plan may include bed rest for a day or two combines with medication to reduce inflammation and pain. Medication recommended by the physician are based on the patient's medical condition, age, other drugs the patient currently takes, and safety. The first choice for pain relief is often nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). These drugs should be taken with food to prevent stomach upset and stomach bleeding. Muscle relaxants may provide relief from muscle spasm but are actually benign sedatives, which often cause drowsiness. Narcotic pain relievers are prescribed for use during the acute phase and often for chronic pain management in appropriate patients.

Other modalities to treat low back pain might include physical therapy (PT), transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator (TENS) trial, ultrasound therapy, acupuncture and massage therapy. A managed PT program can help build muscle strength and flexibility, improve mobility, coordination, stability and balance, and promote relaxation. Patients who participate in a structured physical therapy program often progress to wellness more quickly than those who do not. This includes low back maintenance through a home exercise program developed for the patient by the physical therapist.

Although the number of spinal surgeries done every year is on the rise, it is rarely required to treat low back pain. Surgery may be considered if the patient is experiencing bowel or bladder dysfunction, increased nerve impairment, progressive weakness, incapacitating pain, or spinal instability. The surgical procedure depends on the diagnosis or the cause of low back pain. To prevent low back pain, first and foremost, follow the treatment plan outlined by the physician. To enhance recovery from an episode of low back pain, or to help prevent future exacerbation, try to maintain good posture, be consistent in a home exercise program, and eat sensibly to maintain proper body weight.