Fracture-Proof Your Bones. The Most Important Nutrient isn’t Calcium

More than 10 million Americans have the bone-weakening disease osteoporosis — approximately 15% of women and 4% of men over the age of 50. Another 34 million or so have osteopenia — bone density that is below normal and may lead to osteoporosis. And every year, two million people with osteoporosis have a so-called “osteoporotic fracture,” usually of the hip, spine or wrist.

New finding: Experts know that an osteoporotic hip fracture is disastrous — 12% to 40% of victims die within six months (partly because they tend to become depressed and more sedentary). But when Australian researchers studied more than 4,000 people age 60 and older for 18 years, they found that almost any kind of osteoporotic fracture increased the risk for death. Focusing on people over age 75, they found that breaking a wrist increased mortality risk by 40% in women and 80% in men… a spinal fracture doubled mortality risk in both sexes… and a hip fracture more than doubled mortality risk in women and tripled it in men.

Another recent finding: Bone mineral density (BMD) does not accurately reflect fracture risk. A dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) test measures the BMD in your hip, spine and wrist. A score of –1 to –2.5 indicates osteopenia… a score under –2.5 signals osteoporosis. But in one study, 82% of women who reported fractures of the wrist, forearm, hip, rib or spine in the year after a BMD test did not have scores indicating osteoporosis (scores of –2.5 or lower).

Overall, BMD predicts only 44% of fractures in elderly women and 21% of fractures in elderly men.

New thinking: The BMD test indicates the hardness of bone, imparted by the minerals calcium and magnesium. But flexibility is what helps bones resist fracture — the bone’s ability to bend a bit and not break.

Flexibility is created by the bone’s collagen, the protein-rich infrastructure. To build bone collagen, you need vitamin K.

The Secret Bone-Saver

Vitamin K (phylloquinone) is a fat-soluble nutrient (like vitamins A and D) found abundantly in leafy green vegetables. Vitamin K helps the liver manufacture proteins that control blood clotting. Vitamin K-2 (menaquinone) is formed in the body from vitamin K. Vitamin K-2 has many functions, including building collagen in bone — and preventing fractures.

New finding: Scientists at Harvard Medical School analyzed 10 years of health data on vitamin K intake and bone health in more than 70,000 women in the Nurses’ Health Study. Those with the highest intake of vitamin K had a 30% lower risk for hip fracture, compared with women who had the lowest intake. They also found that women who ate the most lettuce — the biggest source of vitamin K in most diets — had a 45% lower risk for hip fracture than those who ate the least.

What to do: The government’s recommendation for daily vitamin K ­intake is 90 micrograms (mcg) to 120 mcg. How do you maximize your intake? Eat your vegetables!

Top vegetables include kale (1,062 mcg per cup), spinach (889 mcg), turnip greens (851 mcg), collard greens (836 mcg), Swiss chard (299 mcg), broccoli (220 mcg), brussels sprouts (219 mcg), butterhead lettuce (167 mcg), cabbage (163 mcg) and asparagus (144 mcg). Among vegetable oils, soybean oil (3.4 mcg per tablespoon) and olive oil (8.1 mcg) score highest.

Don’t worry about cooking — it doesn’t destroy the vitamin.

If you want the greatest peace of mind about getting sufficient vitamin K to prevent bone fractures, you may want to take a daily supplement of the nutrient.

The Power of MK4

Doctors from England analyzed the data from 13 studies on osteoporosis and a form of vitamin K called MK4. They found vitamin MK4 decreased hip fractures by 73%, spinal fractures by 60% and nonspinal fractures by 81%. Compare those results to the average 19% decrease in fracture risk from taking supplements of calcium and vitamin D (which aids in the absorption of calcium).

To help my patients, I developed a supplement that contains the same amount and type of the nutrient (45 mg of MK4) used in the clinical trials. The supplement, called Osteo-K, also contains calcium, vitamin D, magnesium and boron (available at Osteo-K is available to Bottom Line/Personal readers at a special discount. Use promotional code BLP.)

If you’re taking corticosteroids: Medications called corticosteroids (cortisone, prednisone, hydrocortisone) are powerful anti-inflammatory agents. They are synthetic versions of cortisol, an adrenal hormone. They often are prescribed to help control the symptoms of chronic diseases with an inflammatory component, such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, lupus and severe asthma. Taken regularly for six months or more, corticosteroids can cause osteoporosis. Additionally, taking these medicines for more than six months increases the risk for vertebral fracture by up to 200%. Clinical trials have shown that taking 45 mg daily of MK4 decreases bone loss and fractures caused by corticosteroids.

Caution: If you are taking the anticoagulant warfarin (Coumadin), talk to your doctor before taking any type of supplemental vitamin K, which can block the action of the drug.

Do Drugs Work?

You might think that a vitamin K supplement would be a lightweight compared to the widely prescribed bisphosphonate drugs, such as alendronate (Fosamax), risedronate (Actonel) and zoledronic acid (Zometa).

But drugs are less effective at decreasing fracture risk than vitamin K. Example: Fosamax decreases vertebral fracture risk by 47%, compared with a reduction of up to 60% for vitamin K.

And the latest research shows that these bone-building drugs can hurt your health…

Esophageal cancer. In December 2008, the FDA said Fosamax and other bisphosphonates might increase the risk for esophageal cancer — and that no one with Barrett’s esophagus (an esophageal problem common among people with heartburn) should take these drugs.

Heart problems. People taking bisphosphonates are twice as likely to experience life-threatening heart irregularities called arrhythmias.

Increased fracture risk. New evidence shows that people who take bisphosphonates for several years may have an increased risk for sudden fractures during normal activity, such as standing or walking. Bisphosphonates improve bone quantity, not bone quality — and may affect bone growth in such a way as to eventually create weaker bones.

Osteonecrosis of the jaw. In this disease — also called “dead jaw” — sections of the tissue of the jawbone die after a major dental procedure, such as a tooth implant or extraction. People taking a bisphosphonate have a 4% risk for this side effect after a dental procedure — and top dental experts are warning that anyone about to have such a procedure should stop taking the drug at least one month before the procedure.

Bottom line: Talk to your doctor about whether a bisphosphonate is right for you. You could take another type of bone-building medication, such as parathyroid hormone, which decreases fracture risk by 65%. Or you could add vitamin K to your regimen.

John Neustadt, ND, medical director of Montana Integrative Medicine and the co-founder, with Steve Pieczenik, MD, PhD, of Nutritional Biochemistry, Incorporated (NBI) and NBI Testing and Consulting Corp (NBITC). The doctors created Osteo-K, a calcium supplement formulated by physicians from Harvard, Cornell, MIT and Bastyr that contains nutrients shown to decrease osteoporotic fractures by more than 80 percent. For more information on osteoporosis supplements, bone health and decreasing your risk for osteoporosis and fractures, visit

7 Quick Tips For Managing Diet And Health

It’s no secret that there’s a direct connection between diet and health. Not only does your body run on the fuel you give it, to a large degree your body is the fuel you give it. But these facts don’t make it any easier to eat well and maintain a healthy weight, as evidenced by the $64 billion weight loss industry in the US.

So here are 7 simple tips for managing your diet and overall health:

#1 Set Reasonable Goals

You can’t climb Mt. Everest on your first day of hiking. So set an achievable goal and be sure to give yourself a big high-five when you achieve it. Then fix your sites on the next reasonable goal.

Fit-Bit: Be realistic in your objectives.

#2 Record And Review Your Progress

Keep a record of what you eat (there’s more than one app for that) as well as your fitness program (more apps). When you know you’re logging what you eat, you’re more likely to lose weight, while seeing those fitness graphs and sharing them on your favorite Social Networks is great reinforcement.

Fit-Bit: Track it.

#3 Make Your Pantry Healthy

If you are what you eat then, in fact, you are what’s in your pantry. So don’t stock junk food at home. If your family members or roommates want that kind of stuff, ask them to keep it out of site. When you’re hungry and there’s only healthy food around, that’s what you’ll eat. And on the flip side, take healthy snacks with you so that the “healthy pantry” goes wherever you go.

Fit-Bit: Keep the junk away and the healthy stuff at hand.

#4 Kick It Off With High Protein Daily

Eating a high-protein breakfast which is nutritionally balanced will make you less likely to overindulge the rest of the day because you’ll feel less hungry.

Fit-Bit: Jump start your day with high protein.

#5 Start Your Diet And Workout Routine Simultaneously

That little voice in your head will tell you that you don’t want to take on too much at once. However, there is evidence that embarking on your healthy diet and new exercise regime together actually works in your favour in the long-term, with each bolstering the other.

Fit-Bit: Eat right AND exercise together from Day one.

#6 Supplement Your Hard Work? Garcinia Cambogia

A lot has been said about Garcinia Cambogia extract as a weight-loss enhancer. Some studies seem to indicate that it can help shed pounds.while others are not so sure. While Garcinia Cambogia on its own is not a miracle weight-loss solution, it may help enhance your diet and exercise efforts. Try one with a money-back guarantee, it’s worth a shot.

Fit-Bit: Augment weight loss with Garcinia Cambogia.

#7 Make It Sustainable

Your friend tells you how her new diet and swimming regimen has worked wonders, she’s lost 15 pounds in the last few months! Sounds great, but if you hate swimming that is not your ticket to health. Find a workout you enjoy so that you’ll keep it up over the long haul.

Fit-Bit: Do what works for you in the long-run.

For Weight Loss: If You Could Only Pick One

Nothing about weight loss has changed since the beginning of time! The road to a healthy weight has always been the Second Law of Thermodynamics;

Calories in – Calories out = Calories accumulated.

To put it simply, to lose weight you need to eat less, exercise more or both. What if you could only use one method. There are many eating/diet plans, and good ones, Nutrisystem, Jenny Craig and Weight Watchers, just to name a few. On the exercise side some of the most famous, or infamous exercise programs include P90X and Insanity. All of these programs are effective in their own right, but if you had to choose one direction, which way should you go?

The answer is perfectly clear. If you could choose exercise or diet, you should choose diet. I say this with the utmost confidence. And this is coming from the mouth of a lifetime fitness fanatic and a strength and conditioning coach. Why do I say this with so much confidence? That’s easy! It is extremely difficult to out exercise your diet! Let me give you a couple vivid examples.

If you had an 140 lb woman, and she ate two pieces of cheese pizza and a piece of cheese cake, that would be a total of 955 calories. In order to burn that off, she would have to run 10 minute miles for 1.5 hours! In the height of my running days as a young man I couldn’t do that and I highly doubt you could either.

Here’s another vivid example of this. According to Malia Frey, a weight loss expert writing on About Health, dropping a daily large cola from McDonald’s completely (if you drink about one per day) would result in reducing your annual calorie intake by over 200,000 calories – or about 60 pounds – in one year. Replace that soda with water and overcome obesity. That’s just one large soda. For the same 140 lb woman to burn the same amount of calories, she would have to run 1.5 miles in 16 minutes, EVERY DAY! Wouldn’t be easier just not to drink the soda and have a glass of water instead?

Fortunately, we don’t have to pick one. We can incorporate both a healthy meal plan and exercise in achieving and maintaining a healthy weight. Experts say that the contribution is 75% nutrition and 25% exercise. I will talk about both in future articles.

Quadriplegia -causes, Symptoms, Treatment

Causes of Quadriplegia

Cervical (neck) injuries usually result in four limb paralysis. This is referred to as Tetraplegia or Quadriplegia. Injuries above the C-4 level may require a ventilator or electrical implant for the person to breathe. This is because the diaphragm is controlled by spinal nerves exiting at the upper level of the neck. Refers to paralysis from approximately the shoulders down. Most spinal cord injuries result in loss of sensation and function below the level of injury, including loss of controlled function of the bladder and bowel.

Quadriplegia is a type of cerebral palsy in which all four limbs are affected.  It is usually accompanied by more severe symptoms of nerve damage interfering with normal muscle movement than the other types. 

Causes of Quadriplegia
You may be paralyzed because you were in a car or sports accident that broke your neck. Having a tumor or other diseases in your spinal canal can also cause quadriplegia. It may be possible for the nerves to start working again if your spinal cord is just bruised or swollen.

It is caused by damage to the brain or the spinal cord at a high level – in particular spinal cord injuries secondary to an injury to the cervical spine. The injury, known as a lesion, causes victims to lose partial or total mobility of all four limbs, meaning the arms and the legs.Typical causes of this damage are trauma (such as an auto accident, gunshot wound, fall, or sports injury) or disease (such as transverse myelitis, polio, or spina bifida).

There are a variety of common causes for quadriplegia. Quadriplegia is often the result of traumatic injury to the spinal cord. Quadriplegia is the medical term used to define paralysis which affects the lower extremities, upper extremities, and most, or all, of the trunk from the neck down.

Signs and symptoms
The location of the injury. In general, injuries that are higher in your spinal cord produce more paralysis. For example, a spinal cord injury at the neck level may cause paralysis in both arms and legs and make it impossible to breathe without a respirator, while a lower injury may affect only your legs and lower parts of your body.Symptoms of cerebral palsy can be as simple as having difficulty with fine motor tasks like writing or using scissors, or as profound as being unable to maintain balance or walk. Severely afflicted patients may have involuntary movements, such as uncontrollable hand motions and drooling

Treatment of Quadriplegia
Quadriplegia treatment is catered to the specific needs of each patient and often depends on the nature and severity of a person’s condition. Quadriplegia treatment generally addresses a patient’s loss of functioning and feeling in certain areas of the body, loss or impairments in organ functioning

In the meantime, spinal cord injury treatment focuses on preventing further injury and enabling people with a spinal cord injury to return to an active and productive life within the limits of their disability. This requires urgent emergency attention and ongoing care.Conservative treatment of pressure sores includes appropriate wound care, debridement of necrotic tissue, optimization of nutrition, release of pressure, and minimization of muscle spasticity to provide the patient with the best opportunity to heal by secondary intention. Stage 1 and 2 pressure sores are treated conservatively.

A Driver’s Responsibility When Involved in a Collision and First Aid Procedures

There are few experiences in life that are worse than being in a car crash; especially if you are the cause of the accident. A collision can occur for any number of reasons and in a lot of different places. Your car might end up hitting a lot of different things. Pedestrians, other cars, cyclists, or property of others. No matter what you hit, why you hit it, or where you are-a motorist has four basic responsibilities when involved in a collision.

Stop Immediately

If you are involved in a collision, you must stop immediately. If you do not remain at the scene of the accident, you could be punished severely. Your driver’s license may be suspended for up to a year, or revoked. You could receive a jail sentence for up to a year, or be fined up to $2,500.00-or both. If you are ever involved in a collision; stop immediately and stay put.

Render Aid

It is your duty to render aid to anyone injured in the collision. If possible, find someone who is trained in first aid. Call paramedics. Do not attempt to move anyone who appears to be seriously injured; unless doing so will prevent further injury. (For example, moving them out of the way of oncoming traffic.) You are also required to render reasonable assistance (including transportation) to the injured if it is apparent they need medical attention, or they request your help.

Contact the Police

If you are involved in a collision that results in the injury or death of another, or causes over $1,500.00 worth of property damage, you must notify the police, Sheriff, or Highway Patrol. (This rule applies to any type of crash-even if another motorist is not involved.) You may be asked to provide insurance information.

Exchange Information

You must exchange certain information with others involved in the collision. This information includes: Your full name, address, vehicle registration number, and your insurance information. (Including your agent/provider’s name and phone number.) If you hit a parked vehicle and can not locate the owner, leave a note with the following information. Your name, address, and the vehicle registration number of your car.

You can, and should, help at the scene of a crash. There are a few basic first aid procedures you can follow-even if you are not an expert. First, call the paramedics. Second, make sure you and the injured parties are in a safe area. If you and the victim(s) are in a safe place then do not move the injured people. Third is to assess their injuries. If they are conscious, try talking to them. Say, “Hello.” Ask them if they know what is wrong and what happened. Fourth, if they are unconscious, check their airway. Gently tilt their head back and open their mouth. Check for obstructions, and place your head near their mouth. Listen and see if you can hear them breathing or feel their breath on your face. Watch their chest to see if it rises and falls. Fifth, if they are not breathing; they may need CPR. Do not perform CPR if you are not certified. If others have stopped, ask if anyone is CPR certified. If not, wait for the paramedics to arrive. Sixth, check for bleeding. If they are bleeding get a piece of clean cloth and hold it against the wound. Seventh, treat them for shock. If the injured person is in shock, then loosen tight clothing, cover them to keep them warm, and elevate their legs.

Remember, when calling paramedics, tell them: Your location, what happened, the number of people injured, if anyone is not breathing, and anything else they ask for. You do have responsibilities when you are first on the scene. You might just be the difference between life and death for somebody.

The Best Hospitals in Rio De Janeiro

Rio de Janeiro is the second largest city of Brazil and was the capital of the country up to 1960. Rio is the third largest metropolitan area in South America. The headquarters of many international oil, telephone, media and communication companies in Brazil are located here. Rio will also host the final match for 2014 Football World Cup. Rio de Janeiro has been Brazil’s primary tourist center by virtue of its world famous Mardi Gras parades, beaches and many world famous landmarks such as the giant statue of Christ the Redeemer, Corcovado Mountain.

Rio de Janeiro is a major center of research and development in the country and also houses many world-class hospitals that offer latest medical treatments. These well equipped private hospitals have special international patient sections and offer service of English speaking staff.

This is a short description of some of the popular hospitals in Rio de Janeiro.

Hospital Copa D’or located at Rua Figueiredo Magalhães, 875 – Copacabana, Rio de Janeiro is owned and operated by the Rede D’Or group. All of their hospitals are internationally accredited and follow international standards in their management.

Hospital Copa D’or, Rio has latest generation of equipment and eminent doctors providing care. The hospital offers the best possible service in their surgical center, post operative center, center for diagnostic imaging, neuro-intensive treatment center, out-patient hospital, adult and pediatric emergency rooms, physiotherapy, speech therapy, psychiatry, infectious diseases, hemodynamics, clinical nutrition, pediatrics and coronary care unit. The surgical centers of this hospital are state-of-the-art, they can perform the most complex surgeries.The hospital has centers for intensive care including intensive care unit, cardio intensive care unit, semi- intensive care unit and even a special pediatric ICU. The hospital accepts all major health insurances. Tel:e 21 2545-3600

Hospital Samaritano located at Rua Bambina,98 -Botafogo, Rio de Janeiro is one of the well trusted, modern private hospitals in Brazil provided  with state-of-the-art medical  technology and service of eminent doctors. The hospital offers a complete range of medical and surgical service of global standard in all relevant departments. The well known cardiology department of this hospital has excellent coronary unit, hemodynamics laboratory and cardiac surgery center.

Hospital Samaritano‘s specialized sections include imagery diagnostics department with computerized tomography, radiology unit, magnetic nuclear resonance and PET-CT and modern nuclear medicine department with scintilography, myocardial scintilography and sentinel linfonode research. The hospital has an accredited emergency room staffed by physicians approved by the American College of Surgeons for trauma care. All the beds in this section are provided with modern equipments for trauma care like portable monitors, breathers, defibrillator and artificial pacemakers.

The Intensive Care Unit of Hospital Samaritano is notable with newest facilities and has 10 beds, all provided with breathers, infusion pumps, artery pressure, oxygen level, and heart beat monitors. Hospital Samaritano is also a pioneer in medical education, research and training. This is a favorite hospital among the foreign communities and all major health insurance companies are accepted here. Phone (21) 2537-9722 • Emergency: (21) 2535-4000

Hospital Sao Jose is another reliable hospital in the city with modern health care facilities. This hospital founded by the Santa Catarina Congregation, a religious group with wide reputation, has been providing effective and modern medical service to the people at a reasonable cost since1923. This large hospital with an area of more than 625 sq miles has full fledged departments in all major branches of medicine. The hospital’s emergency department including a 5-bed special cardiac ward offers round the clock service. Sao Jose Hospital’s international patient section with English speaking staff is also well known for providing complete medical service and best personal care. Tel: (21) 2741-4300.

Understanding "Foot-Drop" and Peroneal Neuropathy

A “foot-drop” is a medical term which–thankfully–does not mean that the foot suddenly disconnects from the leg. Rather, it means that when the leg is lifted from the ground, the foot droops downward at the ankle. The muscles that are supposed to prop up the foot have become so weakened that they cannot overcome gravity’s downward pull. When people with this problem try to walk, they have to either hike the leg higher to clear their drooping toes or else risk tripping over them.

What is to blame for this inconvenient symptom? In truth, there are multiple possible causes, but one of the most common culprits is injury to a nerve-bundle in the leg known as the peroneal nerve. To understand how this nerve-bundle can get in trouble, a quick review of the bones of the leg is helpful. There is just one bone, a big one, that connects the hip to the knee, and that is the femur. There are two bones that connect the knee to the ankle. The tibia is the larger one and lies more to the inside, while the fibula is the thinner one and lies more to the outside. That’s the extent of the bony anatomy we need to know.

The nerve-fibers constituting the peroneal nerve travel with the huge sciatic nerve that runs behind the femur from the buttock to the lower thigh. That’s where the “common peroneal nerve” splits out from the pack and runs along the outside of the knee, tucking behind the head of the fibular bone (a knobby protrusion just beyond the knee) and then snaking around the neck of the fibula just below its head. The neck of the fibula forms the floor of the fibular tunnel that the common peroneal nerve must pass through. Within this tunnel the common peroneal nerve is particularly vulnerable to injury.

Also within this tunnel the common peroneal nerve splits into two branches, the “deep peroneal nerve” (farther from the leg’s surface) and the “superficial peroneal nerve” (closer to the leg’s surface). Because the two branches have different connections to muscles and skin, injury to one produces different impairments than are produced by injury to the other.

The deep peroneal nerve is responsible for cocking up the ankle and toes, so injury to this branch produces weakness or paralysis of the muscles responsible for these actions. There is just a tiny patch of skin, located between the big toe and the toe next to it, connected to the deep peroneal nerve, so damage to this branch produces numbness limited to this small area.

The superficial peroneal nerve, by contrast, is responsible for skin sensation on most of the outside of the calf and top of the foot, so these areas can become numb when the superficial peroneal nerve is injured. This branch is also responsible for lifting the outside edge of the foot, so this action is gone when the superficial peroneal nerve is not functioning properly.

Impairments due to injury of the common peroneal nerve (the parent of the two branches) are the sum of the impairments associated with each of the branches. So this means that the ankle and toes cannot cock upwards, the outside edge of the foot cannot lift, and there is numbness on the outside of the calf and top of the foot.

“Peroneal neuropathy” means impairment of the peroneal nerve. Peroneal neuropathies are the most common neuropathies (of the kind that affects just one nerve at a time) in the lower extremities. Investigators at the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center recently collected a series of 318 patients with peroneal neuropathy who required surgery, while Italian researchers collected another 69 cases that included those who didn’t need surgery. From these two tabulations of cases a good picture emerges of the more common causes of peroneal neuropathy.

Many were due to physical traumas. Some of the traumas were severe enough to break or dislocate bones, while others involved deep cuts in the soft tissues, and still others involved just a stretch or bruise. Another common cause was surgical operations. Some of the surgeries were to the nearby knee, but others were performed on more distant structures, like the hip, the abdomen or even the chest.

Many cases were due to excessive external pressure being applied to the nerve. This occurred in different ways. For example, in prolonged leg-crossing the knee of the bottom leg pushes steadily against the peroneal nerve of the crossing leg. Peroneal neuropathies seen in bedridden patients were presumably due to lying on the fibular tunnel for too long without a shift in position. Other patients had entrapment or pinching of the nerve within the fibular tunnel unrelated to external pressure.

A surprisingly large group of patients had peroneal neuropathy due to weight loss, also known as “slimmer’s paralysis.” More than one factor might have been at play in these cases, including lack of nutrients, pressure on the nerve, or both.

Researchers and clinicians find that in some people an apparently isolated peroneal neuropathy is actually the leading edge of a more widespread polyneuropathy. “Polyneuropathy” means that peripheral nerves are impaired in a more diffuse pattern–not just single nerves in single places. So in some cases of apparent peroneal neuropathy further investigations turn up polyneuropathy due to other causes, for example, diabetes, excessive alcohol consumption or genetic factors.

How are cases evaluated? The physician’s evaluation starts with the time-honored methods of history-taking and physical examination. As part of the physical examination the doctor inventories which muscles are weak (and which are not) and maps out areas of numbness affecting the skin. Additional testing with electromyography and nerve conduction studies, which check on electrical functions of the muscles and nerves, often provides valuable information, including whether additional nerves are affected and how bad the impairments are.

How about treatment? Treatment varies according to what caused the peroneal neuropathy in the first place, but let’s consider a typical case unrelated to severe trauma. Nonsurgical approaches are usually tried first, including avoidance of further pressure on the peroneal nerve, improved nutrition and supplementation of the diet with vitamins. A simple brace applied to the ankle improves walking. In many cases the nerve recovers without anything more drastic being done. But if these conservative treatments fail (and the peroneal neuropathy is not part of a more widespread polyneuropathy) then surgical exploration of the fibular tunnel is often indicated. If the nerve is pinched, then the surgeon frees up the nerve from whatever was pinching it.

(C) 2005 by Gary Cordingley

Want to Avoid Having a Doctor Drill Out Your Eye? Wear Good Safety Goggles!

You read that right. I recently had the (dis)pleasure of being on the receiving end of a drill bit in the doctors office. And yes, the drill was the cure, not the ailment!

Here’s the story…

I had a rare weekday off last month and took advantage of it by making some progress on the restoration of a 1963 Corvette Split Window. I’m still in the disassembly process, so much of the time is spent removing and cleaning up grungy parts. This involves first a bath in a parts cleaner and then usually some liberal polishing with a wire wheel on my bench grinder. Now, wire wheel grinders can really be nasty since the individual wires sometimes let go and fly toward you with dangerous speed. Think little needle shaped bullets.

So I always wear safety goggles. It’s something that’s just been ingrained in me since my teenage days of helping my dad and uncles in the garage. Those were the days of wood shop style goggles. You know, the really ugly ones that look more like snorkeling masks? Anyway, the safety glass industry has made big fashion advancements since then and many safety goggles now look more like cool sunglasses. So that’s what I was wearing while grinding on a rusted Corvette tie rod on my day off. But it wasn’t enough.

The problem with those cool looking goggles/glasses is that they don’t wrap tight to your face. They’re better than standard glasses, but still leave gaps, both above and below. And that gap below is the path a stray sliver of metal took to hurtle into my left eye. I felt it of course, but it was a very tiny particle and didn’t bother me any more than a piece of sand or dirt from a wind storm. I kept working on the Corvette and didn’t think much more about it that night.

The next morning when I woke up my eye still hurt. Again, just the feeling that some little spec was in there and wouldn’t get out. Or I thought maybe I had just scratched the cornea and it would heal up. The human eye heals extremely fast.

To the doctor I go

But two days later the pain was no less. Having my wife look closely with a magnifying glass, she was able to actually see the spec. She couldn’t tell what it was, but it seemed stuck in the actual cornea of my eye, not just floating around. Of course this was a Saturday, so I reluctantly headed over the the Urgent Care to sit in an uncomfortable chair for 2 hours.

When the doctor finally got to me and peered at my eye with his slit light it only took him 15 seconds to guess what happened. He said he sees it quite frequently. The tiny sliver of metal was hot when it left the grinding wheel, so when it hit my eye it actually melted it’s way in and stuck there. That’s why normal tears and eye drops wouldn’t budge it.

So then the fun starts. He puts a drop in my eye that numbs it up. This is a weird feeling I can tell you. He leaves the room (probably to take another sliver out of the next guy’s eye) and returns after the drop has had a chance to really do it’s work. Then he turns down the lights and uses this device to hold my eye open. It looked like a carryover from the medieval days. The doctor then pulls up his tray of picks, needles and other sharp, shiny instruments. He picks out the sharpest one and comes toward my eye with it.

OK, at this point I’m still calm…mostly. At first I thought there was no way I’d be able to keep my eye from flinching as he brought the needle sharp pick near it. But the numbing drops actually worked to counter my natural reaction to blink. Well, that and the device prying my eye lids open. So he starts picking at the sliver of metal. Each time he tried to get it out my vision would shift and blur as the needle actually rotated my eye ball!

Finally it came out and I breathed a sigh of relief that the worst was over. But no, that wasn’t quite the case.

The dreaded EYE DRILL!

The doctor explained that the metal spec had been in my eye long enough that it actually started to rust. Through a magnifying mirror he let me look in my left eye with my right. You could actually see a slightly darkened halo in my cornea where the spec had just been. And apparently rust is toxic to your cornea, so letting it fix itself wasn’t an option. So, do you know how they get rust out of your eye? They drill it out!

The drill is a small hand held job. It reminds me of the drill the dentist uses, which of course doesn’t help my state of mind at this point. The doctors tells me to relax (yeah, right!) and then starts drilling into my eye. What I learned later is that it’s more like grinding, not drilling. The idea is to grind/drill away all the areas where the rust has spread. Once the toxin is removed your eye heals over the spot where they drill. Basically, it’s the lesser of two evils. The drill does damage, but it’s damage you can recover from. Leaving the rust there would do more damage as it spread.

It all turned out fine, but it’s definitely not something I want to repeat. So, now when I work on readying my Corvette for sale or anything else in the garage that has the potential for flying pieces, I wear a complete face shield. I still wear my cool looking safety goggles just because it’s habit, but I have a full face shield sitting right by the grinder that I can put on over the safety glasses. You should consider it too if you spend any time in the garage. Your eyes aren’t exactly replaceable!

Groin Hernia – a Very Common Disease!

Patients recovering from groin hernia should not put the tissue under the tension after a week of repairs, so they are asked not to drive for a month or two. From this point of view, in the course of a sudden impact or stop postoperative pain could lengthen the response times.

In large cities around the world preclusion of driving can have socio-economic consequences. The social and psychological recovery, next to the patients’ physical well-being improve hernia repair.

Mechanical and chemical stimuli of large myelinated nerve fibers (A-alpha-fibre) or small, unmyelinated nerve fibers (C fibers) cause pain that follows the repair of hernias in the groin. The pain can be caused by mechanical stimulation of somatic tissue when tension is created on fibroconnective tissue of the groin directly and indirectly.

Direct pain will be served through the mechanical stimulation of the A-alpha and C fibers, and indirectly through the release of chemical substances that further stimulate the C fibers. Hydrogen, potassium, bradykinin, Serotonin, Histamine, Acetylcholine, proteolytic enzymes and Prostaglandin are chemical substances. To stimulate chemical substances in the C fibers that innervate the hernia sac that are excised and ligated under the traditional repair the cause visceral pain.

Excessive tension on the suture line that leads to somatic pain through the C and A-alpha nerve fibers is associated with powerful estimates of fibroconnective tissue of the groin, the traditional method of hernia repair. Visceral pain brought by ligation of the hernia sac is caused by mechanical stimulation and ischaemic changes in the peritoneum that lead to the release of chemical substances. A layer of synthetic mesh is used in modern hernia repair in order to avoid tissue under the tension. These repairs because they eliminate the somatic component of pain associated with a reduction in postoperative pain and in the visceral part of post-herniorrhaphy pain you will see a reduction because the hernia sac is not ligated.

Because the healing of hernia take six-eight weeks, it is better that patients do not drive at this time. The intra-abdominal pressure may increase due to the inertia effect of any significance or sudden stop anything that could interfere with suture line of repair. Since the technique does not involve pulling together and suturing the edges of the defect hernia repairs that do not use tissue tension is not vulnerable to this. From postoperative discomfort is minimal and without narcotic analgesics depends on the recovery period. The open repair without tension and laparoscopic repair is as linked to reduced postoperative pain. From that point of view has been made comparisons between laparoscopic hernia repair and tissue estimates under tension and open the repairs carried out without tissue tension.

Different types of hernia repair is performed without tissue tension can be associated with a reduction in postoperative pain and the risk of repetition that makes it possible for patients to have normal daily activities, including driving. On a week or less after the operation depends on the comfort and narcotic analgesics used patients can drive. The pattern of convalescence after surgery has been changed by modern techniques for hernia repair.

From different types of vehicles patients need different prevail, but it’s better for them that after surgery to rest a month or two before you run.

Writing an Author Bio – Examples of Professional Bios

Not only is it useful to know what you need to include in an author bio, it is also useful to see examples of how your vital information should look. This article will cover both what you need to include in your author bio and some examples of tight professional bios.

The Six Rules You Should Use to Write a Professional Bio

  1. Always write in the third person. Your professional bio is not an autobiography. You don’t say, “I have been a ghost writer for four years.” You say, “Jane Doe has been a ghost writer for four years.” It’s easier to trust a bio that appears to have been written by an objective observer.
  2. List provable facts. Don’t waste time sharing your dreams. “Jane Doe has always wanted to pursue writing as a career.” That’s not appropriate here. Only include information that you can back up with proof. “Jane Doe has provided her services independently and through the online employment forums oDesk and Elance.” These are facts that can be confirmed by a search on these forums.
  3. Include pertinent education and experience. If you have taken courses, you may want to include this, especially if your list of provable facts is difficult to confirm independently. Example later.
  4. Bring in memberships. Mention any memberships you have in writing clubs, business groups, etc.
  5. Keep the writing tight. Don’t get wordy. Display your best writing skills. Keep sentences short. Make sure every sentence really needs to be there.
  6. Hook, grab and hold. Make sure your bio includes something that is unique about you. Give the reader something to remember about you.

These rules don’t have to be applied in the order given. All you really need to do is include as many of them as possible. You may not have any education. Don’t fret over it. Build up your experience so you can change your bio.

Examples of These Rules in Action

“Denise Rutledge has been working with writing challenged clients for over four years. (How long you’ve been providing a service is useful information.) She provides ghost writing, coaching and ghost editing services. (What your services are is also useful) Her educational background in family science and journalism has given her a broad base from which to approach many topics. (Education and experience.) Her writing skills may be confirmed independently on and (Provable facts.) She especially enjoys preparing resumes for individuals who are changing careers. (Hook, grab and hold.) You may learn more about her services at Writing as a (Second hook, grab and hold.)”

“Writing challenged clients” in the opening sentence is also a potential hook, grab and hold.

“Jane Doe writes SEO articles for businesses that want to see their Google search rankings surge.(What she does.) Her articles have appeared in a number of e-zine sites, including,, and (Way to confirm her skills.) She contributes articles about SEO techniques regularly to Site-Reference (Her experience level.) Her articles focus on balancing informative with SEO needs–but never at the expense of providing an entertaining read. (There’s the hook.) Learn more about how Jane’s SEO articles could grow your business by visiting her blog at”

You might notice that neither example includes a membership. If a rule doesn’t apply, don’t worry about it. If you have to weigh which is more valuable, experience always wins.

Rehabilitation Using Acupuncture: Post-Surgical and Pre-Surgical

A major surgery can be debilitating and keep you from doing the things you want and need to do for a long time. Using acupuncture as part of your pre-surgery preparations and post-surgical recovery can shorten your rehabilitation time. Joint reconstruction, spinal surgery, oncological, liposuction, gastrointestinal and cosmetic are just a short list of the kinds of surgery that would benefit from pre- and post-surgical acupuncture treatments. Depending on how minor or major your surgery is, these treatments will take weeks to months off your rehabilitation time and get you back to living life fully again.

Before any patient goes in for any kind of surgery, it’s important that their immune system is strong. Pre-surgical acupuncture treatments are a great tool to help patients give their immune system a boost. While all acupuncture treatments seem to help boost the immune system, using specific points, such as ST36, LI4, Ren12, UB13, UB17 and Du14 are all particularly effective in boosting the immune system or, in terms of Traditional Oriental Medicine (TCM), tonifying Qi and Blood. A better functioning immune system will benefit you through the surgery and accelerate your recovery time.

After a surgery, varying factors can determine the speed of a patients recovery. Their initial health, the extent of the injury, amount of trauma incurred from the surgery and types of therapies used in the rehabilitation process can make a huge difference in how the patient recovers. It’s possible to start acupuncture treatments the same day or day after the surgery. Well before a patient can start physical therapy, acupuncture treatments can expedite the recovery process. Practitioners are able to use distal points, around bandage or casted areas, helping to promote circulation, drain lymph, reduce swelling, increase immune system and control/lower pain-levels. These treatments performed early in the recovery process can make it easier, if and when a patient starts physical therapy, by supporting blood flow to the ligaments and tendons, reducing stiffness and maintaining the maximum range of motion of the joints.

Treatments can be continued through all four phases of the rehabilitation process. Patients reported recovery times anywhere from weeks to two months faster than standard rehabilitation times (depending on the surgery). If it’s important for you to get back to work sooner, back in competition faster or back to living a normal life, pain-free and without annoying physical limitations, as quickly as possible, then acupuncture should definitely be a part of your pre- and post-surgical rehabilitation plan. For more information on acupuncture and recovering from surgery, please visit our website.

Learn About Your Bones: The Effects of Osteoporosis

Can you name all of the bones in your body? It is okay if you can’t because most people cannot do this. When you are a woman living with osteoporosis it is important that you know which bones you are more at risk to fracture and what effect it will have on your body if and when it happens. By the end of this article you should be able to identify some of the bones within the body that are directly affected by osteoporosis.


All of a woman’s bones are at risk for osteoporosis but places like the wrist, hip and spine are the most common areas. Our spine is what allows us to stand upright and what supports our body and when fractures occur in this area it causes a great deal of pain and problems for us. You can end up having a hunchback, severe back pain and many other conditions from spinal fractures alone so this is something you should be very cautious about.


It would be very beneficial for you if you have a bone density test conducted. This type of test can test the strength of your bones. There are numerous types of these tests but when you consult with your physician he will inform of the tests that you need to have done. I would advise you to have a bone density starting at the age of sixty because the earlier the better.


Those of you who have a history of broken bones from early childhood and adolescence are more prone to fracturing bones later in life. Consult with your physician regarding this and document any broken bones as an adult so that you can keep a record of all occurrences.


Orthopedic surgeons are the doctors who treat skeletal fractures. If you were not taken to an orthopedic when you are a child that is quite alright. This usually means that you rode your bike on the sidewalk with a helmet or you listened to your parents when they told you not to climb trees. While I do not have any broken bone stories, I recall my eldest brother jumping from a tree claiming to have been up there rescuing a cat and he didn’t quite land on his feet. A lot of kids have broken things at one point in time. I just wanted to familiarize you with the orthopedic surgeon’s role.


Educating yourself on osteoporosis will make it easier for you to manage and better control your condition. I know that being diagnosed with a condition of this magnitude can be a shell shocker but you have to hang on and remain strong. Whoever you pray to at night, your God did not bring you this far in vain and you have to remind yourself of this. For me, when situations arise that seem too much to bare I remind myself that I although I may feel lonely I am never alone. Live a happy and healthy today.

The Difference Between Supplements and Diet Pills

What is the difference between supplements and diet pills? It’s true that they are very alike; that’s probably why many people think that they are even the same thing! But, the benefits of each are distinct enough to be categorized as separate aids to dieting. The thing that remains the same for both of them is that they each contribute to the effectiveness of your weight loss, but differ in functionality (why they are taken).

Let’s begin explaining the difference between supplements and diet pills by describing what a supplement is and what it’s for. Supplements can be taken as a liquid (mixed in with a beverage), a capsule (to be swallowed as a pill) or a powder. The reason you would take a supplement is to boost a particular vitamin or mineral in your body that is deficient, and to support your body with certain things it needs to function, that your body may not be producing enough of naturally. For instance, let’s look at the most common vitamin calcium. The natural properties of this vitamin specialize in muscle growth. Now, if you find that you exercise very often, but fail to see much change in your muscle size, it is possible that your body suffers from slight calcium deficiency. In this case, you would take a calcium supplement to make up for your lower calcium levels. Doing so will boost the calcium in your body to its proper levels, helping you to get more out of your workouts and begin to see muscle growth at a faster rate. For another example, I’ll suggest potassium (the mineral that holds the number 3 spot of importance and amount in your body). The sole function of potassium is to regulate digestion and is what is burned to extract energy from the food you eat by converting certain elements. A situation where the need of a potassium supplement would arise can be found if you easily get fatigued when exercising. Taking a potassium supplement on its own however will not give you energy, it only helps deliver more energy to you when you eat something like a… what’s a good snack when exercising… a granola bar. When you take a break to get a bit of energy from your granola bar, you will find that little snack gives you much more to go on with the aid of a potassium supplement.

After those two examples of supplements, let’s move on to explaining what a diet pill is so you can easily see the difference between supplements and diet pills. Diet pills (as well as supplements) are completely safe to take, and utilize natural elements to trigger certain responses in your body. The effects of taking a diet pill are much more practical and can be easily felt, rather than the subtle ‘boosters’ that supplements are. Still, both are important and vital to an effective and healthy weight loss. The different effects of a diet pill are many, where almost any weight loss aid you need can be found in a different diet pill. For example, if you are dieting and are at a point where you cannot eat anything or are allowed to eat very little, just as there’s always ‘an app for that’, there is a diet pill for that. You can find appetite suppressant diet pills that simply relieve you of that stinging emptiness in your stomach so that you can pass through those hungry nights without so much as a belly grumble. It essentially tricks your body into thinking that you have just had a full meal by providing all the right vitamins and minerals to your body that it asks for when hungry. It costs you next to no calories, but don’t tell your stomach that. You may have heard about this other popular diet pill, one that increases your fat-burning capabilities when exercising.

There are many different supplements and diet pills out there that you can find that will tailor to your personal needs while you lose weight. Remember that they are safe to take, and only make your difficult task of losing weight more bearable. Once again, supplements are vitamin and mineral boosters, and diet pills provide more practical effects on your body to aid in losing weight. So now that you are aware of the difference between supplements and diet pills, you can use your new awareness to benefit from these great tools that help you lose weight faster and more easily than ever!

The Walk-In Clinic: Advantages and Disadvantages

For those who are committed to a pediatrician or family doctor, the thought of using a walk-in clinic may be a foreign idea in the way of health care. However, for small emergencies that occur on vacation or during the weekend, this medical care facility may be one of the most cost effective options available on short notice. If you don’t have immediate access to your primary care physician but you have a minor medical issue that needs care, call a walk-in clinic located in your area before rushing to the nearest emergency room.

Advantages to This Health Care Option

These medical facilities offer an excellent choice for minor medical issues that don’t require immediate emergency medical assistance. Most often they’re open during the evening hours and weekends when regular doctor’s offices are closed. So, if a minor issue arises during the late evening hours, you may be able to avoid a huge emergency room bill!

Some families and individuals choose to see the doctors at the walk-in clinic for regular check-ups as well as for minor medical emergencies. The convenience of being able to see the doctor during non-business hours appeals to those who work long hours. Also, the convenience of being able to see the doctor without an appointment is nice for unexpected sick visits or minor emergency situations.

For those without insurance, the reasonable cost for appointments at these facilities is a huge advantage. A typical emergency room visit for any minor condition costs thousands of dollars, while visiting the doctors at a walk-in clinic cost only hundreds of dollars, if that much.

Disadvantages to This Health Care Option

Since no office can determine how many patients will walk in during the evening or weekend hours, waiting times may be unpredictable. Some evening may be incredibly busy with waiting times over an hour per patient, while other evening may be incredibly slow and patients are taken back almost as soon as they arrive! Of course, you’re faced with the same issue in the emergency room. For patients who value the lower prices and have a medical situation that doesn’t require immediate medical care, the wait may only be a minor inconvenience.

Unless the facility employs the same medical personnel to staff it each night, you’ll be seeing a different doctor every time you come. Those who plan to have regular check-up visits will probably want to schedule routine visits with the same doctor if possible. Many times the doctors do work on a set night or have a planned rotation, so it is possible to see the same doctor if you make an appointment. But for those who are visiting because their child is sick or injured, the doctor will probably be new every time. Once again, this will also occur in the emergency room setting as well, so if you have a situation that can be handled through a walk-in clinic in your area, it’s definitely better for your budget if you avoid the emergency room!

General Knowledge Pt. II

o WHAT IS THE SLENDERNESS RATIO? Columns used for construction have a definite value called the crippling load or buckling loadthe load at which the column bends or 

What is the slenderness ratio? 

Columns used for construction have a definite value called the crippling load or buckling loadthe load at which the column bends or buckles but does not break. The effective length of the column is the length of an equivalent column of the same material and cross sectional area with hinged ends and having the value of the crippling load equal to that of the given column. The least radius of gyration is the radius of gyration where the least moment of inertia is considered. The ratio of effective length to the least radius of gyration is called the slenderness ratio of the column.

What is special about temple square?

The Temple Square in Utah is very religious place for the members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. It’s symbolic of the holy ordinances or covenants that take place there To Mormons, the Gospel of Jesus is not complete without temples The Temple Square is special because it reminds the Mormons of the sacrifices by the pioneers who erected it. It is also the headquarters of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints.

Who discovered saturn’s rings?

Christian Huygens, a Dutch physicist and astronomer, found out that Saturn has rings. He also discovered the Titan, the moon of Saturn.

Is there any magnet with a single pole?

Magnets found in nature and those made by man, are found to have two poles without exception. In contrast, electrical charges can be separated from each other. Several experiments to detect magnetic monopoles have been inconclusive.

When did the first manned balloon flight take place?

In the late eighteenth century two French    papermakers, the Mont golfer’s brothers, began experimenting with hot air balloons. On Oct 15, 1783, a French scientist, Francois de Rozier became the first person to make a balloon ascent. He rose to a height of 80 ft in a balloon made by the Mont golfers.

What is vsat the acronym for?

VSAT stands for Very Small Aperture Terminal. VSAT nodes are networked together, using an antenna directed at a geo-stationary satellite. VSAT technology is used for transmission of information and is extremely popular in banking and financial services, Multisided manufacturing and for linking government offices.

Have you heard ofbuckyballs?

Buck balls   are   microscopic spheres of 60 carbon atoms that resemble a dome. They have cavities large enough to hold other atoms — even full molecules. Unless heated to a very high temperature, the contents of the cavities do not emerge. This has enormous potential in the fields of medicine, miniature mechanics, battery technology and high strength materials.

What is ‘nuclear winter’?

‘Nuclear winter’ is used to describe the aftermath of a nuclear explosion caused due to a nuclear war or a nuclear accident. The impact of this explosion would be so devastating that unquantifiable amounts of dust and smoke would be released into the earth’s stratosphere. This would block the sun’s energy from reaching the surface of the earth, thereby lowering the temperature. The period of this effect would be determined by the intensity of the explosion. ‘Nuclear winter’ would threaten the existence of life on Earth.

How does a gas lighter work?

Certain crystalline materials (like quartz, |Rochelle salt and certain ceramics) have piezoelectric behaviour. When you apply pressure to them, you get a charge separation within the crystal and a voltage across the crystal that is sometimes extremely high. For example, in a barbecue lighter, the popping noise you hear is a little spring-loaded hammer hitting a crystal and generating thousands of volts across the faces of the crystal. A voltage this high is identical to the voltage that drives a spark plug in a gasoline engine. The crystal’s voltage can generate a nice spark that lights the gas in the grill.

How does a pilot know the route to a destination he is flying?

Pilots rely heavily on computerized controls and with the assistance of the autopilot and the flight management computer, steer the plane along their planned route. They are monitored by air traffic control ‘stations they pass along the way. They regularly check their fuel supply, condition of their engines and the air-conditioning, hydraulic, and other systems. Pilots may request a change in altitude or route if circumstances dictate.

What kind of healing did dr edward bach pioneer?

Dr Edward Bach pioneered a kind of healing called flower remedy therapy. This treats predominantly mental and emotional manifestations of disease, relying on administration of remedies derived from the flowering parts of plants. Dr Bach considered total 38 remedies sufficient to treat the most common negative moods that afflict mankind. After his death, many remedies were added and now the total is more than 200. He believed that the remedies were divinely enriched.

Why do we feel that the air is fresh after it rains?

PEOPLE living in cities like Mumbai, Delhi and Bangalore are bound to feel that the air is fresh after the first heavy monsoon showers. This is because the bowers bring down from the sky, gases like sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, etc. These first monsoon showers, however, cause harm to many freshly planted saplings in these cities.

The filament of an electric bulb is heated to very high temperatures. How come it does not bum?

THE filament does not bum because the bulb is filled with inert gases like argon and nitrogen. Oxygen is necessary for any combustion.

What are asteroids?

YOU must have read that the sun has nine planets revolving around it, including the earth. In addition to that, there are some small bodies which also revolve around the sun. These bodies are called planetoids or asteroids. Most of the asteroids are seen revolving between the planets, Mars and Jupiter. The diameters of asteroids are a few hundred kilometers and even less, whereas the smallest planet, Mercury, has a diameter of about 4,868 kilometers.               

Who invented the bicycle?

THE first known patent of a machine that resembled a bicycle was given to Jean Theson in 1645. It had four wheels and was driven by two men. The first two-wheeled machine was invented by a Frenchman, Baron Karl de Drais (Baron von Drais) in 1818. But it did not catch on. What caught on was the bicycle, invented by a blacksmith, Kirkpatrick Macmillan of Scotland.

How do forests help to prevent floods?

ONE of the major reasons for floods is erosion of soil from the area near thd banks of

the river. Forests have a dense cluster of trees in them. The roots of the trees hold on to the soil and prevent the erosion. It is therefore important that trees should not be cut indiscriminately, particularly near the banks of the rivers.

Do volcanic explosions and earthquakes occur inside oceans also?

The waves that we see in the seas and oceans are mainly caused by air currents. The size of the sea waves depends on the speed of the wind and for how long the wind has been blowing. Tide and ebb are caused by the pull of the moon (and to some extent, the pull of the sun) on the water. Mighty waves like tsunamis are caused by earthquakes below the water surface in seas and oceans.

What is viscosity?

Viscosity is a property seen in fluids that offers resistance to a body moving through them. It is equivalent to friction. Whenever a body falls through a viscous fluid, it reaches a terminal velocity or uniform speed due to the viscous force that balances gravity.

Why is it that we can walk more easily on wet sand than on dry sand?

Have you not come across the Newton’s Laws Of Motion? Everyone continues in a state of rest or uniform motional, unless compelled to do otherwise by an impressed (external) force. Walking is possible because the ground on which we walk offers some resistance. Assuming the resistance is zero, the foot that is placed forward will keep moving forward and you will fall. Even dry sand offers some resistance. That is why you can walk on it, if you are careful. Wet sand offers much more resistance and hence you can walk more easily on wet sand.

What is a retro-rocket?

Newton’s first law of motion governs a spaceship travelling in space: It continues to travel at uniform speed. Since there is no reaction in space, a retro-rocket fired in the direction opposite to that of the motion, reduces the speed of the spaceship.

What is torquewrench?

Torque is the force that causes circular motion. The force used to tighten a screw is the most common example of torque. In mechanical engineering in general and automobile engineering in particular, certain screws need to be tightened with a predetermined torque. The torque wrench is a gadget in which the appropriate value of torque can be set and the wrench loosens its grip on the screw once the predetermined value of torque is reached.     

An otolaryngologist is a physician. What does he specialise in?   

An otolaryngology’s is a physician who specializes in the problems of the ear, nose and throat (ENT). Myocardial infarction is the technical term for…? Unique is the application of liquid nitrogen to destroy warts.

What is the wind chill factor?

Wind chill is the rate of loss of body heat due to the motion of air. In simple parlance, a strong wind can make it much colder than the ambient temperature. Paul Siple coined this term in 1939 during an Antarctic expedition.

What is eutrophication?

The process by which water becomes more nourished either by the natural process of maturation or artificial processes.

What is a diamond made of?

A 100 million tears ago, when the Earth was cooling carbon deposits were exposed to extreme heat and pressure by molten rocks. These deposits crystallized to form diamond mines. Incidentally, the diamond is the hardest material known to mankind. If so, then how is the diamond cut to various shapes for use in jewellery? Saws made from diamond dust cut the diamond. Over 80 per cent of diamonds are used in the industry itself.

What is a re-entry vehicle?

Whenever a spaceship returns to earth, it encounters tremendous friction from the atmosphere that generates heat. In order to ensure the safety of astronauts and the expensive apparatus, the spaceship is shielded by using heat resistant material. Scientists from the former Soviet Union were the first to deploy the re-entry vehicle successfully in the early Sixties.

What is ozone?  

Ozone is the allotropic form of oxygen. It is used-in water purification and in treating gangrene. Its presence in the upper atmosphere is crucial as it absorbs energetic ultra-violet radiation. Industrial and vehicular pollution has resulted in the depletion of this life- saving molecule and is a cause of worry for the environmental scientists.

What is hydroponics?

Hydroponics is often defined as the cultivation of plants in water. Since many aggregates or media support plant growth the definition has been broadened to read the cultivation of plants without soil Growers use hydroponics techniques due to lack of water supply or fertile farmland. Home gardeners have used it to grow fresh vegetables year round and to grow plants in smaller spaces. Greenhouses and nurseries grow their plants in a soilless, peat- or bark-based growing mix.

What is sidereal time?

A sidereal year is the length of time it takes the Sun to move from a position relative to a fixed star and back to the same position again, as observed from the same location on Earth. It is equivalent to 365 days, 6 hours, 9 minutes and 11 seconds.

Why the balloon is called the poor man’s satellite?

Unlike hot air balloons, which are used in sports, the hydrogen filled is used for scientific, metrological and military purposes. They can carry payloads of a few tons. They are extensively used for astronomical observations, especially to study X-Ray emissions from stars.

What is coriolis force?

Whenever a body is moving in a circular path, it experiences centripetal force towards the center of the circle. If you walk within a bus that is taking a turn, an additional force acts upon you. It is called the Coriolis force, a force that emanates from two simultaneous motions of the same body.

Who is the father of gas-filled lamps?

Irving Langmuir studied chemical reactions at high temperatures and low pressures. One of the spin-offs of this research was the development of gas-filled lamps.

What is the difference between an atomic and a nuclear bomb9

Nuclear bombs are of two types — those that depend on fission, like atomic bombs, and those that depend on fusion, like hydrogen bombs. The former get their explosive energy from the splitting of atoms in materials like uranium or plutonium, which takes place automatically. On the other hand, hydrogen bombs, which are also known as thermonuclear bombs, depend upon the fusing together of atoms, as is taking place in our sun, to release much vaster quantities of energy than atomic bombs. The fusing requires very high temperatures; hence atomic bombs are generally used as triggers for hydrogen bombs. Hence, every atomic bomb is a nuclear bomb, but every nuclear bomb is not an atomic bomb.

What is the difference between cyclone, hurricane, tornado and twister?

Technically, a cyclone is any kind of circular wind storm. But now, it is only used to describe a strong tropical storm found off of the coast of India. Hurricanes and Typhoons are the same thing, but in different places. On the coast of Florida it is called hurricane. In the Philipines, it is called typhoon. Hurricanes occur in the Atlantic and typhoons, in the Pacific. Basically, hurricanes and typhoons form over water and are huge, while tornados form over land and are much smaller in —size. A tornado is a violent windstorm characterised by a twisting, funnel-shaped cloud. In the United States, twister is used as a a colloquial term for tornado.

When does resonance occur?

Resonance occurs when two or more objects naturally vibrate at the same frequency and the sound produced by one object, causes the other to vibrate. Strings or air columns tuned to vibrate at particular frequencies result in the generation of music. Resonance’s can be destructive too. Making individual parts resonate can damage Bridges. This happens when a strong wind blows or a mechanized army convoy passes over it.

Do you know what happens when anti particles clash?

Every elementary particle is known to have an anti particle with opposite properties. Whenever the two meet, they annihilate each other and give out energy twice the mass of the particle.

Who discovered piezo-electric effect?

Modern kitchens are equipped with piezo-lighters. Certain substances produce currents when they are subjected to pressure. Pierre Curie, husband of Marie and co-discoverer of radium, was the one who discovered piezoelectricity.

What is inertia?

It is the property of a body to stay in a state of rest or uniform motion unless acted upon by an external agency. It is believed that the mass of a body is the total measure of its inertia. Scientists are conducting experiments    to    distinguish between inertial man and gravitational mass.

Who devised the precise nature of planetary motion?

Johannes Kepler, the German astronomer, devised major laws of planetary motion. After 17 years of observation, Kepler found that orbits, of planets around the sun are ellipses and not circles.

Why are quarks important?

“Three quarks to muster mark,” said James Joyce. Indeed, three quarks fuse together to form nucleons: Protons and neutrons that make the atomic nucleus. Quarks are believed to be the basic building blocks of matter.

Where are transuranic elements found?

Transuranic elements are not found in nature but have been created artificially in the laboratory. They represent atomic numbers 93 to 109, listed after the last stable element, uranium.

In what way is the name de broglie connected with wavelength?

In modern physics, wave-particle duality of the microscopic world continues to battle the scientists. Light is made of waves but it can also be described as consisting of tiny particles called photons. A sub-atomic particle   can be described as having wave properties. De Broglie, a French physicist, was the first to give a formula for the “wavelength” of the particle.

Why the robot is named so?

The word originates in the Slavic “Robota7, meaning compulsory work. Robots are used in hazardous environments. Now robots have also been powered by artificial intelligence.

What is parafilax?

Parallax is the apparent displacement of an astronomical object due to the change in the field of the observers. The very fact that we observe stars from the surface of the earth instead of its center causes geocentric parallax while heliocentric   parallax   occurs because the observation is carried out from the earth and not from the sun. In modern photography, this term is used to describe the difference between the view of an object through the lens of the camera and one seen through a separate viewfinder.

Which is the biggest missile test centre in the world?

Poker Flat Research Range (PFRR) is the world’s largest, land-based rocket range. It has a chain of downrange flight monitoring, observing and recovery stations from inland Alaska to Spitzbergen in the Arctic Ocean. Poker Flat is a sounding rocket launch facility 30 miles northeast of Fairbanks used for auroral and middle to upper atmospheric research. The Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska, Fairbanks, operates it.

How do forests help to prevent floods?

ONE of the major reasons for floods is erosion of soil from the area near the banks of the river. F’orests have a dense cluster of trees in them. The roots of the trees hold on to the soil and prevent the erosion. It is therefore important that trees should not be cut indiscriminately, particularly near the banks of the rivers.

Why are nobel prizes given only in norway and not in any other country?

THE Nobel prizes were founded by Alfred Nobel,    Norwegian chemist, engineer and industrialist.

Why is some space left between rails on the railway track?

YOU must have learnt in school that heat expands and cold contracts. This means that as a result of heat, all bodies expand. (There are rare exfor this expansion, a little space is left between rails.

How is the instrument for measuring the intensity of earthquakes calibrated?

`The Richter scale is used to measure the magnitude of an earthquake. Magnitude is a measure of an earthquake’s size, but rather than being a direct measure of the intensity of the ground shaking, it is a reflection of the strength of the seismic sound waves emitted by the earthquake, a phenomenon that can be detected at great distances from the earthquake’s epicentre. Because an earthquake’s magnitude can be determined solely

by routine measurements made by seismometers, magnitude has become an important measurement commonly recorded on seismograms. The scale is logarithmic — this means that a factor-of-10 difference in actual earthquake energy corresponds to a difference of one whole number on the scale.

What are sunspots?

The dark spots on the surface of the sun are called sunspots. These areas are locations for sudden changes in the magnetic environment or the ‘magnetic storms’. They appear darker in contrast to the surrounding areas, hence, the name.

Why is a tractor’s exhaust pipe bent upwards?

As the exhaust gases of an automobile are hot and tend to rise upwards, an upward bending pipe is the most natural shape, hi a tractor, the driver’s seat is directly behind the engine and usually open. So, a backward-bending exhaust pipe will throw the exhaust gases directly at the driver. The rear part of a tractor is broader than its engine. Even a sideways-bent exhaust pipe will have the same effect. As a tractor has various agricultural attachments and a trailer, the exhaust pipe cannot be extended behind its rear tyres from below its chassis. A tractor works mainly on rough terrain which could damage an exhaust pipe protruding downward from the chassis.

What is fuel cell technology?

Fuel cell technology uses the fuel cell, an electrochemical energy conversion device. A fuel cell converts hydrogen and oxygen into water, and in the process it produces electricity With a fuel cell, chemicals constantly flow into the cell so it never goes dead — as long as there, is a flow of chemicals into the cell, the electricity flows out of the cell. Most fuel cells in use today use hydrogen and oxygen as the chemicals.

What is the cause of delay in satellite communications?

The communication satellites are normally geosynchronous. In other words, these satellites have the same period of revolution as that of the earth — 24 hours. To attain this, the satellite is launched at an altitude of 36,000 kms from the earth. The messages, sent by means of radio waves, travel this distance to and fro. Radio waves are transmitted at the speed of light, about 3 lakh kms per second. Therefore, approximately, one quarter of a second is lost in traversing the distance between the earth and the satellite.

What contribution did luis alvarez make to modern science?

This American physicist developed the linear accelerator in 1946 for which he won the Nobel Prize in 1968. He and his son, Walter, first proposed that massive extinctions around the Jurassic — including that of dinosaurs, were caused by the impact of a large space object.

What is speleology?

It is the science that explores and studies caves found under the earth’s surface.

What is wave-particle duality?

In classical physics, all the physical phenomena concerning light, viz. reflection from a glazed surface, refraction through a prism, interference when two or more sources of light were put together and diffraction, the bending of light along edge of an object, could be explained with the wave theory. But this description does not hold for the microscopic world. In modern physics, light is made of discrete packets of energy.

What is the faraday cage?

The Faraday Cage, also known as Faraday Shield or Screen, is a network of parallel wires connected to a common conductor at one end to provide electrostatic shielding without affecting electromagnetic waves. The common conductor is usually grounded. It attenuates an electrostatic field, designed to prevent the passage of electromagnetic waves, either containing them in or excluding them from its interior space. It is named after physicist Michael Faraday, who built the first one in 1836.

What is a pilotless aircraft?

A pilotless aircraft, usually an MAV (micro air vehicle), is one which is programmed to go somewhere or do something on its own, or is a remote controlled aircraft piloted from the ground. Most pilotless aircraft are rather small in size. Pilotless aircraft used for dangerous jobs such as spying or exploring new places with a camera, which transmits the data back to the ground. They can be very useful as many are shot down or crash, and thus saving a real pilot’s life.

Where was india’s first electricity-generating station located?

The 4-5 megawatt hydroelectric power station near Sivasamudram falls of the Cauvery in Karnataka was the first major power station in India. Owned by a few British companies, it was set up by General Electric of the US. It was commissioned in 1902, and its output was mostly meant for the Kolar gold mines, located about 90 miles away much smaller power plants started functioning earlier in different parts of India. The first small hydro power plant, a 130-kilowatt plant, started functioning in 1897 at Darjeeling.

Why is venus the hottest planet even though mercury is closest to the sun?

The degree of hotness of a planet does not depend on as much on closeness to the Sun as on its atmosphere. Carbon dioxide has the tendency to absorb heat, which in turn increases the temperature. Mercury’s atmosphere does not contain carbon dioxide (because of which all the heat is returned to space). Venus contains a high percentage of carbon dioxide due to which it is hottest planet.

Is it true that the sahara desert expands by half a mile south of every year?

In the 1970s and 1980s, it was reported that the Sahara desert was expanding southward at a rate of 5 kms per year. But during the last decade USAs NOAA meteorological satellite observed that this ‘desertification’ was a myth. It is not so severe as earlier suspected. The deserts reflect much of the incoming solar radiations as compared to land with vegetation (during cloud-free days). Satellites measure this reflected radiations daily, from which the type of land cover or greenness can be inferred. Analysing such data for several years, it was observed that the Sahara was not expanding.

Is it true that the sahara desert extends by half a mile south every year?

It is true that the Sahara desert is expanding, but not just half a mile. It is extending at a rate of 30 miles south per year! Its stretch is engulfing degraded grasslands. Due to the extreme heat, the vegetation of the area is dying out, which results in more desertification. Thus, every year the area of the Sahara desert is increasing and scientists are working out methods to stop or decrease the rapid change. They say that if this continues, the whole of Africa will turn into a desert one day. Global warming is also a big threat in the expansion of the Sahara.

Which is the smallest sub-atomic particle?

The smallest particle is the quark, the basic building block of hadrons. There are two types of hadrons: baryons (three quarks) and mesons (one quark, one antiquark). Protons and the neutrons are stable baryons. There are also leptons, a family of elementary particles that includes electrons, muons, tauons, and neutrinos. Neutrinos were originally believed to have zero mass, but they have been found to have a very tiny mass, smaller than any subatomic particle. Calling someone a ‘hadron head’ is considered an insult among physicists.

What is the kuiper belt?

The Kuiper Belt is disk-shaped belt of billions of small, icy bodies orbiting the Sun beyond the orbit of Neptune, mostly at distances 30-50 times the Earth’s distance from the Sun. Modern computer simulations show the Kuiper Belt to have been strongly influenced by Jupiter and Neptune.

What is a ‘nuclear winter’?

The nuclear winter theory, proposed by scientists in 1983 and later on established by the US National Research Council in 1984, states that if only half of the collective nuclear weapons of Russia and US were to explode, they would release such enormous amount of dust, smoke and soot into the at- mosphere that sunlight would be completely blocked. This would continue till these clouds settled and consequently the earth’s temperature would fall, creating a period of abnormal cold and darkness. A nuclear winter is also believed likely after a nuclear war. Essential life processes like photosynthesis would also be fatally affected, endangering plant and animal life.

Why is a tractor’s exhaust pipe bent upwards?

As the exhaust gases of an automobile are hot and tend to rise upwards, an upward bending pipe is the most natural shape, hi a tractor, the driver’s seat is directly behind the engine and usually open. So, a backward-bending exhaust pipe will throw the exhaust gases directly at the driver. The rear part of a tractor is broader than its engine. Even a sideways-bent exhaust pipe will have the same effect. As a tractor has various agricultural attachments and a trailer, the exhaust pipe cannot be extended behind its rear tyres from below its chassis. A tractor works mainly on rough terrain which could damage an exhaust pipe protruding downward from the chassis.

What is fuel cell technology?

Fuel cell technology uses the fuel cell, an electrochemical energy conversion device. A fuel cell converts hydrogen and oxygen into water, and in the process it produces electricity With a fuel cell, chemicals constantly flow into the cell so it never goes dead — as long as there, is a flow of chemicals into the cell, the electricity flows out of the cell. Most fuel cells in use today use hydrogen and oxygen as the chemicals.

What is the difference between iron and steel?

The difference is percentage of carbon, the main alloy element. Those irons containing less than 2% carbon are known as steels while those containing more than 2% carbon are known as pig iron. Pig iron is obtained from iron pre by processing it with coke in a blast furnace. This pig iron is then further processed to reduce the carbon content in different furnaces to obtain steels. These steels can be then further processed to obtain alloy steels, stainless steels by adding elements such as silicon, manganese, chromium, nickel, etc.

What is crush depth and how is it measured?

Crush or collapse depth is the submerged depth of the ocean at which a submarine will collapse due to the surrounding water pressure. A submarine’s hull is normally constructed of steel or steel alloys to increase the diving depth of submarines. This is normally mathematically calculated; however, it is not always accurate.

What is m-theory?

The String theory is currently the most promising candidate for a unified theory. It describes free particles as vibrations in strings in space and solves the problem of the

incompatibility of the two fundamental theories (GR & QTF). There are, however, five different string theories. The M-Theory is a theory of which all the five string theories are only different aspects. The M-Theory is an 11-dimensional theory that looks 10 dimensional at some points in its space of parameters. Such a theory could have as a fundamental object a membrane as opposed to a string.

What are milankovitch cycles?

The Pleistocene period in earth history, 1.8 million years to about 10,000 years ago, witnessed profound changes in the earth’s climate characterised by repeated glacial and interglacial events. There were as many as 30 glacial intervals during this period. Milutin Milankovitch, a Serbian astronomer and mathematician, calculated in the early 1930s that the orbital parameters of the earth changed with frequencies of roughly 1,000,00 to 20,000 years. These were responsible for variations in the of solar radiations received on the surface thus causing glacial interglacial climatic changes. The exploration of the ocean floor since the 1960 has indeed identified the above periodicities and proved Milankovitch right.

What are milankovitch cycles?

Astronomer Milutin Milankovitch developed the mathematical formulae upon which these orbital variations are based. He hypothesised that when some parts of the cyclic variations are combined and occur at the same time, they are responsible for major changes to the earth’s climate (even ice ages). A 1976 study, published in the journal ‘Science’ examined deep-sea sediment cores and found that Milankovich’s theory corresponded to periods of climate change. Indeed, ice ages had occurred when the earth was going through different stages of orbital variation.

When was the first space shuttle launched?

The first space shuttle Columbia was launched into space on April 12, 1981 and landed on Edward Air Force base, California on April 14, 1981. Officially, it’s called the Space Transportation System (STS) and it was the first reusable spacecraft. These shuttles carry payloads for scientific experiments, etc. 

Which place on earth has never received any rainfall?

The Atacama Desert, spread between the Pacific Ocean and the Andes mountains in northern Chile has not experienced rain in its entire recorded history. Made up of salt

basins, sand and lava flows, it lacks vegetation or animal life. Its landscape is desolate

and moon-like and has been used to simulate the moon’s surface in some experiments. The Quillagua meteorological station located in this desert has recorded an average annual rainfall of only 0.5 mm during 1964-2001.

What are cfcs? How are they responsible for depletion of the ozone layer?

THERE is a layer of ozone in the zone 10 kilometre to 50 kilometre above the surface of the earth. This layer of ozone protects life on earth from the harmful ultraviolet radiation in sunlight. CFC stands for chlorofluorocarbons used in refrigeration, air-conditioning, aerosols, etc. When these gases rise up in the atmosphere and reach the ozone layer they destroy it. Over the past ten years, in particular, the debate has been held again and again on this issue and steps have been taken to correct the situation. Many nations have agreed to discontinue the use and production of chloro-fluro carbons for the purpose of refrigeration or air-conditioning.

I have read that sun will become a red giant after consuming its supply of hydrogen. What will happen to the sun after this phase?

YES, according to astronomers, the sun is about 5 billion years-old; It is expected that the sun mil consume all the hydrogen in it and become a Red Giant. It will be so big then that it will engulf even the planets around it. Then there will be nuclear reactions, involving the vast Supply of Helium in it (formed from Hydrogen) and the heavier elements. As a result it will become a white dwarf, a star of small radius. It is estimated that the radius will be a hundred times smaller than the present radius. Slowly it will lose its luminosity and become a black dwarf. But stop worrying. It will take at least five billion years for this to happen.

Diamond and coal are both carbon. Then why does only diamond shine?

DIAMOND is carbon in its pure form and is made of the same element as coal. But there is a difference. Diamonds are formed at places at least 120 km below the surface of the earth under the enormous pressure of the rocks and the crust above them. It is true that diamonds have been found in levels higher than this, below the surface of the earth. But it is believed they too were originally formed deep below and shifted to higher points due to erosion of the soil or glacial action. There are diamonds of black colour too. They are not used as ‘gems, but they are useful in making cutting tools in industry.

What is there between the earth and mars? 

SURROUNDING the earth is its atmosphere. Then there is space. Again as your spacecraft approaches Mars, it will have to pass through the atmosphere around Mars. Unlike the moon, Mars has an atmosphere.

What is the alternative to petroleum? From where shall we meet our energy requirements when the petroleum resources are exhausted?

DESCRIBED above is one such resource: solar power. Automobiles which^run on batteries, charged by exposing them to sunlight, already exist. You must be aware that nuclear power reactors are also being established all over the world. Many scientists have expressed the possibility of using hydrogen as a fuel. We are yet to find a cheap way of separating hydrogen from water, which has two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen in its molecule. In Holland and Denmark, power is being produced from windmills. In countries like. Japan, power is being produced on a small scale from tidal waves. Let us hope that tomorrow’s generation will learn how to meet its requirements of power.

Why is there no gravitational force on the moon?

THE moon has gravitational force too. The gravitational force exerted by a body depends on its mass. The gravitational force on the moon is about one sixth the gravitational force of the earth.

What is the mach number?

The Mach number, in aerodynamics and fluid mechanics, is the ratio of the speed of an object through a fluid (gas or liquid) to the speed of sound in the fluid. The Mach number was named after the Austrian physicist and philosopher Ernst Mach. An airplane travelling at less than Mach 1 is travelling at subsonic speeds; at about Mach 1, transonic, or approximately the speed of sound; and greater than Mach 1, at supersonic speeds.

What is a mach number?

Mach number is the ratio of speed of an object to the speed of sound. This physical quantity is named after Austrian physicist Ernst Mach who discovered that airflow becomes disturbed at the speed of sound.                                                                                                              

What is the chandrashekar limit?

The maximum limit of 1.44 times the solar mass (or sun’s mass) of a star, to end its life as a white dwarf star, is known as the Chandrashekar Limit. This is the basic principle to determine the future of a star after the red giant phase. The stars with a mass more than 1.44 times the solar mass go through supernova explosions and end their lives as neutron stars or black holes. This limit was discovered by Indian astrophysicist S

Chandrashekar and hence it has been named after him.

What is planetary albedo?

Planetary albedo is the fraction of the incoming light reflected from a surface. A bright surface, such as ice or snow, has a very high albedo (close to 1, which would represent total reflection), whereas a dark surface, such as coal or soot, has a very low. albedo (close to 0, which would represent complete absorption). In the solar system, the Moon, which has a bare, rocky surface, has an average albedo of 0.12 (reflects 12 per cent of the light hitting it). The Earth, which is partly cloud-covered, has an average albedo of 0.37, while the albedo of Venus, which is completely cloud-covered, is O.65.

What is the chandrasekhar limit?

In the 1930s, Subramanya Chandrasekhar, now recognised as the founder of relativistic astrophysics, address the important question: What happens to a star once it has burnt all its nuclear fuel? Chadrasekhar’s answer was that it depends on the mass of the burnt core left behind. If the mass of this core (mind you, not the mass of the shining star) is less than 1.4 times the mass of the sun, the core will retire as a white dwarf star. Immediately above this limit, say up to three times the solar mass, the core will become a neutron star. If the mass of the core is still higher, a black hole will be formed. In an ordinary shining star, the force of gravitation is balanced by nuclear reactions. In white dwarf and neutron stars, by complex quantum forces. In a black hole, gravitation dominates. For this pioneering work Chandrasekhar belatedly received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1983.

How many persons have set foot on the moon?

Only twelve people have walked oh the Moon, each on one mission only. Nobody has walked on the lunar surface since 1972. The lucky astronauts are: Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin, Charles Conrad, Alan Bean, Alan Shepard, Edgar Mitchell, David Scott, James Irwin, John Young, Charles Duke, Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt.

Is a ray of light visible in vacuum?

No, rays of light cannot be seen in vacuum. When a ray of light enters an enclosed dark room through an opening, light is scattered by dust particles suspended in the air and thus we see the path of the ray Actually we see the dust particles falling substance which can scatter the light. This explains the darkness in space though there are many light sources. We can see only the light sources and the objects, which fall in the path of rays.

On what principle does an altimeter work?

There are basically two types of altimeters— pressure altimeters and radio altimeters. Pressure altimeters are aneroid barometers calibrated to indicate altitude instead of pressure. It is based on the principle of drop of atmospheric pressure with gain of height. The corrugated capsules inside the casing expand with gain of height. This expansion is magnified with the help of gears and levers to move the indicator over the dial. The mean sea level pressure is 1013.2 millibars or 29.92 inches of mercury which is taken as zero altitude and there is drop of 1 millibar for every 32 feet (approximately) gain of height. The instrument is calibrated accordingly to indicate loss/ gain of pressure in terms of height gained or lost. Depending on the pressure setting or datum, the instrument reads altitude (above MSL) or absolute altitude height (above ground level — AGL). A radio altimeter is a radar aid, which is effective only from 20 ft to 2,500 ft. It is basically used as a ground proximity warning system in mountainous terrain.

What are pseudohalogens?

Pseudohalogens are groups formed by combination of two or more P block elements (in the periodic table) with a unit negative charge e.g. CN- (CN Minus) cyanide group a combination of carbon and nitrogen with nonnegative charge. They are called pseudohalogens as they form covalent compounds, complexes similar to the halogens, the 17th group elements in the periodic table. They differ from halogens as they are able to polymerise unlike halogens and their complexes are not paramagnetic.

How does the international space station manage its water and oxygen needs?

The ISS’s Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) helps in water and oxygen management for the astronauts. The ECLSS Water Recycling System (WRS) reclaims waste water from the shuttle’s fuel cells, from urine, from oral hygiene and hand washing, and by condensing humidity from the air. Without such careful recycling, 40,000 pounds per year of water from the Earth would be required to resupply a minimum of four crewmembers for the life of the station. The primary source of oxygen is water electrolysis, followed by oxygen in a pressurised storage tank. Hydrogen left over from splitting water is vented into space. In ECLSS hardware racks, there is a machine that combines the hydrogen with excess carbon dioxide from the air in a chemical reaction that produces water and methane.

How is zero gravity created on earth?

Zero gravity conditions result in weightlessness and the body begins to float in an enclosed space. A more precise term is microgravity or reduced gravity NASA’s C-9B aircraft and Zero Gravity Corporation’s modified Boeing 727 create these conditions by flying in long, parabolic arcs. By changing the flight path, they are able to create different values of g-force and therefore varying degrees of apparent gravity. More individuals are experiencing these conditions in preparation for space tourism or for adventure.

What is the name of the tenth planet?

The tenth planet in the outer solar system was discovered recently. Right now, it’s about 97 times further from the sun than the Earth and it’s the farthest-known object in the solar system. Mike Brown (California Institute of Technology) along with colleagues Chad Trujillo (Gemini Observatory, Hawaii) and David Rabinowitz (Yale University) discovered it. It goes under the temporary name of 2003UB313; a new name has been proposed to the International Astronomical Union.

What effect do ocean currents have on the earth’s weather?

Ocean water and currents affect the climate. Because it takes far more energy to change the temperature of water than land or air, water warms up and cools off much more slowly than either. As a result, inland climates are subject to more extreme temperature ranges than coastal climates, which are insulated by nearby water. The ocean’s surface layer, so surface currents move a lot of heat, absorbs over half the heat that reaches the earth from the sun. Currents that originate near the equator are warm; currents that flow from the poles are cold.

Why do stars twinkle at night?

Stars seem to twinkle or change their brightness all the time. In fact, most stars shine with a steady light. The movement of air (sometimes called turbulence) in the Earth’s atmosphere causes the starlight to get slightly bent as it travels from the distant star through the atmosphere to us on the ground. Some of the light reaches us directly but some gets bent slightly. This gives the illusion of twinkling. Stars closer to the horizon appear to twinkle more than others. This is because the atmosphere is a lot denser near the horizon than between the Earth and a star higher in the sky.

How do we know about the existence of planets millions of miles away from us?

Planets like Pluto in the outer reaches of our solar system can be viewed and photographed by powerful optical telescopes. Distant extra-solar planets, many light years away from our Sun, cannot be captured even by high resolution telescopes. Big planets orbiting close to a star can exercise a very small gravitational pull on the parent star. This causes a minute wobble in the rotation of the parent star which can be detected by highly sensitive spectroscope monitors. The existence of the planet can thus be only indirectly visualized.

How do astronauts communicate in space?

Sound cannot travel through the vacuum of space, but visible light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation can, one of which is radio. Astronauts have devices in their helmets, which transfer the sound waves from their voices into radio waves and transmit them to the ground (or other astronauts in space). This is how a radio at home works — radio waves are often thought to be a form of sound but they are not sound waves. They are a form of electromagnetic radiation, analogous to visible light, and therefore can propagate through vacuum. These are then transformed into sound.  

How is zero gravity simulated?

Simulation of zero gravity while still within the pull of the earth’s gravity is achieved in a similar manner to that of a man-made satellite. When a body moves in a circular path, it experiences centrifugal force acting on it. This force points radially outwards and depends on both the speed and the radius of trajectory. Given this factor, if a plane flies in a circular arc trajectory, then passengers experience a centrifugal force pointing away from the earth. At a certain velocity, this force exactly counterbalances gravity, and passengers experience weightlessness or zero gravity.

How many satellites are currently revolving, around the earth?                      

Although anything in the Earth’s orbit is technically called a satellite, the term is typically used to describe a useful object placed in orbit purposely to perform some specific mission or task. Approximately 23,000 items of space junk objects that were inadvertently placed in orbit or have outlived their usefulness are floating above the Earth. The actual number varies depending on which agency is counting. Pay loads that go into the wrong orbit, satellites with run-down batteries, and leftover rocket boosters all contribute to the count. This count is almost 26,000.

Why do some people have ‘red eye’ in photographs?

Light, usually from a camera flash, enters the subject’s eyes and reflects it back into the lens. The red colour comes from the colouration of the retina which is lined with blood vessels. To prevent ‘red eye’, the feedback chain of light should be interrupted. The most effective way is to use indirect or off-camera lighting, which causes reflection from the eye to veer away from “^the lens. Another cure is to reduce the size of the pupils of your subject’s eyes, effectively preventing the bounce-back syndrome. This is why some camera models fire one or more pre-flashes before taking a picture; the smaller flashes are meant to adjust the eyes to bright light, decreasing the pupil size.

What is the composition of sand?

Sand is a non-cohesive, loose granular material which comes from rocks as a result of attrition of bigger rock pieces by water or wind in favourable weather conditions. The composition of sand depends   on   the   parent rock; the most common minerals being silica and feldspar. Less common minerals are iron. Silica comes in the form of quartz and feldspar consists of plagioclase. Additional mineral fragments are rare and include Muscovite, chlorite, epidote, garnet and zircon. Some deposits of sand may contain magnetite, glauconite or gypsum. Sands rich in magnetite are dark in colour, while those rich in gypsum have a green tinge.

What’s the origin of the word monsoon?

The word monsoon comes from the Arabic word mausim, which means weather. Owing to the yearly appearance of torrential rain, indicating a marked shift in weather, mausim gradually became monsoon.

What are fullerenes?

Fullerenes are one of the three allotropes (same element in two or more forms) of carbon. The other two are diamond and graphite. Scientists Kroto, Smalley and Curl discovered fullerenes in Rice University in September 1985. One of the fullerenes — Buckminsterfullerene — consists of 60 carbon atoms linked together to form an almost spherical C60 molecule of joined hexagons (20) and pentagons (12). The bonds have the same arrangement as the panels on a football. Fullerenes can be prepared by passing an electric discharge through graphite rods in an atmosphere of helium. It is now known that a buckminsterfullerene is likely to be formed in sooty flames.

What is microlensing?

According to Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity, light possesses mass. When light passes close to a massive object, it is attracted towards it and its direction changes towards it. Therefore, when an astronomical body is between the earth and another bigger, more distant astronomical object, the light coming towards the earth from the distant body gets focused on the earth because of the gravitational attraction of the intermediate body This is somewhat similar to focusing light from the sun on a piece of paper through a lens, and hence called astronomical microlensing. Astronomers use microlensing in their search for new planets, and to observe distant, faint objects and neutron stars.

What is water memory? ,

Water is said to have the power of memory — if certain chemicals are dissolved in water and then completely removed through a chemical process, the water may still retain some properties of the dissolved chemicals. Although this concept seems difficult to accept or comprehend, French scientist Jacques Benveniste allegedly proved it. However, other scientist could never replicate this experiment.

What is the difference between second generation and third generation technology?

The main difference between second generation (2G) and third generation (3G) technology is data. 2G services were developed with mostly voice services in mind, but are capable of providing relatively slow (14.4kbps) speed data services. Most US service providers offer some data services, including limited wireless Internet access. For 3G, the data speeds are expected to be much higher; up to 2 mbps for fixed applications and 384 kbps for mobile applications. This will support advanced features including audio and video streaming, remote access to company databases, and a wider variety of entertainment and information services. 3G will also support a range of devices, including phones, personal digital assistants, and laptop computers.

What is the significance of red rain?

Five years ago, scarlet rainfall was reported in a town called Chenganacherry in Kerala’s Kottayam district. Research scientists at the Mahatma Gandhi University in Kerala investigated this peculiar phenomenon and discovered that the rain contained cell-like particles, which they claim, are not from Earth but from outer space. The scientists conjecture that a comet that exploded over the sky caused the airburst that created the red rain

Why horse power is called so?

When the steam engine began to do the work of horses in the mines during the early 1800s, the mine owners began to ask how many horses an engine would replace. James Watt, who invented steam engines, figured out a mathematical way to equate horses to engine power. Thus the term horsepower was invented. Watt measured the capability of a big horse to pull a load and found it could pull a weight of 150-pounds while walking at 2.5 miles per hour. This works out to 33,000 foot-pounds per minute or 550 foot-pounds per second. 

What is liquid oxygen used for?  

Mixed with finely divided carbon, liquid oxygen has been used as a substitute for dynamite in coal mining. It has been extensively used as an oxidiser for fuel in biliquid propellants for rockets and space shuttles, as it provides a much better and controlled thrust. Liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen along with solid boosters are used for space shuttles. Saturn Booster Rockets used kerosene and liquid oxygen for initial stages and liquid hydrogen and l.iquid oxygen for higher stages. Proton (a Russian rocket) used kerosene and liquid oxygen as a propellant. Liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen fuel cells are used in rockets and they produce only water as the by-product, which when mixed with minerals is used by astronauts for drinking purposes.                

Who invented the escalator? 

The basic mechanism of an escalator f was. first invented by Jess W Reno of ‘the US in 1881. It was used mainly for riding on masts of wooden or iron poles in ships to fasten ropes or belts to support the sails. The name ‘escalator’ was applied to a moving stairway in 1900and first shown in a Paris exhibition. Charles Seeberger, with a company named Otis Elevator Company, built the first commercial escalator.

Why is nasa’s dawn mission significant?

The Dawn Mission is important because it will study Ceres and Vesta, two of our solar system’s largest asteroids in the belt between Mars and Jupiter. The spacecraft is scheduled for launch in July 2007 and will capture images of the surface of these asteroids and probe the composition, density and magnetism. The project almost got scuttled because of cost considerations but got a fresh lease of life recently

How does the ground proximity warning system in an aircraft work?

Ground Proximity Warning System (GPWS) is designed to alert pilots if their aircraft is in immediate danger of Hying into the ground. Another common name is Ground Collision Warning System. Don Bateman is credited with inventing GPWS. This system monitors an aircraft’s height above the ground as determined by the radio altimeter. A computer tracks these readings, calculates trends, and warns the captain with visual and audio messages if the aircraft exceeds certain thresholds or defined flying configurations also known as modes. The modes are: excessive descent rate, excessive .terrain closure rate, altitude loss after take-off, unsafe terrain clearance and excessive deviation below glidescope. Corrective action is then taken.

What is a pyrometer?

A pyrometer, invented by Josiah Wedgwood, is an instrument which measures relatively high temperatures, like that of a furnace. Many pyrometers work by measuring the radiation from the body whose temperature is to be measured. There is another device known as the optical pyrometer. It measures the temperature of glowing bodies by comparing them visually with an incandescent filament of known temperature. Another type is the resistance pyrometer in which a fine wire is in contact with the object and its temperature is determined by measuring its electrical resistance.

What is white coal?

White coal is a form of fuel produced by drying chopped wood over a fire. It differs from charcoal which is carbonised wood White coal was used in England to smelt lead ore from the mid-16th to the late 17th centuries. It produces more heat than but less than charcoal and thus prevents lead evaporating. White coal was produced in distinctive circular pits with a channel, known as Q-pits They are frequently found in the woods 7f South Yorkshire.

What is the meaning of geostationary satellite?

A geostationary satellite means a satellite, which moves in space at the same speed and in the same direction as the earth. As a result, its position is fixed in relation to any spot on the earth.

If the sun is a star, why doesn’t it twinkle?

THE sun is an ordinary star. There are stars many times bigger than the sun. The stars that you see twinkling are so far away, that the light from them takes thousands of years to reach us. Even the light from the nearest star, Proxima Centauri, takes about three to four years to reach us. The light from the stars seems to twinkle because it comes through the constantly moving air currents around the earth. The sun does not twinkle because it is very close to us —just about 150 million kilometres away.

How did the ozone layer get depleted?

THE ozone layer got depleted because of chemicals released into the atmosphere by man, particularly chlorofluoro carbons used in the refrigeration industry and air conditioners.

What is a transducer?

A transducer is a contraption by instrumentation engineers to convert a physical action into an equivalent electrical signal.

What is an exothermic reaction?

Exothermic is an adjective pertaining to a chemical change that is accompanied by liberation of energy in the form of heat.

What are conic sections?

In geometry, circle, ellipse, parabola, hyperbola and a pair of straight lines are called conic sections as these geometrical entities can be obtained by slicing a cone.

What is marcodontia?

It is rare case of unusually large teeth found in otherwise normal person.

What is residual stress?

It is a stress in metal, on a microscopic scale, resulting from nonuniform thermal changes and plassic deformation.

What is a gm counter?

GM or Geiger-Mueller Counter is an instrument used in measurement of radioactivity. It is a cylindrical structure filled with inert gas and a central wire maintained at ultra-high voltage. The impinging radiationionises the inert gas and creates a shower a charged particles. This change can be electronic gadgets such as a computer.

Which flower is known as the flower of the night?

The flower of a type of cactus called orchid cactus, (Epiphyllum oxypetallum), is known as the “flower of the night” or the “queen of the night”. This cactus is native to Central and South America. It possesses what appear to be flat leaves, which are actually stems, on which the flower blooms directly In Greek, “epiphyllum” means “upon the leaf”. This cactus flowers once a year, and the flower opens only for one night. When the flower blooms, it fills its surroundings with a strong scent, and hence the name.

What is godeps theorem?

Austrian-born American mathematician Kurt Godel proved that within a rigid logical mathematical system, there are certain questions that can neither be proved nor be disproved on the basis of the axioms of the system. Godel’s theorem, in essence, goes beyond the realm of .

Do you know the meaning of chirality?

If the mirror image of a natural object is different from the object itself, the object is called a chiral / objects. A perfect sphere is not chiral. Scientists are studying basic building blocks of matter to understand the fundamental reason for this amazing property.

Is there anything yellow about the yellow sea?

The Yellow Sea is an arm of the Pacific Ocean that extends inland for about 400 miles between the east coast of China and Korea. The Chinese named this area the Huang Hal (Yellow Sea) because the waters along the banks are a yellow, muddy color. The Huang River carries deposits of yellow earth (huangtu) to the Yellow Sea, which thereby gets its name.

What is black about the black sea?

The deep water of the Black Sea is supposed to be darker than the water of a normal sea, because the Black Sea has rich concentration of micro algae. Further, the Black Sea was called so in olden times, perhaps because it was very stormy and hence difficult to navigate. It was considered an inhospitable sea because barbarians occupied its shores. According to another theory, the Black Sea is called so because it is on the northern side of the Mediterranean Sea, and in ancient times the colour black was used in the compass to mark north.

Is there anything red about red sea?

The Red Sea is not actually red in colour. The Red Sea, located between the African coast and Saudi Arabia, contains a type of algae called Trichodesmium eythraeum. As they die, their remains end up on the ocean floor. THEIR COLOUR CHANGES TO REDDISH-BROWN AND THIS GIVES THE SEA A ‘RED’ COLOUR.

What’s unique about space vehicle orion?

Orion is the new moonship that NASA plans to develop. This was revealed when US astronaut Jeff Williams inadvertently mentioned the name of the vehicle while taping a message for a space agency when floating 354 kms above the earth in the International Space Station. It was transmitted by accident over space-to-ground radio.

What is a puffer machine?

A puffer machine, formally named an explosives detection trace portal, is a security device that detects explosives at airports and other sensitive facilities. The machine operates by releasing multiple puffs of air at a passenger standing upright in the machine. The cool air blasts are felt by the passenger, but are not painful or otherwise damaging. The purpose of the series of air blasts is to release microscopic particles into the air, such as gunpowder or residue from bomb-making materials, which would then be detected by the machine. If such particles are suspected, the passenger may be retained for further screening. The entire process takes approximately 15 seconds.