About Warning Signs And Symptoms In Heart Attack

Heart attack or acute myocardial infarction occurs when one of the heart's arteries is blocked so the blood supply in nutrients and oxygen is cut off, in the respect coronary the blood flow may be stopped and blood clot are formed, the territory irrigated by the respective artery suffers of miocardial infarction. Because people do not take into consideration their symptoms the heart injury may be irreversible, this could be avoided if medical care is received immediately.

American Heart Association and other experts suggest that we should pay attention to the following signals: pain, squeezing, fullness in the center of the heart, pain radiating in the shoulder and arms, burning, pressure, heavy weight. Other symptoms may be: fainting, nausea, sweating, shortness of breath, anxiety, irregular heart rate, pallor, anxiety, nervousness. If you notice any of these symptoms you should address immediately to the emergency medical services at 911 or begin the CPR.

The doctor will diagnose the heart attack after studying several tests: EKG a device that gives the graphical record of the heart's electrical activity, a physical examination and knowing the complete medical history of the patient, high enzymes in the blood appear in heart attack, those steps are also helpful.

Cardiac enzymes may be determined later in the intensive care unit and urgent care setting so they confirm or infirm the suspicions. So if you address as quickly as possible to a medical emergency or service you have greater chances of receiving the corresponding treatment and the doctor will have the possibility to establish exactly what you suffer from, sometimes heart attack symptoms are very similar to other diseases and may be mistaken.

Often heart attack is slowly with mild pain and the person in cause does not understand what's happening, on the other hand the heart attack might be intense and movie-like. The most common signs are: chest discomfort which may be felt as pain, pressure, squeezing, fullness and which may last for minutes.

Other symptoms are: pain in both arms, neck, stomach, back, shortness of breath, nausea, cold sweating. In 4-6 hours from the fatal heart attack your heart has suffered irreversible damage and you may not even realize you just had a heart attack your life is continuing in the same way and when you have the second heart attack and a larger part of the heart muscle is not supplied with oxygen because of the artery blockages. Not ignoring the pain is may be vital for you because it's the only warning that you'll soon be in a lethal condition.

During the so called silent heart attack you are suddenly stricken by the attack without any symptom the heart attack is seen on the EKG, this condition appears in the silent ischemia which is caused by atherosclerosis. Those who survive to another heart attack are susceptibles of congestive heart disease, cardiac cripples, arrhythmias heartbeat irregularities. If you have more than three risk factors you should undergo a screening for silent ischemia.

A List of Heart Attack Warning Signs

Heart attack usually comes suddenly or also appears as symptoms which are similar to heartburn. These symptoms are usually ignored as they are always mistaken for indigestion. You may be surprised that up to 25% of those who are suffering from attack are actually do not experience any symptom and one can experience a silent heart attack without noticing it. Even if one has already experienced an attack, they might not be able to recognize the exact symptoms as each attack is able to cause different sensation. Therefore, it is crucial for you to know that not all warning signs are present during an attack.

Below are the 9 important signs that you need to take note of:

1. When one feels pain at the chest area; squeezing or burning sensation that spreads or radiates through one's upper body to the neck; jaw or even left arm.
2. Difficulty in breathing; shortness of breath
3. Palpitations
4. Fatigue
5. Cold sweats
6. Fainting
7. Nausea
8. Panic
9. Heartburn

The pain felt are not usually obvious in order to notify you of an impending attack. Women are less likely to know that they are suffering from one compared to men. It is due to the fact that they are rather ignorant about their health. In fact, almost half of the deaths that occurred due to heart attack fall on women. Even though nausea and fatigue might be signs for other illness, women tend to suffer or experience the symptoms to a higher degree.

Below are the warnings that are especially for women only:

1. Experiencing pain at the chest and high above the abdomen, jaw, neck or sometimes back
2. Light headed
3. Body aches and sudden weakness

If any person beside you is having a heart attack, do not hesitate. Call 911 right away. Check the time for the first symptom that appeared. While waiting for the ambulance to arrive, have the patient to get an aspirin with a glass of water to wash the aspirin down. The doctors will then administer appropriate medications as well as treatments for the patient once he or she arrives at the hospital.

Keep in mind that one does not have to suffer all the heart attack warning signs to get an attack. Get to know your body well and go for medical check up that has been arranged by the doctor. I hope you have found this information useful to take necessary steps.

Affordable Lawyers for Cerebral Palsy in Utah

If the problems arise due to the carelessness of doctors then it is very important that you learn your legal rights for this situation. There are many cases where this disease diagnosis is caused by medical negligence. There are various cerebral palsy lawyers are present for resolving such kind of problems. Support of the Lawyers of Utah can help a family receive compensation and much needed support in a child’s development therapy and treatment. Attorneys of this therapy have special rights to take action against those doctors who take no care during the delivery of mother. Fees of these attorneys are very high but in Utah there are many layers available in reasonable price. Medical doctor makes diagnosis of cerebral palsy by combining cautious physical examination of the patient with findings from imaging methods like CT scans and MRIs. With the help of these CT scans doctors easily determine whether the brain is developing normally or not.

There are lots of clinics and health care centers available who offers treatment for cerebral palsy. Kids who are suffering from disease have difficulties in walking, speaking, communication problems and various learning disorders. It is necessary to choose best treatment center and skilled staff for treatment. Utah medical center have trained and experienced staff for the operations or surgeriesDoctors of these clinics determine what type they have by the characteristics the patient has these surgeon also determining which type of action is given to a patient is done through observing the patient and giving them some medicines and tests. If they find that person is suffering with such kind of problems they offer best treatment. Based on the result of patients therapist of these medical offer some special therapy like physical therapy, speech therapy, medication etc

As these treatments take long time and it is painful surgery so the trained doctors always recommended for doing yoga as yoga help to reduce the high muscle tone, which is present in patients with cerebral palsy. This exercise helps to stretch these muscles and tendons thus allowing them to become less inflexible. This program allows free movement in the joints over a period. Thus both low and high muscle tone parts get the exercise they need so much. There are various yoga teachers available in these Utah therapy center. These instructors would be most willing to help your child get over with its disability. This disease mainly affecting the brain, specifically the important part cerebrum, and mostly affected the motor control centers of the brain. These doctors also offer massage treatment as benefits of these massage therapy are that it relaxes tense muscles and yoga promotes healthy deep breathing

There are three type of cerebral palsy problems like spastic, athetoid and ataxic are generally saw in people. Expert doctors suggested that such kind of diseases are non transmittable as it does not pass through one people to another by any physical or non physical contact. So it is true that these problems are not harmful for others. Main causes of these brain related problems are widely believed to be caused as a direct result of delivery mistakes or Sometimes these delivery mistakes or sometimes doctor errors can be made that have severe consequences. In the delivery time doctor must ensure that the baby receives enough oxygen during the delivery process. These therapies affect all people and there is no cure for it, there are only treatments to help a patient cope with their disability. Cost of these treatments is very high as in these operation therapist used costly instruments for treatment.

Heart Disease, Part Two – What Happens, Treatment and Herbs

Knowing what's happening to your body is important. Knowing what could happen might give you cause to prevent it in the first place or prevent a recurrence if it's already experienced it.

Coronary Artery Disease: You've probably heard this explanation before. Plaque can build up in your arteries, which constricts the blood flow. The more plaque the more restriction. Because of this, blood pressure goes up, which can increase damage. The coronary arteries provide the blood to the actual heart muscle, keeping it healthy. When the blood flow lessons, the heart begins to have problems. When an artery is completely blocked, a heart attack occurs.

Plaque is made of cholesterol. Some cholesterol is made by your body, but more can be found in foods you eat. The combination can cause to much in the blood stream, which sticks to the arteries.

CAD is usually diagnosed via an angiogram. If there is blockage, your doctor might install a stent, a small mesh tube designed to keep the artery open. Angioplasty is also likely. After this treatment, you will probably be put on a lot of medications, including blood thinners, medications to lower cholesterol and control blood pressure. You will also find yourself with a brand new diet, restricting fat, sodium and cholesterol. Expect an exercise program, as well.

Heart Attack: This means part of your heart is seriously damaged or killed. Healing can happen under some conditions, but scar tissue will form, and it does not do the job of pumping blood as well as the undamaged parts. If enough of the heart is damaged, death can occur.

Many of the treatments for coronary artery disease will be used to deal with a heart attack. Nitroglycerin may be given to help the heart, decreasing the work load and increasing the blood supply. If the arteries are to blocked, bypass surgery may need to be done. Medications, diet and exercise will be necessary to prevent more problems.

Strokes: This is caused by lack of blood flow to your brain. There are two ways it can happen, one is a clot forming and blocking blood flow. The other is the vessel can rupture and start bleeding into your brain. Within four minutes, brain tissue starved of oxygen dies. The faster blood flow is restored, the less permanent damage. Where in the brain the stroke occurs will also be important. Unless the brain can transfer function to another, undamaged area, permanent damage is likely.

A lot of tests will have to be done to determine what type of stroke, where it is and how much damage has been done. If the type of stroke can be discovered in the first three hours, medications can be given that could make the damage much less. Medications for swelling of the brain may also be needed. Several types of surgery, including some similar to an angiogram, may also be performed.

There are some herbs that can be used both to help prevent and to help heal these problems. They have to be part of a balanced diet and exercise program. There are no magic bullets in preventing heart disease.

Garlic: This herb can help lower blood pressure and acts as a natural blood thinner. It may help with cholesterol, though recent studies are mixed.

Flax Seed Oil: Flax seeds contain omega -3 fatty acids, which can help decrease your risk factors. It is very perishable and should be stored in the fridge.

Fish Oil: While technically not an herb , it does have a place in preventing cardiovascular diseases. Like flax seed oil, it is high in omega-3 acids, and like garlic it is a natural blood thinner.

Tuberculosis Is A Contagious Disease

Tuberculosis is a germ infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis which generally affects the lungs, but it can also affect kidneys, lymph nodes, spine, intestinal tract and brain.

Tuberculosis is spreading by air, if an infected person coughs sneezes or shouts, the germs spreading into the air. By inhaling them other people get infected.

After the discovery of the BCG vaccine and of the antibiotic treatment of TB, the number of TB cases declined in the early 1980's and experts thought that the disease would be eradicated by 2010. But between 1985 and 1991 more and more cases of TB were discovered in US. Since 1992, in US, the number of reported cases declined continuously and so, in 2004 there was a 46% drop of reported cases from 12 years earlier.

One of the reason why tuberculosis has spread so quickly lately is the increased number of patients infected with HIV. HIV leads to a weakened immune system, and so, TB has a free way to develop, and passes quickly from the primarily stage to the secondary stage.
The germ can reactivate if a person has a weakened immune system like in the cases of AIDS, post surgery, after other infections, in miners and foundry workers, and in those who have scars of healed tuberculosis.

Also, the risk of catching TB increases with the frequency of contacting other infected people, with miserable living conditions and with poor nutrition.

Another factor that helps tuberculosis to spread is the fact that some patients do not finish their antibiotic treatment. This treatment must be followed a long period of time (6 to 9 months), and often, if patients feel better they interrupt the treatment, believing that they are cured, but this is only an illusion, because TB germ is still alive, can activate instantly and spread itself to other healthy people. This fact also could lead to the mutation of the germ that becomes multi drug resistant, and does not respond properly to the known treatment, and so, scientists must discover new efficient drugs.

Nowadays people have businesses to take care of, and they have to travel a lot. Tourism as well has developed and gained a lot of interested people in this activity. All these activities can lead to a contamination with the TB bacterium and its transportation back home where healthy people are.

In preventing Tb from spreading, governments need to develop special international measures and communicate with people. Also, regular controls should be made along with the education for health.

The Health Benefits Of Ganoderma

How long have you been suffering due to a specific illness like high blood pressure, diabetes, or heart problem? If you are not at the moment, how do you know that you will not suffer from any disease like cancer or paralysis in the future? Indeed, the changing times has brought do many advances to people’s living. But, as it elevates the people’s living condition, it also brings a lot of new illnesses and diseases that are becoming harder and harder to cure.

Undeniably, the best cure to any disease is prevention. Knowing the important things you should avoid before you suffer minor illnesses like muscle and joint pain, rheumatism, and insomnia-that could even lead to more serious health problems like paralysis, ulcer, and heart problems-is to start the journey on finding the best solution.

And how do you do it? It is by starting to discover or rediscover the things that might seem impossible at the beginning. Like what most people did when they discovered one of the healing properties of “the king of herbs,” the Ganoderma. The Ganoderma healing properties were discovered way back in ancient China shrouded with a dash of mystery and tons of secrecy. It was then described as the “celestial herb” because the Ganoderma healing properties does not incur any side effects regardless of amount and period of usage. This was then considered as the ultimate cure for almost all illness and diseases because the Ganoderma healing properties were really effective in the practices of the people in the Orient. Aside from being known for its anti-aging properties and longevity, the Ganoderma healing properties spread to the Western World. Because of the technology and the science used by medical practitioners in the West, the Ganoderma healing properties is now more established upon the discovery of its 280 or more active ingredients with healing medicinal properties.

Among the so many known Ganoderma healing properties are its contribution to the improvement of the person’s immune system. Aside from its positive response in numerous ailments, the Ganoderma healing properties are evident in the three major killers of the modern times – cancer, cerebrosis or an organic disease of the brain, and coronary diseases which are mostly related to problems in circulatory system of the blood. Thus, the Ganoderma healing properties are clearly evident in its contribution in the correction of the blood circulatory imbalance. And while it continues to strengthen the person’s immune system to prevent deterioration, the Ganoderma healing properties is also given credit for its capability to detoxify the body and rejuvenate cells, thus, balancing the functions of numerous organs that get rid of disorders.

Due to the strong evidences of the Ganoderma healing properties evident in numerous studies on its effectiveness in the treatment of many diseases, the demand for it continuously increases. More and more people now consider it as a highly recognized preventive medicine for its detoxifying and anti-oxidants qualities. The “natural wonder drug” helps a person’s body to metabolize well while preventing tissue degeneration that causes different diseases. But, the healing powers of this mushroom don’t stop at by merely acting as a detoxificant, it also acts as a protector and regulator of different organs such as the liver and the intestine. Aside from this, the Ganoderma healing properties is also accounted for being an ‘adjuster’ of blood pressure while enhancing the stability of the various systems of the body.

Indeed, there are many claims on the almost unbelievable healing powers of Ganoderma. But, people’s bodies operate on its own major systems and it cannot always absorb everything one takes in. People who are interested to use this ‘wonder herb’ should try to research about its properties and do a bit of fact-finding before they take on the decision to try it. One really has to discover for themselves if the Ganoderma healing properties will create a balance between the external and internal body conditions. If the properties will work on his systems properly, then one doesn’t have to can yield to diseases brought by the ever-changing times.

The Spread of Lung Cancer to the Adrenal Glands

When the cancer is diagnosed, up to one-fourth of all people with lung cancer may have no symptoms. These cancers typically are identified incidentally when a chest x-ray is made for another reason.

Lung cancer can either spread locally and involve nearby tissues, for example the cavity outside the lungs, layers around the heart, or may travel to distant locations like local lymph glands or the bones, liver, brain or the opposite lung. Other organs where cancer of lung tends to spread are the adrenal glands, which are the glands placed above the kidneys and which generate special hormones.

The most general tumor of the adrenal gland is in fact a benign tumor called an adrenal adenoma. In a good number of patients, these benign tumors never lead to a patient to have any symptoms and do not require to be treated. They are typically found when a patient has a CT (or CAT) scan of the body for an unconnected reason, and are hence sometimes called "incidentalomas".

The most general malignant tumors located in the adrenal gland are tumors that originate from cancer cells that have metastasized from other areas of the body to the adrenal gland by means of the blood stream. Some different kinds of cancer may spread to the glands of adrenal, most usually melanomas, lung cancers, and breast cancers.

In short, If cancerous cells break away from the original tumor, travel, and develop within other body parts-like the brain, liver, the opposite lung, bone, adrenal glands, or lymph nodes of the chest or collarbone (clavicle) regions- the process is recognized as metastasis.

Symptoms of metastatic lung tumors rely on the location and size. About 30% -40% of people with cancer of lung have a number of symptoms or signs of metastatic disease. Metastatic lung cancer in the glands usually causes no symptoms by the time of diagnosis as well.

Hernia Truss for Men: Tips for Buying

Buying a hernia truss for men may be necessary to reduce your pain and discomfort. There are a variety of instances when it becomes necessary to turn to this type of product. It does not matter if you are getting treatment for the condition or not, but what you do need to consider is how to get back to doing the things you enjoy doing. If you have been limited in the past because of your inability to move properly due to this health condition, this type of truss can provide you with the improvement mobility you need to finally get back to living your life. Now, more companies than ever are offering this type of product, too.

As you look for your options in these devices, do be particular about the various designs and options available. It is often important to consider all options available to you from various manufacturers and companies since some products are simply a better option than others are. One of the key things to look for is comfort. The good news is that a truss can be very comfortable for you, if you select a version that is designed properly for your body. Compare the sizing to the size of your body. Keep in mind that some designs are meant to fit quite snuggly.

Another thing to keep in mind is the level of discretion these offer. Some devices are very well hidden under clothing. You do not have to worry about the device being noticeable under your clothing at all. In fact, some manufacturers have designed these products to be easier to move in and work in than ever, and throughout the entire process, no one needs to know the device is in place for you. This means you benefit from a reduction in pain level while you are still able to remain discreet about wearing the device.

You also want to consider how well the hernia truss for men works in terms of how to put it on. Most offer a significantly large waist band that attaches through the use of Velcro. You can easily put the device in place by stepping into it. The band holds it in place so that there is no risk of it falling off of your hips. Further, you want to look for a device that does not wear on your body. You do not want any type of sore developing from a rough edge, for example.

In addition to all of these factors, there are a few more to keep in mind. Perhaps the most important is the level of movement you get from the device. If the device is too restricting, you may be unable to move well in it, which will lead to complications in terms of what you can do with the device on. Many people find that these devices can be comfortable and fitting without restricting any movement whatsoever.

All of these factors play a role in the selection process of a hernia truss for men. The device should be worn properly so that it provides the level of support that you need. However, it is also important to keep in mind how flexible and how accommodating the device is for your body’s overall size. Be sure it is easy to care for, too. The good news is that wearing these devices may give you the ability to get back to living life they way you want to, no matter if that includes going biking or just sitting at the office all day comfortably. Compare your options in these trusses before buying.

Pneumonia: Catching The Symptoms And Treating the Infection

Pneumonia is most commonly caused by viruses or bacteria. It affects one or both the lungs by causing inflammation in the air sacs on the lungs. When this happens, the air sacs get filled with pus and it can become very difficult for a person to breathe, making them very weak. While most people recover easily from this illness, it could be life threatening if it affects people who have other underlying conditions.Very young children as well as those older than 65 are also at a higher risk of falling ill than others.

Common Symptoms

The infection shows a lot of symptoms that are very similar to the flu. However the symptoms generally develop very quickly and can escalate as a fast pace. The most common ones to look out for include a fever, dry cough, chest pain, wheezing, nausea and vomiting, a rapid heartbeat or rapid breathing, shaking chills and muscle aches. While these are common signs and should be treated, if any of the following also appear in addition to the above, medical attention should be sought immediately because it could get very serious if not treated at once.

• Very labored breathing
• A bluish tone in the skin due to lack of oxygen
• Very high fever (anything above 102 ° F)
• Blood in the sputum
• A rapid heartbeat
• Confusion

Treatment for Pneumonia

In most cases, the doctor will prescribe certain medicines when you are diagnosed and you will have to continue the treatment for the period prescribed. Sometimes, they also take a chest X-ray after the treatment is complete in order to make sure that the lungs are clear and the infection has completely gone. But treatment varies a little depending on the type of pneumonia that you have.

Viral Pneumonia

This type lasts longer than a lot of others and antibiotics are useless if the infection is caused by a virus. However, antiviral drugs are normally prescribed and they will help to treat the condition, especially if it has been caught in the early stages. Normally, viral pneumonia will last for a couple of weeks before the symptoms begin to clear.

Bacterial Pneumonia

Antibiotics are most commonly used to treat this form of the infection. It is essential that you follow your doctor's orders properly and take the entire course of antibiotics that has been prescribed. A lot of people start feeling better soon and then do not complete the course. But this could make your body vulnerable and the pneumonia could return. With the regular course, you will start to feel better in two to three days.

The Difference Between Pleural Plaques and Pleural Thickening

Here is the short version in unsophisticated and unscientific terms: pleural thickening is the result of pleural plaques.

It strongly depends on the level of asbestos exposure what kind of lung disease a person may develop. Frequent and intense contact, stretched over a long period of time usually results in asbestosis, a non cancerous form of an asbestos induced disease.

But if a person's exposure is rather intermittent and less intense, he is more likely to develop mesothelioma, lung cancer or pleural plaques.

Pleural plaques, though, is not an illness but it is definitely indicative of exposure to asbestos. As a matter of fact, more often than not, it is the only indication of asbestos exposure. It is important to understand the connection between pleural plaques and asbestosis or mesothelioma; if pleural plaques are found in a patient, it does not necessarily mean that he has either one of the aforementioned health conditions. But the opposite constellation is not true. In almost all of the cases, a newly diagnosed asbestosis or mesothelioma patient will have developed pleural plaques.

Pleural plaques consist of a white, fibrous and flexible substance and occur in the form of little nodules. They typically develop in the pleura, also called the outer lining, which is a thin layer surrounding the lungs and other organs in the abdomen. Causes the pleura That Are to the expand and this occurrence is Called pleural thickening . The nodules have the tendency to calcify which increases their visibility on x-rays of the chest. They can vary in size and shape. Pleural plaques are benign and do not directly cause any symptoms in a patient, other than a slightly impaired lung function.

Typically, the only treatment is to monitor a patient's situation very closely to see if the pleural plaques develop any further. In very few cases it might be a considerable option to perform a surgery with the goal to remove as much of the fibrotic tissue as possible. However, more recent studies suggest that this form of pleural plaques treatment does not improve the overall situation and is therefore not worth taking the risk that is associated with this rather invasive approach.

I can not emphasize enough the importance of consulting your doctor and having regular check ups scheduled. If you are concerned that you might have been exposed to asbestos or if you encounter any unusual symptoms, do not waste any time but go and see a health care professional. And I am not just saying that causally, as a matter of fact I like to wrap up this article by demonstrating you the necessity of reacting immediately in such a situation.

A few months back ago, I pass blood in my urine, but did not experience any kind of pain at all. I went to see an Urologist right away. Long story short: I was diagnosed with Renal Cell Carcinoma, the cancer of the kidney. My left kidney was removed via a laparoscopic radical nephrectomy and fortunately, the cancer was entirely confined to the organ and had not yet spread any further. However, the results could have been vastly different if I had waited any longer.

All Terrain Vehicle Accident Injuries & ATV Accident Analysis

An ATV also known as an all-terrain vehicle is a type of motor vehicle. Other names for an ATV are quad, quad bike, three wheeler, or four wheeler. The off road vehicle was introduced in the early 1970’s and can be as dangerous as motorcycles.

Three wheeled ATV’s have been banned due to the severity of accidents, however, they still exist. Four wheelers, however have not been banned, and are not necessarily any safer. ATV’s are popular for recreation but are also sometimes used for farm work.

With more and more people participating in off road activities, there have been a significant amount of deaths and injuries due to ATV accidents. The number of ATV accidents in the United States is significant and the injuries from those accidents are often severe, even death. One study showed that ATV-associated fatalities increased nearly 60 percent between 2000 to 2005, while non-fatal injuries rose 48 percent.

From 2004 through 2008, in the United States, an estimated 704,000 people were injured while operating an ATV and 3,372 people were killed. One-third to one-quarter of those deaths was children under the age of 16. In 2008 alone, there were 410 reported deaths due to ATV accidents.

Many serious injuries can result due to an ATV accident. These injuries often include:

– Brain injuries

– Spinal cord injuries

– Back injuries

– Neck injuries

– Broken arms

– Skull fracture

– Broken ribs

– Concussion

– Fractured or broken legs

– Shattered wrists

– Internal organ damage

ATV accidents not only happen due to the misconduct of the rider or other riders but could also take place due to the defects of the ATV. Defects involving the steering and/or brakes are most common and when that happens a rider can easily lose control of the vehicle and most likely will crash.

If proper equipment is worn, many of the common injuries listed above could be prevented. It is recommended by most ATV manufacturers that protective equipment such as an approved helmet, protective eyewear, gloves, and suitable riding boots should be worn. If you are riding an ATV for sport and on rough terrains such as rock crawling, check protectors and knee/shin guards are also recommended by ATV manufacturers.

Victims of ATV accidents do have legal rights and should pursue them immediately after the accident. People injured in ATV accidents can often have claims for their personal injuries. Accident victims can also be compensated for pain and suffering, disability, and other money damages. Families of people who are killed in ATV accidents can often file a Wrongful Death Claim.

Colds – 5 Tips To Cure It Quickly!

Its that time of year again where the majority of us get a cold and feel miserable in part 1 of this article we looked at east ways to prevent colds. Here we are going to look at curing colds quickly.

Here are your simple cold cure tips.

1. Rest and recuperate

You need to rest up for a day or two if you get a bad cold and try not to do too much.

If you do rest up, you will recover quicker and not leave yourself open to getting secondary illnesses when your immune system is taking a battering.

If you have to work then make sure you get adequate sleep, rest and take things as gently as possible.

2. Feed your cold

Make sure you feed your cold. Get plenty of goodness to help boost your body and get plenty of vitamin C and B.

It's also important to replace fluid, as fighting colds dehydrates you and mucus is water.

So drink plenty of water or juice.

3. Gargle

Granny did it and you should to its as relevant today as it ever was.

Today most people do not bother and their making a mistake.

Use the combination below for an instant pick me up.

Try honey, lemon and ginger as a great combination to gargle and drink.

Honey is very soothing on the throat, lemon contains lots of vitamin C and ginger has been used for thousands of years for its potent anti inflammatory qualities.

Do this several times a day when you have your cold and it's an instant feel good drink.

4. Clear and warm your head

Put your head over a streaming bowl of water.

When you inhale steam it thins mucus and your head will feel cleaner as a result.

When you feel better your immune system cranks up a gear and fights harder.

5. Blow your nose gently

Do not blow so hard you feel dizzy!

When you blow your nose some mucus will go back in the sinuses. Colds make them full anyway and when more goes back in you are open to sinusitis.

If you blow too hard you clear the nose but if it dries out to much, it triggers the body to produce more mucus which is exactly what you do not need.

So blow gently.

Hopefully the preventative measures we outlined in part 1 of this article will stop you getting a cold. However if you are unlucky enough to get one, the above tips will cure the cold quicker and make the experience more bearable.

Bronchitis and Asthma

Bronchitis is as a result of inflammation of the medium sized air ways in the lungs. The cause is usually a bacteria or viral infection. Asthma is a condition that takes place as a result of irritation to the airways too. The tubes swell and make air movement through them difficult. Acute bronchitis can lead to asthma. This is if the infection takes longer than a month. Due to the constant irritations to the bronchial tubes for a few months. This can generate to asthma.

Bronchitis and asthma are related in that they both affect the airways and lungs. The symptoms are sometimes similar. These include coughing, wheezing and shortness of breath. They both have preventative measures. Bronchitis has a vaccine that was developed in 1985 by a University of Newcastle, Australia Professor, Robert Clancy. The vaccine is oral for acute bronchitis. It was released in the market four years later.

Bronchitis and asthma are both dangerous diseases. They can affect the mode of life if not taken care of. The care includes seeking professional medical care and getting informed about the conditions. Bronchitis and asthma can be caused by air pollution, smoking and viral infections. Treatment options are different. Asthma has no cure. The diagnosis of both diseases are also very different though the doctors can be the same.

More research is being done on bronchitis and asthma to try get better vaccines and treatment options. This is being done by health research organizations all over the world. The two conditions should be taken seriously. If let alone without proper treatment, they can degenerate to other chronic health problems.

Honda S2000

Honda SSM

X-bone frame (yellow) used in the construction of the S2000 chassis.

Introduced at the 1995 Tokyo Motor Show, the Honda Sport Study Model concept car was the design study for the production S2000. The SSM was a rear wheel drive roadster powered by a 2.0 L (122 cu in) inline 4 cylinder engine. It featured a rigid X-bone frame which Honda claimed improved the vehicle’s rigidity and collision safety. The hood was aluminium and the car had a 50:50 weight distribution.

The SSM would appear unchanged in many automotive shows for several years afterwards, hinting at the possibility of a production version. Honda later announced the production version of the SSM. Carrying on the tradition of the company’s 1960s S500, S600, and S800 roadsters, the new vehicle was named the S2000.

Models

AP1

Honda S2000 (AP1)

Production

1999-2003

Assembly

Takanezawa R&D Plant in Tochigi, Japan

The S2000 was introduced in 1999 for the 2000 model year and was given the chassis designation of AP1. It featured a front engine, rear-wheel drive layout with power being delivered by a 1,997 cc (122 cu in) F20C inline 4 cylinder DOHC-VTEC engine producing from 237 hp (177 kW) to 250 PS (184 kW), and from 153 ftlbf (207 Nm) to 22.2 kgm (218 Nm) of torque depending on the target market. The engine is mated to a six-speed manual transmission and Torsen limited slip differential. The S2000 achieved what Honda claimed as the “top level performance in the world” for a 2-liter naturally aspirated engine.

2004 AP2 and 2000 AP1 model S2000s from abovehe AP1 has OEM front lip, side strakes, and rear spoiler.

Features include independent double wishbone suspension, electrically-assisted steering and integrated roll hoops. 16 in (41 cm) wheels with Bridgestone Potenza S-02 tires were standard equipment. The compact and lightweight engine, mounted entirely behind the front axle, allows the S2000 to obtain a 50:50 front/rear weight distribution and lower rotational inertia. An electrically powered canvas top with internal cloth lining was standard. Honda made available an aluminum hardtop for additional cost.

The 2001 model was largely unchanged, but Honda upgraded the radio and added a digital clock to the dashboard display. For the 2002 model year, suspension settings were revised and the plastic rear window was replaced by a glass unit incorporating an electric defroster. Other updates included slightly revised tail lamps, an upgraded radio, and a revised engine control unit.

The AP1 was manufactured up to 2003 at Honda’s Takanezawa plant, alongside the Honda NSX and Honda Insight hybrid. In 2004 production moved to the Suzuka plant.

AP2

Honda S2000 (AP2)

Production

2004-2009

Assembly

Suzuka R&D Plant in Suzuka, Mie, Japan

The 2004 model year incorporated several revisions to the S2000 and was given the chassis designation of AP2. The 2004 model introduced newly designed 17 in (43 cm) wheels and Bridgestone RE-050 tires along with a retuned suspension to reduce oversteer. The spring rates and shock absorber damping were altered and the suspension geometry modified to improve stability by reducing toe-in changes under cornering loads. In the gearbox the brass synchronizers were replaced with carbon fiber. In addition, cosmetic changes were made to the exterior with new front and rear bumpers, revised headlight assemblies, new LED tail-lights, and oval-tipped exhausts.

2005 Honda S2000 AP2 showing revised rear end.

The AP2 also included the introduction of a larger version of the F20C to the North American market. Designated F22C1, the engine’s stroke was lengthened, increasing its displacement to 2,157 cc (132 cu in). At the same time, the redline was reduced from 9,000 rpm to 8,000 rpm with a cutout at 8,200 rpm, mandated by the longer travel of the pistons. Peak torque increased 6% to 162 ftlbf (220 Nm) at 6,500 rpm while power output was the same 237 hp (177 kW) at a lower 7,800 rpm. In conjunction with its introduction of the F22C1, Honda also changed the transmission gear ratios by shortening the first four gears and lengthening the last two. Another change was the inclusion of a clutch release delay valve. In 2006, the F22C1 engine replaced the F20C in the Japanese market as well; however, the F20C continued in all other world markets.

2005 Honda S2000 AP2 red/black interior.

Honda F22C1 engine found in the S2000 AP2.

The 2006 model introduced a drive by wire throttle, an electronic stability control system, new wheels, and one new exterior color, Laguna Blue Pearl. Interior changes included revised seats and additional stereo speakers integrated into the headrests.

JDM-spec Type-S

The 2008 model year marked the first time the S2000 was offered in more than one trim level in the United States. In addition to the base model, Honda offered a more track-oriented version of the S2000, distinguished by reduced weight, fewer amenities, and a claimed increase in performance. The S2000 Club Racer made its world debut at the New York International Auto Show on 4 April 2007. Changes for the CR included a lower ratio steering rack, stiffer suspension and all-new Bridgestone Potenza RE070 tires, widened at the rear from 245/40R-17 to 255/40R-17. A revised body kit, composed of a redesigned front lip, rear bumper, and a large spoiler, were wind-tunnel tested and claimed to reduce the overall coefficient of lift by 70-80 %. The power folding soft top was removed and replaced with additional chassis bracing topped off with a tonneau cover, while the hard top, optional on other models, became a standard feature on the CR. Finally, in an effort to reduce weight and lower the center of gravity, the spare tire was omitted and air conditioning and stereo were offered only as options. Net weight savings without the additional hardtop was 90 pounds (41 kg) relative to the standard model. The engine in the S2000 CR was unchanged from the standard trim.

Custom Honda S2000 from the movie 2 Fast 2 Furious at the Petersen Automotive Museum.

The 2008 Honda S2000 CR became available in the fall of 2007, with a base price of $36,300. Production volume of less than 2,000 units was expected. Redesigned five-spoke wheels were standard on all S2000s, with bright silver on the base model wheels and a gunmetal color on the CR wheels. All CR models were only available with yellow and black cloth interior. Honda continued both trim levels of S2000 unchanged for the 2009 model year. The price was increased to US$34,695 for the base trim and US$36,695 for the CR trim.

A variant of the CR, called the Type-S, was released in Japan. The Type-S retained the convertible soft top instead of the CR’s aluminum hard-top, and used the standard S2000’s Bridgestone RE050 tires instead of the CR’s upgraded RE070’s. The head designer of the S2000, Shigeru Uehara, stated that the CR was somewhere between the existing Type-S and what a supposed S2000 Type-R would have been like.

Production of the S2000 ceased in June 2009. Plans for an S2000 successor were scrapped in the aftermath of the automotive industry crisis of 2008. To commemorate the production run of the S2000, Honda offered a special variant called the S2000 Ultimate Edition for the European market, and a similar GT Edition 100 variant in the UK. These editions feature a removable hard top, Grand Prix White paint scheme, red leather interior, and numbered plaques.

Specifications

20002003

AP1 (F20C)

20042009

AP2 (F20C)

20042009

AP2 (F22C1)

2008-2009

AP2 CR (F22C1)

Engineering

Engine Type

naturally aspirated inline-4

Displacement

1,997 cc (122 cu in)

2,157 cc (132 cu in)

Power

237 bhp (177 kW; 240 PS) @ 8,300 rpm (US & EU)

247 bhp (184 kW; 250 PS) @ 8,300 rpm (JP)

237 bhp (177 kW; 240 PS) @ 7,800 rpm (US)

239 bhp (178 kW; 242 PS) @ 7,800 rpm (JP)

Torque

153 lbft (207 Nm) @ 7,500 rpm (US & EU)

22.2 kgm (218 Nm) @ 7,500 rpm (JP)

162 lbft (220 Nm) @ 6,800 rpm (US)

163 lbft (221 Nm) @ 6,500-7,500 rpm (JP)

Redline / Fuel cut-out

8,800 rpm / 9,000 rpm

8,000 rpm / 8,200 rpm

Bore & Stroke

87.0 mm (3.425 in) x 84.4 mm (3.323 in)

87.0 mm (3.425 in) x 90.7 mm (3.571 in)

Compression Ratio

11.0:1 (US & EU)

11.7:1 (JP)

11.1:1

Valvetrain

16-valve DOHC VTEC

Transmission

6-speed manual

Gear Ratios

1st: 3.133

2nd: 2.045

3rd: 1.481

4th: 1.161

5th: 0.970

6th: 0.810

Secondary gear reduction: 1.160

Final drive: 4.100

Reverse: 2.800

1st: 3.133

2nd: 2.045

3rd: 1.481

4th: 1.161

5th: 0.943

6th: 0.763

Secondary gear reduction: 1.208

Final drive: 4.100

Reverse: 2.800

Fuel type and consumption

Octane Rating

91 AKI / 95 RON (98 RON recommended)

City

18 mpg-US (13 L/100 km; 22 mpg-imp) (US EPA)

20.6 mpg-imp (13.7 L/100 km; 17.2 mpg-US) (UK)

Highway

24 mpg-US (9.8 L/100 km; 29 mpg-imp) (US EPA)

35.3 mpg-imp (8.00 L/100 km; 29.4 mpg-US) (UK)

Combined

20 mpg-US (12 L/100 km; 24 mpg-imp) (US EPA)

28.2 mpg-imp (10.0 L/100 km; 23.5 mpg-US) (UK)

Dimensions

Length

162.7 in (4,133 mm)

162.1 in (4,117 mm)

Width

68.9 in (1,750 mm)

68.9 in (1,750 mm)

Height

50.0 in (1,270 mm)

50.7 in (1,288 mm)

Wheelbase

94.5 in (2,400 mm)

94.5 in (2,400 mm)

Track

f: 57.9 in (1,471 mm)

r: 59.4 in (1,509 mm)

Curb Weight

2,864 lb (1,299 kg)*

* quoted weight differs according to different sources and

also varies each year due to minor changes between models

2,765 lb (1,254 kg)

(without hardtop)

2,813 lb (1,276 kg)

(with hardtop)

2,855 lb (1,295 kg)

(with hardtop + audio + AC)

Other

Tires

Bridgestone Potenza S-02

f: 205/55VR16

r: 225/50VR16

Bridgestone Potenza RE050

f: 215/45R17

r: 245/40R17

Bridgestone Potenza RE070

f: 215/45ZR17

r: 255-40ZR17

Brakes

f: 11.8 in (300 mm) ventilated discs

r: 11.1 in (282 mm) solid discs

Reviews and awards

The S2000 has received much praise from critics and motoring journalists and has received favourable reviews from such publications as Car and Driver, Car Magazine, the Los Angeles Times, and Road & Track magazine. Among the features highlighted are the high output of the engine, the high redline, the balanced handling, and the smooth gearbox. User surveys have named the S2000 as a favorite for overall customer satisfaction.

The S2000 was on Car and Driver’s Ten Best list for 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2004.

The S2000 was the highest-ranked model in the J. D. Power and Associates Vehicle Dependability Study “Premium Sports Car” class for 2004, 2006, and 2008 and has consistently held one of the top three positions.

The S2000 was ranked number #1 in the BBC Top Gear Survey in 2004, 2005, and 2006.

The S2000 was ranked as “Best Affordable Sports Car” by U.S. News & World Report in 2008 and 2009

The F20C engine won the International Engine of the Year award in the “1.8 to 2 litre” size category for five years from 2000 through 2004.

The F20C was featured on Ward’s 10 Best Engines list for 2000 and 2001.

The S2000 was on Edmunds Consumers Most Wanted for 2002, 2004, 2005, 2007.

The S2000 was one of Jalopnik’s Best10 Cars Of The Decade.

Sales and production

In the United States, the largest market for the S2000 worldwide, the suggested retail price of the base 2009 Honda S2000 is $34,995. The CR trim’s base price is $36,995 with a $1,000 option to add air-conditioning and stereo.

In the United Kingdom, the 2009 model is offered in two trims, Roadster and GT. The GT trim features a removable hard-top and an outside temperature gauge. On-the-road prices of these trims are 27,300 and 27,850, respectively.

After several years of steady production, sales of the roadster began falling dramatically starting in 2006, and the trend accelerated during the 2008 U.S. recession. Honda sold 7,320 units in the U.S for 2004, the first year of the AP2. In 2008, only 2,538 units were sold in the U.S. – a 74% decline from the 2002 sales peak. In November of that year, for the first time since its launch, fewer than 100 new S2000’s were sold nationwide during a calendar month.

Calendar Year

U.S.

U.K. & Europe

Japan

Canada

Australia

MidEast/Africa

1999

3,400

1,179

7,209

332

596

 

2000

6,797

3,955

3,422

412

521

 

2001

9,682

2,197

1,913

401

308

 

2002

9,684

2,537

1,471

336

164

 

2003

7,888

2,095

961

238

79

 

2004

7,320

2,036

1,087

250

39

 

2005

7,780

1,795

981

212

40

 

2006

6,271

1,474

1,225

146

30

 

2007

4,302

1,116

997

123

26

126

2008

2,538

709

1,228

65

15

82

2009

795

680

1,122

49

 

 

As of the end of 2008, Honda had sold 110,673 units worldwide – 19,987 of those in Europe.

References

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^ “Honda S2000 – Introduction”. Honda Media Newsroom. Honda. 2001-02-22. http://www.hondanews.com/search/release/218. Retrieved 2008-03-13. 

^ “Honda Introduces – a New Open Car Body Structure – Providing the Rigidity and Collision Safety of a Non-Convertible”. Honda European Media Newsroom. Honda. 1999-02-23. http://www.hondanews.eu/en/textresults/index.pmode/modul,detail,0,218-DEFAULT,21,text,1/index.pmode. Retrieved 2009-03-18. 

^ “1995 Honda SSM Concept”. Fast-Autos.net. http://www.fast-autos.net/vehicles/Honda/1995/SSM_Concept/. Retrieved 2008-04-04. 

^ (PDF) Honda 1999 Annual Report – Year Ended March 31, 1999. p. 6. http://world.honda.com/investors/annualreport/1999/99AR_first.pdf. 

^ “Honda Press Information” (in Japanese). 15 April 1999. http://www.honda.co.jp/news/1999/4990415.html. Retrieved 13 March 2009. 

^ Kazuhiko Tsunoda (August 2000). “Gaining New Insight Into Aluminum Body Production”. http://www.insightcentral.net/KB/development/tsunoda.html. Retrieved 2006-09-19. 

^ “2004 Honda S2000 – Powertrain Part 1”. Honda Media Newsroom. Honda. 2003-01-10. http://www.hondanews.com/search/release/2299?q=S2000&s=honda. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 

^ “Club Racer-Inspired Honda S2000 CR Prototype to Debut at New York International Auto Show”. Honda Media Newsroom. Honda. 2007-03-13. http://www.hondanews.com/categories/1097/releases/3913. Retrieved 2007-03-19. 

^ Lavrinc, Damon (2007-04-04). “Honda’s hardcore S2000 is a fitting send off”. Autoblog. Weblogs, Inc.. http://www.autoblog.com/2007/04/04/new-york-auto-show-hondas-hardcore-s2000-is-a-fitting-send-off/. Retrieved 2007-04-04. 

^ “2008 Honda S2000 CR”. Car and Driver. April 2007. http://www.caranddriver.com/autoshows/12648/2008-honda-s2000-cr.html. Retrieved 2007-04-18. 

^ “2008 Honda S2000 – Introduction”. American Honda Motor Co., Inc.. 2007-08-15. http://corporate.honda.com/press/article.aspx?id=4099. 

^ “Interview video with Shigeru Uehara”. http://www.edmunds.com/insideline/do/MediaNav/articleId=122144/firstNav=Gallery/videoId=20139192. 

^ Dan Stevens (2009-01-06). “Honda axes high-end models”. Autocar. http://www.autocar.co.uk/News/NewsArticle.aspx?AR=236796. Retrieved 2009-01-01. 

^ a b “Honda S2000 Ultimate Edition”. Honda European Media Newsroom. 2009-01-29. http://www.hondanews.eu/en/textresults/index.pmode/modul,detail,0,1063-DEFAULT,21,text,1/index.pmode. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 

^ “Honda S2000 GT Edition 100”. Honda UK. Mar 2009. http://www.honda.co.uk/cars/s2000/limitededition. Retrieved 2009-06-02. 

^ “S2000 Fact Book” (in Japanese). Honda Motor Co., Ltd.. 1999-04-15. http://www.honda.co.jp/factbook/auto/s2000/199904/050.html. Retrieved 2009-03-17. 

^ “2008 Japan Honda S2000 engine specifications” (in Japanese). Honda Japan. http://www.honda.co.jp/S2000/webcatalog/engine/. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 

^ a b “2008 Honda S2000 Specifications and Features”. Honda Media Newsroom. Honda. 2007-08-15. http://www.hondanews.com/categories/902/releases/4094. Retrieved 2007-10-05. 

^ “2004 Honda S2000 – Powertrain Part 2”. Honda Press & Media Centre. 2003-01-10. http://corporate.honda.com/press/article.aspx?id=200707112298. Retrieved 2009-05-19. 

^ “Compare Old and New EPA MPG Estimates”. United States Environmental Protection Agency. http://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/calculatorSelectEngine.jsp?year=2002&make=Honda&model=S2000. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 

^ “2009 Honda S2000 specifications”. Honda. http://automobiles.honda.com/s2000/specifications.aspx?group=dimensions. Retrieved 2009-05-19. 

^ “Honda S2000”. Car and Driver. http://www.caranddriver.com/bestcars/7579/10best-cars-honda-s2000.html. Retrieved 2006-09-19. 

^ “Honda S2000”. CAR Magazine. http://www.carmagazine.co.uk/print.php?sid=154. Retrieved 2006-09-19. 

^ “Driver Power 2006: Japanese top the big report!”. AutoExpress. http://www.autoexpress.co.uk/news/autoexpressnews/65609/driver_power_2006_japanese_top_the_big_report.html. Retrieved 2006-09-19. 

^ “Top Gear Survey 2005 – the results”. Top Gear. http://www.topgear.com/content/features/stories/2005/11/stories/01/1.html. Retrieved 2006-06-19. 

^ “2004 Vehicle Dependability Study (VDS)”. J.D. Power. http://www.jdpower.com/corporate/news/releases/pressrelease.asp?ID=2004055. Retrieved 2006-09-19. 

^ “2006 Vehicle Dependability Study (VDS)”. J.D. Power. http://www.jdpower.com/corporate/news/releases/pressrelease.asp?ID=2006133. Retrieved 2006-09-19. 

^ “2008 Vehicle Dependability Study (VDS)”. J.D. Power. http://www.jdpower.com/autos/ratings/dependability-ratings-by-category/Compact-Premium-Sporty-Car/sortcolumn-1/descending/page-#page-anchor. Retrieved 2008-08-13. 

^ Top Gear 2006 Survey

^ Hardigree, Matt (2007-12-17). “U.S. News & World Report Names Best Cars for 2008”. Jalopnik. Gawker Media. http://jalopnik.com/cars/industry-news/us-news–world-report-names-best-cars-for-2010-only-two-american-cars-on-the-list-334895.php. Retrieved 2007-12-17. 

^ “U.S. News & World Report: Best Affordable Sports Cars for 2009”. U.S. News & World Report. 2009-08-11. http://usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/cars-trucks/rankings/Affordable-Sports-Cars/grid/overall/. Retrieved 2009-08-11. 

^
^ “Jalopnik’s Best10 Cars Of The Decade”. Jalopnik. Gawker Media. 2009-12-15. http://jalopnik.com/5426649/jalopniks-best10-cars-of-the-decade/gallery/. Retrieved 2009-12-15. 

^ “Official Honda U.S. site pricing”. http://automobiles.honda.com/s2000/. Retrieved 2 June 2009. 

^ a b “Honda Media Newsroom Releases – Sales”. Honda News. American Honda. http://hondanews.com/categories/1090/releases/3888. Retrieved 2009-06-02. 

^ a b c d “2007 Honda Fact Book” (PDF). Honda. Honda Motor Company. 2007-07-06. http://www.hondauk-media.co.uk/downloadmedia?rb=Y&item=reports&itemid=12. Retrieved 2008-09-25. 

^ “European Registrations by Model 1972-2004”. Honda News. 2005-06-09. http://www.hondanews.com/categories/1075/releases/203. Retrieved 2008-09-25. 

^ “Honda Business Brief”. Honda of Europe. Honda Motor Company. 2009-05-27. http://www.hondanews.eu/en/searchresults/index.pmode?search=business+brief. Retrieved 2009-06-02. 

^ “Honda Vehicle Sales in Japan”. Honda News. 2005-06-09. http://www.hondanews.com/categories/1075/releases/189. Retrieved 2008-09-25. 

^ “WARD’S Japan Passenger Vehicle Sales by Company and Line (subscription required)”. WARD’s Auto. Jan 2009. http://subscribers.wardsauto.com/refcenter/asia/japan/monthly/sales/JapanSales0812.xls. Retrieved 2009-06-02. 

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^ “Snapshot”. The Age. drive.com.au. 2004-11-11. http://www.drive.com.au/Editorial/ArticleDetail.aspx?ArticleID=8750. Retrieved 2008-09-25. 

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External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Honda S2000

Official Honda S2000 sites for the U.S. and Japan

Honda S2000 at the Open Directory Project

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Categories: Honda vehicles | Roadsters | Euro NCAP roadster sports cars | Rear wheel drive vehicles | Sports cars | 2000s automobiles | Vehicles introduced in 1999

Stress Fractures – Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

A stress fracture is sometimes also known as a hairline fracture or a fatigue fracture. They are basically an incomplete fracture, or a crack in the bone, caused by repetitive forces, rather than one sudden incident. Stress fractures are particularly common in runners due to the repetitive impacts and the forces this passes through the bones. The most common areas for this to happen include:

  • Metatarsals (long bones in the foot)
  • Tibia (shin bone)
  • Femur (thigh bone)
  • Calcaneus (heel bone)
  • Talus (ankle bone)

The Metatarsals and Tibia are by far the most common stress fracture locations in runners.

Symptoms include a generalised area of ​​pain which develops gradually, is worse with repeated weight-bearing and often eases with rest. There may be mild swelling in the area and it may be possible to feel a tender area directly over the bone.

As already mentioned, stress fractures are common in runners, but there are certain factors which may increase the risk of developing a stress fracture. Increasing mileage too quickly is the most common culprit. Not sticking to the 10% increase per week rule means that the body does not have time to adapt and build the strength required to sustain this level of intensity. Consistently running on hard surfaces, especially concrete pavements is another factor which is easily corrected by adding in grass, track and sand training sessions. Wearing extra cushioned running shoes, or adding in a shock absorbing insole may also be beneficial.

Fracture treatment Stress mostly Involves rest. For weight-bearing bones this will usually mean avoiding full weight-bearing with the help of crutches or a walking boot. This type of fracture is not usually put in a plaster cast.

The healing time for a weight-bearing stress fracture is between 4 and 8 weeks. During this time the activity which caused the injury should be avoided completely, although after 2 weeks of complete rest, other non-weight bearing exercises such as swimming or cycling may be undertaken, provided they are pain-free.

After the bone is healed, a return to sport can be initiated, although should be very cautious and gradual to prevent a re-injury. Exercises to strengthen the surrounding area may be used, as should stretching exercises to make sure a full range of motion at the joints above and below.

Before returning to sport, it is important that all contributing factors are corrected to reduce the risk of a re-injury. If unsure, get a professional to look at your training programme and your running shoes.