Thickening Narrative Therapy Through Existential Psychotherapy

Once upon a time there was now, right now. The past has been written by many perspectives but the future is still blank and right now is the act of writing. Narrative therapy is a form of therapy that uses the narrative or story of our way of looking at our life situations. We look for that crack in the lens that tells an alternative way of perceiving our predicaments. Not to change the story but to tell it from a different view. Narrative therapy honors these stories and yet accepts that each view is imbued with meaning that family, society, culture has preordained as the “right” meaning. Existential therapy tends to focus more on the individual stance and with a focus on the “now” instead of the past or future. In turn it examines limits and expansiveness. The four main areas of examination within existentialism are meaning (vs. meaninglessness), freedom (vs. confinement), death (vs. life), and isolation (vs. inclusion) (Yalom, 1980). Narrative therapy and existential psychotherapy can help fill in the gaps leftover by each other. Including a past, present, and future tense and to give meaning to both as an individual and collective stance.

The term meaning has eluded philosophers for thousands of years. To give it a precise definition has proven to be almost impossible. The way we use meaning is a thread that runs throughout most of the major schools of psychotherapy. The view within narrative therapy is that meaning is not a given, nothing is imbued with meaning, but instead it is the interpretation of experience. That interpretation is through the theory of social construction of reality. Accordingly (:”The Social Construction of Reality”, 2009):

“The central concept of The Social Construction of Reality is that persons and groups interacting together in a social system form, over time, concepts or mental representations of each other’s actions, and that these concepts eventually become habituated into reciprocal roles played by the actors in relation to each other. When these roles are made available to other members of society to enter into and play out, the reciprocal interactions are said to be institutionalized. In the process of this institutionalization, meaning is embedded in society. Knowledge and people’s conception (and belief) of what reality is becomes embedded in the institutional fabric of society.”

A more general way of stating this is that through language, symbols, and interactive dialogue we give meaning to an experience. First comes experience and then that experience is filtered through these cultural transactions which then creates interpretation. Just because we see the color blue it is only “blue” because that has been the assigned meaning that has happened within a cultural context. A quick formula for meaning in narrative therapy is experience plus interpretation equals meaning.

One of the core tenants of existential psychotherapy is the often quoted phrase from Sartre “existence precedes essence.” Meaning is personally constructed, as compared to socially constructed. There are givens such as we are all going to die that we will all have to face. Meaning then is personally constructed within this framework. Since we are going to die at some point in the future what does the current moment mean? This meaning is believed to come from the individual. We become a more honest or authentic human being when we acknowledge this constraint but ask ourselves what are we going to do about it? First there is just being, as in the present moment, and then from that we create the essence. Meaning within existential psychotherapy tends to be about the over arching beliefs such as the question of “what is the meaning of life?”

A key theoretical move within narrative therapy is to pay attention to what is called the sparkling moment. While a client is relaying the story of what brought them into the therapist office the therapist is listening for an episode within the story that contradicts the main story. A story that tells a different picture of our preferred way of being, as an example, if a client is telling a story of depression then the therapist listens for an event or time that the depression was not present. The telling of this alternative story in narrative therapy is called “re-authoring”. The therapist can help this along by also evoking what is called a “remembering” conversation where a major focus is on the identity of a past significant other who has helped contribute greatly to the client’s life. This could be a friend, a lover, a parent, a musician, or even an author.

To help the client along on this path the therapist needs to stay de-centered, and non-influential. They can do this by helping the client “thicken” the preferred storyline by encouraging the details of what is being told, instead of having a thin description of an event. For example, instead of just saying the weather is nice outside, ask questions about why the client thinks it is nice outside. What is it the smells, the air, the feel, does it remind them of something, The therapist would do well to keep in mind the rich history of existential psychotherapy to help thicken the preferred way of being.

Existential psychotherapy has a rich history of being cognizant of the way we use what Howard Gardner has called multiple intelligences. They are, according to Wikipedia, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, verbal-linguistic, logical-mathematical, naturalistic, intrapersonal, visual-spatial, and musical intelligences (“Theory of multiple intelligences”, 2009). Howard Gardner has proposed a ninth intelligence which would be an existential intelligence. The existential intelligence would consist of the ability to be able to question bigger issues in life such as death, life, and possible spiritual meaning (“Theory of multiple intelligences”, 2009). Narrative therapy also embraces this notion of multiple intelligences even if this is not explicit. The therapist is encouraged to explore with the client the best possible way of expression. This could be through music therapy, writing therapy, or even art therapy. Existential psychotherapy in conjunction with humanistic psychotherapy has historically promoted the concept of the whole self including from an exploratory angle. The therapist comes not from an expert role but rather from an interest in the genuine person or phenomenological approach. In order to be fully present with this approach the intelligence that the client best works from should be the avenue of exploration for further development.

We are forever in the temporal now but are always focused on future plans, worries, hopes, or even dreams. Likewise when we are not future focused we are past focused. Past focused on our worries, shame, even our doubts. This tends to be the realm of narrative therapy. That is linking a sequence of events through a specific time period and giving that meaning. Narrative therapy struggles with the moment of now. It postulates a center or self as contrasted against the Buddhist concept of the no-self. This stance of a self is referred by a state of an observer researching or remembering the storyline. The concept of the no-self contradicts this position and has no observer but this is in the temporal now. The concept of existence is the current now or the becoming (such as a flower opening up into what it could be). Existential psychotherapy pays tribute to the past and possible future but the main source of temporal time is the now. James Bugental calls this the living moment (Bugental, p.20). While in the phase of re-authoring and thickening the storyline within narrative therapy this existential stance could prove to be very informative. It could also be used within the problem saturated phase of storytelling. If the client seems stuck on issues of the effects or judgments of a particular event then ask what seems to be the current emotions, thoughts, smells, etc. in order to unclog the blockage. Staying in the temporal now there are many facets that could be examined for example the current kinesthetic experience. This is one possible way to help with the issue of being stuck.

Existential psychotherapists tend to narrow in on four different realms for meaning making. They are freedom, death, isolation, and meaninglessness (Yalom, 1980). Each of these realms can be constructed as being on a continuum. Freedom would have two extreme sides to it. On the one end of freedom there would be the complete restraint of any freedom at all. Not having any type of choice such as being shackled in a dungeon. The other end would be complete freedom such as is found in libertine philosophies of everything goes with no restraints. Existential psychotherapists posit that each of us fall somewhere on this continuum. In order to move, to find relief from our struggles with our mental illness or anguish, we need to come to an individual understanding on where we are currently on this continuum and where we would like to go or what we would like to become. For example, if we feel we have too much freedom due to overindulgence with no restraints we might need to move a little on this continuum for more restraint to help us balance out. There is no right or wrong answers but where the individual feels is appropriate. To help thicken the preferred way of being within narrative therapy this theory could seem to be a limitation on what meaning is. This meaning being created by the therapist and client, but I argue that if we use it as a map, it can help keep us focused.

This opinion piece is not meant to be a position that is grounded in a complete theoretical stance. The author acknowledges that both narrative therapy and existential psychotherapy both come from very rich philosophical but very different backgrounds. There have been only a few philosophers that have tried to examine the similarities between post-modernism and existentialism. If one is looking for connections they could always find, in some small detail, those connections but each philosophy is really a different project altogether. The therapeutic stance, or pou sto, are quite a different thing altogether. Narrative therapy does not just use postmodernism as a philosophical background and existential psychotherapy does not just use a strict philosophy of existentialism. Instead these philosophical backgrounds are an applicable way of using these various therapeutic stances for the use of trying to help heal our mental illnesses. As Foucault stated in his last known interview (William V. Spanos, P.153) “For me Heidegger has always been the essential philosopher… My entire philosophical development was determined by my reading of Heidegger.”

What are some of the future directions for thickening narrative therapy with existential psychotherapy? First narrative therapy would do well to further elaborate what is meant by thickening the preferred story. What does it mean to make this story more real or the main focus over the grand narratives? There needs to be more philosophical discussion on the idea of meaning as both forms of therapy have as a major emphasis on meaning making but they just come at it from different angles and different projects. The question could also be asked are these two different therapies as compatible as this author suggests they are. If not, why not? And is there a way forward?

As this story (theoretical positioning) comes to a close it is important to remember that these are questions and not absolute truths. The story can still be changed by adding subtle detail and subtracting the distractions. The one thing that can be stated is that narrative therapy and existential psychotherapy are strangers traveling the same road.

References

1. Bugental, James F.T. (1999). Psychotherapy Isn’t What You Think: Bringing the Psychotherapeutic Engagement Into the Living Moment. Phoenix, Az.: Zeig Tucker & Theisen Publishers.

2. The Social Construction of Reality. (2009, July 8). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 22:46, July 8, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=The_Social_Construction_of_Reality&oldid=301080937.

3. Spanos, Williams V. (1993). Heidegger and criticism: Retrieving the cultural politics of destruction. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

4. Theory of multiple intelligences. (2009, August 4). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 16:07, August 4, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Theory_of_multiple_intelligences&oldid=306033977.

5. Yalom, Irvin D. (1980). Existential Psychotherapy. New York: Basic Books.

LVI and TMD

Las Vegas is not only home to casinos, bright lights and good times. It is also the location of the world’s leading dentistry school for post-graduate training. The Las Vegas Institute for Advanced Dental Studies (LVI) was founded in 1995 to provide dentists from around the world training in both neuromuscular and cosmetic dentistry. Since its inception, more than 3,000 dentists have trained at LVI to provide their patients with the most comprehensive and up-to-date cosmetic dentistry procedures.

Neuromuscular dentistry is one type of dentistry that is taught at LVI. This branch of dentistry concentrates on identifying how well the lower and upper jaws fit together and open/close and correcting any problems that exist. It is the jaw joint (called the temporomandibular joint or TMJ) that allows a person to effectively use the mouth for actions such as eating, talking and yawning. When this jaw joint becomes misaligned, the person can suffer from temporomandibular joint disorder or TMD. It is common for laypeople to call any jaw joint disorder TMD or TMJ.

What can TMD lead to?

The effects of TMD can happen slowly over time, and many people are completely unaware that a misaligned jaw joint is the root cause of other physical problems. The symptoms of TMD can be mild to severe and occur daily or sporadically, depending on environmental triggers. TMD can lead to:

  • Headaches or migraines
  • Pains, aches, pressure, soreness or stiffness in the face, jaw, neck or shoulder
  • Jaw locking, popping or clicking
  • Bruxism (tooth grinding)
  • Tinnitus (ringing in the ears)
  • Dental work problems

How does LVI teach dentists to treat TMD?

LVI gives dentists the knowledge and power to treat the patient as a whole, taking a proactive approach to helping rectify dental problems before they become debilitating. During the course of intensive TMD training at LVI, dentists learn the reasons why patients encounter such issues as:

  • Joint soreness or clicking
  • Connective tissue damage
  • Disk displacement
  • Teeth sensitivity
  • Loose or worn teeth

Every patient will have a unique set of circumstances that brings him or her into the neuromuscular dentist’s chair. Those trained at LVI will have the ability to properly diagnose the symptoms and implement the correct treatment procedures. The goal is to identify the patient’s relaxed jaw position and restore the proper bite through manipulation of the jaw joints, nerves and muscles.

Neuromuscular dentists utilize a variety of state-of-the-art computerized technology to achieve the proper bite, instruments such as electromyography, sonography, Transcutaneous Electrical Neuromuscular Stimulation (TENS) and even X-rays. LVI-trained neuromuscular dentists may implement a temporary orthotic, surgery or other dental procedures to achieve an aligned and aesthetically-pleasing smile.

If you have been experiencing painful symptoms and feel that TMD could be the cause of your pain, a neuromuscular dentist may be able to provide relief. Look for an LVI/TMD-trained dentist for the best results.

How a Healthy Diet Can Help Women Who Suffer From Thinning Hair

Apart from keeping your body and skin looking great and healthy, the type of diet you are under plays a great role in the general appearance of your hair. It is therefore very important for people suffering from hair loss or thinning hair to take caution on the kind of foods they take daily. It helps to ensure that your diet is healthy and balanced to give your body all the nutrients it needs. You should take all 5 components of food-proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals in proper amounts to ensure there is no deficiency of any nutrient in your body.

Vegetables and fruits

Lack of vitamins is the main cause of thinning hair, making it crucial to increase your vegetable and fruit intake. Some of the best fruits and vegetables are those which are rich with antioxidants such as gooseberries, blackberries and sweet potatoes. By taking enough of the two, your body will have all the vitamins it requires for its well being.

Healthy fats

Although there is a need to keep away from fats to manage weight, the body still requires a friendly amount of healthy fats. The fats determine how good your hair looks, meaning that a lack of them can cause your hair to be brittle, dull and thin. It is therefore important to take a good amount of the fats considered to be healthy daily. The fats can be from fish, nuts, or you can even use olive oil which is low in calories.

Whole grains and protein intake

Proteins are also essential in giving you healthy and good-looking hair. Help your hair by taking foods rich in protein such as tuna, chicken and cottage cheese, which also happens to be low in calories. Choose brown rice and rye bread for your whole grain intake so that you have enough carbohydrates.

Hair loss in women is more frustrating than it is in men and therefore it’s important to eat right to keep your hair healthy and strong. By taking the above tips seriously, there will be no need for you to keep your hair covered or struggle with wigs and weaves since you will be proud of what you have thanks to your healthy eating habits.

Sometimes all it takes is a change in lifestyle to take care of most of our worries and therefore getting as much information as possible helps before a problem gets out of hand.

Healthy Weight Loss Diet Plan

Keeping Your Weight Loss Permanent

Losing weight is a sometimes daunting task but when successful it is a cause for great pride. Keeping the weight off is also a hard job but with some key guidelines to help it is possible to keep the weight off and enjoy yourself at the same time.

How You Eat

First, it is important that in your original plan you accomplished the loss in a healthy way with a good variety of healthy foods and exercises that fit your lifestyle and attitude. This is important because to maintain your new healthy lifestyle you will need to permanently incorporate your new eating habits and exercise regime. Variety and things that suit your pace of life is the best way to stay the course with your new healthy lifestyle.

A Healthy Attitude

You need to reinforce a positive mindset in your new habits for eating and exercising. Making sure you keep with your new routine is important and keeping an upbeat view about your new habits is vital. Luckily the nutritious food and exercise will actually help in making you physically and mentally feel better and keep an optimistic outlook.

Exercise

Exercise is a crucial step in maintaining your new lifestyle. There is a huge variety of exercises and styles of workouts. You have no excuse in not finding something to suit your schedule and temperament. It’s important to remember that while you can take off weight with just wholesome and nutritious eating habits adding a cardio and weight-lifting program greatly increases your chances of losing more weight and maintaining it over time.

Motivation and Support

Sharing your goals with some friends or your family can be a good motivator and an additional help in staying the course for a healthier you. Even better include them in your new weight loss arrangement, it’s an excellent way to keep up your enthusiasm and attitude.

Carefully Choose Your Weight Loss Plan

Remember to choose carefully in your weight loss ideas and plans as well as the people you let on to your intentions. You do not want any negative thoughts or feelings to hamper your goals. Losing weight can be fun and interesting if you approach it with a positive attitude. Learning about new foods and workout styles can be quite enjoyable. Learning to cook, meet new people and travel to new and different areas can all be part of your new improved life. Approaching weight loss with a fun and yet practical outlook can be extremely rewarding and life-changing.

What is Shingles?

Shingles is a skin rash that is caused by the Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV), the very same virus that causes chickenpox. Once a person gets over the initial outbreak of chickenpox, this virus lives in the nervous system, never fully leaving the body. When certain situations, such as stress, or the onset of immunodeficiency disorders develop, the virus can reactivate, causing shingles. More commonly however, the actual cause for the reactivation of the virus is never found. Anyone who has ever had chickenpox is at risk or developing shingles.

What are the symptoms of Shingles?

The initial onset of shingles can display as an extreme sensitivity or burning sensation on the skin in the affected area. It can include itching, tingling, burning, constant aching, or deep, shooting pain. Within a few days, a rash develops. It will usually present itself as a band that follows the route of a nerve under the skin. The Shingles rash itself looks like small red spots and reddened skin in the same area that eventually turn into small blisters. The blisters dry up after a few days, forming scabs that leave a small pockmark in the skin when they fall off.
Shingles is considered to be an intensely painful condition because the virus affects the nerves. The pain may even linger and continue long after the rash has cleared up. This pain could go on for weeks, months or even years. This is called post-herpetic neuralgia and is more likely to occur in older people and those who had a severe outbreak from the rash.

What causes Shingles?

Although the reasons are not fully understood, any weakening of the body’s immune system can cause the Varicella zoster virus to “reawaken” and appear in adulthood as shingles. Conditions that may weaken the systems include aging, HIV/AIDS, colds, cancer, organ transplants, long term courses of steroids, various medical treatments like chemotherapy or radiation therapy, stress or excessive alcohol intake.

It is important to note that shingles is not a new infection; it is a second outbreak of the chicken pox virus. For whatever reasons, the herpes zoster virus wakes up from the dormant state and grows. Once active, the germs travel along the nerve paths to the skin, and the result is the aching rash of shingles.

Will Painwave X4000 Help with Shingles?

Definitely! The Painwave X4000 is revolutionary, non-invasive, drug-free method of pain relief for the treatment of shingles. What is most amazing about the device is that the Painwave X4000 works in concert with the body’s own bioelectromagnetic ecosystem. The astounding Painwave X4000 has no side effects, and is utilized by moving the unit gently over the surface of the skin in a small circular motion. After a short period of time, the Painwave X4000 stimulates improved circulation, cell activity and lymphatic movements, all of which are beneficial in the relief of pain and other discomforts. In many cases, this stimulation will greatly reduce or eliminate pain for good.

Note: The medical info on this page should not be used to treat or diagnose a disease. If you have any questions regarding Shingles, contact your primary care physicians for full evaluations.

Penile Injury First Aid – Urgent Care Tips for the Manhood

No one wants to think about a penile injury, much less live through one, but there’s no getting around the fact that the average, active guy will face at least the occasional penile emergency. The most common injuries are minor, and they can often be treated at home; but some are more serious and require the care of a trained medical professional. The following checklist offers some quick first aid tips for a variety of types of penis injuries; all of these should be followed up by a trip to the doctor for more intensive penis care.

1) Zipper trauma. When the oh-so-sensitive penis skin gets caught in a zipper, the pain can be immense and lead to instant panic. Unfortunately, a large number of men respond instinctively by yanking away from the zipper – a huge mistake that can result in painful lacerations.

The better approach is as follows:

– Remain calm and gently try to extract trapped skin; vegetable oil or baby oil may help this process.

– If the skin cannot be easily released, the next stop should be the doctor’s office – possibly embarrassing, but certainly better than tearing away at the skin.

– Once the skin has been released, keep the area clean and abstain from masturbation and sex until the area is healed.

– If the wound shows signs of infection, talk to a doctor about antibiotics.

2) Lacerations/cuts. A penis injury resulting in cuts or lacerations should be treated in the following manner:

– Apply moderate compression to stop any bleeding.

– Clean the area and apply a gauze bandage for protection.

– Seek emergency treatment for severe cuts or bleeding that will not stop.

– Talk to a doctor if the area becomes infected – antibiotics may be required.

3) Burns. Any burn should be considered a serious injury requiring medical attention. If a burn to the penis occurs, men should follow these guidelines:

– Immediately immerse the area in lukewarm to cool water. Immersion in a bath is better than running water to prevent further skin damage.

– If the burn appears to be more than superficial, call for emergency services. Do not attempt to remove clothing if it has adhered to the area.

– For less severe burns, apply a cool compress to the area. Do not place an ice pack or frozen gel pack directly onto the skin’s surface.

– Visit a doctor’s office or walk-in care center as soon as possible.

– Follow a doctor’s care plan closely – this may include applying antibiotic creams and other medications to the affected area.

4) Allergic skin reactions and insect bites. A sudden appearance of a rash, reddened skin, moderate to severe itching, and inflammation on the penis may be signs of an allergic skin reaction. This may occur on contact with certain plants or chemicals; insect bites may also produce similar symptoms. If this occurs, men should do the following:

– Wash the area thoroughly to remove all traces of the irritant in question.

– Apply an over-the-counter anti-itch medication such as hydrocortisone (the package directions should be followed carefully). Never apply a cream of any kind to inflamed or broken skin except on the advice of a doctor.

– Leave the area open, not covered with a bandage, to allow the skin to breathe.

– Follow up with a doctor.

5) Amputations. Difficult to think about – but it has to be mentioned… An amputation is a medical emergency, and emergency services should be called. In the meantime, the following steps should be taken:

– Apply compression to stop the bleeding.

– If possible, recover the severed portion of the member. Place in a plastic zip-lock type bag, then place this inside a second bag filled with ice.

– Give the severed portion to medical personnel for preservation and possible reattachment.

Ongoing treatment and daily care

Once the initial injury has healed up, men will want to give some thought to ongoing care of the penis, as well as to preventing further injury. Here are some steps to follow:

– Always wear underwear. A pair of supportive cotton briefs not only helps to prevent zipper injuries; they also protect against the constant friction of rougher clothing – a problem that can eventually lead to a deadening of sensation in the area.

– Always use a lube. A personal lubricant creates a slick surface that acts as a barrier between two layers of skin. Whether the second layer of skin belongs to a partner or his own hand, the friction that occurs without a lube can result in soreness and – again – loss of sensation.

– Exercise caution in the bedroom. Moving cautiously, speaking up if something feels uncomfortable, and avoiding acrobatic moves are recommended to avoid torsion or impact injuries.

– Use a penis health crème (health professionals recommend Man1 Man Oil). Quality products that are formulated specifically for the penis contain ingredients such as vitamins, amino acids and antioxidants, all of which are vital for the health and function of the penile tissue. A good penis cream also contains high-end emollients that can soothe dry skin, restore moisture, and leave the penis looking and feeling healthy and responsive.

When Can Patients Sue a Hospital for Negligence?

When can you sue the hospital or its employees for negligence?

A hospital can be sued for negligence for mistakes that harm or kill a patient. When an employee of the hospital is guilty of negligence, you can sue the hospital. When a doctor working for a hospital makes a mistake, both the doctor personally and the hospital as a whole can be sued. However, doctors can only be sued if they were present and could have prevented the negligence. You cannot sue every doctor in the Emergency Room or surgical floor, only the one who administered or oversaw your treatment. Hospitals can also be sued when a doctor with a history of negligence and medical mistakes was kept on the payroll, thus enabling them to continue harming patients.

What constitutes neglect?

Neglect occurs when someone does not do their job as a normal and competent professional would. Negligence includes not verifying instructions, not following checklists, failing to assist patients in need and not take immediate action in an emergency. There are greater tolerances for mistakes made in life threatening emergencies than general care situations. Malpractice and negligence can arise from a failure to properly diagnose a condition or injury. Negligence can occur when someone is given the improper treatment or the correct treatment is administered incorrectly. Nurses administering the wrong medication and therapists following the wrong protocols are examples of this.

Failing to risk patients of negative outcomes from a medical treatment or side effects of the treatment is also negligence. Recommending a surgery to cure cataracts that can also leave a patient blind is an example of this concept. To sue for negligence, the risk must be significant enough that the patient might have chosen not to have the procedure or treatment if they had known and must have suffered that negative outcome.

Can you sue medical professionals other than doctors at the hospital?

Yes. Any medical professional affiliated with a hospital can be sued for negligence. This includes nurses, physical therapists, medical technicians and pharmacists. First responders such as paramedics and firefighters have broad protection from medical negligence claims, due to the difficulty of acting during emergencies, unless they are employees of the hospital and provide care at the facility. Good Samaritans are rarely sued for negligence unless their actions are reckless.

What types of damages are available when someone sues a hospital for negligence?

There must be a specific injury as well as actual damage to sue for negligence. You cannot sue a hospital because you were unhappy with the level of service.

  • Physical pain and suffering
  • Medical bills with other medical facilities or practitioners to treat the condition caused by the hospital’s neglect, injuries caused by the hospital or diagnose what the hospital failed to find.
  • Lost income due to the inability to work or lost income of the individual who died
  • Medical bills resulting from additional treatment at the hospital if the patient had received the proper course of treatment.
  • Costs of physical therapy or assisted care while recovering

Sciatic Nerve Leg Pain – Causes

The Sciatic nerve leg pain starts in the lower back and continues down through the buttocks and down the leg. Pain associated with this nerve is called Sciatica which usually refers to a bulging or herniated disc problem.

The movement of the disc can sometimes pinch or trap a nerve of the sciatic nerve which may be the result of an injury or wear and tear. Sitting for a long period of time in the incorrect posture position can over time because a disc to move due to the curve in the spine being stretched or pulled.

A common injury to cause sciatic nerve leg pain is by lifting objects in the incorrect manner, tall people seem to be more prone to this problem due to their long back this movement can put pressure on the sciatic nerve with the result of pain travelling down the leg.

When a disc loses its elasticity it can rupture and move from its normal resting position causing sever Sciatic nerve leg pain. In past years if somebody had lower back pain it was said that they put out a disc and the common place to go was a bone setter. Some of these guys were not qualified doctors but were said to have the Gift and most of them were very good at this job.

Today if a person has sciatica the tend to get treatment for the pain but may not tend to the cause of the problem in the first place. How many times were we told to sit up straight in school by the teacher, perhaps the teacher knew about back problems as well as trying to get us to pay attention?

Training in the correct lifting manner is of vital importance in the prevention of the Sciatic Nerve Leg Pain for future generations.

What Is an Aesthetic Doctor?

Just about everyone knows what Botox and laser hair removal is today, but many do not yet know the term “aesthetic doctor.” This is a bit ironic, since aesthetic doctors are the most likely providers of services such as Botox and laser hair removal. When you see an aesthetic doctor you are seeing a well trained medical professional who specializes in minimally invasive procedures that help patients preserve their youthful appearances. They can also provide services to those with minor skin and medical problems, such as severe acne or burns.

Aesthetic Procedures for the Face

An aesthetic doctor can take care of your face, whether you are in your twenties and concerned about future signs of aging or are already experiencing lines and wrinkles. From simple injection procedures like Botox to more advanced procedures using laser devices, the goal is to keep the face fresh and youthful with well moisturized, beautiful skin.

It is commonly believed that only women go in for these procedures, but they are becoming extremely popular with men as well. Men experience lines, wrinkles and sagging skin just like women, so it only makes sense that they would want to preserve their youthful appearances as well.

Some facial aesthetic procedures may also be used for pigmentation problems, acne, scarring, and other more serious problems on the skin. It is not all about appearances alone.

Aesthetic Procedures for the Body

Procedures performed below the face are typically designed to rejuvenate or contour a problem area. For example, someone may go in for filler rejuvenation on the breasts or buttocks while another goes in for hand rejuvenation. Anything that is bothering you about your body below the neck can probably be treated by a qualified aesthetic doctor.

Aesthetic Procedures for Hair

Hair transplants, hair restoration services, and laser hair removal can all be performed by a trained aesthetic doctor. These services can be for convenience sake, such as going through hair removal services. They can also be offered for those with thinning hair, either caused by natural aging or illness. These services have to be provided through a well trained professional so more damage is not done than good.

Other Services Provided by Aesthetic Doctors

Some aesthetic doctors also offer ongoing programs that combine unique supplements, aesthetic procedures, creams, lotions, and other products developed or promoted by a given doctor. Not all doctors will offer these services, but the best ones will have at least some programs for those with specific needs.

It must be noted that an aesthetic doctor is not the same as someone who gives Botox treatments at a spa or who can be hired for cheap prices to come to your next party. An aesthetic doctor is well trained and will offer a wider variety of services in a safe, medically sound environment. They are more trustworthy than other providers offering very basic services with little experience and training.

If you want to see an aesthetic doctor, it should always start with a basic consultation. The doctor must look at your skin or other areas of your body in question and determine the most appropriate treatment for your specific condition. You may have an idea of what aesthetic procedure you want to have, but your doctor may have another procedure that could work even better.

Bio Oil For Uneven Skin Tone & Scars – Does Bio Oil Work to Improve Skin Tone?

Bio oil for uneven skin tone and scars can be a healthy alternative to various other invasive methods. It is the newest product in the market that claims to treat dermatological problems such as visible dark patches, hyper pigmentation, freckles, birthmarks etc. with ease. Usually due to hormonal fluctuations, excess exposure to sunlight and pregnancy, our skin experiences unevenness that can be easily prevented as well as cured.

The formation of uneven skin tone is mainly determined by the quantity and type of melanin in the epidermis. An uneven production of melanin consequently causes this problem. This complication is mainly triggered by both internal and external factors.

Does Bio Oil Work To Improve Skin tone?

Dieter Beier formulated Bio Oil for enhancing your overall appearance. Some of the main ingredients of this product are Vitamin A, Vitamin E, Calendula , Lavender, Rosemary, Chamomile and Purcellin Oil. This product underwent various clinical trials before it was launched. Bio Oil contains no hydroquinone, mercury or steroids. You can easily apply this oil twice daily for obtaining maximum results.

Meladerm is also an effective ointment that claims to balance out uneven skin tone within 2 weeks. This ointment contains highly efficient constituents such as kojic acid, Alpha-Arbutin, licorice extract, lemon juice extract and emblica powder. Meladerm also promises to treat various other complications such as hyper pigmentation, freckles, scars, birthmarks, freckles etc. It also acts as a sunscreen lotion for protecting your skin from harmful UV rays.

Meladerm contains no hydroquinone, mercury or steroids. It claims to inhibit excess production of melanin in your body. You can easily procure this product from its official website. It is always advisable to order its trial version for understanding the product and its benefits.

Treating a Sore Throat

Sore throat is basically caused by viruses. You will probably come down with colds if you have a sore throat plus headache.

A sore throat can be painful and really irritating, as this can get in the way of accomplishing your daily tasks either at work or at home. With this, it is best to immediately treat a sore throat once you get a scratchy and dry feeling in the throat.

Below are common symptoms of a sore throat:

  • Scratchy, dry, and swollen throat

  • Pain when swallowing, talking, or breathing

In line with this, the following are safe pain relief treatments for sore throats that you can easily do at home:

  • Salt in warm water.

As soon as you feel symptoms of sore throat, gargle a glass of warm water with salt. Do this several times a day to lessen the extent of infection.

  • Warm liquids.

If you have a sore throat, avoid cold drinks. Instead opt for warm drinks like tea. Warm liquid can soothe your scratchy throat better than cold drinks. Also, better avoid acidic drinks, for these can lead to further irritation.

  • Lozenges or dry candies.

Suck on lozenges for sore throat every two to three hours, depending on what the    doctor recommends. These can soothe the pain brought about by sore throat.

  • Keep warm.

During the cold season, make it a point to wrap your neck with a comfy scarf to keep warm. This will also help comfort your sore throat.

  • Avoiding smoke and other air pollutants.

Smoke and other air pollutants can further irritate a sore throat. Hence, better stop smoking cigarettes and tobaccos for a while when you still have a sore throat to avoid complications.

  • Lemon and honey.

Stir lemon and honey into a glass of hot water. Allow it to cool for a few minutes before you start drinking it. While the lemon helps cut mucus, the honey soothes the pain in your throat.

Criminal Rehabilitation – Working Towards A Better Life For Inmates And Their Families

Criminal rehabilitation is gaining popularity among many who are forward thinking. Such forms of rehabilitation can help to reduce the number of repeat offenders who return to jail after being unable to adapt to life outside of jail. This can also help to solve some of the more serious cases, such as sexual offenders who may continue in their ways after being released, preying on women or children.

Criminal rehabilitation can help to solve the problem of overcrowding in most prisons. The criminal population continues growing, as the death penalty has been abolished, and the state would need to spend more on facilities to house criminals.

There are statistics showing that only 35 percent of inmates do not make their way back to prison upon their release. This leaves us with a large percentage of released criminals who do commit crimes and end up being repeat offenders. This poses a major difficulty to society as well as a strain. The government has to fork out huge sums to keep tabs on these possible repeat offenders as well as maintaining the prison systems. Needless to say, the possibility of releasing prisoners who might be repeat offenders is a threat to social safety.

However, the scenario does have a light at the end of the tunnel. There seems to be a good reason why some former inmates do not return to jail: it appears that their time in incarceration was spent productively, changing some vital aspect of their personality.

Education is one of the ways in which this positive change was affected. Education works in two levels to successfully rehabilitate the criminal. On a macro level, society as a whole is being educated to promote the importance of keeping the laws as well as ensuring that there is less discrimination against former criminals. This ensures that there propensity for ex-convicts to return to a life of crime is less, as they are able to secure jobs after their release. Education is also being offered within the prison to allow the prisoners to upgrade and stay relevant to the changing society outside the prison walls.

In criminal rehabilitation, prisoners are given opportunity to increase their content knowledge base. This is essential as studies show that many inmates do not have basic grade school education. This would severely impede their success of acquiring jobs, thus many had to turn to a life of crime. Basic criminal rehabilitation programs ensure that there is a standard level of literacy amongst the inmates who sign up for the course.

Rehabilitation also ensures that inmates are socially well adjusted. Psychological assessments are being meted to test for mental or physical disabilities that led to their incarceration in the first place. Should the inmates be ready and willing to accept counseling and assessment, many of them are able to return to society as relatively well-balanced individuals. For drug addicts, this is a pertinent issue, as many of them are struggling with addiction problems. Counseling would help to balance inner dynamics that led to the addiction, and possibly the criminal behavior that financed the addiction.

Criminal rehabilitation has many positive benefits and can impact the lives of many inmates as well as their families. It can help with wider social issues as well, such as reducing discrimination and stigma.

Information on Strep Throat

Sore throat is a painful inflammation of the pharynx. The pharynx (pronounced FAAR-ingks) is the part of the throat that lies between the mouth and the larynx (pronounced LAAR-ingks), or voice box. It is associated most commonly with the common cold (see common cold entry) or influenza (the flu; see influenza entry). While most sore throats heal without complications, in some cases, they develop into a serious illness.

How is Strep Throat Transmitted?

Strep Throat is transmitted directly from person to person by coughing, sneezing, and close contact. Very occasionally strep throat is passed through food, when a food handler infected with strep throat accidentally contaminates food by coughing or sneezing.

Signs and Symptoms of Strep Throat

The signs and symptoms of strep throat are red, sore throat with white patches on tonsils, swollen lymph nodes in neck, fever, and headache. Nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain are more common in children. The patient will usually not have a cough, unlike in a viral infection.

More often than not, a sore throat is usually caused by allergies or a viral infection that will usually go away on its own. But some sore throats are the result of the bacteria streptococcus and are more serious.

Strep throat is highly contagious: you and your child may catch it at school, kinder garden, work, from your family members or any group of people. It usually affects people in early spring, winter or the last days of the fall, but it may also occur in other months of the year. You can have this bacterial infection at any age, but most at risk are teenagers and kids.

In addition, allergies (allergic rhinitis) can cause a sore throat. Usually, treatment will be delayed until the culture results are known. Doctors will often begin treatment of a sore throat immediately if there is a family history of rheumatic fever, if the patient has scarlet fever, or if rheumatic fever is commonly occurring in the community at the time. Otherwise, antibiotics should NOT be given without a positive strep test (culture or rapid strep test).

Strep throat is a contagious disease caused by infection with streptococcal bacteria. Strep throat symptoms include fever, pain, redness, and swelling of the throat and tonsils. Strep throat may produce mild or severe symptoms.

Sore throat (pharyngitis) is a painful inflammation of the pharynx, which is the part of the throat that lies between the mouth and the larynx (voice box). Sore throat is often a symptom of various illnesses such as colds and flu, glandular fever, respiratory tract infections, tonsillitis, and chickenpox. While most sore throats heal without complications, in some cases, they develop into a serious illness.

Although strep throat is most common in school-aged children and teens, adults may also get this disease. Strep throat is more widespread during the school year when a large number of students are present in an enclosed space, laughing, yelling, sneezing, and coughing.The bacteria are present in the nose and throat, so normal activities such as sneezing, coughing, or shaking hands can spread the infection to other people.

The infection can also be acquired by touching objects such as books, tables, or other hard surfaces that were handled by an infected person.

Best Nutritional Supplements For Weight Loss

Even without trying to lose weight, there’s no question any more about the importance/necessity for taking food grade vitamin/mineral supplements. The fact is the foods we’re supposed to be getting all our nutrients from are not anywhere near the same as what they used to be 30 years ago. Gmo foods, over-farmed soils and pesticides are creating produce with much less usable nutrients than what we used to be able to rely on for our vitamins. There are numerous fruits and vegetables that develop the majority of their vitamin/mineral content during the last 7-10 days of vine ripening. Unfortunately, unless you live on a farm and eat directly out of the garden, you get your produce from the super market. In order for fruits and vegetables to be fresh and last long enough for you to buy them from the store, they have to be picked well before this time. This means much of the produce we buy from grocery stores have finished their ripening process in dark crates or under fluorescent lights and never fully develop their full nutrient profile. Considering all of this, even if you are getting all 5 servings of fruits and vegetables every day, you should still take some kind of vitamin/mineral supplement to fill in the gaps your food may not be providing.

On a reduced calorie diet, the need for nutritional supplements is even greater. If your weight loss diet is properly balanced and correctly planned (which most are not), food is taken in smaller quantities while the exercise demand is considerably higher. As compared with normal (non-dieting) eating, a good weight loss nutritional program should contain much more vegetables as they are less calorie dense, cleanse the body and are supposed to provide the proper nutrients needed. While the greater volume of these foods should make up for vitamin deficient foods, the greater demand from increased exercise will cause the body to require more. Do not choose vitamin/mineral supplements based on price and go with the cheapest you find as these may not be the best for you. Do your research before buying and look for vitamin supplements that will be the most absorbable rather than affordable. The most absorbable vitamin supplements are colloidal (liquid) and/or as close to food sources as possible (minimal processing).

As important as good quality, absorbable multi-vitamin/mineral supplements are to your health, these products should be the baseline of every nutritional supplement program. They will not however make a noticeable difference in weight loss if they are the only supplements you’re taking. There are many other products designed specifically to help you lose weight and build healthy muscle. Like a good multi-vitamin, these must also be carefully chosen so you can get the best results possible for the cheapest price. When used correctly at the right times and for the right reasons, there are many nutritional supplements currently for sale that can help you achieve new levels of fitness and health very quickly no matter what your age is. When shopping, the number of different supplements available will keep your mind spinning; this market is huge and there are many good companies offering an astounding number of great products. However there is also an equally large number of ineffective junk products as well if you’re not careful. For simplicity reasons, you can categorize most weight loss nutritional supplements into three groups; macronutrient replacement, fat burners/energy pills and performance based products.

Macronutrient replacement type supplements are available as protein drinks and meal replacement powders. The goal of these nutritional supplements is to support your diet with more macronutrients such as proteins, carbohydrates and healthy fats. Meal replacement powders are a cheap and easy way to get excellent nutrition on the go in a very convenient way, a drink you can mix up and get down quickly on the go. These products make dieting much easier and tastier! Whey protein drinks and meal replacement powders are sweet, tasty, come in lots of interesting, delicious flavors and are excellent for satisfying the sweet tooth cravings everyone struggles with on a diet. For weight loss, protein drinks and meal replacement powders make it easier to get all the protein you need every day to keep you from losing muscle. When taken directly after a muscle building or strenuous workout, liquid protein drinks are the fastest and best way to get the nutrition you need for both growth and recovery.

If you’re not a breakfast eater, a tasty meal replacement protein drink can be easy to get down and an excellent way to get a good shot of vitamins with balanced, easy to absorb nutrition to start your day. These supplements are not expensive, especially when you consider they are replacing food, however cost-wise it equals out to about the same. Macronutrient replacement supplements can also be found as pocket sized, protein bars that are also very convenient. While these products are popular, they are harder to digest and will not absorb as quickly as liquid drinks. It can also be a struggle to find a protein meal replacement bar that’s tasty enough to want to eat it more than once. Compared to the flavor and ease of liquid protein meal replacement drinks, the bars are merely a back-up for most dieters.

Perhaps one of the most important supplements for weight loss are the fat burners. These are pills and/or powdered drink mixes designed specifically to help speed up your metabolism and target fat burning. They do work well however should be used in conjunction with rigorous exercise; in fact most of these products work best when taken directly before. Fat burner type supplements are also great for adding energy to your day. These products often have caffeine or natural substances such as herbs that cause a stimulatory effect. While macronutrient replacement supplements are deemed very safe for most people, fat burners should be looked at a little closer if you have a history of certain health conditions such as heart problems, etc. If you are prone to certain conditions that are sensitive to stimulants, you would be well advised to consult your medical doctor before taking a fat burner supplement. On that note, beware of asking any medical doctor about nutritional supplements, exercise or nutrition advice if they are not an athlete themselves. Overall, fat burners are helpful for weight loss, but very secondary to how much exercise you do and how good your nutrition is. If you’re hardly exercising and your diet is not dialed in for weight loss, fat burners will not do much for you. If your program is good and you’re exercising hard and regularly, fat burners can make a great difference.

Besides meal replacement powders and protein drinks the next most usable nutritional supplements are performance based. These products are powdered drink mixes to aid in your workouts. Performance supplements include pre-workout energy drinks that give you more energy for your training but also contain ingredients to help with other aspects. For example, some pre-workout drinks also help your muscles get a better pump and help them expand larger to make you bigger. Some pre-workout supplements are combined with fat burners and also ingredients for long term energy used best for endurance sports. Performance supplements also include drinks designed to be consumed during and after your workout. Intra-workout supplements are great for supplying your muscles with nutrients and amino acids while you train. These not only improve performance during the workout but also help you recover faster for the next set. Post-workout drinks are designed primarily to aid recovery and are perhaps the most valuable of all. These products are best consumed directly after training or right before bed and greatly aid the body in recovering faster and more completely.

The Pros and Cons of Mayo Clinic Diet

Are you planning to start your weight loss program? Are you looking for the best method that is effective yet safe for your body? If so, try using this newly released diet plan, the Mayo clinic diet. This will surely remove those excess inches off your waistline.

Mayo clinic diet is a new concept of healthy diet and weight based on the clinic’s research and clinical experience. It doesn’t focus only on the food that you have to eat to achieve the weight loss that you need. The Mayo diet is about lifestyle modification particularly in the kind and amount of food you take, in the beverages that you drink and in the physical activity that you do.

You may have heard about bogus diets claiming to be this type of diet in the past. However, the honest-to-goodness real Mayo clinic diet was just officially launched in the later part of 2009 thus all diets claiming to be this diet before this time is just purely the fake ones.

Now you might just want to ask: Are there any pros and cons in using the Mayo clinic diet?

Let’s begin with the Pros:

1. Mayo clinic is not a boring, blunt, and tasteless diet – unlike other popular fad diets available today, this diet tastes good. In fact, the taste of the food is one of the main principles used in structuring this diet plan to make it effective and easy to follow. Unlike other diets that ask you to eat bland, boring soups and other tasteless foods, this diet asks you to do just the opposite – eat delicious healthy foods that are not only a feast to the eyes, but also to your tongue and taste buds. This way, you will enjoy sticking to this diet not just for a month or two but for the rest of your life.

2. Mayo clinic diet will not make you starve. Unlike other weight loss procedure that asks you to drastically cut your caloric intake into 500kcal per day, this diet emphasizes the exact amount of calories you need to take from your food to make you “alive and kicking” all day long. It will help you boost your endurance with any physical and mental activity that comes your way all throughout the day.

3. Mayo clinic diet provides you with the micronutrients you need for healthy body function – Unlike other diets that totally limit you with the amount of fruits and vegetables that you eat per day, the Mayo clinic diet suggests just the opposite and that is to eat healthy servings of fruits and vegetables per day to provide you with the proper amounts of fibers, vitamins and minerals that you cannot get from all-natural sources elsewhere.

4.Mayo clinic diet decreases the risk for high cholesterol level, hypertension, heart diseases and certain cancers. Because the diet encourages the use of all natural sources of fiber, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and good cholesterol, thus, it is one of the most appropriate diets for patients who are suffering from these aforementioned diseases.

5. Mayo clinic encourages you to have regular physical activity – unlike other diets that focus mainly on food intake, the diet will not be whole without the regular physical activity and exercise. This way the number of calories you will take in will be equal or even a lesser to the amount of energy expenditure you have. Thus, if you follow this lifestyle modification, you will not only reach your ideal weight, you will also be able to maintain it.

And so, after reading the Pros, you may likewise want to ask about the Cons of using Mayo clinic diet.

Here are the Cons:

1. You need to buy new set of clothes! It’s true! Losing those excess fats off your belly by using the Mayo clinic diet means you need to buy new sets of clothes and that means you need to spend some cash for your new ward robe.

2. You will need to eat your greens and veggies. If you are not used to eating your greens and veggies, well there is one bad news for you: YOU HAVE TO EAT THEM! Adapting the Mayo clinic diet in your life entails you to eat all-natural healthy foods and that includes your veggies.

3. You regularly need to sweat. If you have been sedentary all your life, well here is another bad news for you: Physical activity is a part of this diet and without it your diet plan will never be that effective. However, if you are a type of person, who really hates to have sweat on your shirt then I have one good news for you: there are some weight loss device, such as the weight loss belt, that can help you make your daily activity an exercise.

This way, you will be exercising even without being conscious about it. The Mayo clinic diet is one diet plan that can give the most effective and safest option for losing your excess weight. Why don’t you give it a try today? Take this challenge and see the results that it can give