Paralysis From Spinal Cord Injuries

The spinal column encases a bundle of nerves called the spinal cord that make up a very important part of your nervous system. While your backbone does a good job to protect your spinal cord, serious accidents such as elevated falls and car wrecks can break through the spine’s defenses and sever the important nerves of the spinal cord. This can cause paralysis that is often permanent.

The brain is responsible for gathering and processing sensory information so that you can react accordingly. The spinal cord contains nerves that collect information before sending it to the brain and that carry out the brain’s orders for voluntary or involuntary movement. Thus, a spinal nerve injury can not only rob you of voluntary movement, but it can also prevent you from breathing on your own.

The spinal nerves can suffer damage in several different ways. First, with traumatic spinal injuries, the spinal column may be torn if the backbone itself is broken. Additionally, if something goes through the vertebrae and pierces the spinal cord itself, the delicate nerves can be torn beyond repair. Also, nerve damage that causes paralysis can result from drugs as well as different disorders.

Paralysis is often divided into two different categories: quadriplegia and paraplegia. Paraplegia occurs when the legs or lower half of the body suffers from paralysis. If the nerves are damaged in your mid- to lower back, called the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, anything below this point can lose both movement and feeling.

On the other hand, total paralysis is called quadriplegia. Quadriplegia occurs when the spinal cord is damaged much higher up, for example, at the neck. The nerves that control both your arms and legs must come through the cervical vertebrae of the neck, which is why damage to this area can be so devastating.

Paralysis, both quadriplegic and paraplegic, can rob you of your normal life. If you suffer from either quadriplegia or paraplegia due to another person’s carelessness, you should not let this go unpunished.

All About Hiatal Hernias

Hiatal hernias occur when part of the stomach pushes up through the diaphragm and into the chest cavity. There are several different types of hiatal hernias that can lead to uncomfortable feelings like heartburn, which may require medication to alleviate.

Normally, the diaphragm separates the chest cavity from the abdomen. A hernia happens when a portion of the stomach forces its way up into a small opening in the diaphragm that allows the esophagus to pass through, called the hiatus. This is usually caused when the muscles and tissue around the hiatus weaken.

There are three different types of hiatal hernias: sliding, paraesophageal, and mixed. A sliding hernia is characterized by movement of the upper stomach into the chest cavity so that the valve that separates the stomach and esophagus is forced up and above the diaphragm. This valve is called the lower esophageal sphincter, and it is in charge of keeping your stomach acid or food from flowing back up into your esophagus.

Paraesophageal hernias are typically more severe than sliding hernias. While the lower esophageal typically stays in place, but the stomach is squeezed up above the chest cavity, where it can remain until surgery. This allows time for a person to develop complications. Additionally, someone can sustain a mixed hiatal hernia where the lower esophageal sphincter is above the diaphragm like in a sliding hernia, but the stomach is pressed into the esophagus like a paraesophageal movement.

It can be difficult to correctly determine if you have a hiatal hernia because its symptoms often mimic those of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and heart problems. Sliding hiatal hernias may be accompanied by heartburn since the lower esophageal sphincter may be impaired in its ability to keep stomach acid from washing up into the esophagus.

Treating hiatal hernias depends on the severity of your problem. If you have only mild symptoms, doctors will probably only suggest lifestyle changes and over the counter medication to help you. Avoiding food that increases a production of stomach acid can aid you in avoiding acid reflux. If problems are severe, you may need stronger medication or even surgery.

However, sometimes doctors prescribe the drug Reglan to treat hiatal hernias that involve chronic acid reflux. The active chemical in Reglan, metoclopramide, has been linked to permanent disorders such as tardive dyskinesia. This can leave a person with hallucinations and uncontrollable muscle movements for the rest of his or her life.

If you or someone you know has suffered this type of negative effect after taking Reglan, you should speak to a lawyer about your rights. For more information, talk to the Reglan attorneys at the law firm of Williams Kherkher today.

Are You Insulin Resistant?

Do you have the signs of being Insulin Resistant? Are you pre-diabetic?

Do you have heart disease, high blood pressure or high cholesterol levels?

Are you gaining weight around your middle even though you’re dieting?

Are you depressed or chronically tired?

Do you have Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome?

Do you have non-viral Chronic Fatigue or Fibro-myalgia?

If you have one or more of these symptoms, you just might be Insulin Resistant.

What is Insulin Resistance?

Insulin is a hormone that is produced by your pancreas to help the body to utilise sugars in your diet, it helps the glucose (sugar) pass from your blood into your cells. Once it is in your cells, it is either used to fuel muscles or stored as fat for future needs.

Insulin resistance happens when a diet high in carbohydrates forces the cells to resist the flood of carbohydrates and all that glucose just stays in the blood, and not only do you now have high blood sugar which is the forerunner to diabetes, the pancreas continues to produce more insulin and you now have insulin overload as well.

What are the symptoms of Insulin Resistance?

  • Fatigue

  • Brain fogginess and inability to focus. Sometimes the fatigue is physical, but often it’s mental

  • Low blood sugar. Mild, brief periods of low blood sugar are normal during the day, especially if meals are not eaten on a regular schedule. But prolonged hypoglycaemia with some of the symptoms listed here, especially physical and mental fatigue, are not normal. Feeling agitated, jittery, moody, nauseated, or having a headache is common in Insulin Resistance, with almost immediate relief once food is eaten

  • Intestinal bloating. Most intestinal gas is produced from carbohydrates in the diet. Insulin Resistance sufferers who eat carbohydrates suffer from gas, lots of it

  • Sleepiness. Many people with Insulin Resistance get sleepy immediately after eating a meal containing more than 20% or 30% carbohydrates

  • Weight gain, fat storage, difficulty losing weight. For most people, too much weight is too much fat. The fat in IR is generally stored around the midsection in both males and females

  • Increased triglycerides

  • Increased blood pressure. It is a fact that most people with hypertension have too much insulin and are Insulin Resistant. It is often possible to show a direct relationship between the level of insulin and blood pressure: as insulin levels elevate so does blood pressure
  • Depression. Because carbohydrates are a natural “downer,” depressing the brain, it is not uncommon to see many depressed persons who also have Insulin Resistance.**

    Other Signs of Metabolic Syndrome

    WHO Criteria – the World Health Organization bases it’s definition on the above, plus two of the following:

    • High blood pressure (>=140 mm Hg systolic or >=90 mm Hg diastolic) or taking blood pressure medication
    • Plasma triglycerides >=150 mg/dL (>=1.7 mmol/L)
    • HDL cholesterol <35 mg/dL (<0.9 mmol/L) in men or <39 mg/dL (1.0 mmol/L) in women
    • BMI greater than 30 and/or waist:hip ratio >0.9 in men, >0.85 in women
    • Urinary albumin excretion rate >=20 µg/min or albumin:creatinine ratio >=30 mg/g
    • American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists criteria are similar, but with some different cutoffs, and no particular number of factors required for diagnosis:

      • High blood pressure (>=130 mm Hg systolic or >=85 mm Hg diastolic) or taking blood pressure medication
      • Plasma triglycerides >=150 mg/dL (>=1.7 mmol/L)
      • HDL cholesterol <40 mg/dL (<0.9 mmol/L) in men or <50 mg/dL (1.0 mmol/L) in women
      • BMI greater than 25
      • Other risk factors including:

        • Family history of Type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, or heart disease
        • Ethnic groups with an increased incidence of Type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, or heart disease
        • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
        • Sedentary lifestyle
        • Advancing age
        • How is it diagnosed?

          First of all see your doctor, for a full panel of tests, including: Glucose Tolerance Test (2 hour), Lipid Profile (LDL, HDL, Cholesterol, Triglycerides), Insulin Levels (you may show both high blood sugar and high Insulin).

          And may include: Plasma Cortisol, Catecholamines, Blood Pressure test, Full Blood profile, C-Peptide.

          What can be done?

          First of all the good new is Insulin Resistance can be controlled by diet, this is a whole new lifestyle, not a diet that you do for a few weeks or months. A whole new way of eating and exercising is needed. If you need more help there are some drug treatments and supplements that can greatly help with the challenge of getting your insulin and blood sugar under control. The great new is that once you have changed your lifestyle, most if not all of your previous health challenges will often disappear completely.

          For more information on Insulin Resistance and the Lifestyle choices you need to make please see “Sick, Tired and Overweight” and “A Rainbow on My Plate” on our website.

          **This is not a guide to the various types of depression and in no way constitutes a medical diagnosis or recommendation.

          Quick Guide to Metabolic Syndrome

          Symptoms and Markers

          • Growing waist measurement (Buddha Belly)

          • High blood pressure
          • Heart and Circulatory problems
          • Inflammation (pain e.g. muscles, arthritis, etc..)
          • Low energy (chronic fatigue)
          • Depression

          • Hypo/Hyperglycaemia (blood sugar irregularites)
          • Diabetes
          • PCOS
          • Brain Fog
          • High Cholesterol and LDL’s
          • Weight gain that is difficult to budge
          • Recommendations

            • Low Carbohydrate lifestyle (Rainbow on My Plate)

            • Exercise regularly
            • Drink Water (1.5 to 3.0 litres per day)
            • See your doctor (monitoring, blood tests, insulin sensitising drugs)
            • Supplements (Chromium, Fish Oil, Pro, Fit, NingXia)
            • An Overview Of The Vertebral Augmentation (Kyphoplasty) Procedure

              Vertebral augmentation is a confusing term. It is an outpatient procedure that is used to treat spinal fractures, called compression fractures, that often occur from osteoporosis and are painful in a lot of cases. The vertebral body, when fractured, will often lose height, and patients often have significant pain with decreased ability to function.

              The term augmentation refers to injecting a substance into the fractured bone to augment the vertebra and alleviate pain. The original procedure that was invented and still performed is called a vertebroplasty. The vertebroplasty procedure injects bone cement under pressure which fills the crevices and interstices of the bone for stabilization and hence pain relief. The only problem is with the pressure of cement injection, the liquid cement may go where it's not supposed to prior to hardening.

              The augmentation procedure differs a bit. Once the instrument is carefully placed into the compression fracture under xray guidance, a balloon is introduced into the fracture area and expanded. This creates a bony void as the fracture fragments are pushed away. Once accomplished, cement is then injected under low pressure into this bony void, stabilizing the fracture just like a vertebroplasty does. The vertebral augmentation procedure is often referred to as a kyphoplasty.

              The procedure may or may not allow for some height to be restored to the fracture. This has not been borne out in the literature yet to matter for resultant clinical benefit. Both the vertebroplasty and vertebral augmentation procedures have been shown in the literature to both have excellent results with small risks (although these risks are very real).

              Prior to undergoing the procedure, it may be prudent for a patient to try a spinal brace or other nonsurgical methods of pain relief.

              Paracentral Disk Protrusion – What is That and How Do I Get Rid of It?

              The term "paracentral disc protrusion" is can be explained by taking a separate look at the words it is made of:

              • Paracentral – This term comes from the Greek words "para" & "kentron" and means next to the center of something.
              • Disc – Also of Greek origin: "diskos", which means disc (I think this one's clear …)
              • Protrusion – This one comes from the Latin term "protrudere" which stands for pushing something through.

              And now let's summarize: roughly, you have got a paracentral disc protrusion when one of your discs (the jelly-like thing that you have between each two of your back bones) is somehow squeezed or pushed out of it's natural position and touches a spinal nerve. This can either happen (a) as a result of repeated strains and injuries of the same spot or (b) as a consequence of a traumatic event.

              Paracentral Disc Protrusion and the Pain

              A disc protrusion can go unnoticed in some cases, meaning the patient does not feel any pain or discomfort. Unfortunately in most of the cases this is not the case, and the whole situation can become quite painful.

              There are several treatment possibilities to relieve the acute pain: pain-killers, relaxants, anti inflammatory drugs, ice and heat packs, physiotherapy and even surgery. These methods, however, only help combat the symptoms, and not the real root cause of the problem.

              In order to get rid of the pain for good there has to be some more understanding of the underlying condition. Each patient has a very specific and unique muscle imbalance that has to be completely figured out so a targeted treatment can be started.

              Hemorrhagic Proliferative Proventriculitis and Gizzard Erosion

              Hemorrhagic Proliferative Proventriculitis and Gizzard Erosion.

              Dr.Kedar Karki

              Summery:

              A new disease condition has emerged affecting replacement pullets. It affects the birds

              between 2 to 10 weeks of age. The mortality rate varies between 1 to 10% and ultimately the flock is left with creation of several small poorly feathered and pale chicks. Though it has not been possible to establish the exact cause of this condition, following three points has been taken in consideration.

              ?HPPGE is an illness that involves one or more

              infectious agents. ?The digestive tract and endocrine organs may be

              primary targets for these agents.?The spectrum of signs or lesions are either caused

              by or exacerbated by nutritional, husbandry and

              hygienic factors.

              The response to the treatment is often poor but the symptomatic treatment has helped in

              ameliorating the mortality. Similar condition has been widely reported in broilers

              under various names like

              Malabsorption syndrome, infectious Proventriculitis, infectious runting syndrome, pale bird syndrome and stunting syndrome.

              Review of Litrature:

              Etiology: Non Infectious Factors.

              Dietary Biogenic Amines (DBA).

              High levels of DBA’s like histamine, 3HT, 5HT,histidine, dopamine, gizzerosine and serotonine, can be found in dietary constituents such as tankage fish meal, corn screening, soyabean meal, vitamin premixes, fats, poultry meal, meat and bone meal. The biogenic

              amines are decarboxylation breakdown products of amino acid catabolism and these amines are considered toxic to animals. The potential for biogenic amine build-up is real in animal by product meal and is the result of breakdown of the product. Histamine is produced in the poultry feed under proper temperature and moisture conditions by microbial decarboxylation of histidine. Reduced growth, poor feathering and proventricular enlargement have been associated with histamine toxicity in chickens. Histamine toxin problem in chicken generally

              has been associated with the intake of fish meal which contain high level of histidine

              Gizzerosine is a compound found in overheated fish meal due to interaction of caesine with histidine and acts as a factor causing gizzard erosion or ulceration in chicks. It can also be formed if the temperature of fish meal increases by incorrect handling during transportation or storage particularly in hot weather. Then gizzerosine concentration of burnt fish meal

              would be low because of degradation of protein. However it is also likely that fish meal with good colour, odour, taste and physical properties may contain

              a large enough quantity of gizzerosine.

              Gizzerosine stimulates proventricular gland secretarycells to release excessive hydrochloric acid. Gizzard lesions result from the runway digestive effects of hyperacidity. Opportunistic bacteria may subsequently colonise the nutrient rich biodetrius. The cells of the glandular alveoli of the proventriculus secrete hydrochloric acids and pepsinogen (pepsin) which is a digestive enzyme required for initial digestion of proteins. Any lesion in the preventricular glands will interfere with the secretion of pepsin with subsequent impairment of

              protein digestion and utilisation. The results are poor production performance, unthriftiness and poor feed conversion. This could also explain why some of the birds affected with this condition pass undigested or poorly digested feed in faeces.

              Mycotoxins

              T2 toxin produced by fusarium is a caustic irritant. It causes necrosis of mucosa of proventriculus, gizzard and feather epithelium. Citrinin which is basically a nephrotoxin can also cause fissures in the gizzard

              Oosporein – In oosporein poisoning one may notice that the proventriculus has enlarged circumference at the isthumus and the mucosa is covered with pseudomembranous exudate (necrosis may occur at the isthumus).

              Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) – Lesions occur in proventriculus, gizzard, liver and spleen. The

              proventriculus is dialated and the mucosa is thickened by hyperplasia and ulceration. Mucosal necrosis may occur in gizzard.

              Infectious Factors

              Adenovirus – According to case reports, gizzard erosion is characterised by adenovirus intranuclear inclusion bodies in epithelial cells. Reovirus infection could be a factor in the pathogenesis of histamine associated proventricular enlargement.

              A Reo virus strain (SS 412 stain) was isolated from an outbreak of proventriculitis/malabsorption of syndrome; the role of this reovirus strain in that outbreak was proven in

              experimental studies. Further studies have demonstrated that chicks from breeder hens which

              have been vaccinated with oil imulsion SS 412 virus vaccine were protected against. Proventriculitis following experimental challenge with the SS 412 reovirus strain.

              Anaerobic bacteria like clostridia are sometimes found as secondary invaders resulting in either ulcerative enteritis or necrotic hepatitis. It will be interesting to study the effect of viruses also since both of them cause the lesions in the proventriculus.

              Other Factors

              Rather than ameliorating the effects of MAS, vitamin A caused a further reduction in body weight and bone ash according to a study. Supplementation of vitamin E significantly reduced both mortality and the effects of disease in body weight gain in an outbreak of pale bird syndrome in broiler chicks of 3 weeks. Amino acid imbalance (lysine and

              methoinine especially), excess dietary copper sulfate, lack of dietary fibre, deprivation of food and water have also been found to be responsible for the HPPGE.

              Lesions

              Proventriculi lose their normal flusiform shape and normal constriction at the junction with gizzard are diffusely enlarged and have a thickened and turgidwall. Thickening of the wall is more marked upon incising the proventriculus.The proventricular glands protrude irregularly from the mucosal surface, lose their normal pattern and contain milky fluid that could be expressed with slight pressure. The gizzard is often smaller than normal and

              flabby. The gizzard peels off easily with haemorrhagic ulceration of the gizzard wall.

              Treatment

              ?Firstly ensure optimum space per bird in the grower house. Remove excess numbers of birds if the flock is overcrowded.

              ?Change the litter if it is saturated.

              ?Stop the use of animal protein and substitute with vegetable protein sources.

              ?Supplementation of antitoxin preparations along with high doses of vitamin E, liver tonics, digestion stimulants, antifungal and toxin binders show remarkable recovery in the flock in 5 to 7 days.

              ?Use of Anti-degnala liquor in water must be looked into?

              ?Addition of gut acting antibiotics to check multiplication of anaerobes like clostridial bacteria.

              ?Control the hyper-acidity with antacids like ranitidine, aluminium hydroxide etc. through water: The result is quite encouraging.

              ?It is necessary to correct the dietary amino acid balance, crude fiber level, calcium and phosphorus etc.

              ?Addition of enzymes to the feed since pancreatic activity also seems to be adversely affected in HPPGE.

              ?It is essential to establish the involvement of Reo- or adenoviruses and do the necessary amendments in the breeder vaccination schedule.

              References:

              Cause of gizzard erosion and Proventriculitis in broilers. Dr Manuel Contreras and Dr Douglas Zavieso Poultry International July 2006 pp16-20

              Cyclopiazonic acid production by Aspergillus flavus and its effects on broiler chickens. J W Dorner, R J Cole, L G Lomax, H S Gosser, and U L Diener Appl Environ Microbiol. 1983 September; 46(3): 698–703.

              DISEASES OF POULTRY Martin D. Ficken, D.V.M., Ph.D., Dip. A.C.V.P., A.C.P.V. College of Veterinary Medicine North Carolina State Universit Raleigh, North Carolina

              Feed Passage in Broilers – A Complex Problem G. D. Butcher, DVM, Ph.D., A. H. Nilipour, Ph.D., R. D. Miles, Ph.D. University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine, Gainesville, FL., Amir H. Nilipour, PhD, Director of Investigation and Quality Assurance, Grupo Melo, S.A., Panama, Republic of Panama .

              http://www.wattnet.com/Archives/Docs/701pi36.pdf?CFID=25710&CFTOKEN=74030876 gizzard erosion Proventriculitis poultry A new disease condition has emerged affecting replacement pullets in India. — By Dr. Avinash Dhawale

              Treat Postherpetic Neuralgia With Natural Remedies And Avoid Pharmaceutical Side Effects

              Why on earth would you take a drug with the following side effects?

              Dizziness, sleepiness, eyesight problems, blurry vision, weight gain, swelling of hands and feet, unexplained muscle pain, soreness or weakness along with fever or tired feeling; skin sores, trouble concentrating and dry mouth.

              It is hard to imagine a pain so bad that you would trade it for a series of side effects that are not just possible but are likely. The answer is nerve pain. In a magazine advertisement seven of these side effects were described as common for a pharmaceutical drug used as a treatment for Postherpetic Neuralgia (PHN) which is a nerve pain that lingers after a bout of shingles.

              Postherpetic Neuralgia is described by the Merck Manual as a "constant deep aching or burning, a sharp or intermittent pain or as hypersensitivity to touch or cold. The pain may be debilitating." This lingering nerve pain is more likely to occur in the elderly and it often diminishes in time.

              Here are some natural alternatives to try before submitting yourself to the toxic side effects of a manufactured pharmaceutical.

              Red chilli peppers contain two compounds called salicylates and capsaicin. Both of these chemicals are capable of providing pain relief. Salicylates are aspirin-like compounds that have been used for over 100 years to treat inflammation and pain. Capsaicin is a compound that encourages the production endorphins, the body's own pain killers. So try consuming more chilli pepper in your diet.

              Capsaicin is also used in creams such as Zostrix or Capzasin-P. When applied to the skin capsaicin creams inhibit the transmission of pain by depleting your nerves of a chemical called "substance-P". These creams are available over the counter and can counteract Postherpetic Neuralgia.

              Willow bark, another aspirin-like herb also contains salicin or related salicylates. Use Willow Bark to make a tea. You will need to experiment with the strenth of this tea until you get effective pain relief.

              The herbs peppermint and rosemary along with the spice ginger contain compounds that reduce pain. Ginger and the related root turmeric also act to reduce inflammation that causes pain. You can combine peppermint, rosemary, ginger and willow bark to make a pain-relieving tea or drink these teas individually. You can also use such teas as a poultice to apply directly to painful areas.

              To be effective as a treatment for inflammation, turmeric must be consumed in larger quantities. As much as 10 grams of ground turmeric may be required. In parts of Asia, turmeric juice mixed with honey is consumed as a daily health tonic and current research indicates that its anti-inflammatory properties may be responsible for the low incident of Alzheimer's disease in India. This author regularly blends a thumb size piece of fresh turmeric root with enough spring water and the juice of a lemon to make one to two 8-ounce glasses of an effective migraine remedy. This is a strong tasting tonic and it may require a touch honey or agave nectar to make it palatable.

              The sedative herb passionflower consumed as a tea can also help with Postherpetic Neuralgia.

              Lavendar, eucalyptus and peppermint essential oils are also effective pain killers when applied externally. Essential oils must be mixed with a light vegetable oil before application.

              In addition to treating the pain of Postherpetic Neuralgia, one should take care to boost the immune system since it is a weakened immunity that enables the dormant zoster virus to replicate and cause shingles in the first place. After the shingles episode is over and the blisters have healed, Postherpetic Neuralgia may persist because your immune system continues to be depressed. Boost your immune system with vitamin B12, B-Complex, high levels of vitamin C along with bioflavonoids (eat brightly colored fruits and vegetables), and calcium. Herbal supplements to boost immune system include astragalus, echinacea, and fresh ginger tea. Turmeric is also known for boosting the immune system.

              As with all medicinal remedies use essential oils, spices and herbs with caution. Start with small amounts to test for allergic reactions. Some herbs, spices and oils are not suitable for use by children or pregnant women. And please consult a trained health practitioner.

              What is Bile Reflux

              We are all familiar with the condition acid reflux Bile reflux is another condition that is not discussed as much, but is very similar and sometimes can be confused with acid reflux.

              First, let me educate you a little bit about what bile is. Bile is a digestive fluid produced in the liver. Some of the components that make up bile are:

              * Water
              * Cholesterol
              * Bile pigments
              * Bile salts

              Bile is placed in the gallbladder and while eating is discharged into the duodenum where the bile aids the process of digestion of fats.

              Bile reflux is the result of bile that travels up from your small intestine into your stomach and esophagus BR is sometimes confused with acid reflux because a person can experience some of the same symptoms and bile (like GERD) irritates the lining of your esophagus, potentially increasing your risk of esophageal cancer.

              One thing that makes bile reflux different from acid reflux is that it can’t be treated with little lifestyle changes or diet. It has to be treated with prescribed medication or, in severe cases, with surgery.

              Another thing that makes BR different is this condition irritates the stomach, which causes a gnawing or burning sensation in your upper abdomen.

              Because acid reflux and BR are pretty similar it can sometimes be a bit confusing to identify the symptoms. Here are a few symptoms that will help you to detect BR:

              * Nausea
              * Vomiting bile
              * Hoarseness
              * Unintentional weight loss

              Some of the causes of this condition are a peptic ulcer and gallbladder removal. A peptic ulcer obstructs the pyloric valve. When this happens the valve doesn’t open enough to allow your stomach to empty as quickly as it should.

              As a result, foods and beverages will lead to increased gastric pressure that causes the refluxed bile and stomach acid to back up into your esophagus.

              If you had your gallbladder removed then there’s a good chance that your body produces more bile than those who haven’t had their gallbladders removed.

              Diagnosing BR is a more difficult procedure than acid reflux, so it requires more exams. Your doctor will also check for damage to your esophagus and for any pre-cancerous changes. Here are some of the exams doctors use to diagnose BR:

              * Ambulatory Acid Tests – These exams use an acid-measuring probe to identify when, and for how long, acid regurgitates into your esophagus. Ambulatory acid tests are negative in people with bile reflux.

              * Endoscopy – In this test, your doctor places a thin, flexible tube with a light and camera (endoscope) down your throat. The endoscope can show ulcerations or inflammation in your stomach or esophagus and can reveal a peptic ulcer.

              * Esophageal impedance – Rather than measuring acid, this test can measure whether gas or liquids reflux into the esophagus. It’s helpful for people who have regurgitation of substances that aren’t acidic and therefore wouldn’t be detected by a pH probe.

              If not properly treated there can be some serious complications to your health. BR and GERD can cause serious harm to the tissue in your esophagus. The combination of these two conditions can cause other problems like:

              * Heartburn
              * Esophageal narrowing
              * Barrett’s esophagus
              * Esophageal cancer
              * Gastritis

              As I said before lifestyle changes can’t control BR. One prescribed medication that is more used to treat BR is Ursodeoxycholic acid. This medication helps promote bile flow. UA will also help to reduce the constant symptoms and the severity of pain.

              Even though proton pump inhibitors (or PPI’s) are used to treat symptoms of acid reflux, the main reason for these type medicines is to reduce acid production, that may also help to reduce BR.

              If taking medicine doesn’t help or if there are pre-cancerous changes in your esophagus, then your next option is to try surgery. Diversion is a type of surgery that doctors use to treat BR.

              Your doctor will make make a new connection for bile drainage further down in your intestine, thereby diverting bile away from your stomach. This procedure is known as Roux-en-Y (roo-en-wi).

              Because some types of operations are often more successful than others, it’s always a good idea to discuss the pros and cons very carefully with your doctor.

              Ayurvedic Home Remedies for Ear Infections and Aches

              The ear is a very sensitive organ; it is the house of one of the most important senses of the human body – the auditory sense. Due to its delicate nature, there are several problems that can occur with the human ear. One of the most common problems occurs when the ear gets infected. In severe cases, pus formation may occur. Such inflammations of the ear commonly occur in children.

              All ear infections and aches are collectively known as Putikarna in Ayurveda. They are generally caused due to vitiation of the kapha dosha, which is the body element that coordinates the earth and water elements of the body. Hence a person with ear problems must take care not to aggravate the kapha dosha further.

              The cold season is generally associated with ear problems. In some people, ear aches infections are associated with common colds which are caused at the onset of the winter months. This is seen most commonly in children. But in children, the common colds must be treated soon, or the inflammation could cause permanent damage to the hearing sense.

              The formation of pus is mostly associated with children. This is a severe case of ear infection which must be treated promptly. When there is a pus infection, there will be cough and most likely the child will also have fever. This is due to vitiation of the kapha dosha.

              Useful Herbs for the Treatment of Ear Infections and Aches

              – Bael (Aegle marmelos) The root of the bael tree is used in a unique manner to treat ear problems. A stiff root of the tree is dipped in neem oil and it is lighted. The oil dripping from this root is allowed to fall into the ear. This brings about tremendous relief in ear aches and infections.

              – Bishop’s Weed (Trachyspermum ammi) Bishop’s weed is very effective in treating ear congestions. About a teaspoonful quantity of it is heated in 30 milliliters of milk. The juice of the weed is allowed to permeate into the milk. This is then used as ear drops.

              – Holy Basil (Ocimum sanctum) The holy basil, or tulsi as it is called in Hindi, is beneficial for ear problems. The juice extracted from its leaves must be used as ear drops. It has added benefits in children who are suffering from ear problems.

              – Neem (Azadirachta indica) Neem has antiseptic properties due to which it can kill the organisms that produce the infections in the ear. It is effective by itself. In order to enhance its effects, it can be taken with bael root as mentioned earlier.

              Dietary Treatments for Ear Infections and Aches

              The diet taken by a patient with ear problems should be such that it does not vitiate the kapha dosha, which is responsible for them. The following dietary guidelines must be followed:-

              – Sour foods must be avoided as they vitiate the kapha. These include curds and fruits that are sour in taste.

              – Bananas, watermelons, oranges, papayas and cucumbers must be avoided. These foods can increase the chances of having common cold. This would aggravate the ear problem. For the same reason, all refrigerated foods must also be avoided.

              – Valuable foods during ear problems are onion, ginger and garlic. Turmeric is also very good, and must be used for spicing the meals.

              Ayurvedic Treatments for Ear Infections and Aches

              Most ear problems are treated with Lakshmi Vilas rasa. This is prescribed for both adults and children. In adults, the dose is one pill thrice daily. It is a bitter pill, so to reduce its bitterness it is taken with honey. In children, the dosage is reduced.

              For external use, Nirgundi is prescribed. The extract of the nirgundi oil is boiled with mustard oil. The solution is used as external drops for the ear. The drops are generally prescribed to be used twice daily.

              Home Remedies for Ear Infections and Aches

              – Make a fine mixture of turmeric and burnt alum (alum that has been allowed to swell). Introduce this mixture slowly into the ear.

              – Mixing Indian barberry and honey in mother’s milk and putting it in infected ears provides benefits.

              – Put a little fenugreek in cow’s milk. This can be used to put as drops into the infected ears.

              – The paste of the bilwa root is boiled with mustard oil. After filtering, this oil is used as ear drops.

              – A single piece of clove is sautéed in sesame oil. Three to four drops of this is put into the ear. This method gives immense relief in ear problems.

              – One simple remedy is to use extract of ginger as eardrops. The juice of the onion can also be used in a similar fashion, but it must be warmed.

              Ear infections could be itchy or painful. Hence there is a tendency that the child will scratch the ear or put their fingers in the Eustachian tube. This must strictly be avoided as the dirt on the fingers will aggravate the infection further. Also, by doing so, the person is increasing the chances of infection to others.

              People with ear problems must take care to keep themselves away from the cold as much as possible. They must avoid having baths till the ear problems are treated. They must wear warm clothes and avoid eating cold foods.

              Ayurvedic herbs are quite effective in the treatment of ascites

              Ascites is accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity. Ascites is caused very commonly due to cirrhosis and severe liver disease. Sometimes the fluid buildup is mild and cannot be detected externally. But in extreme cases, the fluid builds up to such a large extent that it causes severe abdominal distention. The condition is quite painful and the person suffering from it finds it extremely inconvenient to even move around. In Sanskrit, ascites is called jalodara. This word is made up from two words jala meaning water and udara meaning stomach.

              In normal conditions, the peritoneal fluid is up to a specific quantity, just enough to provide the necessary protection. But in some cases, the volume of this fluid can increase drastically. This is what leads to ascites. Ascites itself is a symptom of several serious problems. The presence of ascites may indicate liver cirrhosis, hepatitis, heart failure, pericarditis and even cancers. People who consume excessive alcohol are at very high risk of developing cirrhosis, which may cause ascites. Lack of exercise is also linked with ascites. People leading a sedentary lifestyle and sleeping in the daytime can suffer from ascites later in their lives.

              Ascites can be prevented by taking care of certain factors such as by avoiding drinking alcohol. Alcoholism is responsible for a big percentage of ascites related problems in the world. It can also be prevented by lead an active lifestyle. Exercising helps to build up the abdominal muscles which prevents the accumulation of fluids in the peritoneal cavity. Ayurvedic or herbal treatment for Ascites has been available in many countries for centuries.

              The ascites research and its various complications have resulted in the discovery of the curative properties of several herbs for ascites. Terminalia arjuna is one such herb which is very effective in the treatment of ascites. Terminalia Arjuna is a unique medicinal plant widely used in Ayurvedic medicine to support optimal cardiac and liver health. The herb possesses diuretic properties and hence it is effective in the removal of excess fluids from the body. Tecoma undulata has a special potency as accumulation breaking herb and helps in contracting the spleen. It is used in the diseases like ascites, liver and spleen disorders, jaundice, hepatitis. The black nightshade is also an important ingredient in Ayurvedic preparations for the treatment of ascites caused due to the cirrhosis of the liver. The black nightshade is known for its diuretic properties. Kantakari is an effective herb used in the treatment of ascites and dropsy. It helps in the expulsion of all fluids in the body of the person.

              Ayurvedic product Kamalahar is proven to be quite effective in the treatment of liver disorder including ascites, cirrhosis, hepatitis, jaundice, fatty liver.

              Tonsil Stones in Children – Causes and Best Treatment Options

              Tonsil stones are made up of the secretions of salivary glands that are overactive, oral bacteria and white blood cells. They most often occur in adults than in children. Once they are formed in children they should be taken to a doctor to find the best remedy to remove them. If the diseases in children are not handled properly, they can lead to various infections and make the condition worse for them. It is better not to opt for the surgical solution for treating diseases in children as tonsils play a great role in the immunity of their body.

              The main job of the tonsils present in the back side of the throat is to protect the body from any possible diseases or infection attacking the children. They protect the intestines and lungs form the invasion of foreign substances or bodies. When tonsillectomy or surgery is performed it leads to the removal of part of the ring of defenders called as “Waldeyer’s Ring” which is made up of tonsils, adenoids and other kinds of lymphoid tissues.

              In children tonsils tend to be bigger in size and play a vital role in guarding the body of them as a person grows the tonsils tend to shrink and become smaller in size. Hence it is very important to guard them. Tonsil stones in children might not cause any discomforts when are smaller in size and might not even exhibit any symptoms. But they become large they can cause various discomforts and might also exhibit various symptoms.

              Some of the common symptoms associated with diseases in children are chocking, coughing, hard to swallow foods, halitosis, throat discomfort and metallic taste. Children should be looked after carefully especially when they have diseases in order to not make the situation even worse. Parents should go through their dental or oral hygiene and should teach them to do it properly. Even though diseases are not very complicated, but in children they can create great discomforts and other complications like hard to swallow food and even drink liquids.

              To overcome the problem in children, they should be taught to gargle using salt water, brush their teeth and floss them properly. They should be encouraged to brush after they consume their meals and before going to bed. Rinsing the mouth should be taught so that they spit the dislodged unwanted particles from the mouth and keep the mouth clean. Parents should not judge the condition of the diseases in children, but should consult a doctor to get proper treatment.

              Home Remedies for Curing Tonsil Stones

              Tonsillectomy not only can lead to various health problems later but also does not come at a cheaper price. The surgery can also hinder day to day activities for some time. Hence, it is avoided most often. In fact, there are natural and scientifically proven ways to get rid of tonsil stones so they never return. It’s absolutely not necessary to go for a long, drawn out surgery or wasting your money on expensive nasal sprays and tablets. Follow a step-by-step program that will show you exactly how to get rid of your tonsil stones naturally and ensure they never come back! You can learn more about the program that promises a natural cure for tonsil stones from [http://tonsilstones1.com]

              Metabolic Syndrome – Sizing Up Your Risk For Cardiovascular Disease and Insulin Resistance

              Metabolic syndrome is not a disease. It is a constellation of altered physical and body chemistry measurements that are known to be risk factors for specific health challenges. Those challenges are cardiovascular disease including heart disease, stroke, and high blood pressure as well as diabetes resulting from insulin resistance.

              Here are the measurements and how they are altered in metabolic syndrome.

              • obesity (especially in the abdomen) – the classic "beer belly" or build up of fat around the abdomen is characteristic of metabolic syndrome.
              • glucose intolerance or insulin resistance – you produce enough insulin but you get diabetes anyway because your body does not seem to be able to use the insulin you produce.
              • elevated triglycerides – just another measurement of fats in your blood that are manufactured from carbohydrate in your diet.
              • altered lipid profile – too much of the bad cholesterol (LDL) and not enough of the good kind (HDL).
              • elevated blood pressure – if the bottom number of your blood pressure reading is greater than 90 you have high blood pressure.
              • a Prothrombotic state (predisposition to blood clotting ) – specific markers of blood clotting in your blood are measured to see how long it takes to form a clot. Two short a time predisposes you to forming blood clots which can cause a stroke and too long a time predisposes you to bleeding.

              Metabolic syndrome is caused by the interrelationship of dietary practices, physical activity, and genetic background. You can not alter your genes but lifestyle factors of diet and exercise are completely under your control.

              Dietary Practices

              Elevated triglycerides in your blood can result from a diet high in carbohydrate and specifically a diet high in refined carbohydrate such as white flour and sugar. If more than 60% of your energy requirements come from refined carbohydrate intake this can contribute to high triglyceride levels in the blood. This type of diet also contributes to elevated cholesterol levels and a poor cholesterol ratio. High triglyceride levels are identified as a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

              HDL cholesterol is healthy cholesterol and is required in your system for a number of metabolic processes. In metabolic syndrome the HDL cholesterol in your system is reduced and this places you at risk for developing cardiovascular disease.

              LDL is lousy cholesterol and you do not want as much of that as you do HDL cholesterol, but in metabolic syndrome LDL levels are often high.

              Highly processed refined foods such as those served in fast food restaurants are the poorest source of nutrition and the largest contributor of refined carbohydrate in your diet. Follow the 80/20 rule and try to eat at home 80% of the time and when you do go out to eat select heart healthy foods.

              Physical Activity Levels

              A sedentary lifestyle is a big contributor to metabolic syndrome. Getting adequate exercise can help nearly all of the altered measurements associated with metabolic syndrome. Vigorous physical exercise is one of the best ways to reduce abdominal fat, raise HDL cholesterol levels, and decrease your risk for developing cardiovascular disease. Canada's Physical Activity Guide recommends 60 minutes of physical activity every day to improve and maintain health and vigorous activity that gets you sweating and breathing harder should be undertaken at least three times per week.

              What is insulin resistance?

              The job of insulin is to transport glucose to your blood cells. Over the years your blood cells can become resistant to the insulin. This means that in order to get the glucose to your cells, higher and higher levels of insulin are needed. The receptor sites inside the cells become less and less sensitive to insulin and this makes it harder and harder for glucose to get inside the cell where it is needed for energy. While you are still producing insulin, the body is acting as if there is none available and so a diabetic state is produced. Over time as insulin resistance increases the pancreas stops producing enough insulin and the body becomes unable to handle sugar. This is the physiology of diabetes. As the glucose builds up in the blood more body fat is stored, especially around the waist area.

              Preventing Metabolic Syndrome – Sizing up your risk

              • Keep tabs on your waistline – Waist measurement is an assessment that is done to identify risk for cardiovascular disease. Many studies have revealed that the closer your waist and hip measurement are the greater the risk for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Your waist measurement should be less than your hip measurement and if your waist measurement exceeds your hip measurement your risk for cardiovascular disease goes up significantly.
              • Monitor your body weight – excess calories from fat and carbohydrate in your diet are stored as fat. The more fat you have the more likely you are to develop metabolic syndrome.
              • Maintain a healthy blood pressure – do you know what your blood pressure is?
              • Monitor your cholesterol levels – remember you want high HDL and low LDL levels
              • Maintain healthy blood glucose levels – eat a diet rich in fresh fruit and vegetables, good quality proteins, and complex carbohydrates. Portions sizes will be dependent on your activity level and your age.
              • Quit smoking – Smoking raises LDL cholesterol in the body and lowers the HDL cholesterol. Smoking also makes it more difficult to exercise.

              You have heard this before … keep fit and active and maintain a healthy, balanced diet. It will go a long way toward reversing any of the altered measurements and subsequent health risks associated with metabolic syndrome.

              Liposuction Lymphedema – A Form Of Treatment

              Survivors of breast cancer treatment can now look forward to a new technique for treating lymphedema –liposuction for lymphedema is being promoted as another option available to patients. There are still some reservations among doctors, however. While some feel that this is a radical new method, there are others who feel liposuction would only aggravate lymphedema and hence patients should continue the decongestive therapy along with compression bandages. Recently, in Sweden, Dr. Brorson has used liposuction for treating patients with post-mastectomy arm lymphedema. The procedure was a success and about 70 patients who had undergone the treatment found that the swelling reduced completely and did not recur.

              Liposuction is a surgical procedure that removes surplus fat from the thigh area or the stomach. Incisions are made to extract the extra fat; similarly, in liposuction lymphedema treatment, 15-20 incisions are made on the affected arm of the patient. The controversy is about the surgical incisions which, doctors feel, may complicate matters for the patient. However, liposuction is performed only on those patients who have long-standing lymphedema and who do not respond to the usual therapy of massage and bandaging. Such patients usually have a very severe case of lymphedema with no skin pitting.

              In normal circumstances, the body depends upon the lymphatic system to take care of the healing process. Lymphedema is the result of the injury of the lymph vessels and an individual suffering from it has poor healing capability. Surgeons therefore opine that since liposuction involves surgical incisions, these may cause wounds and swelling in the lymphedema arm. Poor healing and a slow immune system make lymphedema patients prone to infections, which is not a good scenario for performing any kind of surgery.

              The liposuction therapy for lymphedema patients conducted by Dr. Brorson has been accepted by the European Community. However, it is suggested only for patients with severe symptoms of lymphedema with no skin pitting. The procedure should also be performed only by trained and licensed surgeons. Even after liposuction surgery, the patients must continue to use the compression bandages. Taking the reduction of the arm into consideration, compression garments are tailor-made for the patients. During the course of a year after the surgery, arm measurements are taken to make new compression sleeves so as to sustain the reduction in arm volume.

              Some cases of lymphedema have been the result of a liposuction surgery that was not done right. Liposuction for lymphedema patients may even otherwise be a risky proposition and the procedure may not have lasting effects. The 70 patients who have undergone liposuction treatment need to be monitored for the next seven years to find out if the treatment was indeed successful.

              Liposuction is not meant to treat or correct the lymphatic system, so it is not a cure for lymphedema.  Lymphedema can only be managed by taking certain precautions and taking steps to delay the onset. Persons who have had surgery for removal of the lymph nodes must be alert to any signs of the condition. Bandaging of the arm and exercises can prove useful to reduce the severity of the condition.

              Type 2 Diabetes – Why Is Type 2 Diabetes Increasing?

              The National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse, a division of the National Institute of Health in the United States, says that Type 2 diabetes is steadily increasing in the United States. According to their projections, by the year 2050, a whopping 165 percent increase in the number of full-blown Type 2 diabetes cases is expected.

              The American Diabetes Association has estimated the financial impact of diabetes at a figure of $132 billion each year in the United States alone. This particular estimate includes:

              • actual medical costs amounting to $92 billion,
              • $40 billion in indirect costs such as time lost at work, disability and early death.

              It is anticipated these costs will double every five years due to the fact more and more young people are being diagnosed with diabetes.

              With the enormous and ever-growing impact on the health of Americans, the United states spends about $12 million yearly on diabetes research… and this research is continuing to pay off.

              Why is this form of diabetes increasing so much in the United States today? To understand the reasons behind this, some background knowledge is helpful.

              How Type 2 Diabetes Happens: Why is diabetes increasing? It is not because it spreads like the flu does – Type 2 diabetes is not something you will develop through contact with another person. Rather, it happens when certain risk factors are present. Many people who have this form of diabetes have more than one of the risk factors, and their chances will be higher.

              Risk Factors For Type 2 Diabetes: A number of risk factors are known to exist for diabetes. Type 2 diabetes most frequently strikes:

              • men and women with a family history of diabetes,
              • people who are over 40 years of age, and
              • people who are overweight.

              Another risk factor is genetic heritage. For instance, Native Americans, African Americans, Americans of Asian or Pacific island descent, and Latinos, are statistically at a higher risk. Women who have a baby weighing more than 9 pounds are frequently at risk for developing Type 2. A sedentary lifestyle, physical stress, emotional stress, and even high-fat diets also are recognized risk factors.

              Furthermore, a medical condition called impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glucose, or prediabetes, which is present in roughly 20 million Americans, is another identified risk factor.

              Bottom Line: Why Is Type 2 Diabetes Increasing? The bottom line is Type 2 diabetes is on the rise for several reasons…

              First, more Americans are overweight or obese than ever before in the history of our nation. The connection with this form of diabetes becomes clear when you consider the fact 90 percent of diabetics today are overweight or obese.

              Another reason for the rise is the overall United States population is growing older, and as people grow older their risk for Type 2 diabetes rises. Finally, when you put the previous two factors together, a rise in diabetes becomes inevitable because more people now have a close family member (such as a mother), with diabetes.

              The typical person diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes is between 55 and 60 years old. Often, people under the age of 25 are also diagnosed with Type 2, which is one of the reasons the disease is no longer known as maturity onset diabetes. The various groups with a higher incidence of diabetes are beginning to produce more children who develop Type 2 as well.

              Although we have some very clear ideas for answering the “Why Is Type 2 Diabetes Increasing?” question, the fact is that some lifestyle changes in the general population must be made in order to reverse this trend. Healthier lifestyles, with more people maintaining a healthy weight, is one potential solution to starting to reverse this trend.

              Obesity May Harm Your Health in Many Ways

              Obesity, the condition where there is a considerable increase in the body mass index, is now proving to be really deadly. Obesity is in fact, one of those preventable problems which are claiming lives in great numbers all over the world. Since excessive body weight is associated with many problems in almost all parts and systems of the body, an aggravated condition of obesity can make it even deadlier for the obese.

              Obesity affects various systems in the human body when in an aggravated condition. Adverse effects of obesity can be seen in humans. The following are:

              Cardiovascular Problems:

              Since there is a direct link between the accumulation of fat in the body and the blood and heart systems, various problems can be created. High blood pressure is one of commonest problems, usually caused by obesity. High cholesterol and atherosclerosis (blockage of the arteries) are some other commonly seen problems in obese people. Also, due to inflammation of arteries, the blood supply to the heart may also be reduced thereby creating a greater risk of heart failure. In fact, more than 12% of congestive heart failure cases are caused due to obesity.

              Endocrine and Reproductive Problems:

              The presence of extra fat in the body also hampers the production of many hormones. This happens due to presence of cells which impair the production of some hormones. Since the abdominal fat present in the patient impairs the production of insulin digesting cells, it is said to cause Diabetes mellitus type 2. Also, other problems like polycystic ovarian syndrome, menstrual disorders, infertility, etc. are known to occur in the reproductive system. Even in pregnancy, complications may occur which may also lead to birth defects in the baby.

              Cancer:

              Medical researchers have not been able to pinpoint the exact cause of this finding but it has already been established that being obese increases the risk of cancer to a great extent, especially in women. Chances of developing colon cancer, including other types of cancers like breast cancer, oesophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, gall bladder cancer, etc are also found to be common in obese women. In addition, one can develop stomach, prostate gland, endometrial, ovarian or cancer of the cervix. Obese people need to take special care of their kidneys.

              Neurological Problems:

              Neurological problems are not a direct effect of increased body fat. Since obesity can cause problems like hypertension and diabetes which reduce the blood flow to the heart and the brain, there are various problems that may occur. Strokes may also occur due to lower blood flow to the brain, potentially causing impairment. Due to improper functioning of the brain, other problems like dementia, headache, meralgia paresthetica (pain in outer thigh due to injury to nerve), carpal tunnel syndrome and idiopathic intracranial hypertension can also crop up.

              Musculoskeletal Problems:

              Obesity can also cause a great stress on the human skeletal system. Since the bones and the skeletal frame have to bear far more body weight, it can be stressed out which causes problems like osteoarthritis. Lower back pain is also caused as an indirect effect of obesity, osteoarthritis and diabetes. Gout may also develop due to accumulation of uric acid in the joints, usually the big toe of the foot. This condition causes a great, unbearable pain.

              Respiratory Problems:

              Obesity causes the tissues to become soft and the muscle tone to become reduced around the airways, problems can arise in the respiratory system too, the commonest being obstructive sleep apnea. In addition, obesity hypoventilation syndrome is an extended form since the amount of oxygen reaching the lungs decreases. Asthma, another ailment can also occur because of obesity.

              Gastrointestinal Problems:

              Obesity causes problems like gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in which there is heartburn due to a reflux that is caused by mucosal damage in the oesophagus. Fatty inflammation of the liver is also an outcome. In addition, formation of stones in the gall bladder and hernia can also occur in obese people.

              Genitourinary Problems:

              Due to obesity, the development and the functioning of the genital organs can be affected to a great extent. Urinary incontinence, chronic renal failure with slow loss of kidney function, hypogonadism (improper functioning of sexual organs in males and females) and erectile dysfunction or impotence, can be caused as a result of obesity.

              Psychological Problems:

              Obesity causes a lot of psychological problems in patients as they have to face a lot of social stigma due to their appearance. This can lead to depression and low self esteem. Body dysmorphic disorder or too much botheration about body parts also causes a lot of stress and social isolation. In some adverse cases of psychological pressures, people may even commit suicide.

              Skin Problems:

              Though not really fatal, obesity also causes various skin problems in the patients like stretch marks, Acanthosis (hyper-pigmentation of the skin in folds), Lymphedema or fluid retention in various body parts, including Cellulitis, carbuncle or intertrigo.

              All these problems are a direct or indirect consequence of obesity. There are so many problems that can be caused some of which are reversible and some irreversible. Obesity, like any other disease must be handled with care and caution!