Diagnosing and Treating Acid Reflux in Children

Every year millions of adults suffer the affects of gastro esophageal reflux disease or GERD for short. But what most people don’t realize is that acid reflux in children is also a very common problem. Just like an adult if a child’s GERD is left untreated a whole multitude of problems can occur, including esophageal damage, trouble breathing, larynx damage, and an increased chance of cancer of the esophagus.

The first step to diagnosing acid reflux in a child is recognizing the symptoms of this disease. One of the first signs may be a child who has difficulty eating or swallowing, complaining of pain when doing so. They may also exhibit the signs of slow or stunted growth because of a lack of nutrition. Vomiting may also be present in a child with acid reflux as well as projectile vomiting. The thing to watch for with throwing up and children who have GERD is a vomit with a green bile look to it, or an appearance like that of coffee grounds or blood.  If a child has any of these types of symptoms on a consistent basis a trip to the pediatrician is in order.

The diagnosing of acid reflux in a child begins with a description of the symptoms. Most doctors will be able to make an accurate diagnosis from this alone but depending on the severity of the symptoms and the risk of complications the doctor may order some more in depth diagnostic tests be done.

The most common test is the barium x-ray image test. By drinking barium an x-ray can be taken of the upper GI tract. This gives a detailed image of the esophagus and stomach helping a doctor to make a more accurate diagnosis. Another more invasive test is an Endoscopy in which a thin probe with a light and camera on the end is snaked down the throat and into the stomach. This gives the doctor a first hand view of any damage or underlying conditions that may be causing the acid reflux. This type of test does require general anesthesia and is usually done in a hospital.

The first recommendation your pediatrician will probably make is a change in diet for your child with acid reflux. This will not only involve avoiding the known foods that are known to set of symptoms but also eating smaller meals and avoiding any foods a good 2 to 3 hours before bed. This can be hard for a child or young adolescent because many of the foods they need to avoid are the ones they like best.

When dietary changes do not have the desired effect then your child’s doctor may suggest an over the counter medication or write a prescription for a proton pump inhibitor. These drugs work by controlling how much stomach acid the body produces.

Most children who suffer from acid reflux get it when they are babies and simply outgrow it as they travel towards adulthood. Even though this is the case it is still important to have any case of acid reflux in children properly diagnosed and treated by a pediatrician. The long term complications of not getting GERD properly treated can lead to a lifetime of discomfort, pain, and possible life threatening disease.

Heart Diseases: Statistical Comparison between US and Africa

Cardiomyopathy is a rare heart muscle disease over the world, but not in Africa where it is one of the major causes of heart failure, according to experts that reviewed all available cardiomyopathy studies performed in Africa, along with all the information about the causes and types of heart muscle disease in Africa, where 10 per cent of the world's population lives.

A 10 per cent to 17 per cent of cardiac problems found through autopsies in South Africa and Uganda, and 17 per cent to 48 per cent of heart failure diagnoses in many parts of Africa are due to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), which is an enlargement of the entire heart, explain researchers.

In the United States, 4 to 8 per 100,000 people are affected by DCM, but African overall incidence is unknown, because the corresponding studies have not been made yet.

Researchers' findings show that Peripartum cardiomyopathy has a very high incidence throughout Africa and Nigeria. This illness can cause heart failure and it develops between the last month of pregnancy and the first five months after childbirth.
Peripartum cardiomyopathy incidence in the US is 1 in 15,000 deliveries; meanwhile the incidence in South Africa is 1 in 1,000 cases.

DCM is caused by various factors, under generally accepted African theory. These include untreated high blood pressure, infective and toxic agents, inappropriate immunologic reactions, nutritional deficiencies, and genetic factors.

According to experts, it is important to do more research to understand the underlying reasons for Africa's high cardiomyopathy rate, and prevent or reduce it.

Tuberculosis – Symptoms and Cures

A common and contagious disease Tuberculosis (TB) spreads through the air like a common cold. While tuberculosis mostly attacks the lungs it can also affect the lymphatic system, circulatory system, central nervous system, the bones, joints and even the skin. About one third of the world's population currently is infected by TB. In this disease, latent infection without symptoms is most common. If left untreated, this disease can become fatal.

There are 3 important things to be followed in the recovery process:

The treatment procedure must include many drugs to which the organisms are susceptible.

Regular medication is necessary for speedy recovery.

Therapy must continue for a sufficient amount of time.

Most of the Tb cases are curable, but the medicines must not be stopped half way and should be continued for the prescribed period. If discontinued in between patients can develop drug resistant TB which is very difficult to cure.

Current Tuberculosis Cure

The most common medications used to treat active TB include:

Isoniazid (INH)
Rifampin (RIF)
Ethambutol
Pyrazinamide.

The most common drug used for TB is Isoniazid (INH). This drug is fairly inexpensive, effective and easy to take. In conjunction with other drugs, this drug is very effective against TB. INH preventive treatment is advised for those individuals who having a tuberculin skin test that changed from negative to positive within the past two years, those who have been in close touch with a person having infectious tuberculosis, a positive skin test reaction and a special medical condition such as HIV infection or AIDS etc. Even if testing shows that the patient is infected with an isoniazid-resistant strain, this drug is continued as some organisms are yet to be sensitive. Two more drugs to which the organisms are likely to be sensitive will also be incorporated into the regimen.

The starting stage of treatment is very crucial in Tb treatment for preventing drug resistance and for better results. Primary or acquired drug resistance can be the case with TB treatment. Primary resistance happens in patients who have had no history of antimycobacterial treatment. Those who have been treated in the past get acquired resistance which usually occurs as a result of incorrect prescribing.

As majority of the people in the developing world do not have access to TB drugs, it leads to more fatalities. Strains of tuberculosis develop due to improper consumption of drugs which then become resistant to treatment. This becomes very difficult to cure and in this case patients have to continue treatment for at least 2 years.

Disclaimer: The contents of this article are for informational purposes only. We aim to be as accurate as possible, but there may be some unintentional omission of information. The content is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your doctor or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding your medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on within this article.

Ten Kinds of Food Which May Cause Poisoning in Summer

Introduction: during the hot summer, people are very susceptible to food poisoning, which will cause serious damage on their body. As a result, you should pay great attention to the diet in summer. In the following section, we are going to introduce ten kinds of food, which may easily cause food poisoning in summer. Therefore, you should be careful to these foods in daily diet.

1. Unrooted bean sprouts:
In the process of production, farmers always use herbicide to prevent the growth of the root of bean sprouts, while herbicide contains some harmful chemical substances which may cause cancer, deformity, and mutation.

2. Germinant green potato:
Germinant green potato contains a high content of solanen, which may cause nausea, vomiting, and other symptoms of food poisoning after eating.

3. Green tomato:
Unripe green tomato also contains the toxic substance solanen, which is likely to cause food poisoning after eating.

4. Fresh daylily:
Fresh daylily contains a kind of toxic substance–colchicine, which can cause dry throat, stomach heartburn, hematuria and other poisoning symptoms.

5. Broad beans:
Some people are allergic to broad beans. After they eat broad beans, they may suffer from allergic hemolytic syndrome, causing muscle weakness, anemia and other symptoms.

6. Discolored laver:
Discoloured laver can secrete some toxic substances, which will contaminate laver and make its color become bluish violet. It will cause food poisoning and bring serious harm on the body after eating.

7. Rotten cabbage:
Rotten cabbage contains nitrite, which will react with human blood and form methemoglobin, thus making the blood lose the function of carrying oxygen and then lead to hypoxia and poisoning. This will make people suffer from dizziness, palpitation, vomiting, and so on. If it is severe, it may even cause unconsciousness, convulsion, shortness of breath, and may even threaten human life.

8. Sweet potato with black spots on it:
If there are some black spot on the sweet potato, this is caused by the infection of bacteria. It may cause food poisoning after eating.

9. Yellow tremella:
If the tremella become yellow, it is contaminated by flavobacterium, which may cause dizziness, stomachache, diarrhea, and other poisoning symptoms.

10. Uncooked string beans:
Raw string beans contain saponins and hemaglutinin. Saponins will cause strong stimulation on human gastrointestinal tract, which not only can lead to hemorrhagic inflammation, but may also dissolve the red blood cells. While hemaglutinin may agglutinate the red blood cells, and cause poisoning after eating.

Start Preparing Your Online Marketing Plan for 2017

It’s a brand new year, which means it’s time to go over your online marketing plan to make much-needed changes. You can use business development consulting to help analyze and evolve your strategies as well. Having a team of experts is key if you want your marketing to succeed. This includes having professional SEO service providers and content managers.

Besides having the right people on your team, you need to ensure your methods are up to par. Knowing what works and what doesn’t is essential, and another reason consulting with a business development expert is recommended. You don’t want to continue on making the same marketing mistakes that you were making last year. However, the only way to avoid this is to identify what’s wrong.

Marketing is all about enhancing your brand and growing your business. Here’s how you can do just that.

Focus On Generating New Business

Choosing an area to focus your marketing efforts on can be difficult. While retaining customers is a must for growth, so is obtaining new business. If there’s anything you should focus on in 2017, it’s finding ways to bring in new customers.

There are different tactics your company can use to increase your reach, such as by building your reputation, using PPC management services and improving your web design and functionality. You can work in tandem with an SEO service to put together a branding strategy that will engage your audience.

Set Goals and Budgets

Once you’ve created a focus for your marketing efforts in 2017, it’s time to start setting goals. Your goals will help you to determine what your budget will be. Obviously, your budget for PPC marketing would be different than a budget being set for content marketing. Knowing your goals and the tactics used will help you to determine your spend.

It’s important to include customer value in the formula when calculating your budget. For example, if your customers typically spend about $1,000 annually on your products and the lifetime of customers is five years, then $5,000 is the lifetime value of your customers.

The idea is to identify how many new customers you need to obtain in order to make a return on investment from your marketing campaigns. If you’re spending more than you’re getting back, then there’s something wrong.

Be realistic in your expectations as well. If gaining 100 new customers in 2017 is out of reach, then lower your goals. It’s better to be modest and exceed expectations than to underachieve.

Putting Together Your Campaigns

You’re goals and budgets are set, now it’s time to start planning your campaigns. The good news is that you can use a variety of methods to get word out about your brand and products. Here are some of the things you want to include in your online marketing strategy:

  • Social media: This definitely needs to be in your plan. It helps to build engagement and spread word about your brand.
  • SEO: If people can find your web site in search engines, then there’s a higher chance of folks buying from your site.
  • Email marketing: Hopefully, you’re building a list. If not, you can create a lead magnet to help convince people to give you their name and email address. Use your email campaigns to connect with customers and promote to them. Just make sure all of your emails aren’t promotional.

Your content marketing absolutely must be on par. If it takes hiring a professional service to get that, then do so. If needed, try consulting with a business development professional about your marketing plan to see if it is valid for reaching your goals.

Tumor Facts – Can Benign Tumors Become Malignant?

First of all, it is important to understand the difference between a benign tumor, and a malignant tumor, and what it actually means to a cancer sufferer – as both have a significant bearing on the prognosis (life-expectancy) of a cancer patient. And, although both do have certain similarities, they have one major significant difference (the difference between life and death at a late-stage development).

Benign tumors – are not usually life-threatening, and are more of a nuisance than anything else (benign tumors are unlikely to cause the fatality of a patient as they do NOT have the ability to metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body. The cells of a benign tumor manufacture chemical adhesion (sticky) molecules which allow the cells to stick together, thus containing the tumor to one local site (the site of origin).

Malignant tumors – on the other-hand, DO have the ability to metastasize to other parts of the body: locally, via the bloodstream, or through the lymphatic system. This is due to the malignant tumor cells not being able to produce the same stickiness, as no chemical adhesion molecules are produced. Because of the lack of these molecules – cells easily breakaway from the main tumor (metastasis).

Can benign tumors become malignant?

Under normal circumstances, a benign tumor CANNOT become malignant. However, there exists a condition which falls between both benign and malignant (pre-cancerous). Pre-cancerous, is where a certain tumor may have the potential to become malignant; although, no actual uncontrollable cell growth is present as yet. Therefore, a pre-cancerous tumor is not actually life-threatening until this uncontrolled cell growth has taken place (if it takes place), and until the process from pre-cancerous – cancerous (malignant) is complete.

Benign, Pre-cancerous, and Malignant recap:

  • Benign is non-cancerous (not life-threatening) and usually responds well to treatment.
  • Pre-cancerous is non-cancerous (not life-threatening) and usually responds well to treatment (if deemed necessary), until such times when the tumor completes its process to become malignant (life-threatening). However, pre-cancerous tumors do not always transform into life-threatening malignant growths.
  • Malignant is cancerous (life-threatening) with the ability to metastasize to other parts of the body, and is more difficult to respond to treatment (sometimes little or no response will be the case (usually resulting in the mortality of a patient).

Corneal Ulcer in Dogs

Corneal ulcers affect the cornea of the transparent and dome-shaped film that covers the eye. A clear, shiny layer it doesn’t have a single blood vessel and allows free passage of light through it. Moreover, the cornea of the eye does contain several nerve fibers that are connected to pain receptors and does feel pain or discomfort. Pet health can get affected due to corneal ulcer, which can also lead to lack of proper eyesight in dogs. The primary job of a cornea is to refract the light that enters the eye and therefore, help the pet’s eye to focus on an object. Made up of many (four) layers, the first layer of the cornea also acts as a protective shield against micro organisms that try to enter and infect the eye.

Corneal Ulcer

Pet health care is compromised when the first layer of the cornea is damaged and can’t protect the eye from bacteria and other micro organisms. Because the eye gets infected, it becomes more painful and pet health is affected by corneal ulcer. Furthermore, corneal ulcer can further damage pet health by invading much deeper and wider through the other corneal layers. Pet health care can be serious cause of concern when the infection reaches the other parts of the pet’s eye and damages it. In some cases, the damage may be irreparable.

Causes Of Corneal Ulcers

Even the smallest abrasion to your pet’s eye can lead to corneal ulcer. Typically, dogs rub their faces with their paws or get scratched on the eye by other animals, or objects such as animals, thorns, grass blades etc. All these can damage pet health and lead to corneal ulcers.

Symptoms of Corneal Ulcers

Pet health care means that you are aware of the slightest change in your pet’s behavior or nature. If your pet is affected by corneal ulcer he may show the following symptoms:

1. Squinting

2. Redness

3. Increased tearing

4. Cloudiness of the cornea

5. Yellow or green color discharge (mucus or pus) from the eye

6. Inflamed, red conjunctiva, which is the pink colored tissue around the cornea and the lining of the pet’s eye lids.

7. Rubbing excessively at the eye

8. Occasional lethargy

9. Pawing at the infected eye

10. Change in normal behavior

Diagnosis Of Corneal Ulcers

If you notice one or several of the above symptoms then you must safeguard your pet health by taking him to a veterinarian. The vet will make a full-eye check up for diagnosing the ulcer. To begin with, the vet will try to determine the presence of foreign objects or other causes of infection. He/She may also apply a special dye known as ‘flourescein’ to the pet eye as the corneal ulcer quickly absorbs this dye and helps making in making the diagnosis easily.

Treatment Of Corneal Ulcers

The treatment of corneal ulcer to ensure pet health can only be determined by the vet upon proper diagnosis. The treatment usually consists of an eye drop for alleviation of pain, and an antibiotic eye cream/ointment that must be applied 4-6 times each day.

An e-collar or a lamp shade shaped collar is a good pet health care precaution and prevents the pet from pawing his infected eye.

Pneumonia – The Risks and How to Protect Yourself

Pneumonia is a significant inflammation of the lungs. It is typically a result of an infection, although in some cases it can be the result of inhaling vomit, chemicals or smoke. It affects around 1% of us each year and can be contracted regardless of your age although it is most common in the elderly. The symptoms of pneumonia typically manifest themselves quickly and include a fever, difficult or painful breathing, fatigue and a cough.

Sometimes confused with a chest infection which is an infection which can occur anywhere within the chest, pneumonia is an infection within the actual lung tissue itself.

Who is at risk of contracting pneumonia?

1. Heavy drinkers, smokers and intravenous drug users

2. Infants (aged under two) or individuals aged over 65 years

3. Individuals with respiratory problems such as asthma.

4. Individuals who have had their spleen removed.

5. Anyone who suffered an infection such as influenza.

In the majority of cases pneumonia is diagnosed by an examination of your chest by your doctor or medical practitioner. To confirm the diagnosis, your doctor may request you attend the local hospital to obtain an x-ray to ascertain the extent of any inflammation. It is wise if you are in an at risk category to obtain the yearly flu jab. This will need to be discussed with your doctor or medical practitioner who may also consider the pneumococcal vaccine. Pneumococcus is the commonest cause of bacterial pneumonia and once vaccinated against it, this will last you a lifetime as a top up or booster jab is not required.

Is Pleurisy Serious and How to Prevent it

Is pleurisy serious? Well, that all depends. You see, for any condition, any disease to be serious, it’s more a question of how healthy you are, rather than how serious a disease is.

If you are healthy, then no disease and certainly not pleurisy is serious.

So let’s look at some of the things that so compromise your immune system, it’s really hard for your body to prevent disease or recover from it.

  • medication, drugs and vaccines
  • fast, junk, processed foods, soft drinks
  • lack of quality sleep
  • a lack of exposure to the sun on bare skin
  • no relaxing time for you
  • no contact with nature

If you can start addressing some or all of the areas that you can see as contributing to your compromised immune system, then you will experience a surge of energy as your health returns.

One of the fastest and easiest ways to improve your immune system is to start using homeopathic medicine for any health problem. Homeopathy works by improving your immune system quickly, so that it can cure you.

The cure comes from your improved health.

You can either see a professional homeopath or start to use some home prescribing medicines. Preferably both.

So instead of asking, is pleurisy serious, ask yourself instead, am I looking after myself or am I looking for outside health resolution? If you expect every ailment to be fixed by a pill or shot, you’re going to be sadly disappointed. You have to take responsibility for your health.

It doesn’t work any other way. It never did and it never will.

Chest Flu

I thought it time to follow up on previous blog on June 18th 2009 titled 'Chest Infection Symptoms' as the Swine Flu infection statistics have increased dramatically. The number of worldwide cases have been confirmed by the World Health Organization (WHO- 193 member States) have increased from 36,038 to 94,512 as of 6th July 2009, as massive daily increase of 3,248. Deaths have risen to 429 from 382. I have highlighted the worst confirmed cases as: USA- 33,902, Argentina- 2,485, Australia-5,298, Canada-7,983, Chile-7,376, Mexico-10,262, and UK-7447.

Should you start to develop cold symptoms which are more violent such as a persistent dry chesty cough and you are coughing up phlegm which is either green or yellow in color or both, or if you have a fever with a high temperature above 38c (100F) , followed by a body chill and aching muscles you could have developed chest flu, which has similar symptoms to bronchitis.

If you experience the agony of chest flu, a distressing cold or a chronic cough, when you feel that your lungs are on fire, you'll know that it can be a terrifying experience as you struggle to breathe, then you should be checked out by a qualified medical practitioner immediately, or even visit your nearest hospital where a swab will be taken to check for the A (H1N1) virus, as this could be the start of influenza in the form of Swine Flu, which is a respiratory disease caused by outbreaks of influenza amongst pigs, mostly occurring during late fall and winter. If you have any of these symptoms, your body will be dehydrated so it's important then to start to drink plenty of fluids.

There are medical treatments which can be helpful to treat his type of condition but they need to be prescribed with 48 hours of the onset of the attack in order to reduce the severity of the attack. The virus can not be contained simply by prescribing antibiotics, as normal antibiotics have no effect in the relief of this condition such as chest flu. The most common treatment for influenza swine flu is Tamiflu, which is taken orally, or Relenza which is a powder which is inhaled. The latter is not given to asthmatics or patients suffering with a lung complaint.

Chest Flu in Children

It is tempting to try to treat the initial onset of chest flu or a fever condition in children who have a viral infection with Aspirin. NEVER give children or a teenager with Aspirin as it has been linked to REY'S SYNDROME which is potentially is a fatal disease that dramatically affects the organs, chiefly the brain and liver. The medical condition is ENCEPHALOPATHY which causes swelling of the brain. Early diagnosis is paramount, otherwise brain damage can occur, and also the liver can be affected.

Note: This content is for information purposes only, and should not be a substitute for a consultation with your qualified medical practitioner.

Bronchitis – What You Need to Know

Bronchitis is a condition caused by the inflammation of the medium sized airways. This is caused by pathogens, smoking and inhaling harmful fumes. The symptoms are wheezing, expectorant cough, shortness of breath, fever, fatigue and occasional chest pains. The pathogens at play here are the viruses and bacteria. Viruses are the most common causes of bronchitis infections. These are the influenza, rhino viruses, adenoviridae among others.

About bronchitis caused by viruses – the symptoms usually disappear in a few days without medication. Bacteria caused infections is treated using antibiotics, bronchodilaters and an expectorant cough syrup. A proper diagnosis should be carried out to determine the real cause of the symptoms experienced. These tests include blood and sputum tests. They reveal the nature of the infection and the pathogens causing it.

This will avoid taking the wrong drugs. Self treatment of the disease is not advised as you can not tell all about bronchitis. This is especially about the pathogens causing the disease. About bronchitis prognosis, the condition starts with a dry cough. This becomes a productive or wet cough in a matter of days. The cough can wake you up at night. This is followed by other bronchitis symptoms.

These symptoms disappear after a few days leaving the expectorant cough. The cough can last for up to a month. About bronchitis prevention, there is an oral vaccine, that can be taken. This was developed in 1985 by professor Robert Clancy of the university of Newcastle, Australia. The vaccine was put in the market four years later. This is an excellent way of avoiding the disease especially in prone areas and seasons.

Hemorrhagic Proliferative Proventriculitis and Gizzard Erosion

Hemorrhagic Proliferative Proventriculitis and Gizzard Erosion.

Dr.Kedar Karki

Summery:

A new disease condition has emerged affecting replacement pullets. It affects the birds

between 2 to 10 weeks of age. The mortality rate varies between 1 to 10% and ultimately the flock is left with creation of several small poorly feathered and pale chicks. Though it has not been possible to establish the exact cause of this condition, following three points has been taken in consideration.

?HPPGE is an illness that involves one or more

infectious agents. ?The digestive tract and endocrine organs may be

primary targets for these agents.?The spectrum of signs or lesions are either caused

by or exacerbated by nutritional, husbandry and

hygienic factors.

The response to the treatment is often poor but the symptomatic treatment has helped in

ameliorating the mortality. Similar condition has been widely reported in broilers

under various names like

Malabsorption syndrome, infectious Proventriculitis, infectious runting syndrome, pale bird syndrome and stunting syndrome.

Review of Litrature:

Etiology: Non Infectious Factors.

Dietary Biogenic Amines (DBA).

High levels of DBA’s like histamine, 3HT, 5HT,histidine, dopamine, gizzerosine and serotonine, can be found in dietary constituents such as tankage fish meal, corn screening, soyabean meal, vitamin premixes, fats, poultry meal, meat and bone meal. The biogenic

amines are decarboxylation breakdown products of amino acid catabolism and these amines are considered toxic to animals. The potential for biogenic amine build-up is real in animal by product meal and is the result of breakdown of the product. Histamine is produced in the poultry feed under proper temperature and moisture conditions by microbial decarboxylation of histidine. Reduced growth, poor feathering and proventricular enlargement have been associated with histamine toxicity in chickens. Histamine toxin problem in chicken generally

has been associated with the intake of fish meal which contain high level of histidine

Gizzerosine is a compound found in overheated fish meal due to interaction of caesine with histidine and acts as a factor causing gizzard erosion or ulceration in chicks. It can also be formed if the temperature of fish meal increases by incorrect handling during transportation or storage particularly in hot weather. Then gizzerosine concentration of burnt fish meal

would be low because of degradation of protein. However it is also likely that fish meal with good colour, odour, taste and physical properties may contain

a large enough quantity of gizzerosine.

Gizzerosine stimulates proventricular gland secretarycells to release excessive hydrochloric acid. Gizzard lesions result from the runway digestive effects of hyperacidity. Opportunistic bacteria may subsequently colonise the nutrient rich biodetrius. The cells of the glandular alveoli of the proventriculus secrete hydrochloric acids and pepsinogen (pepsin) which is a digestive enzyme required for initial digestion of proteins. Any lesion in the preventricular glands will interfere with the secretion of pepsin with subsequent impairment of

protein digestion and utilisation. The results are poor production performance, unthriftiness and poor feed conversion. This could also explain why some of the birds affected with this condition pass undigested or poorly digested feed in faeces.

Mycotoxins

T2 toxin produced by fusarium is a caustic irritant. It causes necrosis of mucosa of proventriculus, gizzard and feather epithelium. Citrinin which is basically a nephrotoxin can also cause fissures in the gizzard

Oosporein – In oosporein poisoning one may notice that the proventriculus has enlarged circumference at the isthumus and the mucosa is covered with pseudomembranous exudate (necrosis may occur at the isthumus).

Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) – Lesions occur in proventriculus, gizzard, liver and spleen. The

proventriculus is dialated and the mucosa is thickened by hyperplasia and ulceration. Mucosal necrosis may occur in gizzard.

Infectious Factors

Adenovirus – According to case reports, gizzard erosion is characterised by adenovirus intranuclear inclusion bodies in epithelial cells. Reovirus infection could be a factor in the pathogenesis of histamine associated proventricular enlargement.

A Reo virus strain (SS 412 stain) was isolated from an outbreak of proventriculitis/malabsorption of syndrome; the role of this reovirus strain in that outbreak was proven in

experimental studies. Further studies have demonstrated that chicks from breeder hens which

have been vaccinated with oil imulsion SS 412 virus vaccine were protected against. Proventriculitis following experimental challenge with the SS 412 reovirus strain.

Anaerobic bacteria like clostridia are sometimes found as secondary invaders resulting in either ulcerative enteritis or necrotic hepatitis. It will be interesting to study the effect of viruses also since both of them cause the lesions in the proventriculus.

Other Factors

Rather than ameliorating the effects of MAS, vitamin A caused a further reduction in body weight and bone ash according to a study. Supplementation of vitamin E significantly reduced both mortality and the effects of disease in body weight gain in an outbreak of pale bird syndrome in broiler chicks of 3 weeks. Amino acid imbalance (lysine and

methoinine especially), excess dietary copper sulfate, lack of dietary fibre, deprivation of food and water have also been found to be responsible for the HPPGE.

Lesions

Proventriculi lose their normal flusiform shape and normal constriction at the junction with gizzard are diffusely enlarged and have a thickened and turgidwall. Thickening of the wall is more marked upon incising the proventriculus.The proventricular glands protrude irregularly from the mucosal surface, lose their normal pattern and contain milky fluid that could be expressed with slight pressure. The gizzard is often smaller than normal and

flabby. The gizzard peels off easily with haemorrhagic ulceration of the gizzard wall.

Treatment

?Firstly ensure optimum space per bird in the grower house. Remove excess numbers of birds if the flock is overcrowded.

?Change the litter if it is saturated.

?Stop the use of animal protein and substitute with vegetable protein sources.

?Supplementation of antitoxin preparations along with high doses of vitamin E, liver tonics, digestion stimulants, antifungal and toxin binders show remarkable recovery in the flock in 5 to 7 days.

?Use of Anti-degnala liquor in water must be looked into?

?Addition of gut acting antibiotics to check multiplication of anaerobes like clostridial bacteria.

?Control the hyper-acidity with antacids like ranitidine, aluminium hydroxide etc. through water: The result is quite encouraging.

?It is necessary to correct the dietary amino acid balance, crude fiber level, calcium and phosphorus etc.

?Addition of enzymes to the feed since pancreatic activity also seems to be adversely affected in HPPGE.

?It is essential to establish the involvement of Reo- or adenoviruses and do the necessary amendments in the breeder vaccination schedule.

References:

Cause of gizzard erosion and Proventriculitis in broilers. Dr Manuel Contreras and Dr Douglas Zavieso Poultry International July 2006 pp16-20

Cyclopiazonic acid production by Aspergillus flavus and its effects on broiler chickens. J W Dorner, R J Cole, L G Lomax, H S Gosser, and U L Diener Appl Environ Microbiol. 1983 September; 46(3): 698–703.

DISEASES OF POULTRY Martin D. Ficken, D.V.M., Ph.D., Dip. A.C.V.P., A.C.P.V. College of Veterinary Medicine North Carolina State Universit Raleigh, North Carolina

Feed Passage in Broilers – A Complex Problem G. D. Butcher, DVM, Ph.D., A. H. Nilipour, Ph.D., R. D. Miles, Ph.D. University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine, Gainesville, FL., Amir H. Nilipour, PhD, Director of Investigation and Quality Assurance, Grupo Melo, S.A., Panama, Republic of Panama .

http://www.wattnet.com/Archives/Docs/701pi36.pdf?CFID=25710&CFTOKEN=74030876 gizzard erosion Proventriculitis poultry A new disease condition has emerged affecting replacement pullets in India. — By Dr. Avinash Dhawale

Shoulder Pain – Causes and Treatment

Shoulder Pain can be caused by a wide range of injuries or conditions. The shoulder joint itself is an extremely mobile joint with very low stability, leaving it open to injuries such as dislocations. The shoulder girdle (the joint itself, plus the AC joint, Scapula and surrounding muscles/ligaments/tendons) is also heavily involved in upper back and neck posture and so postural problems and muscle imbalances are also common shoulder issues.

In general, shoulder injuries can be divided into two categories:

  1. Acute (traumatic) injuries
  2. Overuse/postural injuries

Acute Injuries

Acute injuries are those that occur as a result of a sudden force or movement at the joint. The individual will usually know exactly when the injury happened and can often describe the event. They often describe a sudden pain and sometimes a clicking or popping sensation.

Acute injuries may include:

  • Shoulder dislocations
  • AC joint injuries
  • Rotator cuff tears
  • Glenoid labrum injuries
  • Clavicle fractures

Treatment of an acute injury should involve immediate rest and the application of cold therapy, in the form of an ice pack or wrap. Taking the weight of the arm off the shoulder using a sling may also be recommended. Medical attention should then be sought to determine the nature of the injury and the appropriate course of treatment.

Overuse Injuries

Overuse injuries are those where shoulder pain develops over a period of time, gradually becoming worse until the individual seeks medical attention. They usually cannot pin-point a specific incident which caused the pain and quite often the pain is not easy to pin-point, with no specific tender area. Overuse injuries are usually related to either poor posture or poor sporting technique (or any other activity), or both!

Common overuse injuries include:

  • Impingement syndromes
  • Rotator cuff tendinopathy
  • Bursitis

Treatment of an overuse injury is often more difficult than an acute injury. Initially the aggravating activity should be ceased to allow the tissues involve to rest. Soft tissue treatments and electrotherapy may also be used to reduce pain and inflammation, as well as breaking down scar tissue and increasing muscle flexibility.

Once pain and inflammation have subsided, an exercise rehabilitation programme is usually implemented to address any postural problems and muscle imbalances which may have contributed to the injury. Other factors such as poor technique, training errors and unsuitable equipment should also be corrected.

What is Bile Reflux

We are all familiar with the condition acid reflux Bile reflux is another condition that is not discussed as much, but is very similar and sometimes can be confused with acid reflux.

First, let me educate you a little bit about what bile is. Bile is a digestive fluid produced in the liver. Some of the components that make up bile are:

* Water
* Cholesterol
* Bile pigments
* Bile salts

Bile is placed in the gallbladder and while eating is discharged into the duodenum where the bile aids the process of digestion of fats.

Bile reflux is the result of bile that travels up from your small intestine into your stomach and esophagus BR is sometimes confused with acid reflux because a person can experience some of the same symptoms and bile (like GERD) irritates the lining of your esophagus, potentially increasing your risk of esophageal cancer.

One thing that makes bile reflux different from acid reflux is that it can’t be treated with little lifestyle changes or diet. It has to be treated with prescribed medication or, in severe cases, with surgery.

Another thing that makes BR different is this condition irritates the stomach, which causes a gnawing or burning sensation in your upper abdomen.

Because acid reflux and BR are pretty similar it can sometimes be a bit confusing to identify the symptoms. Here are a few symptoms that will help you to detect BR:

* Nausea
* Vomiting bile
* Hoarseness
* Unintentional weight loss

Some of the causes of this condition are a peptic ulcer and gallbladder removal. A peptic ulcer obstructs the pyloric valve. When this happens the valve doesn’t open enough to allow your stomach to empty as quickly as it should.

As a result, foods and beverages will lead to increased gastric pressure that causes the refluxed bile and stomach acid to back up into your esophagus.

If you had your gallbladder removed then there’s a good chance that your body produces more bile than those who haven’t had their gallbladders removed.

Diagnosing BR is a more difficult procedure than acid reflux, so it requires more exams. Your doctor will also check for damage to your esophagus and for any pre-cancerous changes. Here are some of the exams doctors use to diagnose BR:

* Ambulatory Acid Tests – These exams use an acid-measuring probe to identify when, and for how long, acid regurgitates into your esophagus. Ambulatory acid tests are negative in people with bile reflux.

* Endoscopy – In this test, your doctor places a thin, flexible tube with a light and camera (endoscope) down your throat. The endoscope can show ulcerations or inflammation in your stomach or esophagus and can reveal a peptic ulcer.

* Esophageal impedance – Rather than measuring acid, this test can measure whether gas or liquids reflux into the esophagus. It’s helpful for people who have regurgitation of substances that aren’t acidic and therefore wouldn’t be detected by a pH probe.

If not properly treated there can be some serious complications to your health. BR and GERD can cause serious harm to the tissue in your esophagus. The combination of these two conditions can cause other problems like:

* Heartburn
* Esophageal narrowing
* Barrett’s esophagus
* Esophageal cancer
* Gastritis

As I said before lifestyle changes can’t control BR. One prescribed medication that is more used to treat BR is Ursodeoxycholic acid. This medication helps promote bile flow. UA will also help to reduce the constant symptoms and the severity of pain.

Even though proton pump inhibitors (or PPI’s) are used to treat symptoms of acid reflux, the main reason for these type medicines is to reduce acid production, that may also help to reduce BR.

If taking medicine doesn’t help or if there are pre-cancerous changes in your esophagus, then your next option is to try surgery. Diversion is a type of surgery that doctors use to treat BR.

Your doctor will make make a new connection for bile drainage further down in your intestine, thereby diverting bile away from your stomach. This procedure is known as Roux-en-Y (roo-en-wi).

Because some types of operations are often more successful than others, it’s always a good idea to discuss the pros and cons very carefully with your doctor.

Shoulder Pain – Causes and Treatment

Shoulder Pain can be caused by a wide range of injuries or conditions. The shoulder joint itself is an extremely mobile joint with very low stability, leaving it open to injuries such as dislocations. The shoulder girdle (the joint itself, plus the AC joint, Scapula and surrounding muscles/ligaments/tendons) is also heavily involved in upper back and neck posture and so postural problems and muscle imbalances are also common shoulder issues.

In general, shoulder injuries can be divided into two categories:

  1. Acute (traumatic) injuries
  2. Overuse/postural injuries

Acute Injuries

Acute injuries are those that occur as a result of a sudden force or movement at the joint. The individual will usually know exactly when the injury happened and can often describe the event. They often describe a sudden pain and sometimes a clicking or popping sensation.

Acute injuries may include:

  • Shoulder dislocations
  • AC joint injuries
  • Rotator cuff tears
  • Glenoid labrum injuries
  • Clavicle fractures

Treatment of an acute injury should involve immediate rest and the application of cold therapy, in the form of an ice pack or wrap. Taking the weight of the arm off the shoulder using a sling may also be recommended. Medical attention should then be sought to determine the nature of the injury and the appropriate course of treatment.

Overuse Injuries

Overuse injuries are those where shoulder pain develops over a period of time, gradually becoming worse until the individual seeks medical attention. They usually cannot pin-point a specific incident which caused the pain and quite often the pain is not easy to pin-point, with no specific tender area. Overuse injuries are usually related to either poor posture or poor sporting technique (or any other activity), or both!

Common overuse injuries include:

  • Impingement syndromes
  • Rotator cuff tendinopathy
  • Bursitis

Treatment of an overuse injury is often more difficult than an acute injury. Initially the aggravating activity should be ceased to allow the tissues involve to rest. Soft tissue treatments and electrotherapy may also be used to reduce pain and inflammation, as well as breaking down scar tissue and increasing muscle flexibility.

Once pain and inflammation have subsided, an exercise rehabilitation programme is usually implemented to address any postural problems and muscle imbalances which may have contributed to the injury. Other factors such as poor technique, training errors and unsuitable equipment should also be corrected.