Kidney Disease Symptom Checklist – Know Your Kidneys

Kidney disease can be a very serious condition. It can, if not detected early, lead to complications that left untreated, can shut down the kidneys and lead to complicated treatments that include dialysis. Is that something that you want to mess with? Of course not; that is why it is so critical you come to recognize the symptoms from the symptoms of many other common illnesses.

Your kidneys are responsible for filtering wastes and other toxins from the blood. When your kidneys do not do this, wastes and other toxins build up in the blood. This can lead to many problems, including chronic illness. Many people fail to consider the health of their kidneys when they are treating other diseases, and yet it is other diseases that often lead to kidney damage. That is why it is so important to know what the most common kidney disease symptom and/or symptoms are.

Here is a checklist of some of the more well-known symptoms of kidney disease:

1.     Change in urination

2.     Difficulty urinating

3.     Pain on urination

4.     Foamy or bubbly urination

5.     Changes in the color of your urine

6.     Blood in the urine, which may be a sign of a urinary tract infection, which can lead to a kidney infection, which can lead to kidney disease (it is a progressive thing)

7.     Fatigue or sleepiness, which may be the result of a drop in red blood cells, so the muscles and the brain become more tired. This typically has a name, called anemia.

8.     Itching or other skin rashes, which may be the result of a buildup of wastes in the blood.

9.     A metallic taste in the mouth, which can cause certain foods to taste differently, or can cause the breath to smell bad. Some patients notice they no longer enjoy eating certain foods especially meat, while others simply lose their interest in eating anything.

10.  Nausea and vomiting, which can result in a buildup in wastes in the blood.

11.  Pain in the legs of pain in the back, especially in the middle of the back. Typically kidney damage can cause cysts in the kidneys, and sometimes these can buildup in the liver too. Sometimes these are painful, and other times not. Some people notice their lower backs are hurting or their sides start hurting and they are not sure why. Other people notice they feel pain at certain times, like at night.

12.  Dizziness – This can result from anemia; it can also result from a buildup of toxins in the blood. Patients can also develop anemia simply from not eating, because they have lost their appetite due to increasingly serious kidney damage. 

What Happens If I Have Symptoms of Kidney Disease

If you have any of the above symptoms, you should seek the care of a qualified health professional. Some people hear “kidney disease” and they immediately think “dialysis” and worry they will die right away. This is certainly not the case! There are many steps you can take to improve the health of your kidneys and your outlook for a long and healthier life. Many people can take steps to slow down the progression of chronic kidney disease.

For example, the first step you can take is to simply start following the guidance provided to you by your health care professional. Many people will benefit by getting physical activity and by lowering their blood pressure. It also helps to drink plenty of water, filtered water if possible, and getting rest when appropriate. For some, other changes in lifestyle are necessary as directed by a qualified health care professional.

How Much Compensation for a Knee Injury?

Have you had an accident playing football damaged your knee? Maybe you were in a car accident and your knee was damages? Would you like to know what compensation you might be entitled too?

Well for a start damage to the knee can be quite serious, we all need our knees functioning properly to be able to walk and go about our daily routine. Depending on the extent of your injury will depend on how much compensation you will get. The amount of compensation for any knee injuries falls between a few hundred pounds for a simple twist to up to £50,000 for more serious injuries.

The amount of compensation you could receive from a serious knee injury where the injured had lengthy treatment, a considerable amount of pain and loss of function, arthrodesis or arthroplasty has taken place or is inevitable the amount would be in the region of £40,750 to £56,000.

For a less fracture extending into the knee joint causing constant pain, limiting movement, loss of agility with the possibility of osteoarthritis the amount of compensation you might receive would be in the region of £30,500 to £40,750.

A less severe knee injury resulting in less severe disability where there is still continuing symptoms of pain and limitation of movement could result in a award of £15,500 to £25,000.
Moderate knee injuries involving dislocation, torn cartilage or meniscus which might accelerate symptoms from a pre-existing condition which result in minor instability, weakness or other mild future disability the amount you could receive in compensation would be in the region of £8,400 to £15,500.

Less serious moderate knee injuries where there maybe some pain and discomfort, the amount of compensation would be in the region of £8,150. Where there has been complete recovery the award is unlikely to exceed £3,500.

These amounts are from the judicial studies board as of 2006. For more accurate information about your injury and how to go about making a claim you will need to find a competent accident solicitor. Companies that specialises in offering free impartial advice that can explain the no win no fee agreement in simple terms are the ones to go for. There are so many no win no fee accident solicitors in the UK and they are all competing for your cases. Unfortunately it can be big business for solicitors as they demand huge fees. The best solicitors are the ones that put you and your needs first.
You may have heard of the term ‘no win no fee’. It is often used and rarely understood. It basically means that the solicitor is working for free until the case is won. When the case is one your solicitor will claim its own expenses back from the person who was responsible. If the negligence was on the part of your employer then your employer should have insurance to cover this. There maybe a chance that you may loose you case in which case you will be offered insurance to protect you from the costs also. Generally a good solicitor will only take on a case they believe they can win.
Remember claiming compensation for accidents is your legal and civil right. If the accident was not your fault and you have suffered because of the injury then you have every right to pursue a claim and you should.

Thrush – How to Cure Thrush Infections

Thrush is an infection caused by an overgrowth of fungus (candida) and can occur in the colon, vagina, stomach, throat, mouth and rectum. The main reason we get thrush is through regular use of antibiotics, birth control pills, steroids, stress and a weak immune system for example from cancer treatment. There are many remedies available that will cure thrush, be they prescribed drugs from your doctor or chemist or natural remedies.

So how do you know if you are suffering with thrush? In the case of oral thrush you would experience white creamy patches in your mouth, difficulty with swallowing, red spots on the roof of the mouth and throat. For women with vaginal thrush the most common symptoms are a white vaginal discharge, burning and itching, soreness and swelling of the vagina and vulva.

As part of speedy recovery try and stay off any antibiotics and other yeast producing products that can interfere with the natural course of the treatment until your symptoms disappear. These include: alcohol, coffee, sugar, yeast breads, biscuits and cakes.

The following are some measures that you can adapt to cure thrush infections:

Oral Thrush cures include with salt mouth rinses, eating natural probiotic yogurt daily, taking flaxseeds and regularly eating garlic – all these remedies if combined will help attack yeast infection fast.

Vaginal Thrush cures include tea tree oil douche, garlic, unsweetened yogurt applications, apple cider vinegar douche. Along with these measures you will also need proper vaginal hygiene. Keep the vagina clean and wear cotton panties instead. DO not use any deodorants and perfumes to suppress vaginal odour. If possible avoid sexual intercourse and try and stay off oral contraceptives.

Hepatitis Part II – Types of Hepatitis

As we mentioned in previous articles, hepatitis is characterized by the destruction of a number of liver cells and the presence of inflammatory cells in the liver tissue caused by excessive alcohol drinking, disorders of the gall bladder or pancreas, including medication side effects, and infections. There are many other infective agents that can cause inflammation of the liver, or hepatitis. However, the term is unfortunately commonly used to refer to a particular group of viruses such as Hepatitis A, B, and C.

In this article we will discuss types of hepatitis, there are 5:

1. Hepatitis A (HAV)

Hepatitis A causes swelling and inflammation in the liver and is very common in underdeveloped countries, resulting in drinking water or eating food that is infected by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). It can also be transmitted through sexual intercourse. This type of hepatitis usually has slow onset and most people fully recover. Hepatitis A can be discovered by blood testing.

2. Hepatitis B (HBV)

Hepatitis B virus is most often contracted via blood contact such as blood, semen, body fluids, IV drug abusers sharing needles or someone using tainted needles. It can also be transmitted through sexual contact and from mother to baby during childbirth. Hepatitis B causes inflammation of the liver leading to a serious infection that can cause liver damage, which may result in cancer.

3. Hepatitis C (HCV)

Hepatitis C, like hepatitis B is spread via blood and body-fluid contact such as blood, semen, body fluid, IV drug abusers sharing needles or someone using tainted needles. Hepatitis C used to be the most common type of hepatitis acquired through blood transfusions until a test for it became available in the 1980s. Hepatitis C causes inflammation of the liver resulting in liver damage that can lead to cancer. It also commonly leads to chronic liver inflammation and slowly damagesthe liver over a long period of time before leading to cirrhosis of the liver, that means scar tissue replacing normal, healthy tissue in result of blocking the flow of blood through the liver and preventing it from from working as it should.

4. Hepatitis D (HDV)

Hepatitis D is caused by the virus HDV. You can only get hepatitis D if you are already infected with hepatitis B. Hepatitis D also causes inflammation of liver and is transmitted through infected blood, needles and sexual contact with with a person infected with HDV.

5. Hepatitis E (HEV)

Similar to hepatitis A, hepatitis E is also caused by drinking water or eating food that os infected by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). It can also be transmitted through sexual intercourse causing temporary swelling of the liver and no long term damage to it.

I hope this information will help. If you need more information of the above subject, please visit my home page at:

Hip arthritis- Hip Resurfacng emerging as a viable alternative in young patients

Hip arthritis is of two types. Young and middle aged persons suffer from secondary osteoarthritis. Primary osteoarthritis can affect middle aged and elderly. Surgery in this group of relatively younger patients requires newer techniques like hip resurfacing.

Hip Resurfacing is the preferred option in young & middle aged males with primary

Types of Hip arthritis

Hip arthritis is classified as Primary and secondary Osteoarthritis.

Primary osteoarthritis is age related wear and tear arthritis. It is rare in India.

Secondary osteoarthritis occurs at a younger age and is more common. Rheumatoid arthritis, avascular necrosis, traumatic arthritis and other connective tissue disorders like SLE, Psoriasis etc. all lead to secondary osteoarthritis.

Rheumatoid arthritis is an auto immune disorder, affects all joints particularly the small joints but also does not spare the hip and knees.

Avascular necrosis is a condition that reduces the blood supply to the end of the bone. It affects patients with excess alcohol intake, consuming steroids, connective tissue disorders like SLE. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a connective tissue disorder affecting mainly young women A photo sensitive rash on the cheeks, renal involvement and arthritis are some notable features. Avascular necrosis affects a proportion of the patients with SLE.

Gaucher’s disease is a rare genetic storage disorder.

Post traumatic arthritis occurs after a severe injury to the hip. Fractures of the ball (top of the femur) or socket (acetabulum) can lead to arthritis after inadequate treatment.

Hip arthritis is very disabling as it is a small ball and socket joint. In advanced disease a total hip replacement was recommended by Orthopaedic surgeons until recently. The ideal age for a hip replacement is 74 years.

Surgical solutions

arethe mainstay of treatment as conservative measures fail to relieve pain. Total Hip replacement (THR) is a time tested operation and has a success rate of 93 % survivor ship at 10 years.

Who needs a hip resurfacing?

In India, many young patients with ankylosing spondylitis, avascular necrosis, post septic arthritis, post injury suffer from hip arthritis and are advised a hip replacement for disabling pain. Thus many hip replacement operations are performed in younger patients. The surgery should cater to the enhanced demands on an artificial joint by younger and more active patients. Naturally an operation designed for Western elderly patients is not suitable for younger patients.

Hip resurfacing vs replacementHip Resurfacing vs Hip Replacement

In this operation the ball shaped upper end of the thigh bone (femur) and the socket (acetabulum) are replaced. The ball is replaced with a long metal stem that is fixed into the upper end if the thigh bone. Its upper spherical end articulates with a cup shaped polyethylene socket that is cemented into the pelvis.

Conventional hip replacements sacrifice a great deal of normal bone as the head, neck, and upper part of the thigh bone is removed for implantation of the prosthesis. Moreover wear debris from the poly-etheylene liner lead to osteolysis and bone loss. When this first hip is to be changed or revised after its lifespan more bone loss occurs. Conventional hips have a small ball to reduce friction and wear, but the ill effect of this is an increased risk of dislocation. An average dislocation rate of 3- 4 % has been reported. These implants do not last very longer than 20 years and revision rates of 50% at 20 years have been reported. Survival rates are less satisfactory for the relatively younger active patients. Thus a total hip replacement is not an ideal implant for younger patients less than fifty years old who need a new hip.

Problems with conventional total hip replacement:

  • Excessive bone sacrifice and loss
  • Increased risk of dislocation
  • Patients cannot squat or sit cross legged on the floor with out the risk of dislocation.
  • Range of movement is less
  • Patients cannot involve in sports
  • Poor survival in young and active patients they require earlier revision.
  • Revision surgery is difficult
  • The hip feels less like a normal hip
  • The cup wears with time and plastic from it harms bone
  • Change in length of the leg after surgery leading to leg length discrepancy.

Why remove normal bone when only the surface of the ball is bad?

This is the logic behind hip resurfacings. This bone preserving hip resurfacing involves replacing only the diseased bony surfaces of the head of femur and acetabulum. This involves sculpting the head of the femur and covering it with a metal cap and fixing an uncemented socket into the acetabulum to receive the head.

Hip Resurfacing- A bone preserving hip replacement!

Preservation of bone and less stress shielding makes it easy to revise this hip if needed. The large head size provides a very stable joint and recreates the sensation of a normal hip joint. Patients have gone back to playing Judo and Squash after this operation. Advances metallurgy makes the metal on metal articulation likely to survive longer in the young and active patient. With less metal inside the bone and less invasion of the medullary cavity of the femur, the risk of infection is reduced. Rehabilitation is faster and better.

Advantages of hip resurfacing:

  • Allows the patient to squat and sit cross legged on the floor safely
  • Allows a normal range of movement
  • Sacrifices only the surface diseased bone and preserves normal bone
  • Imparts a more normal sensation
  • The joint is likely to last longer even in younger and active patients.
  • Earlier and faster rehabilitation
  • Less risk of dislocation
  • Easier to revise if needed.
  • No leg length discrepancy.

In summary a Hip Resurfacing offers several advantages in young patients in young patients.

Liver Inflammation Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

Inflammation of the liver is a condition that is also called hepatitis.

There are a number of different types of liver inflammation. The most common form is caused by a virus and is therefore known as a viral infection. These infections can either be acute or chronic. When hepatitis is triggered by one of these viruses, it is generally described with an alphabetical name: For example, hepatitis, A or hepatitis C. The names of the viruses themselves are usually shortened to HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV and HEV HFV and HGV. HGV has only recently been discovered.

Hepatitis B and C can be particularly harmful, possibly leading to serious, even critical diseases like cirrhosis or liver cancer.

Alcohol is another cause of liver inflammation. Alcohol is toxic to the liver and frequently leads to inflammation and then cirrhosis. Three times as many people suffer from alcohol-induced hepatitis as from hepatitis C, which is one of the more common viral forms.

Liver inflammation can also be caused by a variety of chemicals and drugs. Even legal drugs like pain killers and pain relievers can be toxic to the liver when they're used improperly or excessively. The amount of damage drugs and chemicals can do varies, naturally, with the type of drug used, how much was taken for how long, and the user's overall state of health. Recreational and illegal drugs are very dangerous.

Various diseases are also the cause of inflammation of the liver. Some of these diseases are related to the liver, but others are not. Among the most common are Wilson's disease, which comes from an excessive amount of copper in the body, and hemachromatosis, which results from too much iron. Rocky Mountain spotted fever, yellow fever and certain auotimmune conditions also contribute to inflammation of the liver.

Signs of inflammation of the liver vary depending on the cause. But generally speaking, four symptoms are predictable.

Jaundice is characterized by yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes. Because of this discoloration, many people call this condition yellow jaundice.

Another typical symptom is a lack of interest in food, which id usually followed by weight loss. This symptom of inflammation of the liver is especially typical with forms of acute hepatitis. Nausea and vomiting often follow shortly afterwards.

You also get tired easily when you have hepatitis. Fatigue can be chronic and profound. One of your liver's main function is to help control your metabolism and energy levels, so when it is inflamed, your energy is reduced. This also leads to a feeling of weakness.

Hepatitis is also characterized by muscle and joint pain. It could go on for several weeks. Besides muscle and joint tenderness, you might feel pain in the area of ​​the liver itself. In fact, pain could reach as high as the right shoulder. The intensity of this pain will depend on the progress of the inflammation.

Treatment for acute viral hepatitis is usually unnecessary due to the fact that it heals on its own in time. However, certain medications and antivirals may be useful for hepatitis B and C. Drugs called interferon and ribavirin are usually recommended for these disorders. When liver inflammation is caused by autoimmune hepatitis, it is usually treated with corticosteroids.

Individuals who have been diagnosed with hepatitis should avoid drinking alcohol and talk to their doctor before taking drugs or medications of any kind.

Physiotherapy And Treatment For Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is a worldwide problem, though mostly documented in countries with advanced healthcare systems, and affects many millions of people across all countries. Women have a higher lifetime risk of a fracture due to osteoporosis with about thirty to forty percent chance in their life, whilst men have a much smaller but still significant risk of 13%. Osteoporosis is a condition which occurs slowly and quietly with the sufferer mostly not aware there is anything amiss until it is too late and they have a problem. The assessment of risk and the preventative treatment of this condition are vital and very active areas in research and treatment.

With 1.5 million fractures in the United States alone, osteoporosis is a common diagnosis and 50% of women over 50 years old suffer from this condition, rising to almost 90% of women aged seventy-five years. Osteoporosis causes fractures and this is the main clinical problem, with significant disability and pain from spinal fractures and a 5-20 percent chance of dying after a hip fracture due to the complications. Apart from the personal costs osteoporosis is also costly to health services dealing with high levels of fractures in post-menopausal women.

The greatest risk factor for getting osteoporosis is passing through the menopause, when the bone-protecting hormones stop being produced or are greatly reduced. The bone density of the person can then drop steeply unless they are diagnosed and treated. Other risk factors include being female, age, having a family history of osteoporosis, a hormone deficiency, having low calcium levels, drinking excessive alcohol and smoking cigarettes. If there is the menopause plus a number of risk factors, the woman is 65 years old or older or the person has had a fracture without significant trauma then they should be investigated for low bone density.

The signs and symptoms of osteoporosis are not that many. With an acute vertebral fracture on lifting or bending then the pain is extremely severe and long lasting, an indication that something significant has occurred. Back pain is common and there may be an increased thoracic kyphosis (upper back curve), an increased cervico-thoracic curve (dowagers hump) and a noticeable loss of height. Any fracture without significant trauma is suspicious and should be investigated. If the patients bones look thin on x-ray and there are compression fractures in the thoracic spine, the diagnosis may be clear, but a bone density scan (DEXA) can indicate the degree of osteoporosis and monitor change.

Osteoporosis prevention encompasses lifestyle change, eating a diet rich in vitamin D and calcium, avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol and engaging in weight bearing exercise. HRT (hormone replacement therapy) is used to prevent this condition in women who are past the menopause. Drugs include bisphosphonates, HRT, selective oestrogen receptor modulators and calcium and vitamin D supplements. The development of new bone rather than stopping the loss might be achievable with an anabolic drug. When we are young we lay the groundwork for our bone mass so should be encouraged to eat well and engage in weightbearing exercises to ensure a good bone density.

A recent development in the treatment of hyper acute spinal fractures with their very severe and disabling pain is vertebroplasty. In this procedure a radiologist introduces a needle under x-ray control into the front of the body of the vertebra which has collapsed and then injects a cement material which mechanically bolsters the area, with great relief of pain. Falls are particularly dangerous due to the high risk of fracture and exercise can improve balance, stability, co-ordination and muscle strength to reduce the risk. As this may be a long term condition it may be necessary to provide both practical and psychological help to enable patients to cope best with their condition.

Exercise and bone mass are closely linked and physiotherapists work in osteoporosis classes and clinics to educate people of all ages in the benefits of movement. Children and young people are encouraged to have plenty of exercise so their bone mass builds to a good level. Exercise can slow down the bone loss process and impact exercises which jar the bones are more beneficial than cycling or swimming. Anybody of any age can start a suitable exercise programme and make a difference, guided by a skilled physiotherapist.

Bladder Stones In Labrador Retrievers

Problems related to bladder are common in Labrador Retrievers as well as other breeds. Urinary tract stone disease happens when urinary stone, medically referred to as urolith, forms as microscopic crystals precipitate in the urinary system. This stone may vary in size and number as they form in your pet’s urinary bladder.

Urinary tract stone disease is known in other names such as urolithiasis, urinary stones, ureteral stones, urinary calculi and urinary calculus disease. This disease has two forms- cystic calculi and urethral calculi. Cystic calculi often occurs in female dogs wherein the urinary tract bacterial infection within a bladder causes a shift in the urine pH, causing stones to form. On the other hand, urethral calculi occurs in male dogs caused by infection in rare cases. There are several types of bladder stones and these stones vary depending on their chemical make-up. The two most common are struvite and calcium oxalate. Struvite stones are mainly composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate.

There are many reasons why dogs develop bladder stones. It could be your dog’s lifestyle or diet. Your dog’s diet should help to maintain a low pH since struvite stones are formed with a high pH. That is why it is important to include animal-based protein diets to help maintain low pH. Genes also play an important role in the development of urinary stones. A dog with stones within a tract should not be included in breeding to prevent the spread of the disease. Another cause of this disease is bacterial infection. Bacterial infection helps in producing magnesium phosphate that eventually becomes stones.

Some dogs with bladder stones may not show any sign of the disease. But to some, the most common sign of bladder stones in Labrador Retrievers is blood in the urine. Frequent urination as well as painful urination is also common.

Stones in the bladder may not threaten your dog’s health but may lead to renal failure and pyelonephritis if not treated immediately. X-rays and ultrasound is important to determine the disease and the proper treatment. Some bladder stones can be treated through oral medication. In some cases, surgery may be needed to remove the stones within the bladder. This process is referred to as cystotomy. Medical therapy may be needed in conjunction with the surgery. It can also be used by itself alone. Urinary tract stone disease could be treated easily if it is caused by diet problems. But could be hard to treat if caused by genes.

Metacam for Dogs – Its Purpose and Side-Effects

Metacam for dogs is easily available as an important drug for the dogs. It is mainly used to reduce pain and inflammation in dogs. Arthritis is a common disease that occurs in most dogs, this drug is basically used for the cure of this disease. It can also be used to reduce pain and heal the wounds after surgeries and injuries. Arthritis is a condition which may occur even in human beings – – when animals and particularly dogs start aging, their joints become stiff and as a result of this, they are unable to move freely. This condition, known as arthritis, is commonly observed in dogs and cats. Metacam helps to reduce this by restoring some comfort and energy to them.

Expected Side-Effects

Although, this drug is safe to use and has been used by pet-owners throughout the years in many different parts of the world, but there are many side-effects which are observed to be associated with it, occasionally.

These are the following side-effects:

Damage occurring to the kidneys

Reduction in blood clotting

Damaging the liver

Ulceration

The initial signs of side-effects can occur in form of vomiting or diarrhea (accompanied with blood) or even loss of appetite. If you observe these signs in your dog after the use of the drug, you better take your dog to a vet and immediately quit the medication. In most cases, everything settles quickly but at times due to neglecting the symptoms, it can prove to be fatal. If used carefully, under the supervision of a vet, this drug can be proved to be a magic drug for your weak and old dog.

Symptoms of Quadriplegia and Treatment of Quadriplegia

Quadriplegia : is when a person has a spinal cord injury above the first thoracic vertebra, paralysis usually affects the cervical spinal nerves resulting in paralysis of all four limbs. In addition to the arms and legs being paralyzed, the abdominal and chest muscles will also be affected resulting in weakened breathing and the inability to properly cough and clear the chest. People with this type of paralysis are referred to as Quadriplegic or Tetraplegic.

Refers to paralysis from approximately the shoulders down. Most spinal cord injuries result in loss of sensation and function below the level of injury, including loss of controlled function of the bladder and bowel.

Quadriplegia is a type of cerebral palsy in which all four limbs are affected. It is usually accompanied by more severe symptoms of nerve damage interfering with normal muscle movement than the other types.

Causes of Quadriplegia

You may be paralyzed because you were in a car or sports accident that broke your neck. Having a tumor or other diseases in your spinal canal can also cause quadriplegia. It may be possible for the nerves to start working again if your spinal cord is just bruised or swollen.

It is caused by damage to the brain or the spinal cord at a high level – in particular spinal cord injuries secondary to an injury to the cervical spine. The injury, known as a lesion, causes victims to lose partial or total mobility of all four limbs, meaning the arms and the legs.

Typical causes of this damage are trauma (such as an auto accident, gunshot wound, fall, or sports injury) or disease (such as transverse myelitis, polio, or spina bifida).

There are a variety of common causes for quadriplegia. Quadriplegia is often the result of traumatic injury to the spinal cord. Quadriplegia is the medical term used to define paralysis which affects the lower extremities, upper extremities, and most, or all, of the trunk from the neck down.

Signs and symptoms of Quadriplegia

The location of the injury. In general, injuries that are higher in your spinal cord produce more paralysis. For example, a spinal cord injury at the neck level may cause paralysis in both arms and legs and make it impossible to breathe without a respirator, while a lower injury may affect only your legs and lower parts of your body.

Symptoms of cerebral palsy can be as simple as having difficulty with fine motor tasks like writing or using scissors, or as profound as being unable to maintain balance or walk. Severely afflicted patients may have involuntary movements, such as uncontrollable hand motions and drooling

Treatment of Quadriplegia

Quadriplegia treatment is catered to the specific needs of each patient and often depends on the nature and severity of a person’s condition. Quadriplegia treatment generally addresses a patient’s loss of functioning and feeling in certain areas of the body, loss or impairments in organ functioning

In the meantime, spinal cord injury treatment focuses on preventing further injury and enabling people with a spinal cord injury to return to an active and productive life within the limits of their disability. This requires urgent emergency attention and ongoing care.

Conservative treatment of pressure sores includes appropriate wound care, debridement of necrotic tissue, optimization of nutrition, release of pressure, and minimization of muscle spasticity to provide the patient with the best opportunity to heal by secondary intention. Stage 1 and 2 pressure sores are treated conservatively.

Can Papaya Remedy Heartburn?

Once you understand the causes of heartburn you can then begin to remedy heartburn. You will discover that there are many natural food remedies you can try. Your choice of natural food medicine, whether it is a fruit or herb, depends on your preference, your health, and how well the substance works for treating your symptoms.

While there are many food remedies for heartburn, one fruit in particular that has been seen to be effective is papaya. Papaya fruit comes from the tropical tree Carica papaya. It has been used orally and topically for many years to treat a variety of health ailments such as fungal infections, skin sores, cholesterol, and toothaches. However, despite its anti-inflammatory action, papaya is most widely recognized for the benefits it provides the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.

Papaya encourages digestion, eases indigestion and constipation, can remove parasites from the intestines, and remedy heartburn.

How exactly does papaya alleviate heartburn? The answer is Papain. Papain is a digestive enzyme that exists within papaya. Papain aids digestion and soothes the stomach. It dissolves protein and reduces fats and carbohydrates, promoting a healthy acidic enzyme environment. Papain is also called vegetable pepsin on occasion, because papain is very similar to pepsin which is created by the stomach to digest food.

How can you take papaya for heartburn? Here are some ways you can use papaya to achieve heartburn relief:

– Eat ripe, raw fresh papaya fruit with your meal

– Eat ripe, raw fresh papaya for dessert

– Add papaya to your salad

– Drink papaya juice

– Make papaya part of a marinade

– Eat ripe, raw fresh papaya fruit with honey to treat an attack of heartburn. You can also eat this sweet snack before meals and between meals as heartburn prevention.

– Eat dried papaya after meals (Note: dried papaya should only be eaten in moderation because the concentrated sugar in dried papaya can cancel out the heartburn relief the enzyme papain provides)

– Take papaya tablets or papaya seed extract to remedy heartburn symptoms. You can also take these products before you eat your meals to prevent heartburn from occurring.

Where can I obtain papaya? You can obtain papaya fruit in your local fruit market. You can find papaya tablets and papaya seed extract in health stores.

What are the side effects of papaya? Eating raw, unripe papaya fruit can negatively affect the mouth, esophagus, stomach or intestines by causing inflammation, irritation, pain or sores to occur in these areas. Therefore, papaya should only be ingested when it is ripe.

How can you tell if a papaya is ripe? A ripe papaya fruit has a creamy golden yellow appearance on the outside. The flesh of the fruit is a deep orange-yellow and has many black shiny seeds bunched together in its centre. Ripe papaya fruit tastes juicy and sweet.

You should also be aware that papaya may not be the best heartburn remedy if you suffer from an ulcer, as existing sores can become more inflamed.

Who should avoid taking papaya? Papain may decrease the blood’s ability to clot and might interact with anti-blood clotting medications such as anticoagulants, and antiplatelets. Aspirin can also slow blood clotting, as can the following herbs: danshen, ginger (in excessive amounts), devil’s claw, red clover, saw palmetto, horse chestnut, garlic, and eleuthero. Thus, papaya should not be taken orally with any of the above medications or herbs.

Individuals who are allergic to latex should not use papaya as the fruit contains this substance.

If you are pregnant please consult your health professional before using papaya as a natural heartburn remedy.

Finally, make sure you consult your health care provider before choosing to remedy heartburn with papaya.

What Is Cerebral Palsy? – Andrew Brereton

Spastic Cerebral Palsy.

The word ‘spastic’ means ‘stiff’ and so children who have spastic cerebral palsy have a tendency to have stiff muscles. That stiffness may show itself only in one limb, two limbs. Three limbs or four. There are various names for the different combinations of limbs which are affected in all types. I will not highlight these at the end of this section.

Spastic cerebral palsy is usually caused by injury to the cortex, especially the motor cortex and to a bundle of nerve fibres called the corticospinal tract. Obviously, spasticity is very uncomfortable and has negative consequences for the child’s development, depending upon how many limbs are involved and it’s severity.

Athetoid Cerebral Palsy.

This type of cerebral palsy is caused by injury to a structure below the cortex called the ‘basal ganglia.’ The basal ganglia plays a role in motor function, cognitive processes, emotional processes and our ability to learn. It also acts as a ‘braking’ mechanism on the thalamus, a part of the brain which mediates our sensory experiences. So, without this inhibitory role, one can imagine a thalamus in effect operating without its ‘braking system’ which might produce many of the sensory distortions we see in some children who have cerebral palsy. It also acts as a ‘braking system’ for movement, which enables us for instance, to sit still. In order to sit still a ‘brake’ has to be placed on all other movements. Consequently injury at this level hampers the ‘braking system’ and we see children who cannot sit still and are in constant movement and children whose sensory perception is distorted. Injury to this part of the brain also exhibits itself in many children by retention of the primitive postural reflexes, as it is the role of the basal ganglia to suppress these in order to enable the child to move.
Children with basal ganglia injury are also more likely to have hypotonia, (floppy muscle tone) and persistently impaired balance and ambulation performance.

Ataxic Cerebral Palsy.

Children who have this type of cerebral palsy are usually injured in a structure right at the back of the brain called the ‘cerebellum.’ The word ‘cerebellum’ actually means ‘little brain’ and it is not without justification, as at first sight it does look like a smaller version of the brain. It is located behind the brainstem and it forms massive connections with this structure and with the cerebral cortex. It is the only structure within the brain which is not fully formed at birth, taking a further two years to develop to it’s full complement of neurons.
The proper functioning of the cerebellum ensures that any movements we make are smooth and well coordinated. It seems that the motor cortex supplies commands to the body musculature, which are then refined by the cerebellum to ensure smooth coordination. Feedback on the success of the movement is then supplied from the cerebellum back to the motor cortex where the original movement command can be refined if the movement has been unsuccessful.

One might imagine then that an injury to the cerebellum will interfere with these functions. Movement can become slow and uncoordinated, the child may display problems with balance and equilibrium, the child might experience an ‘intention tremor’ – (a tremor which is made worse when the child tries to move). Injury to this part of the brain causes ‘Ataxia’ – this is where the muscle tone is hypotonic (floppy).

Higher cognitive functions, like language and visual processing, have long been thought to reside primarily in the brain’s cortex, however recent research involving premature infants is documenting an important role for the cerebellum — previously thought to be principally involved in motor coordination and shows that cerebellar injury can have far-reaching developmental consequences. This work also demonstrates that the cortex and cerebellum are tightly interconnected. Sophisticated MRI imaging of 74 pre-term infants’ brains revealed that when there was injury to the cortex, the cerebellum failed to grow to a normal size. This means that our children with spastic cerebral palsy will usually also experience some of the difficulties associated with injury to the cerebellum.

When the injury to the cortex was confined to one side, it was the opposite cerebellar hemisphere that failed to grow normally. The reverse was also true: when injury occurred in one cerebellar hemisphere, the opposite cerebral hemisphere was smaller than normal. So, there seems to be an important developmental link between the cortex and the cerebellum, – it seems that the two structures modulate each others growth and development. So it appears that the way the brain forms connections between structures may be as important as a direct injury to a brain structure itself.

The cerebellum has also been implicated in the development of some types of literacy problems, including dyslexia.

Mixed Cerebral Palsy.

This quite simply is where several brain structures are injured, producing a mixture of symptoms of all three of the previous types mentioned.

Cerebral palsy is not limited to injury to the brain structures I have mentioned here, it is just that in the overwhelming majority of cases there is injury to one or more of these structures. An injury to one or more additional brain structures or nerve pathways can also add to the mix of symptoms, which is why no two children with cerebral palsy are exactly the same. They may have some shared symptoms, but they will not be totally alike.

What is the difference between hemiplegia, diplegia, quadriplegia, etc ?

These terms are quite simply a reference to how many limbs are affected.

Quadriplegia indicates that all four limbs are affected.

Diplegia indicates that the legs are affected.

Hemiplegia indicates that one arm and leg on the same side of the body are affected.

Double Hemiplegia is a term which is used when all four limbs are affected, but with different features on the right and left sides.

Alternatively, your doctor might use the term, hemiparesis instead of hemiplegia, and quadriparesis instead of quadriplegia. ‘plegia’ indicates a form of paralysis or difficulty in moving the affected limbs, whereas the term ‘paresis’ indicates a weakness in the affected limbs.

What problems can cerebral palsy produce in a child?

A child with cerebral palsy can experience difficulties in one, several or all areas of development, to a greater or lesser degree, depending upon the nature and severity of the brain injury. An injury can be so mild as to merely slow down development a little in just one area, or can be so severe as to completely stop development in all areas, rendering the child totally dependent in every way for every aspect of his care. Let’s do a quick A – Z tour of the kind of problems you could be facing.

Anxiety. – Some children with cerebral palsy suffer from anxiety. This can be due to the discomfort produced by stiff musculature, or can have other neurological causes such as the overproduction of norepinephrine in the brain, leaving the child on a hyper-anxiety inducing ‘high.’ There are techniques, which Snowdrop employs to relieve this situation, but in the most severe cases intervention can be necessary with anti – anxiety medications.

Breathing. – The respiratory rate of a newborn baby is between 40 – 70 breaths per minute, but by the time he is ready for pre-school at four years of age this has dropped to 25 breaths per minute. By the time a child is ready for secondary school, this has again dropped to approximately 16 breaths per minute and by adulthood the rate is around 12 per minute. In many children who have cerebral palsy this developmental pathway is either slowed or stopped, leaving for example a four year old child, who should have a rate of 25 breaths per minute, with a rate of 50 breaths per minute. As the breathing rate of a newborn is also shallow, this can mean that the oxygen levels in the brain are more difficult to maintain, exacerbating other problems such as epilepsy. It also makes the coordination of swallowing, chewing and breathing more difficult.

Constipation. – This is a big problem in many children who suffer spastic cerebral palsy, but to a lesser extent in the other types too. It is produced by lack of mobility, muscular stiffness, lack of muscular strength and bad co-ordination. Fortunately there are medications such as lactulose, senna and sodium picosulfate, which can ease the problem. On a more natural note, there is also Magnesium Oxide which can have a beneficial effect. Even so, many children still have have regular enemas. It is important to try to control this problem as constipation exacerbates so many more of the child’s problems, such as muscle tone, anxiety and epilepsy.

Digestion. – The digestive system of the child with cerebral palsy might also be compromised, with the child having poor absorption of nutrients, or having trouble in keeping food down, through excessive vomiting.

Epilepsy – This is more prevalent in spastic cerebral palsy, but does occur to a lesser frequency in all types. Epilepsy can be a big problem. I have seen children who are taking the most powerful medication cocktails you could imagine and still they have seizure after seizure. Often it is well controlled by medication, but sometimes depending upon the severity of the brain injury, it is more problematic. Epilepsy is simply the propensity of brain cells to misfire. Sometimes this sets of a chain reaction causing other cells to misfire and we then see the child having a seizure. Depending upon the extent of that chain reaction, the child may have a mild seizure such as an ‘absence’ where he simply ‘fazes out’ and stares into space for a few seconds, or he might experience a more violent, generalised seizure where he loses consciousness and his body rhythmically shakes.

Usually there is no danger from the fit itself, – even in the most violent looking seizures, the child will regain consciousness within a few minutes, the only danger being that when the fit begins, he might lose consciousness, fall and hurt himself. Very rarely however, some children will experience repeated seizures from which they cannot be roused, this is called ‘status epilepticus’ and is a situation where medical help should be sought without delay. For a more detailed description of different types of epilepsy, go to my book ‘Brain Injured Children. – Tapping the Potential Within.’

Feeding and drinking. – These are two more areas which are affected by breathing. It is sometimes difficult for the child with brain injuries to co-ordinate swallowing, chewing and breathing, – something we do unconsciously and which we take for granted. This can result in the child aspirating (breathing in) liquid and food with the consequent risk of infection such as pneumonia. Other problems include the fact that the child might not have the required muscular co-ordination to chew, or might have so strong a suckling reflex that instead of chewing, he suckles his food. Actually getting some children with severe cerebral palsy to take solid food at all can be a difficult task. Sometimes, as a result of all these difficulties a doctor might recommend that a naso-gastric tube be fitted, or that the child has an operation called a gastrostomy, through which they are fed.

Homeostasis. – Some children with cerebral palsy who have injuries to a part of the brain called the ‘hypothalamus,’ or connections to and from it have trouble with several aspects of maintaining their equilibrium. This may display itself as a lack of a drive for hunger, thirst, etc, or too much of a drive for these. So some children might not realise they are hungry, whilst others might be incessantly so. It may also display itself as an inability to maintain body temperature, the child either becoming cold or hot easily.
Learning Difficulties. Many people assume that most children who have cerebral palsy also have learning difficulties, – this is not the case. Many children with cerebral palsy have difficulty in displaying their intelligence because of their sensory, physical, and / or communication difficulties, but that intelligence is often most certainly there! Only approximately three out of ten children with cerebral palsy have severe learning difficulties.

Orthopaedics, Orthopaedic impairment can take many forms in the person with cerebral palsy. One or more limbs can be impaired, different muscle groups in the body can be affected, there can be difficulty due to stiffness of the muscles with ligaments and tendons tightening, there can be difficulties due to low muscle tone too. Children can suffer from contractures and dislocations. There can also be problems with scoliosis of the spine. There are surgical procedures which can help to alleviate some of these difficulties, and there are also medications such as muscle relaxants. The best way of maintaining your child’s body however is regular physiotherapy. The physiotherapist is so important to the child with cerebral palsy and to Snowdrop. They help to prevent the development of orthopaedic and associated problems, thereby preserving a clear developmental base upon which to build.

Salivation. – Many children with cerebral palsy produce excess amounts of saliva. This can cause big problems with choking, aspiration and infection, chewing and eating, drinking and language development. It can signal an imbalance in the autonomic nervous system, which has two branches, – the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. When the parasympathetic branch is over-active, production of saliva increases. Over salivation can also be stimulated by problems with the brain’s vestibular system. There are medications which can be used to help slow down the rate of salivary production, one of the more common being ‘scopolomine patches,’ which are gently stuck on behind the ear.

Sensory Problems. – This is a huge problem area for many children with cerebral palsy, whose sensory perception can be dulled, distorted or amplified in one or more of the sensory modalities. Children can have a mixture of these problems in different senses, so that a child might for instance have acutely oversensitive hearing and simultaneously be undersensitive in vision. As specific sensory systems supply the information necessary for the efficient operation of motor systems, problems here can have the effect of retarding the development of mobility, hand function, language and communication and socialisation.

Let’s take a brief look at this. If a child’s visual development is delayed or stopped, then language development, socialisation, mobility and hand function can be affected. Mobility speaks for itself, if a child cannot see it could be dangerous to move. Language and socialisation development will be affected because the child will not be able to complete the essential developmental stages of making eye – contact, regulating mutual attention and will not be able to see the face of a communicating partner. All of which are vital precursors to the development of language and socialisation.
If a child’s auditory development is affected then it is obvious that language and consequently socialisation, which in turn depends so much on language development, will also be affected. The development of spoken language is dependent upon exposure to spoken language. If tactile development is affected then mobility and hand function will also be problem areas. If you cannot feel where your body, limbs and hands are, then you will have difficulty in the conscious control of them. So we can see how important sensory development is in enabling other developmental functions to operate normally.

Sleeping, – There are two categories of children to talk about here, the first is the child who cannot sleep. The second is the child who can sleep but does not do so at the correct times. The effect is the same for the parents who have to stay awake to ensure the child’s well-being. In the first category, the child has a neurological reason why he cannot sleep, – he perhaps for some reason does not produce enough serotonin, or maybe he overproduces ‘noradrenaline.’ In the second category it could be the child’s body clock which is askew, or it might be sensory oversensitivity which is preventing him from sleeping. Ultimately this child will sleep, usually when he collapses from exhaustion.

Teeth, Dental problems can occur, especially if the child is hypersensitive to touch in his mouth, or if he produces excess saliva, or grinds his teeth.

Teeth grinding, – Apart from being like the Chinese water torture for the person having to listen to it, this can cause dental pain for the child who does it. Often, it is done when the child feels stressed and more often than not is linked to overproduction of saliva.

Can Cerebral Palsy be Treated?

The answer to this problem is an emphatic ‘yes!’ Snowdrop treats many children who have all types of cerebral palsy. We believe that treatment in the past has either focussed upon treating symptoms, -which is why it has failed, or it has focussed upon erroneous theories about the way in which the brain works and how children develop. Indeed, we point to plentiful evidence in the literature, which can be seen in my book, ‘Brain Injured Children: Tapping the Potential Within,’ which prove these systems of treatment to be failures.

We point to the fact that our system of treatment, which we call ‘neuro-cognitive therapy,’ is informed by the evidential findings of eminent researchers such as Vygotsky, Bruner, Rogoff, Dunn, Woods and Mercer to name but a few.

Our approach is based upon certain irrefutable facts concerning brain function, which are applied to the treatment of children’s developmental difficulties. The first of these is brain plasticity. It is now unchallengeable that the brain is capable of changing its structure and functioning in response to the environment in which it finds itself. We can see this in the growth of new synaptic connections and the pruning of inefficient ones.

The question then is, what do I mean by ‘environment’ and how can we manipulate this variable in order to encourage the brain to respond in the way we wish?

The brain takes in information from the sensory environment, through the eyes, ears, nose, mouth and skin. It processes this information and then re-routes it to the appropriate part of the cortex for further attention, evaluation and action. When the brain is working as it should, then all of this is achieved with the maximum efficiency, without us noticing what is going on. However, as both you and I are aware, the brain does not always work as it should.

In many children with cerebral palsy, this sensory information has great difficulty in reaching the relevant part of the brain at all, or if it does, the signal has been weakened sufficiently so that processing becomes almost impossible. In other children, the sensory stimuli is passed to the cortex for processing in a distorted manner and the child is overwhelmed by the world it perceives.

These ‘distortions of sensory processing’ are primary problems which affect many neuro-developmental conditions, not just cerebral palsy. What I try to do is to manipulate the sensory environment to which the child is exposed in order to encourage the regions of the brain which are responsible for processing the sensory stimuli, (the sensory attentional filter of the brain, – the ascending reticular activating system, the thalamus and the limbic areas), to re-tune and to process information more normally. I do this sometimes by providing an adapted sensory environment designed to dampen the incoming sensory stimuli (in cases where children are hypersensitive) and sometimes by designing activities intended to enrich sensory experience. In this way, because as I have said, we know as fact that the brain grows new synapses and prunes disused ones, we can influence not only brain function, but it’s development.

Another aspect of my approach is aimed at any learning difficulties the child might have and is informed by research from Vygotskian psychology. Recent research has provided ample evidence concerning how children learn. (unfortunately, often children do not learn in the manner by which schools teach)

As I have already pointed out, the research findings which inform my work in this field are all provided by respected, mainstream psychologists so you know in advance that I am not operating some ‘fly by night’ fanciful theory on brain plasticity and learning; – everything I do has an evidential basis.

Basically, utilising Vygotky’s concept of the ‘zone of proximal development,’ I look at the child’s current developmental level in terms of his / her cognitive development and reinforce this. I then look at the next stage of development for the child (his proximal development) and in recognition that learning is a social activity, provide support to enable him to attain that ability (this support is Bruner’s concept of ‘Scaffolding.’). This may also entail breaking the developmental task down into smaller, simpler sub-components thus enabling the child to succeed. As the child improves his functioning at the desired task, the scaffolding (support) is gradually removed until he is performing the desired task automatically. This is not just the way in which children learn, – this is the way we all learn.

What does a Snowdrop programme look like?

This would depend upon the specific difficulties faced by a child and how much time the family could practicably spend on it. It might consist of as little as thirty minutes of structured stimulation per day, up to two hours per day. The programme consists of a series of activities, each lasting a few minutes, which are designed to stimulate development in the seven major areas, visual, auditory, tactile, language, mobility and social development, in addition to the seventh, – hand function. What the programme is designed to do is to ameliorate the symptoms of developmental delay in all these areas of development.

Where do I go from here?

After many years as a parent of a profoundly brain-injured child, almost as many years in academic research and working in schools with children who have special educational needs, I decided the time had arrived to fulfil a long held ambition. Having travelled internationally to clinics, both as a parent and as a researcher, I have become aware of just how little of the vast amount of knowledge possessed by the discipline of psychology is being applied to the treatment of children with cerebral palsy.

I have personal experience and knowledge of the serious consequences for the family, which the presence of a child with cerebral palsy can bring, not least of all the problem of stress, which family members bear. As I have previously stated, a child with brain-injuries, with his myriad of associated difficulties, is likely to create tired, stressed parents, – understandably so! This needs to be taken into account when dealing with the family and in this sense, we are not merely treating the brain-injury, nor merely the child; – We are treating the whole family and if we are to have a significant impact upon the problems presented by cerebral palsy and other brain-injuries, we must surely do so!
With these thoughts in mind, and having worked alongside parents and brain-injured children for many years, I have established a child development consultancy called ‘Snowdrop.’ Snowdrop is already successfully treating many children (and adults) both in the UK and in many other countries.

My personal crusade is to ensure that Snowdrop remains ‘research friendly’ and eclectic. By this, I mean we should not develop a set philosophy or rationale, which will effect our methodology. – Down that road lies academic egoism and inflexibility, which I have witnessed at so many other institutions and which would lead to stagnation. We should always look to research and to evidence to provide our treatment methods and not be afraid to change.

It is my hope that this short text has been informative and that most of all it has given parent some good information about cerebral palsy and also some hope that their children can make progress! To make an appointment, simply use the contact details below.

Apples and Acid Reflux – Does it Really Works?

Apples as a cure for acid reflux are becoming popular in medical circles. People suffering from hyperacidity know how difficult the condition can be. Heartburn, ulcers and even stomach cancer are some of the complications of hyperacidity. Popping pills every time a bout of acidity occurs is hardly a solution, considering the fact that it may be a frequent occurrence. As such, a lot of people are trying home remedies that will help them to treat this condition.

Most people wonder whether apples really work. Though it is true that there has been no clinical research yet to provide any hard proof about apples and acid reflux, a lot of people have been tried it and they are happy about the results. The mechanism of action is that your stomach produces acids in order to digest the food you eat. Apples are a natural antacid because they are alkaline. As such, eating apples lowers the levels of acids in the stomach. This means that the acid can not rise to the esophagus, thus suppressing hyperacidity.

There are a lots of medications available in the market for hyperacidity but taking them on a regular basis is neither healthy nor advisable. A lot of people have been reportedly been helped by the apples. If you are suffering from reflux disease then it is a smart idea to try apples. The best thing about it is that apples are hardly harmful so you need not to be scared of any side effects, as in the case of medications. So if you are looking for a lifelong solution then this is the only remedy which can help you. Follow a healthy lifestyle with a balanced diet and lots of exercise and you may not need any type of medications.

Apples and Acid Reflux – Does it Really Works?

Apples as a cure for acid reflux are becoming popular in medical circles. People suffering from hyperacidity know how difficult the condition can be. Heartburn, ulcers and even stomach cancer are some of the complications of hyperacidity. Popping pills every time a bout of acidity occurs is hardly a solution, considering the fact that it may be a frequent occurrence. As such, a lot of people are trying home remedies that will help them to treat this condition.

Most people wonder whether apples really work. Though it is true that there has been no clinical research yet to provide any hard proof about apples and acid reflux, a lot of people have been tried it and they are happy about the results. The mechanism of action is that your stomach produces acids in order to digest the food you eat. Apples are a natural antacid because they are alkaline. As such, eating apples lowers the levels of acids in the stomach. This means that the acid can not rise to the esophagus, thus suppressing hyperacidity.

There are a lots of medications available in the market for hyperacidity but taking them on a regular basis is neither healthy nor advisable. A lot of people have been reportedly been helped by the apples. If you are suffering from reflux disease then it is a smart idea to try apples. The best thing about it is that apples are hardly harmful so you need not to be scared of any side effects, as in the case of medications. So if you are looking for a lifelong solution then this is the only remedy which can help you. Follow a healthy lifestyle with a balanced diet and lots of exercise and you may not need any type of medications.

Inguinal hernia

What is an inguinal hernia?
An inguinal hernia is a protrusion of a loop of intestine into the groin or scrotum through a ‘hole’ in the lower abdominal wall. It is common in baby boys and older men. Only 10 per cent of inguinal hernia patients are female.
What causes an inguinal hernia and who is at risk?
There are different types of inguinal hernia:
Men may have an indirect inguinal hernia – a channel in the “inguinal” canal (which links the testes in the scrotum to the rest of the male reproductive organs in the lower abdomen).
In either sex, a gap in the lower abdominal wall may result from weakening of the abdominal wall muscles and tissues.
The indirect inguinal hernia is typically seen in babies, and also occurs in men of all ages. The channel in the inguinal canal is present from birth.
What are the common symptoms and complications of an inguinal hernia?
An inguinal hernia produces a soft lump in the groin or scrotum, which can usually be pushed back into the abdomen. The lump can vary in size from a tiny grape- sized lump to a huge lump as big as a grapefruit or even bigger.
Sometimes the lump will stay in the abdomen if supported by a hand or a special type of corset called a ‘truss’. All inguinal hernias that can be pushed back into the abdomen are referred to as ‘reducible’.
Some inguinal hernias are effectively stuck in the ‘hole’. These are referred to as ‘irreducible’ hernias. This is a potentially dangerous condition as the blood supply to the hernia can become blocked and the hernia loses its source of oxygen and nutrients and starts to die.
What happens before surgery for inguinal repair?
You may be asked to visit the hospital one to two weeks before the date of your surgery, to have a preoperative interview with a nurse and/ or the anaesthetist.
If you are taking aspirin- containing medicines or anticoagulants, they may need to be temporarily withdrawn or reduced in dose for two weeks before the procedure. Try to stop smoking at least six to eight weeks prior to surgery.
What is the treatment for an inguinal hernia?
Self-care action plan

maintaining muscle strength by taking regular daily exercise

avoiding constipation by eating a healthy high-fibre diet that contains plenty of fruit, vegetables and wholemeal bread and drinking plenty of water

not smoking to avoid a smoker’s cough

losing weight if overweight

using mechanical means for lifting or carrying heavy loads or making sure that only safe lifting and carrying techniques are used

Once a hernia has formed it is important to seek a doctor’s advice. Ultimately, all inguinal hernias need to be treated by surgery because they can become strangulated.
Surgery
Keyhole surgery can lead to a more rapid recovery and return to everyday activity and work than conventional surgery because there is less damage to the abdominal wall. But keyhole surgery must not be taken lightly because, despite the small wounds on the surface of the body, surgery is performed internally with the tissues inside the body being cut and sewn together. Although recovery time after keyhole surgery is shorter than after conventional surgery, the tissues still need time to heal.
When patients are discharged home, they are usually given written instructions about the care they need, how they should look after themselves, And when to see a doctor.